当前位置:首页 >> 其它语言学习 >>

TPO1-30听力最全词汇+背景+内容精要分析


TPO 1 LECTURE 1

主题: 现代艺术 Contemporary Art
Glossary
little hints of: 少量的 electric blue 铁蓝色的 Impressionism 印象主义的 realism 实现主义的 accessible 可得到的,易接近的 brushstrokes 绘画技巧 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To introduce an artist’s work to the class 2. 为什么教授提到Frantzen的乡村作品? (farm scene) ? It was painted in the Impressionist style 3. 为什么去谷仓?(Sales Barn) ? To study human form and movement

4. 为什么提到被黄瓜围绕的女人画像? 爱荷华土生土长的Rose Frantzen,在芝 (young woman surrounded by pump加哥美国艺术科学院毕业.她的画象是一 kims) 个个象征性的寓言,在一个抽象的或超 ? It combines Impressionism with Realism. 现实的背景下,展现一个沉醉在自我内
心的原型人物。她也十分喜欢刻画她周 围的小人物和小镇风光。

Rose Frantzen

5. 为什么讨论他境遇很不容易? (Frantzen’s difficulties as a young painter) ? He thinks her example can inspire the students in their own lives. 6. 何出此言? [I find Frantzen to be a very accessible artist. I mean, some artists, to appreciate them, you have to know their life story. But…]
?

The students can understand Frantzen’s art without knowing about her life.

TPO 1 LECTURE 2

主题: 地质学 Geology
Glossary
dating technique 年代确定技术 sandstone 砂岩 solidify 团结,凝固 flatten out 平击,变平

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To introduce a particular dating technique —— Uranium-Lead Dating

2. 为什么教授提到大峡谷?(Grand Canyon) eye-opening 令人瞠目的,使人开眼界的 ? Give an example to explain Uranium-Lead grain type 颗粒类型 Dating technique
molten 熔化的 magma 岩浆 mountain range 山脉 granite 花岗岩 zircon 【矿物】锆石
背景知识:

3. 为什么提到阿巴拉契亚山脉? (Appalachian Mountain Range) ? Assume “half of the sand from Grand Canyon was once part of Appalachian Mountain Range” 4. 如何用Uranium-Lead Dating求证3假设? ? Looked at the grains of Zircon in the sandstone 5. 3中提到的假设是否正确? ? WRONG! (Because sandstone in Grand Canyon and Appalachian Mountain Range were formed at the same time) 6. Uranium-Lead Dating 的劣势和发展前景 如何? ? It wasn’t very “efficient” or “accurate,” but technical advances facilitate it to become an increasingly popular dating method.

uranium-lead dating
铀铅测年法 (Uranium铀 Lead铅) 通过测量铀235和铅-207以及铀238和铅206的比例测量石 头,可以测量大约一百万到超过45亿年的年代, 精度大约为测量范围的0.1-1% Grand Canyon 美国大峡谷是一个举世闻名的自然奇观,由于科 罗拉多河穿流其中,故又名科罗拉多大峡谷,它 是联合国教科文组织选为受保护的天然遗产之一

TPO 1 LECTURE 3

主题: 考古学 Archaeology
Glossary
Neolithic period 新石器时代 Stone age 石器时代 obsidian 黑曜石 volcanic 火山岩 flake 剥落 hatchway 舱口,天窗 plaster 石膏;涂以灰泥 hearth 灶台 soot 煤烟,烟灰 excavation 挖掘 artifact 人工制品,手工艺品 背景知识: Catalhoyuk 加泰土丘, 音译作卡塔胡由克或恰塔霍裕克, 是安纳托利亚南部巨大的新石器时代和红铜时 代的人类定居点遗址 Obsidian 黑曜石, 是一种常见的黑色中低档宝石,又名 天然琉璃,是一种自然产生的琉璃。它的成因 是因为火山熔岩迅速地冷却凝结,非晶质结 构。因为熔岩流外围冷却的速度最快,所以黑 曜石通常都是在熔岩流外围发现。黑曜石通常 呈黑色,但是也可见棕色、灰色和少量的红 色、蓝色甚至绿色的材料的黑曜石

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To introduce to introduce the town building of Catalhoyuk 2. 为什么介绍加泰土丘?(Catalhoyuk) ? Concentrate on this site to understand agricultural settlement 3. 在加泰土丘,人们用什么材料建造城 镇? ? They did with just stone, plus wood, bricks, that sort of thing. And the stone is Obsidian. 4. 城镇房屋建设特点 ? 房屋形状:The houses are all rectangular, one storey made of sun-dried bricks. There are no spaces between houses (so there is no streets). ? 房屋构造: The houses have no doors, and people enter into the house through a hatchway on the roof. There are one main room and several small rooms for storage. ? 通风排烟问题:There are hearths in the main room for cooking and heating, but the smoke went out through the same hatchway that people use for going in and out. 5. 为什么房屋排列如此紧凑? ? Burial custom (the graves have all found under the houses)---- they wanted to live as near as their ancestors’ graves and be buried near them themselves.

TPO 1 LECTURE 4

主题: 生物学 Biology
Glossary marmot 旱獭,土拔鼠 rodent 啮齿动物 habitat 栖息地 hibernate 冬眠 growing season 生长期,生长季节 loner 孤独的人,不合群的人 vegetative 植物的,植物人状态的 offspring 后代,子孙 meadow 草地,牧场 背景知识: Marmot
土拨鼠, 也叫旱獭. 土拨鼠平均体重为4.5公 斤,最大可成长至6.5公斤,身长约为56公 分。土拨鼠主要分布于北美大草原至加拿大等 地区,与松鼠、海狸、花栗鼠等皆属于啮齿目 松鼠科

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? Review the case study (Eastern marmot, Olympic marmot) on how some animals have behaviorally adapted to their environments
2. 土拔鼠(marmot) 是什么? ? Marmot are rodents. They are large ground squirrels, about the size of an average house cat. 3. Eastern marmot的生长环境和后天行为 ? 生长环境:They reside throughout the eastern region of North America where there is a temperate climate. ? 后天行为:They mature quickly. Roughly six weeks after birth, Eastern Marmots are just old enough to take their chances of surviving. 4. Olympic marmot的生长环境和后天行 为 ? 生长环境:The Olympic marmots inhabit meadows high in the Olympic Mountains where the weather conditions are much harsher. ? 后天行为:They live together as a family and take care of their young until they are at least two years old.

TPO 2 LECTURE 1

主题: 心理学 Psychology
Glossary Behaviorism 行为主义 manifestation 展示,显示 laryngeal 喉部,喉的 larynx 喉头 electrode 电极,电焊条 ideomotor 观念运动的 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To explain how muscular activities manifest thinking 2. 为什么提到laryngeal habits (喉习惯,日 常生活中不自觉的喉部动作)? ? Because this is one of muscular habits that John Watson studied 3. John Watson得出了什么论点? ? Watson argues that problem solving, or thinking, can be defined as a set of behaviors- a set of responses 4. 使用手语的聋哑人会有喉部动作吗? ? They have muscular changes in their hands when they are trying to solve a problem 5. William James提出了什么概念? ? Ideomotor action- an activity that occurs without our noticing it, without being aware of it (such as eye movement towards a certain direction when thinking about a location) 6. Watson认为“muscular activities are equivalent to thinking”,教授认为还有其 他解释吗? ? YES!

John Watson
约翰·华生。 20世纪初,华生出版了《一 个行为主义者心目中的心理学》一书,主 张心理学的价值在于对行为的研究,而不 是研究意识。这根本性的推翻了当时将内 省作为主要研究方法并轻视行为研究的构 造论心理学界。与他们相比,华生研究人 体之于环境的变化,或者更明确的说:研 究特定的刺激会引导人体做出何种反应。

TPO 2 LECTURE 2

主题: 植物学 Botany
Glossary
fiber 纤维 textile 纺织品 hemp 大麻,麻类植物 rope 绳,绳索 degrade 降解,降级 moor 系住 zinc 锌,镀锌于…… bundle 束,捆 breaking strength 抗断强度

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To talk about useful plant fibers, specifically Manila hemp. 2. 马尼拉麻(Manila hemp)是麻类植物 吗? ? NO!It’s actually a member of banana family (蕉科植物)- it even bears bananashaped fruits 3. 马尼拉麻(Manila hemp)的特征是什 么? ? Long, strong, flexible, and resistant to salt water (very important)

背景知识:

Manila Hemp

马尼拉麻,或者叫做蕉麻,是从麻蕉中 得到的一种具有商业价值的纤维。马尼 4. 基于以上特征,人们用马尼拉麻来制作 拉麻可以用来制造绳子,海缆,麻线, 什么? 和粗布。马尼拉麻长度可能超过12英尺 ? Ropes- especially for ropes that are gonna (3.7米),常为白色或微黄色。马尼拉 be used on ocean-going ships 麻非常坚韧,对盐水有很强的抗腐蚀 性。 麻蕉主要生长于菲律宾和中美洲。

5. 旧金山的金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)是红色的,为什么? ? It’s red because of the zinc paint that goes on those stainless steel cables 6. 怎样制作马尼拉麻绳? ? Take several of these fibers, and group them into a bundle. Take that bundle of fibers and twist it, and then group those bundles and twist them into bigger bundles.

TPO 2 LECTURE 3

主题: 哲学 Philosophy
Glossary
ethical 伦理的,道德的 extrinsic 外在的 intrinsic 内在的 productivity 生产力 amateur 业余的 frustration 挫折,懊丧 criterion 标准,条件 contemplation 沉思

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To discuss Aristotle’s ethical theory 2. Ethical theory的核心思想是什么? ? How to be happy- what true happiness is 3. Extrinsic value和Intrinsic value的区别在 哪? ? Extrinsic value: value something as a means to something else (e.g. Health is important because it ensures a person’s productivity) ? Intrinsic value: value something not as a means to something else, but for its own sake (e.g. Health is important because it feels good) 4. 是否存在所有人都重视的一样东西? 内在价值还是外在价值都高? ? Aristotle thought the answer is yes- it’s happiness 5. 亚里士多德(Aristotle)认为,什么是 happiness? ? True human happiness should be complete; true happiness should be something that I can obtain on my own; true happiness is the exercise of reason- a life of intellectual contemplation.

背景知识:

Aristotle
亚里士多德,生卒年代约公元前384年- 公元前322年,古希腊哲学家,逻辑学 家,科学家。亚里士多德总结了泰利斯 以来古希腊哲学发展的成果,首次将哲 学和其他科学区别开来,开创了逻辑 学、伦理学、政治学和生物学等学科的 独立研究。其学术思想对西方文化的发

TPO 2 LECTURE 4

主题: 天文学 Astronomy
Glossary
asteroid belt 小行星带 tantalizingly 逗人的,撩人的 telescope 望远镜 validity 有效性,正确性

背景知识:
Titius-Bode Law 提丢斯-波得定则,简称“波得定律”,是关于 太阳系中行星轨道的一个简单的几何学规则。 这个公式可以表述为: a = \frac{n+4} 其中 n = 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48...(后一个数字为前一个 数字的2倍) 现代的公式把a作为行星到太阳的平均距离 (天文单位): a = 0.4 + 0.3\times k 其中k=0,1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128 (0以后数字为2 的2次方) 这个公式可以表述为:在0.4上各加以0.0, 0.3,0.6,1.2……等数,便得各行星和太阳之 间的平均距离,单位是天文单位。许多小行星 就是根据这个定律去寻找而发现的。但海王星 和冥王星的距离和按这一定律推得的数值相差 很大。 其具体数据如下: 行星 公式推得 值实测值 水星 Mercury 0.4 0.39 金星 Venus 0.7 0.72 地球 Earth 1.0 1.00 火星 Mars 1.6 1.52 小行星带 Asteroid belt 2.8 2.9 木星 Jupiter 5.2 5.20 土星 Saturn 10.0 9.54 天王星 Uranus 19.6 19.18 海王星 Neptune 38.8 30.06 冥王星 Pluto 77.2 39.44

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (the main purpose) ? To explain how the asteroid belt was discovered. 2. 每个行星和太阳之间的距离是怎样 几何规律递增的?(参见背景知识介

绍)
3. 小行星带如何被发现? ? Based on Bode’s Law, there was some interest in why the 2.8 spot in the pattern was skipped.

TPO 3 LECTURE 1

主题: Environmental Science 环境科学
Glossary: habitat 栖息地 Western hemisphere 西半球 breed 繁殖,饲养 nectar 花蜜,甘露 pollinate 对……授粉

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To talk about what happens when habitat is reduced across a large area 2. Humming bird(蜂鸟)是什么? ? An amazingly small animal that migrates over very long distances travels up and down the western hemisphere---- the Americas. 3. 蜂鸟从哪些食物中获取能量? ? It drinks a lot of nectar from flowers and feeds on some insects. 4. 蜂鸟和植物的关系是? ? Humming birds have to rely on plants in their natural habitat, plants depend on humming birds too, because there are some flowers that can only be pollinated by the humming birds. 5. 什么事情对蜂鸟数量造成威胁? ? Natural habitat along the migration routes is developed by humans for housing or agriculture or cleared for raising cattle, for instance, there is less food available for migrating humming birds. 6. 有什么方法可以保护蜂鸟的栖息地? ? Cleaning up polluted habitat areas and then replanting flowers. ? Promoting ecological tourism. ? Learn more about their breeding, nesting sites and migration routes, and also about the natural habitats we find there. ? Running a banding study, tracking them over their lifetime.

背景知识:
humming bird 蜂鸟 是属于雨燕目的蜂鸟科,体型 小,能够以快速拍打翅膀的方式而悬 停在空中,也是唯一可以向后飞的 鸟。蜂鸟的飞行本领高超,也被人们 称为“神鸟”、“彗星”、“森林女 神”和“花冠”等。 吸蜜蜂鸟仅重 1.8公克,是世界上最小的鸟。还有一 种典型的北美蜂鸟红喉北方蜂鸟重量 约三公克左右,身长7.6厘米。

TPO 3 LECTURE 2

主题: Film History 电影历史
Glossary: hybrid 杂种,混合物 fuse 融合 aquatic 水生的 mollusk (无脊椎的)软体动物 innovator 改革者,创新者

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To talk about a film-maker who began making very unique films in the late 1920s---Jean Painleve 2. Jean Painleve的电影独特之处是? ? a special way of fusing science and fiction. ? “science is fiction” 3. Painleve最喜欢的海洋动物是什么?为什 么? ? One of his favorite sea animals was the seahorse, because with seahorse, it’s the male that carries the eggs. 4. Jean Painleve和Jacques Cousteau的相似之 处在哪?不同之处在哪? ? 相似之处 both did film underwater; both innovators ? 不同之处 ? Painleve was about 20 years ahead of Cousteau ? Cousteau’s adventures were high-tech, with lots of fancy equipment, whereas Painleve kind of patched the equipment together as he needed it. ? Cousteau usually filmed large animals, usually in the open sea, whereas Painleve generally filmed smaller animals, and he liked to film in shallow water ? Cousteau simply investigated and presented the facts- he didn’t mix in fiction; Painleve mixed in elements of fiction, and his films are much more artistic. 5. 为什么Painleve知名度不如Cousteau 高? ? Painleve’s film confused people, while Cousteau’s documentaries were very straightforward.

背景知识:
Jean Painleve
让·潘勒维(1902 -1989)法国生物 学家以及纪录片导 演,出生于巴黎, 上世纪二十年代初 开始拍摄科学纪录 片,是历史上最早 拍摄水下纪录片的人。1928年的《章鱼》是他 的处女作,而1934年由他亲自撰写解说词的 《海马》则成为科学电影史上的一座里程碑。 Jacques Cousteau 雅克·伊夫·库斯托 (1910-1997)1910年6 月,雅克·库斯托出生于 濒临大西洋比斯开湾的小 镇。他的家乡位于波尔多 地区边缘,祖父买卖红酒 和香槟,因此他本该走上酿酒之路,但他爱上 了海洋和摄像.在吕克·贝松的电影《碧海蓝 天》中,杰克如海豚一般潜入深海,仿佛那里 才是他的故乡。雅克-伊夫·库斯托(JacquesYves Cousteau)是这部电影的主人公原型。 直到去世,雅克·库斯托留下了100多部纪录 片,50多本书。

TPO 3 LECTURE 3

主题: Art History 艺术史
Glossary:
Cave art 洞穴艺术,洞穴壁画 primitive 原始的,远古的 masterpiece 杰作 Paleolithic 旧石器时代的 charcoal 木炭,用木炭画 herbivore 食草动物 背景知识: Chauvet cave 肖维岩洞也译作萧韦岩洞,也叫肖维蓬达尔克洞穴是位于法国南部阿尔代 什省的一个洞穴,因洞壁上拥有丰富 的史前绘画而闻名。洞穴位于阿尔代 什省城市瓦隆蓬达尔克附近的一个石 灰岩山崖上,于1994年被发现。部分 历史学家认为洞内岩画可以追溯至 32000年前。

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To discuss the oldest paintings found in Chauvet Cave in France 2. Chauvet Cave里的壁画有多古老? ? No agreed answer. A number of the Chauvet paintings have been dated by a lab to 30,000 or more years ago. 3. Chauvet Cave壁画的作画时代背景如 何? ? Paleolithic humans; colder climate; people live in rock shelters and shallow caves 4. Chauvet Cave是否曾今有人居住? ? No. (Paintings were made deep inside a dark cave, where no natural light can penetrate) 5. 旧石器时代壁画(Paleolithic cave art)和Chauvet Cave art的作画题材 是? ? Paleolithic cave art: large herbivores (horse) ? Chauvet cave art: large dangerous animals (lots of rhinoceros, lions, mammoth, bears); they DIDN’T paint PEOPLE!

TPO 3 LECTURE 4

主题: Astronomy 天文学
Glossary: spectroscopy 光谱学 prism 棱镜 radiation 辐射 Uranium (化学)铀 spectrograph 光谱仪,摄谱仪 Helius 太阳神 Helium (化学)氦 背景知识: 内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To explain the significance of spectroscopy in astronomy 2. 光谱学对天文学最基本的意义在哪? ? It makes it possible to analyze the light emitted from stars. 3. 暴露在辐射(radiation)之下危险 吗? ? Yes and no. It’s dangerous to be exposed to radiations like Uranium. But radiation as a general term actually refers to anything that spreads away from its source. 4. 可以从光谱中得知一个行星的化学组 成吗? ? Yes. The spectrum of stars form distinct patterns, and each pattern stands for a distinct chemical elements. 5. 如何知道那种pattern 对应那种化学 成分? ? A kind of spectroscopic library of elements was complied using flame tests. 6.太阳种有一种元素至今在地球上还没 发现,是什么? ? Helium (Could be guessed from “Helius”)

Spectrocopy
光谱学是光学的一个分支学科,研究各种物
质的光谱的产生及其同物质之间相互作用。 光谱是电磁辐射按照波长的有序排列。根据 实验条件的不同,各个辐射波长都具有各自 的特征强度。通过光谱的研究,人们可以得 到原子、分子等的能级结构、能级寿命、电 子的组态、分子的几何形状、化学键的性 质、反应动力学等多方面物质结构的知识。 但是,光谱学技术并不仅是一种科学工具, 在化学分析中它也提供了重要的定性与定量 的分析方法。

TPO 4 LECTURE 1

主题: Biology 生物学
Glossary:
out of place 不合适的,不相称的 displacement 取代,移位 disinhibition 去抑制,抑制解除 ruffle 弄皱,触怒 wood thrush 画眉鸟 beak 鸟嘴 groom 打扮

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To talk about animal behaviors 2. 什么是 Displacement Activity? ? Displacement activities are activities that animal’s engaging in when they have conflicting drives. For example, a bird that's in the middle of a mating ritual, and suddenly it stops and preens, and then returns to the mating ritual. 3. 什么是Redirecting? ? The animal redirects its behavior to another object. For example, an animal, instead of fighting its enemy or running away, attacks a plant or a bush. 4. Displacement 发生的关键因素是什么? ? The animal get two conflicting drives---two competing urges. For example, an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food. The animal is was conflicted between confronting the object and eating the food, so instead, it just fell asleep. 5. 什么是Disinhibition? ? Two drives inhibit/ hold back a third drive. 6. 什么是comfort behavior? ? The displacement activities, such as feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping. These are most accessible things an animal can do, and they don’t have to think very much about those behaviors.

背景知识:

Wood Thrush 画眉鸟
When the “wood thrush” is in an attack-escape conflict, that is, it’s caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy. If it's sitting on a horizontal branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a vertical branch, it’ll groom its breast feathers.

TPO 4 LECTURE 2

主题: Literature 文学
Glossary:
conviction 定罪,确信 conformity 一致,合适 zigzag “之”字形 attest to 证明,证实

内容精要:
1. 文章主旨 (the main purpose) ? To talk about some important thoughts that the professor believes the students deserve to keep in mind while doing tonight’s assignment. 2. 学生们晚上的作业是什么? ? They will be reading one of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s best-known essays “SelfReliance” and comparing it with his poems and other works. 3. 爱默生对真理(truth)的理解是什 么? ? Each person believe his or her own thought (the thought or conviction that’s true for you) ? “universal truth”—— something that everyone knows but doesn’t realize they know 4. 爱默生对于“顺从”(conformity)的 态度是什么? ? He criticizes that people of this time for abandoning their own minds and their wills for the sake of conformity and consistency. 5. 爱默生的non-conformity是什么意思? ? Not conforming with yourself or your past. (If you’ve always been a certain way or done a certain thing, it’s not working for you any more)

背景知识: Ralph Waldo Emerson
拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生(1803年-1882 年),生于波士顿。 美国思想家、文学 家,诗人。 爱默生是确立美国文化精神的 代表人物。 。1836年出版处女作《论自 然》。他文学上的贡献主要在散文和诗歌 上。美国前总统林肯称他为“美国的孔 子”、“美国文明之父”。1803年5月25日 出生于马萨诸塞州波士顿附近的康考德村, 1882年4月27日在波士顿逝世。他的生命几 乎横贯19世纪的美国,他出生时候的美国热 闹却混沌,一些人意识到它代表着某种新力 量的崛起,却无人能够清晰的表达出来。

TPO 4 LECTURE 3

主题: Geology 地质学
Glossary: Desert plain 沙漠荒原 bulldozer 推土机 tilt 轻轻摇晃 meteorology 气象学

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To know about moving rocks. 2. 死亡谷除了干燥炎热,还有什么特点? ? They MOVE! They leave long trails behind them, tracks you might say they move from one point to another, but nobody has been able to figure out how they are moving because no one has ever seen it happen. 3. 理论怎么解释石头的移动? ? A. Some researchers think powerful windstorms might move the rocks (the ground becomes extremely slippery after rain so that the high winds can move the rocks) ? B. It’s possible that rain on desert floor could turn to think sheets of ice when temperatures drop at night. If rocks become better than ice, a piece of ice with rocks in it can be pushed around by the wind. 4. 上述理论有什么问题? ? A. You need winds of at least five hundred miles an hour to move just the smallest rock, and winds that strong have never been recorded. ? B. Rocks trapped in ice together would have moved together when the ice moved, but that doesn’t happen. The rocks seem to take separate routes.
?

背景知识:
Death Valley
在美国加利福尼亚州与内华达州相毗连 的群山之中,有一条特大的“死亡 谷”。它长二百二十五公里,宽约六至 二十六公里不等,面积达一千四百多平 方公里。峡谷两“岸”,悬崖绝壁,地 势十分险恶。这里也是北美洲最炽热、 最干燥的地区。几乎常年不下雨,更有 过连续六个多星期气温超过四十摄氏度 的纪录。每逢倾盆大雨,炽热的地方便 会冲起滚滚泥流。

5. 还有什么用于解释rock moving? the ground vibrates; the ground itself is shifting, tilting; the rocks are moved by a magnetic force

TPO 4 LECTURE 4

主题: United States Government 美国政府
Glossary: Depression 大萧条时期 gallery 画廊 subsidy 补贴,津贴 altruistic 利他主义的 patron 赞助人 plaque 匾,血小板 背景知识: The Federal Art Project (FAP) was
the visual arts arm of the Great Depression-era New Deal Works Progress Administration Federal One program in the United States. It operated from August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943. Reputed to have created more than 200,000 separate works, FAP artists created posters, murals and paintings. Some works still stand among the mostsignificant pieces of public art in the country

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To talk about government support for the arts. 2. 政府官方对艺术的支持是从什么时候开 始? ? There wasn’t really any official government support for the arts until the twentieth century, but the first attempt the United States government made to support the arts was the Federal Art Project. 3. Federal Art Project 的主要目的是? ? It started in the 1930s to employ out of work artists. 4. Federal Art Project是否成功? ? Yes. This project established a lot of community art centers and galleries and places like rural areas where people hadn’t really had access to the arts. It also provided jobs for thousands of unemployed artists. 5. 1965年,National Endowment for the Arts(NEA)创立是出于什么原因? ? It was felt by a number of politicians that the government had a responsibility to support the arts as sort of the soul or spirit of the country 6. 公司企业(corporations)是怎么支持艺 术领域的? ? Corporations might not support the arts unless the government made it attractive for them to do so, by offering corporations tax incentives to support the arts, that is, by letting corporations pay less in taxes if they were patrons of the arts. 7. 为什么有艺术家不想要政府支持?

TPO 5 LECTURE 1

主题: Sociology 社会学
Glossary:
alligator 短嘴鳄 sewer 下水道 twinkle 眨眼 transmission 传输 replica 复制品,复制物 replicator 复制基因 fecundity 繁殖力 fidelity 保真度 housefly 家蝇 mutation 突变

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To introduce memes 2. lecture 开头给出的两个说明memes 的例子是? ? The reproduction of alligators in sewer system of New York; the spread of “twinkle, twinkle little star” song. 3. 模因(meme)是怎么被定义的? ? A meme is defined as a piece of information copied from person to person. (ideas, skills, stories, songs are all memes) 4. 成功的复制基因具有什么特点? ? Longevity: A replicator must exist long enough to be able to get copied; the longer a replicator survives, the better its chances of getting its message copied and passed on. ? Fecundity: Fecundity is the ability to reproduce in large numbers. ? Fidelity: Fidelity means the accuracy of the copying process. (If a copy of a gene is a bit different from the original, that’s called a genetic mutation)

背景知识:

Meme 模因
模因类似作为遗传因子的基因,为文化的 遗传因子,也经由复制,模仿,变异与选 择的过程而演化。举例而言,某个人类大 脑中的观念(模因),经由模仿或是学习 复制到不同人的大脑中,而经由复制的观 念并不会与原来的观念完全相同,因此产 生变异,这些相似但又不同的观念在传播 时相互竞争,不同的内容影响其散播能 力,因此出现类似天择的现象。道金斯最 初创造模因一词,是为了在基因之外,延 伸演化的概念。这个概念后来被心理学和 社会学等学科广泛使用。一般对文化的了 解是文化如何被人相信,而模因学则认为 文化如何吸纳信徒。模因学指出很多人相 信的东西只代表强的模因,与真假并没有 绝对的关系。

TPO 5 LECTURE 2

主题: Astronomy 天文学
Glossary: crater 火山口,弹坑 orbit 盘旋,绕轨道环行 equator 赤道 mantle 地幔 crust 外壳 meteor shower 流星雨 crude 原油,天然物质

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (The main purpose) ? To introduce the reasons in favor of Moon landing. 2. South Pole- Aitken Basin(SPA Basin)是 什么? ? It’s located in the moon’s south polar region. Since it’s on the far side of the moon, it can only be seen from space. 3. 怎么判断SPA盆地的年龄? ? From radio survey data, we know that the basin contains lots of smaller craters. So it must be really old, about 4 billion yeas, give or take a few hundred million years. (but it’s not very precise) 4. 即便知道了SPA盆地的年龄,是否就足 以说明可以去月球? ? There are other things worth investigating, like is there water ice on the moon? 5. 如果月球上有水,水是从哪里来的? ? Meteors that crashed into the moon or tails of passing comets may have introduced water molecules. 6. 月球上有冰,其意义何在? ? That would be a very practical value for a future moon base for astronauts. Water ice could be melted and purified for drinking. It could also be broken down into its component parts---- oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen could be used to breathe, and hydrogen could be turned into fuel.

背景知识:
南极-艾托肯盆地(South Pole-Aitken
basin) 是月球上最大地环形山,也是太阳系 内已知最大地。这环形山位于月球地 背面,接近南极地地方,直径约2,240 公里,深13公里。

TPO 5 LECTURE 3

主题: Chemistry 化学
Glossary:
Spectroscopy 光谱学 matter 物质 curator 馆长,监护人 canvas 画布 brushstroke 一笔,画的技巧 pigment 色素,颜料 infrared 红外线的 touchup 修改,润色

背景知识:
伦勃朗·哈尔曼松·凡·莱因(Rembrandt
Harmenszoon van Rijn ,1606—1669)欧洲 17世纪最伟大的画家之一,也是荷兰历史上 最伟大的画家。台湾简称为林布兰特。伦勃 朗早年从师 P.拉斯特曼 ,1625 年在家乡开 设画室。画作体裁广泛,擅长肖像画、风景 画、风俗画、宗教画、历史画等。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To cover the basics of Spectroscopy 2. 什么是光谱学(Spectroscopy)? ? Spectroscopy is the study of interaction between matter and light. 3. Laser Spectroscopy 如何工作? ? Laser Spectroscopy works by measuring very precisely what parts of the spectrum are absorbed by different substances. 4. 如何判断一幅画是否为原版(比 如,是否为Rembrandt所画)? ? Make a list of characteristics the painting would have to have to be a Rembrandt. ? Discover whether he painting in question has those characteristics. 5. 如何使用Spectroscopy? ? We put an infrared microscope- a spectroscope- on tiny bits of these signatures with those of particular elements like zinc or lead, to determine what the pigment was made of. 6. 有时即使是真品看起来也像赝品, 为什么? ? Because they’ve had so many restorers add touchup layers to cover up damage, damage from the paint having deteriorated over time.

TPO 5 LECTURE 4

主题: Literature 文学
Glossary:
genre 类型,流派 folk tale 民间故事 communal 公共的,公社的 line-up 阵容,展开
背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To introduce folk tales before talking about fairy tales. (There is a strong connection between these two genres) 2. 什么是民间故事(folk tale)? ? They are old stories, traditional stories. They were passed down orally within cultures from generation to generation, so they changed a lot over time. 3. 为什么说民间故事是communal的? ? By communal, we mean they reflect the traits and the concerns of a particular community at a particular time. Essentially the same tale could be told in different communities, with certain aspects of the tale adapted to fit the specific community. 4. fairy tale和folk tale的区别在哪? ? Fairy tales seem to be less realistic than folk tales, like they have something improbable happening- a frog turning into a prince. ? Fairy tales all seem to take place in a location that’s nowhere and everywhere at the same time. 5. folk tales和fairy tales的一般结构展开(line-up) 是怎样的? ? In the case of folk tales, each story teller would specify a particular location and time, though the time and location would differ for different story tellers. ? With fairy tales, however, the location is generally unspecified, no matter who the story teller is. 6. 可以说fairy tale是folk tale的口头版本(oral version)吗? Not exactly. A number of things happen when an oral tale gets written down: ? the language changes (It becomes more formal, more standard) ? When an orally transmitted story is written down, an authoritative version with a recognized author is created, and the communal aspect gets lost. ? Description of characters and settings can be developed more completely in fairy tales.

Folk Tale
民间故事是民间文学中的重要门类之一。从 广义上讲,民间故事就是劳动人民创作并传

播的、具有虚构内容的散文形式的口头文学 作品,是所有民间散文作品的通称,有的地
方叫“瞎话”、“古话”、“古经”等等。 民间故事是从远古时代起就在人们口头流传 的一种以奇异的语言和象征的形式讲述人与 人之间的种种关系,题材广泛而又充满幻想 的叙事体故事。民间故事从生活本身出发, 但又并不局限于实际情况以及人们认为真实 的和合理范围之内。它们往往包含着超自然 的、异想天开的成分。

TPO 6 LECTURE 1

主题:
Glossary
boom and bust繁荣和萧条roast 烤 hysterical 歇斯底里的 tulips mania 郁金香热 streak 条纹 Dutch 荷兰人

经济学 Economics
内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To demonstrate how boom-and-bust cycles have changed overtime 2. 教授对dot-com crash持什么观点? ? She thinks that people should have realized it would happen. 3. 郁金香起源于哪里? ? The mountains of central Asia 4. 为什么教授提到了一个吃郁金香(tulip bulbs)的商人? ? To illustrate her point that Europeans were unfamillar with the flower 5. 教授提到了在1630s人们交易(promissory note)的行为,这种行为说明了什么? ? Why buyers were no longer interested in owning actual tulips. ? Why borrowing in the Netherlands increased on a significant scale. 6.在17世纪郁金香热(tulip craze)是由哪里因素 引起的? ? Century wealthy gardeners liked to complete for rare plants ? The number of people with disposable income was growing ? The tulip market was not regulated by the government

Celestial Mountains 天山 nomad 游牧的 Istanbul伊斯坦布尔(土耳其城市) specimen标本 mortgage 抵押

promissory notes 承兑票据

背景知识: 郁金香泡沫 Tulip Bubble
又称郁金香效应(经济学术语),源自 17世纪荷兰的历史事件。作为人类历史 上有记载的最早的投机活动,荷兰的 “郁金香泡沫”昭示了此后人类社会的 一切投机活动,尤其是金融投机活动中 的各种要素和环节:对财富的狂热追 求、羊群效应、理性的完全丧失、泡沫 的最终破灭和千百万人的倾家荡产。

互联网泡沫 dot-com crash
互联网泡沫(又称科网泡沫或dot泡沫) 指自1995年至2001年间的投机泡沫,在 欧美及亚洲多个国家的股票市场中,与 科技及新兴的互联网相关企业股价高速 上升的事件,在2000年3月10日NASDAQ指 数到达5132.52的最高点时到达顶峰。

TPO 6 LECTURE 2

主题:
Glossary
Nightcap Oak 夜冠橡树 resemblance 相似 primitive 原始 habitat 栖息地 plum 李子 dwindle 减少 cluster 群;簇 hectare 公顷 germinate 发芽 seed dispersal 种子传播 colonize 殖民

生物 biology
内容精要:
1. 教授主要讲了Nightcap Oak的那两个方 面? ? Factors that relate to the size of the area in which it grows ? The size of its population over the last few centuries 2. 什么导致了科学认为nightcap oak归于原 始的(primitive) ? It is similar to some ancient fossils. 3. 关于Nightcap Oak的栖息地,教授提到 了哪点? ? Its size is much larger than the area where the Nightcap Oak grows 4. 根据教授所说,导致Nightcap Oak难以 扩大(population spreading)的两个因素 是什么? ? The fact that the seed cannot germinate while locked inside the shell. ? The limited time the seed retain the ability to germinate 5. 为什么教授提到了在过去的几百年中 Nightcap Oas的数目? (the size of population) ? To point out that Nightcap Oak’s limited reproductive success has not led to a decrease in its population 6. 何出此言? [Maybe those questions were actually related] ? She wants the students to think about a possible connection.

背景知识: 夜冠橡树 nightcap oak
夜冠橡树生长在澳大利亚,现存数量只剩 约200棵.它们生长在雨林. 它们还保有 生存在几千亿年前古老树木的形状, 且 发现有化石与此树非常相像. 夜冠橡树 被视为是活化石。

TPO 6 LECTURE 3

主题: 创造性写作 creative writing
Glossary
character sketch 人物素描 fictional 虚构

内容精要:

1. 教授主要讨论了creative writing的什么方 consistent 一致的 defer to 遵从 面 pitfall 缺陷 stereotype 成见 ? How to create believable character. 2. 为什么教授要学生们注意他们每天见到 cliché 陈词滥调 show off 炫耀 的人? ragged mountain dweller ? The behavior and characteristics of these 衣衫褴褛的山区居民 people can be used in character sketches. 3. 教授举了个汽车没有油的例子,这个例 背景知识: 子说明了什么? 扁平人物 Flat character ? Writers should know their characters as 扁平人物和圆形人物这两个概念,自从被爱德华 well as they know their friends. ·摩根·福斯特在《小说面面观》一书中提出以 4. 当教授讨论坐在山上的人时,他想警示 后,尽管受到不同的毁誉,但一直为人们所沿 用,而且扩大到小说以外的其他文学体裁。扁平 什么?(warning) 人物称为性格人物,而现在有时被称作类型人物 ? Avoid making characters into stereotypes. 或漫画人物。他们出现在剧里,只是为了“表现 5. 教授暗示了flat character有什么样的重 一个简单的意念或特性”,甚至简直就是为了某 要性? 一个固定念头而生活在种种的矛盾冲突之中。 ? They help reveal the main character’s personality. 圆形人物 Round character 人物是指文学作品中具有复杂性格特征的人物。 6. 教授为什么这么说?(何出此言) 这类人物在小说中往往都是多义与多变的人物。 ? Ii don’t mean a sketch like a drawing.
这类人物的特点是性格有形成与发展的过程。圆 形人物基本特征是:圆形人物的塑造打破了好的 全好、坏的全坏的简单分类方法,按照生活的本 来面目去刻画人物形象,更真实、更深入地揭示 人性的复杂、丰富,具有更高的审美价值。这种 塑造人物的方法给读者一种多侧面、立体可感的 印象,往往能够带来心灵的震动。

TPO 6 LECTURE 4

主题: 地球科学 Earth Science
Glossary

内容精要:

drastic 剧烈的 Sahara Desert 撒哈拉大沙漠 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? An example of rapid climate change aquifer 含水层 greenery 绿色植物 2. Ice age和Sahara Desert(撒哈拉沙漠)的行程说 prehistoric 史前的 hippopotamuses 河马 明了过去什么样的气候变化? filter 过滤 tropical paradise 热带天堂 ? That some climate changes were not caused by human activity. fossilized pollen 花粉化石 monsoon 雨季 ? That some climate changes were caused by changed in Earth’s motion and position tilt 倾斜 abrupt 突然的 3. 是什么开始造成北非撒哈拉地区变成沙漠的失 Evaporate 蒸发 Nile valley 尼罗河谷 控效应(runway effect)? ? The seasonal rains moved to a different area. 背景知识: 4. 教授提出了从撒哈拉地区一名的人对埃及文明 [撒哈拉沙漠] Sahara Desert 的形成(Egyptian civilization)很重要的理论, 撒哈拉沙漠约形成于二百五十万年前,乃世界第 哪句话最说明了教授的态度。 二大荒漠,仅次于南极洲,是世界最大的沙质荒 ? It raises an interesting possibility and hopes to 漠。它位于非洲北部,气候条件非常恶劣,是地 see more evidence for it. 球上最不适合生物生存的地方之一。其总面积约 5. 不久以前,撒哈拉有不一样的天气。教授提到 容得下整个美国本土。撒哈拉沙漠气候由信风带 了什么证据支持这一点? 的南北转换所控制,常出现许多极端。它有世界 ? Ancient pollen 上最高的蒸发率,并且有一连好几年没降雨的最 ? Rock paintings 大面积纪录。气温在海拔高的地方可达到霜冻和 ? Underground water 冰冻地步,而在海拔低处可有世界上最热的天 6. 何出此言? [oh, Maybe it would, if you think 气。 about how today, in some parts of Sahara, it only rains about once in a century.] ? To emphasize the difference between the current and past climates of the Sahara.

TPO 7 LECTURE 1

主题: Theater History 戏剧历史
Glossary:
playwright 剧作家 exposition 阐述,博览会 inciting 煽动的 reversal 逆转 obligatory 义务的,必须的 背景知识:

内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To introduce an early form of drama----well-made play 2. 佳构剧(well-made play)的特 点是什么? ? Everything in the plays are logically connected. 3. 一部佳构剧的必要元素 (necessary elements)有哪些? ? logical exposition (exposition is whatever background information you have to review to the audience) ? inciting incident (a keen moment to get things moving, that really makes the audience interested in what happens to the characters) ? secrets (things that the audience knows, but the characters often don’t know) ? obligatory scene (a moment in which all the secrets are revealed)

well-made play 佳构剧

19世纪

流行于欧洲的一种戏剧样式。特点是运用 雕琢的布局,离奇的情节和紧张的场面, 以激起观众的兴奋情绪,偏重追求剧场效 果而忽视思想内容。代表作家有法国的斯 克里布等。

模式: 1.开幕后在最短时间交待出前史 2.把情节维系在一个秘密上 3.人物上下场巧妙 4.有误会发生 5.小道具对情节有重要影响 6.有激变的重要场景

TPO 7 LECTURE 2

主题: Biology 生物学
Glossary:
infrasound 次声,亚声 ultrasound 超声,超声波 echolocation 回波定位,回声测距 self-explanatory 不言自明的 sophisticated 复杂的,精致的 clutter 杂乱,混乱 pine 松树 deciduous tree 落叶树,阔叶树 jagged 锯齿状的,参差不齐的

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To talk about the use of ultrasound by animals 2. 动物如何使用超声波?有什么典型 例子? ? Animals use ultrasound to detect things through sending out very high frequency sounds. Bats are good examples, who use echolocation. 3. 回声定位(echolocation)是怎么工 作的? ? The bats emits ultrasonic pulses, very high pitch sound waves that we cannot hear. And then, analyze these echoes to determine if there is wall in a cave that needs to avoid, and how far away it is. 4. 蝙蝠怎么通过回声区分不同的事 物,比如树和飞蛾? ? The echoes from a tree are going to be massive chaotic acoustic reflections, not like the echo from a moth. 5. 蝙蝠可以区分不同的树吗? ? Yes. The echo of all the leaves as whole that matters.

背景知识:
生物波定位
蝙蝠分辨声 音的本领很 高,耳内具 有生物波定 位的结构。 蝙蝠是惟一 能真正飞行 的哺乳动 物,非常适 合在黑暗中 生活,它的 眼睛几乎不 起作用,通过发射生物波并根据其反射的回 音辨别物体。飞行的时候由口和鼻发出一种 人类听不到的生物波,遇到昆虫后会反弹回 来。蝙蝠用耳朵接收后,就会知道猎物的具 体位置,从而前往捕捉。它能听到的声音频 率可达300千赫/秒,而人类的一般在14千赫/ 秒以下。

TPO 7 LECTURE 3

主题: Anthropology 人类学
Glossary:
birch 桦树 bark 树皮 waterproof 防水的 utensil 用具,器皿 pliable 柔韧的 canoe 独木舟 resin 树脂,松香 watertight 不漏水的 maneuverable 有机动性的,容易操作的

背景知识: Birch Tree
桦树木材较坚硬,富有弹性,结构均匀,心边
材不明显。抗腐能力较差,受潮易变形。可作胶 合板、卷轴、枪托、细木工家具及农具用材。桦 树树皮可热解提取焦油,还可制工艺品。此外, 其树形美观,秋季叶变黄色,是很好的园林绿化 树种。桦树萃取物被使用为天然香料或皮革油, 和在化妆用品里。桦树树汁被用作为补剂或回报 入桦树糖浆,软饮料,和其它食物。桦树糖浆然而 非常难与其它糖浆比较, 使它比其它食物糖浆更 加昂贵

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To introduce the important use of birch tree in 16th century Native American life (focus on Iroquois and Hooray peoples) 2. 桦树(birch tree)的用途? ? Birch tree has white waterproof bark, which can be used for making things like cooking containers, a variety of utensils. ? A tougher inner layer of the tree adheres to the bark, producing a stronger material. 3. 桦树的什么特点使人们可以方便地用 其制造器皿? ? Pliable (easy to bend) 4. 用桦树坐器皿装食物会串味吗? ? The taste of the birch tree doesn’t get transferred to the food. 5. 桦树最重要的使用是什么? ? Canoe. 6. 独木舟(canoe)给Iroquois人们生活 带来什么改变? ? Having an efficient means of transportation helps the Iroquois to form a federation linked by natural waterways. ? This efficiency of the birch back canoe also made an impression on newcomers to the area.

TPO 7 LECTURE 4

主题: Geology 地质学
Glossary: glacier 冰川,河川 crystallized 结晶 basal slip 基面滑移 bedrock 基岩,根底 lubricant 润滑剂,润滑的 deformation 变形,走样 brittle 易碎的,脆弱的 ooze 渗出,泄漏 fissure 裂缝 surge 大浪,巨涌 背景知识: Flow of Glacier
冰川运动指冰川的移动。冰川冰在重力作 用下自源头向末端的移动。包括塑性变形 和底部滑动两种过程。运动是冰川区别于 其他自然冰体(如河冰、湖冰、海冰和地 下冰)的最主要特点。一系列的冰川地质 地貌现象,如裂隙、褶皱等的形成,冰川侵 蚀、搬运和沉积作用都与冰川运动紧密有 关。

内容精要: 1.文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To talk about how glaciers flow. 2. 冰川运动的原因? ? Because of gravity 3. 冰川运动的类型? ? Basal slip: slipping or sliding of glacier across bedrock. ? Deformation: a very slow oozing. Depending on the stresses on the glacier, the ice crystal was reorganized, and during this reorganization the ice crystals realign in a way that allows them to slide pass each other 4. Deformation在什么条件下更容 易出现? ? Thicker ices ? higher temperature

TPO 8 LECTURE 1

主题:Animal Behavior 动物行为
Glossary: disperse 分散,传播 offspring 后代,子孙 shellfish 贝类等有壳的水生动物 camouflage 伪装,掩饰 fledgling 无经验的人,刚会飞的鸟 warbler 啭鸟 shrub 灌木

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To look at the effect of passive habitat selection can have 2. Habitat(栖息地)的准确含义是什么? ? There are some key elements that habitat must contain: food, water, right climate and spaces for physical protection. 3. 在plover(珩)栖息环境被破坏之后,人 类做了什么挽救措施? ? They made artificial beaches and sand bars in areas inaccessible to people and dogs. 4. Blue warbler (蓝莺) 喜好哪种栖息地? ? They clearly prefer hard wood forests with dense shrubs, bushes underneath the trees. 5. Blackcap(黑头莺)喜欢哪种栖息地? ? They preferred habitat is forests near the edge of streams. However, blackcaps also live in pine woods away from water. 6. 对于栖息地最佳选择和第二选择,动物 的繁殖成功率几乎等同,为什么? ? When the number of the competitors in the prime habitat reaches a certain point, the second rank habitat becomes just as successful as the prime habitat.

背景知识:
Plovers (/ ?pl?v?r/ or / ?plo?v?r/) are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. There are about 40 species in the subfamily, most of them called "plover" or "dotterel". The closely related lapwing subfamily, Vanellinae, comprises another 20-odd species. The Eurasian Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) usually known simply as the Blackcap, is a common and widespread typical warbler.

TPO 8 LECTURE 2

主题: Art History 艺术史
Glossary: academy 学院 salon 沙龙,画廊,美术展览馆 masterpiece 杰作 savvy 悟性,理解能力 2. 在19世纪晚期,巴黎社会大环境为女性 艺术家提供了怎样的机会? ? Around 1870s, some artists in Paris began to offer classes for female students. (for women only) By the end of 19th century, it became much more common for woman and man to study together in the same classes. 3. Rudolph Julian 所建的第一所艺术学院有 何突破? ? He had an initial trail period of mixed classes. But then he changed policy, separating the man and woman students. 4. 为什么Rudolph Julian要把学校变成女 校? ? He is a brilliant business man. He say that another small private art school where all the students were women was very popular at that time, and thus he adopted the women only classes. 5. 为什么老师要定期给班上的学生排名? ? Competition was good for women, helping them see where they needed to improve. 6. Marie Bashkirtseff的成名杰作是? ? In the Studio (The painting depicts an active crowded studio with woman drawing and painting alive model)

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨 (main purpose) ? To introduce woman artists in the late 19 century in Paris

背景知识: Marie Bashkirtseff (24 November 1858 – 31 October 1884) was a Ukrainian-born diarist, painter and sculptor. From the age of 13, Bashkirtseff began keeping a journal, and it is for this that she is most famous. Her personal account of the struggles of women artists is documented in her published journals, which are a revealing story of the bourgeoisie. Titled I Am the Most Interesting Book of All, her popular diary is still in print today.

TPO 8 LECTURE 3

主题: History 历史
Glossary: vision 视力 eye glasses 眼镜 quartz 石英 magnify 放大 affluence 富裕 peddler 小贩,传播者 背景知识: A reading stone was an approximately hemispherical lens that was placed on top of text to magnify the letters so that people withpresbyopia could read it more easily. Reading stones were among the earliest common uses of lenses.

内容精要:
1.文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To talk about the societal attitudes towards eye glasses 2.眼镜发明之前,视力不好的人怎么 办? They have different ways of dealing with not seeing well: ? In some places, like ancient Greece for example, the wealthiest people with poor vision could have someone else read to them ? “Reading stone”: around 1000 C.E.,European monks would take a piece of clear rock, often quartz, and place it on top of the reading material. 3. 眼镜在何时何地发明? ? Glasses were invented about the late 1200’s. ? Record shows that they were invented in both Europe and China at about the same time. (We call it independent discovery) 4. 什么是independent discovery? ? Independent discovery means when something is invented in different parts of the world at the same time, and it’s not as unusual as it sounds. 5. 早期,人们对眼镜的社会态度(societal attitude)如何? ? Initially in parts of Europe and China, glasses were a symbol of wisdom and intelligence, as well as affluence.

TPO 8 LECTURE 4

主题: Chemistry 化学
Glossary:
atomic 原子的,原子能的 proton 质子 ore 矿石 technetium [化学] 锝(放射性元素, 位于元素周期表第43位) spectroscopy 光谱学 cyclotron 粒子回旋加速器 radioactive 放射性的,由辐射的 decay 衰变,退变

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose) ? To discuss how Periodic table organizes and predicts the elements. 2. 化学元素周期表的排列规律是? ? It is ranged according to increasing atomic number, which is the number of protons in each atom of an element. 3. 43号化学元素(element 43)的特 别之处是? ? It was artificially synthesized by human. 4. 为什么在原始的元素周期表上, 43号元素是空缺的? ? Element 43 is radioactive; it decays, and turns into other elements. 5. 43号元素在自然中是否存在? ? Yes, it does occur naturally. But because of its radioactive decay, element 43 doesn’t last very long.

背景知识:

锝元素符号Tc,为银白色金属,原子序数
43,原子量98.9062。在元素周期表中属ⅦB 族。密排六方晶体。1937年佩里埃 (C.Perrier)和塞格雷(E.G.Segré)用回旋加速 器以氘核轰击钼发现锝。它是第一个用人工 方法制得的元素,所以按希腊文technetos(人 造)命名为technetium。

TPO 9 LECTURE 1

主题: Theater 剧院
Glossary:
knack 巧妙手法 synthesize 合成 outdid oneself 超越自己 suspend disbelief 停止怀疑 three-dimensional三维的 foreground前景 at the very least至少 site designer 布景设计师 Drury Lane德鲁里巷(英国伦敦) 背景知识: [Eidophusikon] was a piece of art, no longer extant, created by 18th century English painter Philip James de Loutherbourg. It opened in Leicester Square in February 1781. Described by the media of his day as " Moving Pictures, representing Phenomena of Nature" , the Eidophusikon can be considered an early form of movie making.

内容精要:
1. 教授主要讲了些什么(mainly discuss)? ? A French painter’s innovations in set design. 2. Loutherbourg 是怎么创造出有层次感 的舞台的?(a feeling of greater depth on the stage) ? He carefully spaced separate pieces of scenery ? He used three-dimensional objects in his sets. 3. 文中可以推断出英国18世纪去剧院的 人的什么信息? ? Some of them used the theater as a substitute for travel. 4. 关于英国风景画师和Loutherbourg有 什么联系? (the relationship between English landscape painters and Loutherbourg) ? He thinks Loutherbourg and the English landscape painters probably influenced each other. 5. Eidophusikon的两个显著特征(notable features)是什么? ? It did notmake use of actors. ? It had a small stage. 6. 为什么作者提到经过Loutherbourg家 的暴风雨? ? to demonstrate the authenticity of Loutherbourg’s sound effects.

TPO 9 LECTURE 2

主题: 环境科学 Environmental Science
Glossary
arctic 北极的 vegetation 植被 tundra 苔原 penetrate 渗透 windy 多风的 permafrost 永久冻土 Celsius 摄氏度 shrubs 灌木 precipitation 降雨 run-off溢流 loop 环 prairie 大草原

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Factors involved in the increased growth of shrubs in Arctic Alaska. 2. 灌木能很好地在北极地区生长的两 个原因? (Two features) ? They absorb nutrients from the soil efficiently. ? They have a shallow root system. 3. 为什么Shrub 会长更多更大? ? Increases in average winter temperatures have permafrost permeable to water. 4. 为什么春季径流不会带走土壤中的 营养? (nutrients carried away by spring runoff) ? Most nutrients are not in the area of the soil most affected by runoff. 5. 为什么教授提到灌木扩张到例如半 干旱的草地的其他环境中?(shrub expansion to semiarid grasslands) ? To suggest that new shrub land may not convert back to tundra. 6. 何出此言? [Ok, so what’s the puzzle? Warmer temperatures should lead to increased vegetation growth,right? ? The phenomenon is more complex

ompermeable 不能渗透的 insulating effect 保温作用 semiarid 半干旱的 背景知识: 北极苔原 是北冰洋海岸与泰
加林之间广阔的冻土沼泽带,总面积1300万平 方公里。它最大特点是有一层很厚的永久性冻 土,厚达488米,最厚可超过600米。所以北极 苔原也可与世界其他地区的高原冻土带一起通 称为冻土带。

灌木 是指那些没有明显的 主干、呈丛生状态的树 木,一般可分为观花、观 果、观枝干等几类,矮小 而丛生的木本植物。常见 灌木有玫瑰、杜鹃、牡 丹、 称为冻土带。

TPO 9 LECTURE 3

主题: 地理 Geology
Glossary
Arabian Peninsula 阿拉伯半岛

内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A hypothesis for how some ancient dedesolate 荒凉的 ridge山脉 sert lakes formed. barren 贫瘠的 clam 蛤 2. 教授对于近期关于鲁卜哈利沙漠 monsoon 季风 run-off 溢流 (Empty Quarter)石灰岩形成的结论的观 basin 盆地 torrential 汹涌的 点? ? They need to be confirmed by additional limestone 石灰岩 silt 泥沙 studies. sand dune 沙丘 3. 沙丘(sand dunes)的什么特点使得河流 背景知识: 鲁卜哈利沙漠 意为“空旷 的形成成为可能? 的四分之一”,由于其面积占据阿拉伯 ? The presence of clay and silt particles in 半岛约四分之一而得名,是世界上最大 the dunes. 的沙漠之一,覆盖了整个沙特阿拉伯南 4. 怎么判断河流是在哪个雨季(rain peri部地区和大部分的阿曼、阿联酋和也门 od)形成的? 领土,面积约65万平方公里,超过荷 ? By examining the location of the lake 兰、比利时和法国面积总和。 沙漠为 bed. 1,000公里长,500公里宽,贝都因人既不 ? By identifying the types of fossils found 在此居住,也不穿越这里。 in the limestone. 5. 缺少水牛(water buffalo)和河马 (hippopotamus)的化石暗示了什么? ? The level of water in the lakes was not sufficient for these animals. 6. 何出此言?[No fossils of fish. We’re not sure why. Maybe there is a problem with the water. Maybe it was too salty. That’s certainly true of other dessert lakes.] ? Lack of suitable water

TPO 9 LECTURE 4

主题: 语言学 Linguistic
Glossary
Honey bee 蜜蜂

内容精要
Primate 灵长类的动物 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) 大猩猩
?

Features that distinguish language from animal communication prairie dogs 土拨鼠 Rodent 啮齿动物 2. 为什么学生提到了她在一门生物课的研 Discreteness 不连续性 Coyote 草原狼 究项目? ? To introduce an instance of an animal Displacement 移位性 Bark 狗叫 species that might have language 背景知识 3. 教授对最新草原土拨鼠(prairie dogs) [语言的区别性特征] features of 的研究持有什么观点? languages ? She thinks that some claims made by the researchers are not supported by ? 任意性 arbitrariness 指语言符号 their findings. 和它代表的意义没有天然的联 4. 提到了语言构成的个别单元 系. (individual unites)时,教授说了些什 ? 二重性 duality 指语言由两层结 么? 构组成. ? They can be combined to create an infi? 创造性 creativity 指语言可以被 nite number of new messages. 创造. 5. 教授使用这个句子“Move the large coyote fast”是为了说明了语言的哪两特 征? ? Productivity ? Discreteness 6. 何出此言?[Now, who in this class heard me use this word “language”?] ? To suggest that the student is using the wrong terminology.
Orangutans/chimpanzee/gorilla

TPO 10 LECTURE 1

主题: Marine Biology
Glossary whale 鲸鱼 mammal 哺乳动物 skull 头骨 limb肢 ocean dweller 海洋居民

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Difficulties in determining the evolutionary history of whales. 2. 发现陆行鲸(the discovery of Ambulocetus) 对研究者们意味着什么? ? It fills a gap in the fossil evidence for whale evolution. 3. 什么证据说明鲸鱼是河马的后代? ? Whale are descendants of the hippopotamus. 4. 教授关于对鲸鱼进化(evolution)的基 因研究(genetic studies)持何观点? ? They present evidence that conflicts with fossil evidence. 5. DNA的证据表明了鲸鱼间的关系如何 (relationship among whales)? ? Not all toothed whales are closely related. 6. 走鲸化石的什么的哪三方面使得走鲸 成为陆生哺乳动物和海洋哺乳动物的桥 梁? ? It had limbs that could have been used for walking ? It had an elongated skeletal structure. ? It had an unusual kind and thin tail for a whale. ? It had limbs that could have been used for walking

fossil 化石
aquatic 水生的 Pelvis骨盆

mouthful 一口气难读完的长词(或词组) Ambulocetus natans 走鲸 Basilosaurus 龙王鲸 Hippopotamus河马 背景知识

[陆行鲸] Ambulocetus natans
有一具几乎完整的全身骨骼化石,提供 了早期鲸类生物学的主要信息。大小似 大的雄性海狮。头大,吻突长,眼位于 头部背侧面。头、 颈部的肌肉强大。 下颌的形状显示在 下颌与中耳间有软 组织相连接。在现 代齿鲸类,连接下 颌与中耳的脂肪块 具传递声波的作 用。长桨状的足可 在水中划水。

TPO 10 LECTURE 2

主题:欧洲历史 European History
Glossary squash 南瓜属植物

内容精要
restrain 抑制 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose )
?

To describe the introduction of American food crops to Europeans. nightshade family 茄科 restrain 抑制 2. 关于茄科植物(nightshade),教授暗示 belladonna 莨菪 maize玉米 了什么? ? They are dangerous when eaten by huAndes Mountains 安第斯山 man beings. Hungarian goulash 匈牙利烩牛肉 3. 关于托马斯·杰斐逊(thomas jefferson)对西红柿(tomatoes)的态度,教 背景知识 授暗示了什么? [茄科] nightshade family ? It was typical of his unconventional 是一年生植物,多年生植物,灌 way of thinking. 木,矮灌木及攀缘植物的属之一。 4. 把美国的玉米(corn)和土豆介绍到 它们多拥有美丽的花朵和果实,但 欧洲,有什么长久效应?(long-effect) 不少均带毒,只有少数可供人们食 ? It contributed to a shift in the balance 用,例如番茄、马铃薯、茄子等。 of power from southern Europe to northern Europe. 5. 土豆在爱尔兰(Ireland)变得流行的其 中一个原因是什么? ? Potatoes were more nourishing than native Irish food crops. 6. 何出此言?【but, have they really played any kind of important role in European history?】 ? She thinks that she knows what the student was going to ask.
French fries 法式炸薯 yummy 美味的

TPO 10 LECTURE 3

主题: 生态 Ecology
Glossary nutrient 营养 scarce 稀缺

内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To explain how phosphorus gets recycled in phosphorus 磷 weather 风化 the environment 2. 教授提到了哪些人类活动应影响了磷循环? mine 开采 fertilizer 化肥 ? Fishing ? Making and using fertilizer clog 阻塞 algae 藻类 3. 为什么教授要讨论海底火山? submerge 淹没 ? To describe a step in the phosphorus cycle. 4. 关于教授对磷元素被冲入河水的看法,暗示 背景知识: 了什么? 磷循环 phosphorus cycle ? She is concerned about the quality of phosphorus entering the waterways. 自然界的磷循环的基本过程是:岩石和土 壤中的磷酸盐由于风化和淋溶作用进入河 5. 教授做了个怎样的磷和氮(nitrogen)的对 流,然后输入海洋并沉积于海底,直到地 比? ? The atmosphere contains more nitrogen than 质活动使它们暴露于水面,再次参加循 phosphorus. 环。这一循环需若干万年才能完成。 6. 何出此言?[Yes, that’s such a difficult point, isn’t it?] ? She thinks that the answer to the question is obvious.

TPO 10 LECTURE 4

主题:Psychology 心理学
Glossary childhood amnesia 幼年失忆症 repressed 压抑的 imitation 模仿 prop 道具 cognitive 认知的 背景知识 幼年失忆症(childhood amnesia)
最早使用幼年经验失忆症这个名词者, 是精神分析论创始人佛洛伊德。佛洛伊 德发现,当病人回忆生活经验时,都无 法说出三岁(甚至五岁)以前的旧事。 按佛洛伊德的解释,这段时间正是恋亲 情结形成的阶段,儿童因心理冲突而生 的压抑,结果导致了对记忆的压抑。此 一解释相当勉强。新近的研究,确定了 人类3岁以前的经验成年后不能记忆的事 实。按现代认知心理学中信息处理理论 的解释,人在三岁以前并非没有长期记 忆。只是因为幼儿在当时对信息处理 时,尚不能使用语音作为心理表征的工 具,即未将语音的声码、形码、意码输 入到长期记忆之内,长期记忆中自然句 贮存不下语文信息,因而不能用语文去 检索记忆以回答问题。此种解释已为一 般人所接受。

内容精要
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To discuss possible explanations for childhood amnesia. 2. 为什么教授要问学生他们最早的记忆(earliest memories)? ? To help students relate to the topic she is about to discuss. 3. 关于对幼年失忆症(childhood amnesia)的一 些解释,教授暗示了什么? ? They were formed without proper evidence. 4. 如何测试没有语言能力的孩子的回忆 (recall)? ? By having children imitate an ordered sequence of actions. 5. 教授提到了1980s对3岁一下儿童记忆测试的研 究,研究者从该研究得出了什么结论? ? Piaget’s theory linking language development to memory was incorrect. 6. 教授提到了幼年失忆症一些常见的解释,哪三 个是这么解释? ? Early memories are repressed. ? Young children are unable to form memories ? Children lose memories at a faster rate than adults.

TPO 11 LECTURE 1

主题: 生物 Biology
Glossary parenting 教养

内容精要

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? One way hat birds protect their predator 捕食者 young 2. 当鸟类施展迷惑表演时通常都做什 sandpiper [鸟 ] 鹬 么?(Put on a distraction display) conspicuous 显著的 ? They fly in circles around their nest ? They cover their nest with their wings. swirl 盘旋 3. 鸟类什么时候会施展最明显的 distraction displays [动物学]迷 (conspicuous)迷惑表演? 惑表演 ? Just before their young become independent. 背景知识 迷惑表演 Distraction displays 4. 何处此言?[But sometimes certain species of birds do the exact opposite. 一种动物的养育行为,为了保护 When a predator approaches, they do 自己的后代不被捕食者发现而 their best to attract the attention of that predator. Now why would they do 设计引开捕食者的行为. that ?] ? To introduce an explanation. 5. 何处此言[You know, something that’ll make the predator think ah, here’s an easy meal!] ? To state the purpose of birds’ behavior. 6. 何出此言?[But not to give the impression that its wing’s broken] ? To distinguish the sandpiper’s display from another kind of display.

TPO 11 LECTURE 2

主题: 建筑 Architecture
Glossary

内容精要:
1. 本文主要介绍了美国建筑的的什么 方面? ? The reasons for popularity of a particular type of house. 2. 本文提到了什么来说明“功能决定 形式”(form follows function)这个原 理的一种运用 ? A house’s design should reflect the inhabitant’s needs. 3. 为什么女同学提到拜访她祖父母? ? To explain why she is familiar with Cape Cod houses 4. 在16-17年代,是什么促成了新英格 兰农村地区房屋构造一致 (conformity)的态度. ? People depended on their neighbors for their own survival 5. 何处此言? [Well, in this area probably. But are we typical?] ? To indicate that the student’s answer is wrong. 6. 科德角式房屋的受到气候影响的两 个特征是什么? ? The slope of the roofs ? The size of the chimney

ranch-style house 农庄式别墅 Cape Cod 科德角(美国地名) costal 肋骨的 Atlantic 大西洋的 compact 紧密地 exterior 外部的 背景知识:
科德角式房屋 Cape Cod houses
房子简洁小巧,易于建造、维修和改 造。在20世纪前半叶是美国最普遍的住 宅形式,现在形成的一层半住宅仍然是 退休者及一般别墅常用的形式。传统的 卧室设在一层,后来在楼上增加了卧室 及浴室。外装修是白色木板墙及木百页 窗,檐口不加装饰,往往用红砖突出烟 囱(现已多样化)。

TPO 11 LECTURE 3

主题:环境科学 Environmental Science
Glossary citric 柠檬的 marshy 沼泽的 swampy 沼泽的 frost 霜 drainage canal 排水渠 El Nino [气象] 厄尔尼诺现象
背景知识: 厄尔尼诺 El Nino 又称厄 尔尼诺海流,是太平洋赤道带大范围内 海洋和大气相互作用后失去平衡而产生 的一种气候现象,就是沃克环流圈东移 造成的。正常情况下,热带太平洋区域 的季风洋流是从美洲走向亚洲,使太平 洋表面保持温暖,给印尼周围带来热带 降雨。但这种模式每2—7年被打乱一 次,使风向和洋流发生逆转,太平洋表 层的热流就转而向东走向美洲,随之便 带走了热带降雨,出现所谓的“厄尔尼 诺现象”。

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The theory that land development affected the climate of South Florida. 2. 为什么教授提到在湿地上修排水 渠?(building of canals in the wetlands) ? To explain how the wetlands were transformed into farmland 3. 为什么教授暗示一些主要的气候模 式, 比如说厄尔尼诺现象(El Nino)? ? She does not believe they are the main cause of the changes in Florida’s climate. 4. 教授对学生强调了水体(bodies of water)的哪点? ? Bodies of water release heat back into the environment. 5. 100年前和现在的什么属于进入了 教授所讨论的电脑模型? (computer model) ? The landscape characteristics of south Florida 6. 何出此言? [Farmers moved south] ? To remind the professor of her previous point.

TPO 11 LECTURE 4

主题: 商业 Business
Glossary systematic 系统的 billboard 广告牌 budget 预算 advertise 广告 give away 赠送 disastrous 灾难性的
背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? How to use advertising successfully.

2. 根据教授所说,缺少好的广告计划会 导致哪两种后果? (advertising plan) ? The loss of customers ? The unnecessary spending of money 3. 为什么去教授提到老师? ? To illustrate how to select the most appropriate media for advertising a product. 4. 关于体育设备(sport equipment),关 于在广告上花钱,教授暗示了什么? ? It is better guided by good research than by good theories. 5. 教授为什么提到汤店? (soup shop) ? A poorly chosen advertising message can have negative consequences. 6. 何出此言? [You are gonna love this one.] ? She is eager to share an amusing story.

系统广告策略 Systematic Advertising Plan 即”Four Ms”Market, Media, Money, Message. 市场,媒体,

TPO 12 LECTURE 1

主题: 生物 Biology
Glossary chromosome 染色体 telomere [遗] 端粒 telomerase 端粒酶 shoelace 鞋带 enzyme 酶 coil up 盘卷 tongue-in-cheek 不认真的 背景知识: 2. 教授对染色体中包含的遗传信息的 DNA百分比的研究看法如何? (percentage of a chromosome’s DNA that contains genetic information) ? She was surprised by its conclusion. 3. 教授讲到端粒中的DNA时说了什么? ? It is genetically meaningless.

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Why most human cells cannot keep dividing successfully

端粒 是真核生物染色体末端的一

种 特 殊 结 构,实 质 上 是 一 重 复 序 4. 为什么提到鞋带? (shoelaces) 列,作用是保持染色体的完整性。 ? To illustrate how chromosomes are 细胞分裂一次,DNA 每次复制端粒 protected from damage. 就缩短一点,所以端粒其长度反映 细胞复制史及复制潜能,被称作细 5. 教授提到细胞染色体端粒长度(the 胞寿命的“有丝分裂钟”.

length of the telomere)时,暗示了什么? ? Longer telomeres allow the cell to divide more times. 6. 端粒酶和端粒是如何联系起来的?
?

It helps repair broken telomeres.

TPO 12 LECTURE 2

主题: 商业 Business
Glossary preference 倾向 memo 备忘录 technique 技巧 pothole 坑洞 hang up 挂断电话 wonder around 到处看

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A method for business to learn about the needs of their customers 2. MBWA潜在的缺点是什么?(potential drawback) ? MBWA provides information about the opinions of a small number of people 3. 教授认为MBWA和市场研究(market research)之间的关系如何? ? Information provided by MBWA complements information collected from market research. 4. 为什么教授提到Dalton的汤和Elkin的 牛仔裤(jeans) ? To give examples of how the techniques of MBWA is used in practice 5. 为什么讨论Baltimore的市长? ? To demonstrate that MBWA can be useful outside the business world. 6. 何出此言? [I mean, when Dortans of all the companies, embraces something as radical as MBWA, it really shows you how popular the theory has become] ? It is surprising that Dalton’s tried to use MBWA

背景知识: 走动管理(management by wandering around,简称MBWA) 是指高阶主管利用时间经常抽空 前往各个办公室走动,以获得更 丰富、更直接的员工工作问题, 并及时了解所属员工工作困境的

TPO 12 LECTURE 3

主题: 音乐历史 Music history
Glossary
plural复数 linguistic 语言 vernacular 本地话 cadence节奏 Recitative 宣叙调 opus 作品 aristocrat 贵族 Florence 佛罗伦萨 arias 咏叹调 chivalry 骑士精神

内容精要:

Nero尼禄(古罗马暴君) Attila匈奴王 Secularization 世俗化 Harpsichord 羽管键琴 melodramatic 情节剧的

背景知识: 歌剧 opera 是将音乐
(声乐与器乐)、戏剧(剧本与表演)、 文学(诗歌)、舞蹈(民间舞与芭蕾)、 舞台美术等融为一体的综合性艺术,通常 由咏叹调、宣叙调、重唱、合唱、序曲、 间奏曲、舞蹈场面等组成(有时也用说白 和朗诵).中世纪以宗教故事为题材,但真 正称得上“音乐的戏剧”的近代西洋歌 剧,却是16世纪末、17世纪初,随着文艺 复兴时期音乐文化的世俗化而应运产生

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Some changes that took place in the early years of opera. ? Italy’s musical influence throughout Europe. 2. 当意大利歌剧使用意大利语而不是拉 丁语之后发生了什么? ? Operas begin to express secular ideas. 3. 为什么教授提到了古希腊(ancient Greek)剧院? ? To point out a precursor of opera. 4. 教授提到法国歌剧的时说了些什么? ? It was secondary to the rhythmic flow of language. 5. 何出此言? [The English made a major adjustment to opera and exported what they had done to opera back to Italy.] ? To give one instance in the evolution of opera. 6. 何出此言?[George Champon wrote about opera, “If an extraterrestrial being or two appear before us and say, what is your society like, what is this Earth thing all about, you could do worse than take that creature to an opera.” Because opera does, after all, begin with a man and a woman and emotions ? He agrees with Chapman about opera and society.

TPO 12 LECTURE 4

主题: 环境科学 Environmental
Glossary alternative 可替代的 tap 利用 solar energy 太阳能 diffused 分散的 scarce 稀少的 megawatts 百万瓦特 A drop in the bucket九牛一毛 背景知识: 太阳能加热系统 分为 被动式加热系统(Passive heating systems)和主动式加热系统(Active heating systems)被动式的太阳房完 全依靠太阳能采暖,不用其他辅助能 源。依靠建筑围护结构本身来完成 吸热、蓄热、放热功能的采暖系 统。主动式太阳能采暖系用水泵或 风机把经太阳能加热过的水或空气 送入室内,达到采暖的目的。 convert 转换

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Reasons that solar energy is not more widely used. 2. 太阳能作为能源有哪两大问题? ? It is difficult to concentrate. ? It needs to be stored. 3. 为什么在70年代很流行太阳能? ? An increase in the price of oil and natural gas. 4. 被动加热系统和主动加热系统的 不同之处是什么? ? Passive systems work without mechanical support. 5. 教授怎么看待Kramer Junction 发电站(power plant)的前景? ? He is uncertain about the future of the Kramer Junction plant. 6. 何出此言? [That’s…Well…that is a really good question.] ? He thinks the students has raised an important issue.

TPO 13 LECTURE 1

主题: 城市规划 City Planning
Glossary retail 零售 suburb 郊区 bustle喧闹 downtown 市中心 off-limit禁止的 congestion拥塞

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Key considerations in creating a pedestrian mall 2. 为什么要在市中心建步行街? ? To increase retail activity in the area 3. 在建设步行街时要考虑哪两个选址 因素? ? The proximity to the customer base ? The access to public transportation 4. 为什么教授要解释 步行街的设计? ? To illustrate its importance to the success of a pedestrian mall 5. 为什么作者要提到Louisville, Kentucky 步行街? ? To show how poor planning can affect the success of a pedestrian mall 6. 何出此言? [When design doesn’t necessarily include things like sculptures or decorative walkways or …or even eye catching widow displays, you know art. Although I must admit those things are aesthetically appealing.] ? Art is of little importance in designing a pedestrian mall.

eye-catching 引人注目的 aesthetically 美学观点上地 convention center 会展中心 parking garage 停车场(室内) pedestrian mall 步行街 背景知识: 步行街(pedestrian mall)
指在交通集中的城市中心区域(一个城市 商厦集中的路段,也是一座城市最繁华的 路段)设置的行人专用道,在这里原则上 排除汽车交通,外围设停车场,是行人优 先活动区。 徒步街与徒步购物街的意义 是一样的可通称为步行街。

TPO 13 LECTURE 2

主题: 生态学 Ecology
Glossary beaver 海狸 waterway 水路 dam 水坝 wetland 湿地 swiftly 快速的 sediment 沉积物 interrelationship 相互关系 standing water 死水 keystone[建筑]楔石,主旨
背景知识: 海狸鼠 beaver 属海狸鼠 科,海狸鼠属,是最大的啮齿动物。海 狸鼠是草食性皮肉两用动物,原产于南 美国家。海狸鼠具有经济价值高、饲料 来源丰富、圈舍构造简单、好饲养、易 管理、无瘟疫等特点。其毛皮可制成皮 革和裘皮;肉是优质的高蛋白野味佳 品;内脏是生物药品的主要来源。

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The role of one species in an ecosystem 2. 为什么当学生第一次提到北美的欧洲殖民 地(European Settlement),教授要打断他? ? She prefers to present the information in the lecture in a specific order 3. 提到静水和湍急流动的水时,教授说了些 什么? ? Still water supports more life than swiftly flowing wate 4. 在北美地区对海狸的大范围捕杀造成了什 么后果? ? It led to a decrease in the number of wetlands. 5. 何出此言? [So the beaver in this ecosystem is what we call a keystone species. The term keystone kind of explains itself. In architecture, a keystone in an archway or doorway is the stone that holds that whole thing together and keep it rom collapsing.] ? To clarify a term used in biology. 6. 何出此言?[Image if we still have all those beavers around, all those wetlands. What would our water supply be like then? ] ? More groundwater would be available for human consumption

TPO 13 LECTURE 3

主题: 诗歌 Poetry
Glossary medieval 中世纪的 evoke 引发 imagery 意象 warrior 战士 heroic 英雄的 knight 骑士

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To compare two different types of medieval poems. 2. Chanson Poetry预期观众是谁? ? Lords ? Knights 3. 为什么教授提到浪漫诗经常包括作 者简介(biographical sketch) ? To explain why the social status of troubadours is known today. 4. 在行吟诗人写诗时期的的政治环境 (political climate)如何? ? It gave the troubadours time to devote themselves to writing poetry. 5.何出此言?[Well,think back to the very beginning of the course] ? To remind the student that she may know the answer to her own question. 6.关于香颂诗(Chanson poetry)和 浪漫诗,哪点时正确的? ? Is admired for loyalty to country. ? Is willing to fact extreme dangers to protect the lord.

minstrel 吟游诗人 provoke 激起 patriotic 爱国的 solitary 孤独的

keystone [建筑]楔石,主旨 troubadour 行吟诗人;民谣歌手 biographical 传记的 背景知识: 行吟诗人 troubadour
是中世纪的特产。他们本身都是天才,他 们可能来自高贵而富有的家庭,也可能来 自低贱而穷苦的家庭。他们凭着自己的智 慧,编造了许多新奇的故事。有时被邀请 到爵爷的堡里表演.

TPO 13 LECTURE 4

主题:
Glossary
meteorite 陨星 asteroid 小行星 Jupiter 木星 methane 甲烷 patriotic 爱国的 analogous 类似的 stony iron 陨铁石 comet 彗星 debris 残骸 orbit 轨道 meteor 流星 solitary 孤独的 orbit 轨道 nickel 镍

天文学 Astronomy
内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The nature and origin of meteorites. 2. 为了帮助描述行星(asteroids)和彗星 (comets),教授作了什么比较? ? He compares them to types of plants. 3. 提到流星(meteor)和陨星(meteorite)的 时候,教授都说了什么? ? They are pieces of asteroids or comets.

interplanetary 行星间的 terrestrial 地球上的

4. 流星的什么特点会绝定流星最终会不会 变成陨星? 背景知识:陨星(meteorite) 即自 ? How large it is when it enters the Earth’s atmosphere. 空间降落于地球表面的大流星体。 大约92.8% 的陨星的主要成分是硅 酸盐(也就是普通岩石),5.7% 是 5. 提到了石陨石(stone meteorites)时,教授 说了哪两点? 铁和镍,其他的陨石是这三种物质 ? They are the type of meteorite that most 的混合物。含石量大的陨星称为陨 commonly falls to the ground. 石,含铁量大的陨星称为陨铁。 ? They are the most difficult type of meteorite to find on the ground. (iron meteorite) 6. 何出此言?[And, if you’re trying to find metal?] ? To offer a hint about the answer to a question he asked.

TPO 14 LECTURE 1

主题: 心理学 Psychology
Glossary
cognition 认知 blanket 毛毯 optic nerve 视神经 lettuce 生菜 perception 看法 cheery 愉快的 bias 偏见 fall short of 缺乏

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Common limitations with regard to several cognitive functions 2. 为什么教授提到单词表(word list)的研究 ? ? To illustrate a type of mistake that people make when recalling details. 3. 教授提到的感知(perception)研究说明 (demonstrate)了什么? ? The brain can automatically supply details that were not actually perceived. 4. 为什么作者提到视神经连(optic nerve)接 眼后(back of the eye)的区域? ? To explain the origin of a concept that is used in the study of cognition. 5. 提到想象力(imagination)的时候,作者 提出了哪点? ? It is inadequate or accurately predicting future events. 6. 何出此言?[Did yours have tomatoes, Onion, Lettuce? Mind did.]
?

背景知识: [盲点] blind spot
视网膜上无感光细胞的部位称为盲点。blind spot 因盲点是视神经穿过的地方,这个地方 人眼没有视觉细胞,物体的影像落在这个地方 也不能引起视觉。

To illustrate a point she wants to make about imagination

TPO 14 LECTURE 2

主题: 生物 Biology
Glossary
reptile 爬行动物 moisture 湿度 perspire 流汗 burrow 挖掘 squirrel 松树 dehydrate 使…脱水

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The importance of microclimates to some animals

2. 教授提到那两个因素可以影响微气候 pant 喘息 unwittingly 不知不觉 ? The elevation of the land were the microclimate is located 背景知识: [微气候] Microclimate ? Human activity in the area where the 因下垫面性质不同,或人类和生物的活 microclimate is located
动所造成的小范围内的气候。在一个地 区的每一块地方(如农田、温室、仓库、 车间、庭院等)都要受到该地区气候条件 的影响,同时因下垫面性质不同、热状 况各异,又有人的活动等,就会形成小 范围特有的气候状况,小气候中的温 度、湿度、光照、通风等条件,直接影 响作物的生长,人类的工作环境,家庭 的生活情趣等。可通过一定的技术措施 加以改善。

3. 当教授提到松树的时候提出什么点? ? Mammals have more than one way of regulating their body temperature 4. 关于爬行动物和微气候,教授暗示了 什么? ? Microclimates can be both helpful and harmful to reptiles. 5. 根据教授所说,腐烂的树叶是如何影 响微气候的? ? Decomposing leaves generate heat, creating a warm microclimate. 6. 何出此言? [So I can image the effect of microclimate would have on them] ? To indicate that he understands the professor’s explanations

TPO 14 LECTURE 3

主题: 天文学
Glossary
seafarer 航海家 navigational 航行的 micronesian密克罗尼西亚人 Viking 维京人 pacific 太平洋 partition 划分 canoe 独木舟 zenith star 天顶星 equator 赤道 chaotic 混沌的 constellation 星座 latitude 纬度

Astronomy
内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? How Pacific Islanders were able to navigate without instruments. 2. 在赤道(equator)边观察星星有什么好 处? ? The sky appears more orderly there than it does farther north or south. 3. 关于 Gilbert 岛上的人们,教授说了些 什么? ? They developed a method for describing the locations of stars. ? They considered a navigator to be the same as astronomer. 4. 为什么教授提到石制独木舟(stone canoes) ? To illustrate a method used for teaching young Polynesians to navigate. 5. 使用天顶星(zenith star)和 星对 (star pair)的技巧有什么共同点? ? Both could help identify a location relative to the equator. 6. 何出此言?[Actually it makes more sense with setting stars; they can be watched instead of trying to guess when they’ll rise.] ? He wants to clarify a point about the technique.

背景知识: [双星] Star pair
我们如果用望远镜观测星空,常常可以看到一 些恒星两两成双靠在一起。当然,这其中很多 只是透视的结果,实际上两颗星相距很远,只 是都在一个视线方向上罢了。可是,天文学家 发现,其中占不少比例,两颗星之间有力学上 的联系,相互环绕转动。这样的两颗恒星,就 称为双星。 组成双星的两颗恒星都称为双星的子星。其中 较亮的一颗,称为主星;较暗的一颗,称为伴 星。主星和伴星亮度有的相差不大,有的相差 很大。

TPO 14 LECTURE 4

主题: 考古学 Archeology
Glossary
monumental 纪念碑的 Neolithic 新石器时代 chamber 房间 echo 回音 resonance 共振 standing waves 驻波 chant 唱歌 acoustic 声学的 dizziness 头昏眼花 British Isles 不列颠群岛

Egyptian pyramid 埃及金字塔

背景知识: [通道墓穴] Passage Graves 新石器 时代的墓穴,原本埋于土丘中,包 括墓穴通道及由大块立石加上巨型 石盖所组成的墓室. [巨石阵] Stonehenge 又是欧洲著 名的史前时代文化神庙遗址,位于 英格兰威尔特郡索尔兹伯里平原, 约建于公元前4000~2000年.

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The sound effects that Neolithic people could experience in passage graves. 2. 什么教授提到了埃及金字塔? ? To help students understand how long ago passage graves were built. 3. 在passage grave 的房间(chamber) 内的驻波(standing waves)会产生什 么样的效果? ? The intensity of sound varies greatly throughout the chamber. 4. 为什么教授提到了瓶子?(bottle) ? To help explain how resonance is produced. 5. 通道坟墓(passage grave)的什么特点 导致研究者们认为他们特地是为活人 设计的? ? Their ability to function as astronomical calendars. 6. 何出此言? [In fact, the sounds can cause headaches, feelings of dizziness, increase heartache, that sort of thing, you see.] ? He is confident that no more examples should be necessary.

TPO 15 LECTURE 1

主题: 心理学 Psychology
Glossary

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Research about how the brain deals with distractions. 2. 认知失败问卷 (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire) 的两个缺点是什么? ? It relies on subjective reporting. ? It does not account for factors other than distractability. 3. Lavie关于星场(star field)的实验研究 了注意力分散(distraction)和大脑的什 么推测? ? Whether the brain perceives information that is irrelevant to the performance of a task. ? Whether the brain deals with distractions by categorizing irrelevant information as low priority. 4. Lavie 对试验者的视觉皮层(visual cortex)的扫描(scan)说明了什么? ? Area V5 became less active when tasks became more difficult. 5. 为什么教授提到公路(highway)? ? To describe a limitation in the brain’s processing capacity. 6. 教授对Lavie的工作持什么观点? ? She thinks its findings can be applied only to visual distraction.
?

distract 分心 perceive 感知 hypothesis 假设 categorize 分类 visual cortex 视觉皮层 upper-case 大写 lower-case 小写 背景知识: [Lavie教授注意力测试]
拉维教授研发的这套计算机识别系统类似 于传统的字谜游戏,即让答题者识别计算 机屏幕上被打乱字母顺序的词组,并测算 每次做出反应的时间。除了解答字谜所需 的字母之外,不相关的数字和字母也会出 现在电脑屏幕上,以扰乱答题者的注意. 力。研究结果显示,随着字母的增加,答 题者的反应速度减慢。但是当屏幕充满字 母时,人们能很好的看到X和N字母。

TPO 15 LECTURE 2

主题:
Glossary sediment 沉积物 gravel 碎石 glacier 冰川 dam 大坝 erosion 侵蚀 deposit 沉淀物 methane 甲烷 deforestation 森林砍伐

地理 Geology
内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Recognizing when one geologic epoch ends and another begins. 2. 为什么教授提到更新世? ? To give an example of a well-defined geologic epoch. 3. 研究者们通过研究沉淀物(sediment)来 学习过去地质时期(geologic epochs)的 特点,沉淀物是怎么展现一特定时期的? ? The climate on earth when the sediment formed. ? The organisms that lived when the sediment formed. 4. 公元1800C.E.有什么重大意义? ? The population reached 1 billion. ? Industrialization began to influence earth’s environment. 5. 提到8000年前农业的扩散(spread of agriculture),教授暗示了什么? ? It did not cause as big an environment impact as some researchers say. 6. 关于未来的研究者们,教授说了什 么? ? They will determine when the Anthropocene epoch began.

Pleistocene epoch 更新世 Holocene epoch 全新世 Anthropocene epoch 人类世

背景知识:更新世 Pleistocene
epoch 地理学名词,是第四纪的第一个
世,距今约260万年至1万年。更新世冰川 作用活跃。

全新世Holocene(11500年前至现在)
是最年轻的地质时期(地质时代)。这一 时期形成的地层称全新统,它覆盖于所有 地层之上。全新世时间短,沉积物厚度 小,但分布范围广。

Anthropocene 人类世 是指地球的最近
代历史,人类世并没有准确的开始年份, 可能是由18世纪末人类活动对气候及生态 系统造成全球性影响开始。

TPO 15 LECTURE 3

主题:
Glossary
mathematician 数学家 parchment 羊皮纸 palimpsest 重写本 Archimedes 阿基米德 auction 拍卖

艺术历史 Art History
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The recovery of some ancient writings on mathematics. 2. 教授提到了羊皮纸(parchment)的哪两 点? ? It is more long lasting than paper. ? Its use for books decreased after the 1400s. 3. 当教授解释用清洗擦拭(washing and scraping)的方法从羊皮纸表面消除墨迹 (ink)时,他暗示了什么? ? Washing was less effective than scraping as a means of permanently erasing ink. 4. 什么类型的书成了阿基米德重写本 (Archimedes palimpsest)? ? A prayer book. 5. 提到用不同方法(techniques)看阿基米 德的文本(texts)时,教授暗示了什么? ? X-ray image was more effective than the other techniques. 6. 教授暗示了阿基米德重写本有何重要意 义? ? It is significant because it contains what may be Archimedes’ most important work.

scribe 抄写员 monastery 修道院 decipher 解密 script 手写本

papyrus scroll 古本手卷 X-ray X-射线

ultraviolet light 紫外线

背景知识:
阿基米德重写本 Archimedes palimpsest
希腊数学家、工程师及物理学家阿基米德是古 代世界的天才,也是现代科学的奠基人之一。 他一生著述颇丰,作品却罕有存世。公元10世 纪的时候,有人把他的部分著作誊写成了一部 羊皮书。这部书一直流传至今,成了存世年代 最早的阿基米德著作抄本。这部珍贵的典籍命 途多舛。由于羊皮纸稀少珍贵,人们常常对之 进行重复利用。12世纪的时候,这本书被人拆 解分割,上面的字迹也被刮掉,取而代之的是 基督教经文。尽沧桑的“重写本”已经面目狼 藉,但它无疑仍是人类的无价珍宝。通过紫外 光分析等方法,人们已经解读了174页“重写 本”中的大部分文字。科学家乌维?伯格曼 (Uwe Bergmann)在德国参加会议的时候偶然 读到了杂志上的一篇文章,上面讲到“重写 本”和其他一些古代手稿所用的墨水中含有 铁。伯格曼自己的工作是用同步加速的X射线 来检测蛋白质中的微量铁,他立刻联想到可以 用这种技术来辨认“重写本”上的残留痕迹, 并成功地说服了沃尔特艺术博物馆。这样一 来,“重写本”终于有了完全破译的可能。

TPO 15 LECTURE 4

主题:
Glossary

生物

Biology

内容精要:
1. 为什么教授讨论了对热液喷口 hydrothermal vents的探索? ? To show how the exploration challenged an assumption about biological communities. 2. 关于研究者们在海洋底(ocean floor)发 现的生物群体(biological community),研 究者们暗示了什么? ? They were surprised at the large variety of organisms living near hydrothermal vents. 3. 在热液喷口发现的生物群体的化能合成 作用(chemosynthesis)有什么作用(role)? ? It enables organisms to convert hydrogen sulfide into food. 4. 为什么教授提到了在管虫(tube worm)内 生活的细菌? ? To explain what provides the organic material that tube worms use for energy. 5. 何出此言? [Not so fast] ? She will present additional information related to the assigned chapter. 6. 在热液喷口的水中发现了哪三个条件使 得研究者们认为不会有生物体(living organisms)的存在。 ? Extreme heat ? Extreme pressure ? Lack of sunlight

crack 裂纹 photosynthesis 光合作用 chemosynthetic 化合作用 bingo 中了 breakdown 分解 microbes 微生物 rule out 排除 tube worm 管虫

hydrothermal vents 热液喷口 hydrogen sulfide 硫化氢 背景知识:

[化合作用] chemosynthetic
化合作用,自养生物的一种,指一 些细菌通过将无机物氧化,以取得 化学能,再利用这些化学能将一碳 无机物(如二氧化碳)和水合成有 机物的营养方式。该营养方式常见 于三种类型细菌:硝化细菌、铁细 菌、硫细菌。

TPO 16 LECTURE 1

主题:地理 Geology
Glossary
limestone 石灰石 diagram 图表 passageway 通道 sulfuric acid 硫酸 crack/fissure 裂缝 carbonic acid 碳酸

dry as a bone 完全干燥的 elaborate 阐述 dissolve 溶解 gypsum 石膏 residue 残渣 dormant 休眠的

phew 唷(表示不快的声音)tunnel 隧道

背景知识: 美国龙舌兰洞 Lechuguilla Cave
位于美国新墨西哥州卡尔斯贝洞窟国家公园,洞内 的石笋被水晶般透明的水环绕。这个洞穴一度默默 无名,直到1986年才享誉世界,当时洞穴勘探人员 冲破一条封闭的通道并发现大量可以步行通过的地 道。自此之后,勘探人员对长度超过100英里(约合 160公里)的地道进行测绘。龙舌兰洞也就此成为美 国第三长的洞穴和世界上第五长的洞穴.

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To discuss the formation and characteristics of an unusual type of cave. 2. 地表水(surface water)中发现的什么物质 对典型的石灰岩洞(limestone caves)的形成 很总要? ? Carbonic acid 3. 龙舌兰洞穴Lechuguilla Cave中石膏 (gypsum)的存在说明了什么? ? The cave was not formed by flowing water. 4. 从龙舌兰洞穴不再形成的事实中可以推断 出什么? ? The air in the cave is safer to breathe now than it was in the past. 5. 何出此言?[Dry as a bone. Well, that might be a bit of an exaggeration. But it’s safe to say that it’s sulfuric acid and not moving water that formed Lechuguilla cave and those few other ones like it. In fact, there is no evidence that flowing water has even gone in or out of the cave.] ? Lechuguilla Cave is not completely absent of water. 6. 教授提到了龙舌兰洞穴形成的部分过程, 选出三个描写形成过程的陈述。 ? Gypsum residue accumulated to form decorative structures. ? Hydrogen sulfide gas mixed with underground water ? Acid dissolved parts of the limestone bacteria that fed on underground oil

TPO 16 LECTURE 2

主题: 音乐历史 Music History
Glossary
genre 类别 spell out 讲清楚 clarinet 单簧管 quill 大翎毛 drumstick 鼓槌 virtuoso 艺术大师 string instrument 弦乐器 patron 主顾 transverse flute 横笛 harpsichord 大键琴 pluck 拔 harp 竖琴 refinement 优雅 recital 演奏会

keyboard instrument 键盘乐器 percussion instrument 打击乐器

背景知识:
克拉拉·舒曼 Clara Schumann
德国女钢琴家。生于莱比锡。五岁随父亲学钢 琴,八岁就能开独奏音乐会,十九岁的女孩子就 登上了维也纳的乐坛。婚后曾与丈夫一起去俄罗 斯和意大利旅行演出,后定居柏林,并在法兰克 福高等音乐学院教授钢琴。早期以演奏贝多芬的 作品闻名,后期以演奏肖邦和舒曼的作品著称。 作有钢琴协奏曲,特性曲,艺术歌曲,曾编辑 《罗伯特·舒曼全集》。克拉拉的父亲威克先生 是一位才华出众 的音乐老师,因 他在克拉拉年幼 时即与妻子离 异,所以加倍疼 爱并且刻意栽培 这个从小就失去 母爱的孩子。在 父亲的精心培养 下,克拉拉小小 年纪就崭露头 角。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The influence of the piano on music and society. 2. 在钢琴发明之前,教授提到了是什 么影响了音乐的风格(muscal styles)? ? The preferences of particular patrons. 3. 为什么教授描述了钢琴是怎么操作 的? ? To explain why pianos are not classified as string instruments. 4. 根据教授所说,为什么钢琴比大键 琴(harpsichord)更流行? ? The piano could express a wider range of emotions than the harpsichord. 5. 为什么作者提到了Clara Schumann? ? She grew up in an environment that encouraged female musicians. 6. 何出此言?[Well, I don’t have to spell that out for you.] ? The students can easily guess what he means.

TPO 16 LECTURE 3

主题:
Glossary
pro 赞成 beaver 海狸 aspen tree 白杨树 ash tree 白蜡树 presumably 大概 con 反对 forage 饲料 bark 树干 lug 用力拉 haul 拖拉

生物 Biology
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Choices beavers face when foraging. 2. 教授提出了白杨树(aspen tree)和白蜡 树(ash tree)有什么不同? ? Aspen trees have more overall value to beavers.

背景知识: 海狸 Beaver

海狸喜欢啃树, 他们也用树和树枝在小河和湖里 3. 教授认为海狸行为(beaver behav建造他们的家。当他们去寻找食物和用来遮挡家 ior)两中心问题是什么? 的材料时,他们不得不离开他们的家,爬到岸 上,而那里有他们的主要捕食者。所以关于外出 ? How far from home to forage. 觅食他们有许多选择要做,比如他们需要决定他 ? What size tree to cut down. 们砍掉哪种树。有些树有更高的营养价值,有些更 适合做建筑材料,还有一些两者都适合,比如白 杨树。海狸剥掉树皮来吃,他们也用树枝来建造 4. 谈到砍下大树时,教授说了些什么? 他们的窝。所以白杨树就担负两项任务,而灰树 ? Beavers generally do not travel long distances to cut down large trees. 只用来建造。另一个要做的决定是什么时候去觅 食。白天还是晚上。白天外面更热,他们必须用 更多的体力。夜晚会变得凉爽但捕食者活动频 5. 为什么海狸通常在晚上觅食 繁。

(forage)? ? Foraging at night requires less energy than foraging in the daytime.

6. 何出此言? [If you’re going to travel far, make the trip worth it by bring back most wood possible.] ? To explain her reasoning.

TPO 16 LECTURE 4

主题:
Glossary
paradigmatic 范例的 assemble 集合 metallic 金属的 lamp shade 灯罩 stained 染色的 strip条状 lamp shade 灯罩 layered 分层的

艺术 Art
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The history of stained-glass art. 2. 教授提到了中世纪花窗玻璃的哪两点? ? The glass was colored during the glassmaking process. ? They were used mainly for churches. 3. 在中世纪,艺术家们制作花窗玻璃的第 一步是什么? ? They drew the design onto the top of a table. 4. 16世纪的花窗玻璃制作与这之前的花 穿玻璃有哪两大不同? ? The way the glass was colored. ? The role played by lead strips. 5. 教授暗示了Tiffany玻璃流行的原因是 什么? ? The invention of electric lighting. 6. 何出此言?[That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn’t it.] ? It is unfortunate that people in the 19th century destroyed old stained-glass windows.

背景知识: 花窗玻璃 stained glass
为西方建筑装饰品,常见于教堂,装置 于建物墙面上。在伊斯兰教的清真寺, 花窗玻璃艺术也很常见。其作用原理 是,当日光照射玻璃时,可以造成灿烂 夺目的效果。而在电灯时代,夜间从教 会内放射出的彩光,又是气象万千。早 期花窗玻璃多以圣经故事为内容,以光 线配合图案的效果感动信徒。而一些教 会所在地本地的传说和神话,也会进入 其主题之中。

TPO 17 LECTURE 1

主题:
Glossary
ivory 象牙

艺术历史 Art History
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Limitations of some techniques for dating artifacts. 2. 在什么情况下,地层学会给可便携物体 (portable objects)提供让人误导 (misleading)的信息? ? When the object is older than the site at which it was found. 3. 放射性碳测定年代(carbon dating)的 方法有哪两个缺点? ? It causes damage to the material being analyzed. ? It cannot prove when a piece of art was made. 4. 教授对根据艺术风格(artistic style)来分 析艺术品年代的做法,持何观点? ? Some analysts make questionable assumption when using it. 5. 女同学是怎么总结教授讲话的要点的? ? By drawing a parallel with a process common to the legal field. 6. 何出此言 [Obviously, the artists didn’t put a signature or a date on anything they did.] ? To explain why the question is worth discussing.

Paleolithic period 旧石器时代 prehistoric 史前的 tusk 长牙 intact 完好的

portable 可携带的 mammoth 猛犸象 stratigraphy 地层学

radiocarbon dating 放射性碳测年decay 衰变 discard 丢弃 dye 染色 pre-conceived 预想的 charcoal 木炭 chip off 削去 primitive 原始的

背景知识:
放射性碳定年法 Radiocarbon Dating
又称碳测年,是利用自然存在的碳-14同位素的 放射性定年法,用以确定原先存活的动物和植物 的年龄的一种方法,可测定早至五万年前有机物 质的年代。对于考古学来讲,这是一个准确的定 年法技术。

TPO 17 LECTURE 2 主题: 米兰科维奇假说 Milankovitch
Glossary
Elliptical 椭圆的 Hemisphere 半球 Axial tilt 轴倾角 Precession 岁差 Calcite [矿物] 方解石 Orbit 【天文学】(天体、卫星等的)轨道 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A hypothesis that explains how changes in Earth’s motions affect climate 2. 为什么教授把地球的运动比喻成手 表? ? To clarify a common misunderstanding 3. 为什么教授提到北半球冰川(northern hemisphere glaciers)? ? Their formation could be affected by changes in Earth’s orbit 4. 在海底(ocean floor)找到的证据有什么 重大意义? ? It confirmed Milankovitch’s hypothesis 5. 在Devil Hole里发现的方解石矿床 (calcite deposits)揭示了什么? ? Evidence that contradicted Milankovitch’s hypothesis 6. 何出此言? [It will take me a million years to explain even just the basics of this movement as precession is quite complex.] ? To inform the students about what he will not discuss

Milankovitch Hypothesis
米兰科维奇假说是前南斯拉夫土木工程 师兼数学家米卢廷·米兰科维奇于1930 年创立的一种关于古气候变化的理论, 又叫做“米兰科维奇循环”。假说认为 地球运动的变化,特别是绕太阳轨道的 变化,这些变化会导致太阳到达地球能 量的不同。并且正是这些从太阳到达地 球能量的不同导致了地球气候的变化。

TPO 17 LECTURE 3 主题: 古埃及历法 Ancient Egyptian Calendar
Glossary
Inundation 洪水;泛滥 Heliacal 太阳的 Fluctuate 波动;涨落 Civilization 文明;文化 Sirius [天] 天狼星 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The timekeeping system of ancient Egypt. 2. 为什么提到四个季节在古埃及的叫 法? ? To emphasize the significant of the Nile River 3. 为什么天狼星的helical rising对埃及 人这么重要? ? It helped determine the beginning of the New Year; it indicated when the Nile would flood 4. 当埃及人意识到天狼星的heliacal rising的重大意义时,他们如何改变了 他们的农耕日历? ? They allowed the number of months in the year to vary 5. 教授在说administrative calendar时 说了哪两个重要的点? ? It was used for scheduling tax payments; it had the same number of days every year 6. 何处此言?{But, was it anyway to run a government? } ? The Egyptians’ motivations for developing a second calendar

Ancient Egyptian Calendar
古埃及的历法包括太阴历和准太阴历等, 大体上将每年分为3个季节:泛滥季、长 出五谷季、收割季。同时以365天为1年, 1年12个月,每月30天,年终另外再加5天 作为节日。比现行的阳历只少1/4天。古 罗马的儒略历就是在此基础上修订的。

TPO 17 LECTURE 4

主题: 生物学 Biology
Glossary
Prey 被捕食的动物 Texture 质地;纹理;结构 Speckled 有斑点的 Blend with 与…混和 Chromatophore 色素体 Papillae 乳头状突起 Proteus 希腊海神;多变的人 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Ways that octopuses protect themselves from predators. 2. 为什么教授在一开始提到Proteus? ? To introduce the octopus’s exceptional abilities. 3. 章鱼是如何变色使自己与周围环境相 融的? ? By reflecting light from its environment. ? by contracting the muscles around its chromatophores. 4. 那些乳头状突起 (Papillae) 的作用 是什么? ? They change the texture of the octopus’s skin. 5. 教授用了哪两个例子去形容章鱼变形 的能力? ? A small round stone; the leaves of a plant. 6. 何出此言?[You can easily swim within a few feet of an octopus and never see it.] ? To illustrate a point.

Octopus
章鱼的一种防御手段是改变纹理来模仿 它周围的环境,另一种应激性伪装。它 的几乎是即刻改变颜色的能力是由神经 系统控制的,色素细胞会因情感的波动 而扩张、收缩。章鱼的色素细胞的反应 速度比其他任何动物都要快。

TPO 18 LECTURE 1

主题: 天文学 Astronomy
Glossary
Blemish 瑕疵;污点 Prevailing 流行的; 盛行很广的 Toss around 翻来覆去 Magnetic 地磁的;有磁性的 Geomagnetic cycles 地磁周期 Sunspot 太阳黑子 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) The progression of scientific knowledge about sunspots 2. 为什么在伽利略之前的欧洲天文学家不 相信太阳黑子存在于太阳表面? The idea was contrary to their beliefs about objects in space 3. 伽利略挑战了关于太阳黑子的什么假 设? Sunspots are shadows of planets trussing the Sun 4. 为什么Schwabe的观察发现很重要? They established that sunspots appear in cycles 5. 教授对Schwabe和Wolf 的研究持什么态 度? He is impressed by how many years were spent on the research 6. 为什么提到太阳黑子周期(sunspot cycle) 和地球磁场周期(Earth’s geomagnetic cycle) 的关系? It led to a period of intense scientific research

太阳黑子 Sunspot
是在太阳的光球层上发生的一种太阳活 动,是太阳活动中最基本、最明显的。 一般认为,太阳黑子实际上是太阳表面 一种炽热气体的巨大漩涡, 活跃时会对 地球的磁场产生影响,主要是使地球南 北极和赤道的大气环流作经向流动,从 而造成恶劣天气,使气候转冷。

TPO 18 LECTURE 2

主题: 艺术史 Art History
Glossary
Sculpture 雕塑 Commemorate 庆祝,纪念 Mediterranean 地中海 Idealization 理想化 Plaster cast 石膏模型 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Different views of a type of sculpture popular in ancient Roman times. 2. 就传统艺术(traditional art)而言, 为 什么罗马人要临摹希腊的雕塑? ? Roman artists did not have sufficient skill to create original sculpture. 3. Gazda 如何评价罗马对希腊雕塑的临 摹品(Roman copies of Greek statues)? ? The copies had both artistic and political functions . 4. 为什么教授提到罗马硬币? ? To illustrate the Roman policy of distributing the emperor’s image throughout the empire . 5. 为什么有时候罗马人会把君主的头从 一个雕塑上remove下来? ? The head was placed on the body of a different statue; the emperor was no longer in power. 6. 何出此言?[But finally, some temporary art historians have challenged this view.] ? The view of traditional art historians is probably incorrect.

Roman Sculpture
罗马虽然征服了希腊的国土,但在文化 上它却是个被征服者。罗马人大量复制 摹制希腊雕塑,沿袭希腊追求“真实之 美”的传统,强调人物性格情感的刻 画。从希腊传来的丰富的知识和高度的 写实蹊跷,有利于罗马人制造崇高,典 雅, 完美的人物形象。

TPO 18 LECTURE 3

主题: 欧洲历史 European History
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Aromatic 芳香的 ? To explain the significance of spices for medieval society. Cinnamon 肉桂 2. 哪两个原因解释了为什么中世纪欧洲 Boil it down to 浓缩成 人不用香料(spices)覆盖腐败的肉 Diplomacy 外交 (spoiled meat)的味道? ? Fresh meat was less expensive than Aristocracy 贵族; 上层社会 spices were. ? The sale of spoiled food was prohibitCollapse 倒塌;瓦解 ed. 3. 为什么中世纪欧洲人不用香料去掩盖 Medieval 中世纪的 臭肉(spoiled meat)的味道? 背景知识: Fresh meat was less expensive than spicSpice es were; the sale of spoiled food was pro英语中“Spice” 常用来指代贵重但量小 hibited. 的物品。 历史上西方人对待香料极度痴 4. 为什么教授提到罗马王国的瓦解? 狂——在最匮乏的时代,香料甚至一度与 ? To explain why the origins of spices 黄金等价,而1453年奥斯曼土耳其完全 became more mysterious 灭亡拜占庭帝国,垄断了传统东方贸易 5. 教授如何看待发现时期(the age of 后,对香料的渴望被认为是西方地理大 discovery)的欧洲探险家? 发现的一大动力。 ? They were responding to the demand for spices 6. 关于中世纪欧洲香料的说法哪三个是 正确的. ? They had to be imported ? They were unaffordable for many people. ? They were believed to have medicinal properties.
Glossary

TPO 18 LECTURE 4

主题: 生物学 Biology
Glossary territory 领土,领域 glucose 葡萄糖 antifreeze 防冻剂 circulatory system 循环系统 thawing 自然科学】解冻;融化
背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) To introduce students to an unusual phenomenon affecting North American wood frogs 2. 为什么教授在一开始提到春季的来 临? To encourage students to look for thawing wood frogs 3. 当树蛙开始结冻时会发生什么? Water moves out of its internal organs 4. 教授在解说树蛙解冻过程的时候提 到哪两点? The thawing process is not fully understood; the frog’s internal organs thaw before its outer skin thaws 5. Freezing 对于一些已经解冻的树蛙 来说有什么影响? It reduces their ability to recognize potential mates 6. 何出此言?[Well, you tell me.] She wants the student to draw his own conclusions

北美树蛙North American wood frog 无尾目树蛙科的1属,体多细长而 扁,后肢长,吸盘大,指、趾间有 发达的蹼。末端两指(趾)骨节间 有介间软骨(科征),与树栖生活 相适应。种很多,分布于亚洲东部 和东南部亚热带和热带湿润地区.

TPO 19 LECTURE 1

主题:原始印欧语系 Proto-Indo-European
Glossary
Syntax 句法; 句子(或短语)的结构形式 Phonology 音位学;音韵学 Semantics 语义学 Sanskrit 梵文 Linguistics 语言学 Genetical 遗传的;起源的 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A way to represent languages that are genetically related. 2. 为什么说有些语言have similarspending words? ? There is more than one possible explanation for similarities among languages.

3. 什么被教授誉为是语言学上的重要发 原始印欧语系 Proto-Indo-European 现? 针对亚欧各种不同的语言,18世纪威廉· ? Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin had the 琼斯爵士首先提岀“原始印欧语”的存 same parent language 在。他发现当时欧洲人已知最古老的语
言其中四种拉丁语、希腊语、梵语和波 斯语之间有相似之处。后来19世纪初德 国的弗朗兹·葆朴对此理论进行了系统的 论证。19世纪时,学者通常将这系语言 称为“印度-日耳曼语系”,有时候也叫 “雅利安语系”。但后来人们逐渐发现 欧洲大多数语言与此都有关联,名称也

4. 树形结构(tree model)显示了什 么? ? That several languages share a common ancestor 5. 为什么提到一种语言中的变化 (variation within a language)? ? To point out information that the tree model does not show 6. 何出此言?[But it seems to me, it probably wasn’t quite like that.] ? She does not think that languages change quickly

TPO 19 LECTURE 2 主题:
Glossary
Optical光学的 Milky Way银河;银河系 Galaxy银河;[天] 星系 Electromagnetic radiation [物] 电磁辐射 Molecules [化学] 分子,微粒 Bouncing off 弹开,反弹 Emit发出,放射 Panicle 圆锥花序 背景知识:

天文学

Astronomy
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Difficulties astronomers have in observing the universe. 2. 教授对城市光化学污染 (light pollution) 的态度? ? He believes it is unfortunate . 3. 为什么无线电波 (radio waves) 对天 文观测 (astronomical observation) 特 别有用? ? Some astronomical bodies emit radio waves but not visible light; radio canes can pass through panicles in space. 4. 光学天文学比起射电天文学有什么优 势? ? It requires less sophisticated equipment. 5. 为什么射电天文学家有时难以研究一 个非常遥远的物体? ? Signals from closer objects interfere with radio waves from space; radio waves from space are rest very strong. 6. 何出此言?[Yeah, it is neat how they do it, but for now why don’t we just stick with what we can learn from it.] ? He does not want to spend time discussing the technology of radio telescopes .

Radio Astronomy & Optical Astronomy
射电天文学:通过观测天体的无线电波来 研究天文现象的一门学科。光学天文学: 利用光学望远镜、光度测量仪器、分光 仪器和偏振光测量仪器来观测和研究天

TPO 19 LECTURE 3 主题: 盐沼里的植物 Plant Life in Salt
Glossary
Marsh 沼泽;湿地 Rhizome根茎;[植] 地下茎 Spartina 米草; 米草属 Withstand 抵挡;禁得起 Dehydrate 脱水 Reverse osmosis反渗透,逆向渗透 Mechanism 机械;机械装置 Interlocking 连锁的 背景知识: 米草属 Spartina 米草属又称为草绳属,属于禾本科虎尾 草族。该属种类不多,大米草的地理分 布仅限于欧、澳、美、亚四洲的温带地 区,热带地区虽曾引种,但未成功。欧 洲分布幅从最北的苏格兰到西班牙。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Ways that some plants have adapted to living in salt marshes. 2. 米草的逆向渗透 (Reverse osmosis) 导致的其中一种结果? Salt from seawater strengthens the plants’ cells. 3. 为什么提到米草根部的红泥 (reddish mud)? To provide evidence that oxygen is present in the spartina s roots. 4. 为什么地下茎 (rhizomes) 对米草很 重要? They reduce the possibility of plants being uprooted during storms. 5. 为什么提到米草如何在狂风暴雨生存 的过程? It is the same process that helps them survive being immersed in saltwater. 6. 何出此言? [What’re reflecting the light is not salt from seawater that has evaporated.] To point out an incorrect conclusion.

TPO 19 LECTURE 4

主题: 塞西莉亚 Cecilia Beaux
Glossary
Make headway 取得进展 Contemplative 沉思的;冥想的 Impressionist 印象派画家 Philosophy 哲学;哲理;人生观 Vague 模糊的;含糊的 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To demonstrate how Cecilia Beaux’s point of view is reflected in her art. 2. 教授引用了什么证据去证明Cecilia Beaux作为艺术家的reputation? ? Her role in professional art organizations; her connection with an important politician’s family. 3. Speakers怎么看待The Dreamer 这幅 画中对比色 (contrasting color) 的运用? ? The technique was used by an artist that she respected. 4. Speakers 如何评价The Dreamer 的背 景? ? Its lack of clarity emphasizes the theme of the painting. 5. 教授对肖像画 (portraiture) 的态度? ? A good portrait portrays more than a physical image. 6. 为什么教授提到法国形象派画家 (French Impressionist)? ? To point out one of the influences on Cecilia Beaux’s work.

Cecilia Beaux
塞西莉亚·博克斯(Cecilia Beaux,18551942年),美国肖像画家。通过运用温暖 的浅色调和熟练的笔触,她在作品中暗示 了形式和自觉性,如《白衣女孩:厄涅丝 塔》与《人与猫》。她出生于费城,先后 求学于费城和巴黎。1895年,她成为宾夕 法尼亚美术学院的第一个女教员。

TPO 20 LECTURE 1

主题: 语言学 Gricean Maxims
Glossary
Ambiguity 含糊;不明确 Maxim 格言;准则 Sarcasm 讽刺;挖苦 Irony 讽刺;反语 Deceive 欺骗;行骗 Inferences 推断; 推论 背景知识:

H.P.Grice
美国著名语言哲学家格赖斯于1967年在哈 佛大学的演讲中提出了“合作原则”,斯 认为,在人们交际过程中,对话双方似乎 在有意无意地遵循着某一原则,以求有效 地配合从而完成交际任务,其中包括:量 的准则(QuantityMaxim),质的准则 (QualityMaxim),关系准则(Relevant Maxim). 和方式准则(MannerMaxim)。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The role of certain rules in determining what a speaker means. 2. 什么帮助speakers keep the conversation 使对话不会太慢? ? The ability to make inferences according to the Gricean Maxims . 3. 为什么提到一封推荐信(a letter of recommendation)? ? To show how violating a Maxim may contribute to a statement’s meaning. 4. 提到advertiser, 教授暗示了什么? ? They realize that consumers make false inferences from advertisements. 5. 教授举这个例子是为了说明哪种准则? (Maxim) [For instance, suppose you say you would really love to have a cup of coffee right now, and I say ‘there’s a shop around the corner.’] ? Revelance 6.以下哪三个反应了教授提到的Gricean Maxims? ? Avoid making claims that are false. ? Make comments as informative as necessary. ? Make comments related to previous statement.

TPO 20 LECTURE 2

主题: 环境科学 Environmental Science
Glossary
Glacial 【地质学】冰川期的,冰河时代的 Periodic 周期的;定期的 Methane gas 沼气 Agricultural revolution 农业革命 Beneficiary 受益人 Fortuitous 偶然的,意外的 Artificial wetlands 人工湿地 Industrialization 工业化 背景知识:

间冰期 Interglacial Periods
两个冰期之间气候比较温暖的时期。此时 高纬度地区的大冰盖面积缩小,中、低纬 度山岳冰川大规模后退,高山雪线大幅度 升高,冰缘作用衰退,全球自然地理带向

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A theory about a change in Earth’s climate cycle. 2. 教授在提到过去几百年的地球气候时 说了什么? ? Ice ages have alternated with warmer periods; Previous interglacial periods were shorter than the current interglacial period. 3. 什么因素导致现在的间冰期变长? ? An increase in the quantity of certain gases in Earth’s atmosphere 4. 农业时代早期的什么活动可能推迟或 者阻碍了本来应该发生的冰期的来临? ? The clearing of trees; the cultivation of certain grains 5. 教授对工业化(Industrialization)的态 度? ? He is unsure about its long-term effects on Earth’s climate. 6. 何出此言?[In fact, back in the 1970s, a lot of theorists were predicating that, you know, the climate would start to cool and we’d slowly enter into the new Ice Age. And then they were puzzled as to why it didn’t seem to be happening.] ? Theorists were unaware of some of the effects of human activities.

TPO 20 LECTURE 3

主题: 文学 Literature
Glossary
Make up 编造 Norwegian 挪威的 pass down 传下来 ; 流传 Supernatural 超自然的 Comical 滑稽的,好笑的 Romantics 浪漫主义者 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A description of the major types of Norwegian Folktales. 2. 教授认为民间传奇故事哪里吸引人 (appealing)? ? They are somewhat realistic. 3. 熊和狐狸的故事如何体现了挪威动物 故事的特点? ? It explains the origin of a physical characteristic of an animal. 4. 为什么教授提到一个叫做East of the Sun and West of the Moon的故事? ? To point out conventions found in most folktales; to give an example of a transformation story. 5. 挪威民间故事(Norwegian Folktales) 的特点? ? They usually behave the way that real Norwegian person behave. 6. 浪漫主义运动(Romantic movement) 传播到挪威带来的影响? ? Folktales began to be regarded as an important aspect of Norwegian culture.

挪威民间故事 Norwegian Folktales
我们最古老的文艺创作形式之一, 在以前 并不为受过教育的人所特别看重,被认为 民间故事只适用于“在哺乳室里哄小孩 用”,没有任何价值。这种观点随着德国 浪漫主义运动的出现才有所改变。

TPO 20 LECTURE 4

主题: 生物学 Biology
Glossary
Maine 缅因州(美国州名) Predators 食肉动物; 捕食者 Camouflage 伪装,掩饰 Trigger 引发,引起;触发

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Characteristics that snowshoe hares have developed in response to their environment.

2. 什么导致雪靴兔的毛开始变白? ? A decrease in the hours that the Sun Adaptation (动植物在构造、机能或外形 is up each day.
方面对环境的)适应 Shed 脱落 背景知识: 雪靴兔 Snowshoe Hare 又称白靴兔,因此种类兔子的腿部或及 其胸口都为白色,与其余身体部分的毛 色不同,就像穿着白靴一样,所以普遍 被称为白靴兔。分布于加拿大(艾伯 塔,不列颠哥伦比亚省,拉布拉多,马 尼托巴省,新不伦瑞克省,纽芬兰省, 西北地区,新斯科舍省,安大略省,爱 德华王子岛,魁北克省,萨斯喀彻温省

3. 为什么an early snowfall 对雪靴兔来 说是特别危险的时期? ? Its chances of being seen by a predator are much higher. 4. 雪靴兔的脚比起其他动物的脚有什么 优势? ? It can outrun its predators in deep snow. 5. 常年available的食物供应对雪靴兔有 什么影响? ? Remain lightweight through the winter. 6. 何出此言?[Yeah, but I could wear I remembered seeing rabbits in the snow a couple of times, I means hares, that were brown.] ? The professor’s explanation contradicts his own experience.

TPO 21 LECTURE 1 主题: 天文学 Astronomy
Glossary
Geocentric【天】以地球为中心的 Heliocentric [天] 以太阳为中心的 Intuitive 直觉的;凭直觉获知的 Revolve 旋转;循环出现 Orbit 盘旋;绕轨道运行 Epicycle 本轮的;[数] 周转圆的 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) To give an example of the persistence of traditional theories 2. 为什么古希腊人坚持地心说(the geocentric view of the universe)? The Sun appeared to them to revolve around Earth; Their religious and philosophical beliefs supported this view. 3. 为什么提到古希腊天文学家尝试着在 在地心说基础上解释新的天文学发现? To illustrate that the geocentric concept itself was not considered questionable 4. 为什么讨论the epicycle theory? To show how early astronomers explained the apparent backward motion of some planets 5. 什么有可能导致Aristarchus提出太阳中 心说(the heliocentric theory)? The discovery that Earth was much smaller than the Sun 6. 古希腊人用哪两个理由拒绝日心说? A moving Earth would create a strong wind; Objects fall toward the center of the universe

Geocentric Theory
地心说最初由古希腊学者欧多克斯提 出。亚里士多德的地心说认为,宇宙是 一个有限的球体,分为天地两层,地球 位于宇宙中心,所以日月围绕地球运 行,物体总是落向地面。在16世纪“日 心说”创立之前的1300年中,“地心 说”一直占统治地位。 它认为上帝推动 了恒星天层,才带动了所有天层的运 动。人类居住的地球,则静静地屹立在 宇宙中心。

TPO 21 LECTURE 2

主题: 计算机科学 Computer Science
Glossary
Bug [计] 程序错误 Blind to 无视于…;对…熟视无睹 Friction [力] 摩擦力 Defect 缺点,缺陷 Inferior 差的;自卑的;下级的 Proactive 主动的;事前付诸行动的 At fault 有毛病,有故障 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) To show that creating good software depends on people with distinct roles working well together 2. 用于形容计算机问题的“bug”一词从何 而来? It is based on an incident in which an insect interfered with the function of any early computer.

3. 教授在提到软件开发者时说了什么? The work they do is mainly creative; They 第一代的计算机是由许多庞大且昂贵的真 are not always able to detect software prob空管组成,并利用大量的电力来使真空管 lems.
Bug
发光。可能正是由于计算机运行产生的光 和热,引得一只小虫子(Bug)钻进了一

4. 什么因素made work on Project Unity ef支真空管内,导致整个计算机无法正常工 ficient? 作。后来,Bug这个名词就沿用下来,用 The software developers were not defen来表示电脑系统或程序中隐藏的错误、缺 sive about problems detected by the testers.
陷、漏洞等问题。

5. 在Project Split阶段的软件与Project Unity时期的软件有何不同? The Project Split product was of inferior quality. 6. 何出此言? To emphasize the fact that to the teams were in conflict with on another

TPO 21 LECTURE 3

主题: 生物学 Biology
Glossary
Lizard [脊椎] 蜥蜴 Venomous 有毒的 Venom 毒液 Cobra [脊椎] 眼镜蛇 Resemble 类似,像 Reptile 爬行动物 Ancestry 祖先;血统 Apparatus 器官;设备;仪器 Colubrid 无毒蛇的;游蛇的 背景知识:
Venomous snake 毒蛇
毒蛇是指能分泌特殊的毒液的蛇类,毒蛇的唾 液通常从尖牙射出,用来麻痹敌人。人们一般 认为毒蛇有毒,然而毒蛇的毒液只能在血液中 才能起到相应作用,而饮用毒液则不会对人体 造成伤害。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Insights about snake evolution provided by venom analysis 2. 为什么教授要重新提起学生在上节课 可能已经学过的蛇的分类? To present assumptions that have recently been challenged 3. 这种基于动物物理特征得到的分类系 统有什么主要的缺陷? It cannot determine whether similar characteristics developed in similar ways 4. 黄颌蛇 (colubrid snakes)与其他有毒的 蛇(venomous snakes)有什么区别? Colubrids do not use venom to catch their prey. 5. 为什么提到棕树蛇(brown tree snake)? To support a hypothesis about the evolution of constrictor snakes 6. 教授对蛇毒蛋白的医学研究结果保持 什么态度? She thinks it is too early to tell how successful the research will be.

TPO 21 LECTURE 4

主题: 艺术史 Art History
Glossary
Solo exhibition 个人作品展 Prestigious 有威信的;有声望的 Expressionism 表现主义 Distortion 扭曲;变形 Portraiture 肖像画法;人像摄影法 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章主要谈了Alice Neel作品的哪个 方面?(main purpose ) The style she used to portray her subjects 2. 教授在提到20世纪摄影作品和肖像 画的时候说了什么? Photography largely replaced the tradition of portrait painting. 3. 尼尔作品的哪两个方面体现了表现 主义的特点? The shape of the subjects' bodies; The use of color in the paintings 4. 为什么尼尔画肖像画(portraits)? She felts that it was the best way to represent a time period 5. 为什么教授要讨论在尼尔肖像画中 的不同的人? To emphasize a distinctive feature of Neel's body of work 6. 何处此言? To reinforce the fact that Neel's work was not appreciated

Alice Neel
20世纪美国画家,以其为知名艺术家和作 家所绘肖像作品而出品,其中包括 Frank O’Hara, Meyer Shapiro, 其绘画以生动的 色彩和笔触展示了敏锐细腻的心理洞察。

TPO 22 LECTURE 3

主题: 动物学 Zoology
Glossary
mass extinction [生态] 大量消亡 bio-diversity 生物多样性 fragmentation 破碎;分裂 megafauna 巨型动物 Pleistocene Epoch 更新世 cheetah [脊椎] 猎豹 pronghorn antelope 叉角羚 disperse 分散;使散开 mastodon [古生] 乳齿象 descended from 由…传下来的;起源于 背景知识:

Pleistocene Epoch
地质时代第四纪的早期。这一时期绝大多 数动、植物属种与2012的物种相似。显著 特征为气候变冷、有冰期与间冰期的明显 交替。在此期间,哺乳动物大量迁徙或灭 绝,人类也在这一时期出现。

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A proposal to re-create features of ecosystems of the Pleistocene epoch. 2. Pleistocene rewilding的主要两个目标 是什么? ? To restore some evolutionary processes; ? To help prevent the extinction of certain species of mega fauna 3. 在冰河时期,美洲豹(American cheetah)如何影响叉角羚 (pronghorn antelope)? ? The cheetah was a factor in the development of the antelope's speed. 4.教授提到maclura tree时所说的观点? ? The feeding habits of large animals could help revive some diminishing plant species. 5. 为什么提到植物和小动物在冰河世纪 后一直在进化? ? To identify a potential problem with the Pleistocene rewilding concept. 6. 何出此言? [But you know, it probably would just be the same thing.] ? Pleistocene rewilding is another form of human interference.

TPO 22 LECTURE 1

主题: 人类学 Anthropology
Glossary
Tribe 部落 Chiefdoms 首领的权威;首领的地位 Centralized 集中的;中央集权的 Spectrum 光谱;频谱 Domesticate 驯化 Nomadic 游牧的 Hierarchy 层级;等级制度 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Possible reasons for the formation of early states 2. Band的两大特点是什么? It is the smallest type of group; It is able to meet its own basic needs. 3. 什么是states的典型特征 (characteristic feature of states)? States manage food production for the entire population. 4. 什么原因导致史前社会问题 (prehistoric social problems)? Competition for resources 5. 为什么教授提到上,中,下阶级 (upper, middle, and lower classes)? To further describe the organization of states 6. 教授对于the environmental approach 的态度?
Some evidence supports it, but other evidence contradicts it

Anthropology
人类学顾名思义就是研究人类的本质的 学科。从生物和文化的角度对人类进行 全面研究的学科群,最早见于古希腊哲 学家亚里士多德对具有高尚道德品质及 行为的人的描述中。在19世纪以前,人 类学这个词的用法相当于我们今天所说 的体质人类学,尤其是指对人体解剖学 和生理学的研究。

TPO 22 LECTURE 2

主题: 天文学 Astronomy
Glossary
Paradox 悖论,反论 Algae [植] 藻类;[植] 海藻 Helium [化学] 氦 Atmospheric 大气的,大气层的 Ammonia [无化] 氨,阿摩尼亚 Contradiction n. 矛盾;否认;反驳 背景知识:

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) To discuss attempts to solve a puzzle related to the Sun 2. 为什么用来证明40亿年前地球和火星上 有液态水的地质学证据有问题? It challenges the prevailing model of star formation. 3. 为什么greenhouse-gas solution无法解释 地球和火星上the early presence of liquid water? Insufficient carbon dioxide in atmospheres;Solar radiation would have destroyed the ammonia 4. 为什么提到太阳风(solar wind)? To explain a way the Sun is losing mass 5. 天文学家在计算能够使液态水存在的太 阳质量时需要考虑什么? The young Sun was closer to the planets than it currently is 6. 教授对于the bright-young-Sun solution 的态度? He is confident that future research will determine whether it is true.

Solar Mass
天文学是研究宇宙空间天体、宇宙的结构 和发展的学科。主要通过观测天体发射到 地球的辐射,发现并测量它们的位置、探 索它们的运动规律、研究它们的物理性 质、化学组成、内部结构、能量来源及其 演化规律。 天文学上,太阳质量是用于 测量恒星或如星系类大型天体的质量单 位。它的大小等于太阳的总质量,大约 1.989×10^30 千克。

TPO 22 LECTURE 4

主题: 音乐历史 Music History
Glossary

滑稽短剧

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Orchestra 管弦乐队 The changing opportunities for musicians Cabarets 餐馆(或咖啡馆)中助兴的歌舞、 in the early twentieth century
correspond to 相当于…,符合于… Compilation 编辑 silent-film era 无声电影时代 Organ 风琴

2. 为什么提到无声电影时代末期音乐家 少了20,000个工作机会? To illustrate the huge demand for musicians during the silent-film era 3. 教授对这一观点的态度: 音乐是用来遮 掩 the film projector所发出的噪音? He doubts that it can fully explain why music was played. 4. 用于早期无声电影(early silent films)的 音乐有何不平常之处? It did not relate to the action on the screen. 5. 教授在提到无声电影中风琴(organ)的 运用时暗示了什么? It led to a loss of employment for many musicians. 6. 为什么音乐家很难在one of the film studios 里找到工作? More musicians looking for jobs; Musicians had to be very talented to meet the demands of the film studios.

背景知识:

silent-film era
在默片时代,音乐是很重要的。默片电影 中,电影音乐反映人物的内心世界,影片通 过音乐表达喜怒哀乐的各种复杂感情, 推动电影剧情的发展。电影具备多种节奏 功能,比如主观节奏、客观节奏、导演心 理节奏和观众心理节奏等等。只有音乐这 种形式和电影在节奏上是非常统一的,其 它艺术形式就略差一些。

TPO 23 LECTURE 1 主题: 考古学 Archaeology
Glossary
archaeological 考古学的 mediterranean 地中海 inscription 题词;铭文;刻印 gear 齿轮;装置 eclipse 日蚀,月蚀 orbit 轨道 bronze 青铜 背景知识: 安提基特拉机械 Antikythera Mecha-

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? A research project in the combined fields of archaeology, physics, and mathematics. 2. How does the Antikythera Mechanism work? ? A system of gears rotated the images located on the case 3. 教授对于Antikythera Mechanism 有两千年历史这一说法的态度? ? She is confident that the dating is accurate. 4. 为什么在古希腊发现青铜制品 (bronze artifact)是不寻常的? ? Bronze objects were often recycled. 5. 考古学家(archaeologists)是怎么能 够判断Antikythera Mechanism 是如 何运行的? ? By using gamma rays to see inside of the mechanism. 6. 何出此言?[but one thing that is particularly notable is that the mechanism was so precise that it even took into account a particular irregularity in the moon’s orbit.] ? They were more scientifically advanced than is commonly thought.

nism
世界上最古老的“计算机”, 是由青铜齿 轮和海洋淤泥构成的一堆东西的名称, 是1900年从希腊岛屿Antikythera海岸附 近一艘沉船中发掘出来的,距今已有 2000年。对该机制的新解释揭示了它何 以能够预测日食和月食,同时也揭示了 它可能是在Corinth的一个殖民地、甚至 可能是在Syracuse(阿基米德的家乡) 制造的。 它还有一个记录古代奥 运会 时间的刻度盘。

TPO 23 LECTURE 2 主题: 地球辐射收支 Earth's Radiation
Glossary
Albedo (行星等的)反射率 Predominates 占主导(或支配)地位 Microorganism 微生物 Sulfide 硫化物 Transparent 透明的;显然的 Radiation 辐射;发光;放射物

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Recent research findings about the causes of global warming 2. 什么是地球辐射收支(Earth’s radiation budget)? The balance between incoming solar energy and reflected solar energy 3. 为什么提到反射率(Albedo)? To point out that different surfaces have different reflective properties 4.从不同类型的云对地球气候不同的影 响可以推断出什么? The cooling effect of low, thick clouds is stronger overall than the heating effect of high, thin clouds 5. 教授在提到南极洲海洋附近的 microscopic plants时说了什么? They produce a chemical that leads to cloud formation 6. 何出此言? To revise his previous response to a student's question

背景知识:

Albedo
它表示的是被天体表面反射到空间的太 阳能的份额。暗黑物体比白色物体反照 率低。行星和卫星的反照率定量地表明 覆盖在它们表面上物质的特性。

TPO 23 LECTURE 3

主题: 海豚 Dolphins
Glossary
vocalization 发声,发音 echolocation 回波定位;回声测距 nasal 鼻的;鼻音的 sac [生物] 囊;液囊 cavity 腔;洞,凹处 acoustical [声] 声学的;听觉的 velocity [力] 速率 bursa [昆] 囊;黏液囊 vibration 振动 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Parts of the dolphin’s anatomy that allow it to navigate 2. 为什么讨论声音传播的速度? ? To explain how sound waves behave when crossing from one medium into another 3. 什么是海豚的melon? ? An organ made of fat tissue that helps a dolphin send sound waves 4. 海豚的颌(jaw)能够干什么? ? Receive sound waves that have reflected off objects 5. 在授课中教授如何组织授课内容? ? By describing a phenomenon and the physical structures that make it possible 6. 何出此言?[One being the vocalizations you are probably all familiar with.] ? To mention a related topic that will not be discussed in detail.

回波定位 Echolocation
某些种类的海豚利用回声定位来发现猎 物:他们发出滴答的声音,然后接收水 域中远处物体反射的回声。作为一种发 现猎物的信号,海豚发出的滴答声,是 它的猎物所不能感知的,只能海豚能够 感知。

TPO 23 LECTURE 4

主题: 荧幕舞蹈 Screen Dance
Glossary
Choreography 编舞;舞蹈艺术 Reluctant 不情愿的;勉强的 Manipulate 操作;巧妙地处理 Abandoned
被抛弃的

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) To discuss some films the class will be viewing 2. 为什么教授说面部表情在现场表演中 不那么重要? To suggest a reason why dancers might want to participate in a screen dance

Thrive on 以……成长 Immediacy 直接;目前 背景知识:

3. 教授如何让学生对他们的作业感到更 Screen Dance 有信心?(选2个答案) 一种新的舞蹈类型., 不同于传统的现场表 Students will be able to practice editing 演的方式,它将舞蹈呈现于荧幕之上, films; Technical assistance is available if 使得观众能够更加方便的观看舞蹈,不 they need it
受时间和地点等因素的限制。

4. 为什么提到舞蹈中进入和退出的形式 (a dancer entering and exiting a frame)? To explain one way of creating a sense of flow in a screen dance 5. Screen Dance 比现场表演好在哪里? A more convenient way to watch dance 6. 教授对screen dance未来可能带来的影 响的态度? It will probably build new audiences for live dance

TPO 24 LECTURE 1

主题:
Glossary

生物学 Biology
内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose )
?

reptile 爬行动物 swamp 沼泽 alligator 短吻鳄 grunt 咕哝 muffled 沉闷的

crocodile 鳄鱼 vocalization 发声 chorus 合唱 hiss 嘶嘶声 squeak 短促尖叫

Some reasons for crocodile vocalizations.

2. 根据教授 雄性鳄鱼(male alligator) 发生的两大功能是什么?
? ?

hatchling 刚孵化的幼体 clamor 喧闹

To attract mates. To threaten other males.

背景知识 [鳄鱼] crocodile
是迄今发现活着的最早和最原始的动物之 一,它是在三叠纪至白垩纪的中生代 ( 约两亿年前)由两栖类进化而来,延 续至今仍是半水生且性情凶猛的爬行动 物,它和恐龙是同时代的动物,恐龙的灭 绝不管是环境的影响,还是自身的原因, 都已是化石;鳄鱼的存在证明它更加强盛 的生命力。

3. 在巢里(nest)刚孵化的鳄鱼宝宝 (hatchings)对着妈妈发出声音(make vocalizations)的原因是什么?
?

To make sure she does not forget them.

4. 教授对她提到的电视节目有什么看 法?
?

She is concerned about the accuracy of some of the information the experts provided. To emphasize that crocodiles have highly developed brains.

5. 为什么教授要提到狗?
?

6. 当鳄鱼宝宝发出distress call的时候 会发生什么。
?

Its siblings answer back.

TPO 24 LECTURE 2

主题:
Glossary
Formalized 正式的

考古学 Archeology
内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) theatrical dance 剧场舞蹈 Skit 滑稽短剧 ? Differences between apical ballet and modern dance Analogy比喻 Ballerina芭蕾舞女演员 ? A pioneer of a new type of performing art
Predecessor前辈 Toeshoe 芭蕾舞鞋 Intangible无形的 Pantomime哑剧 Recital演奏会 Denounce谴责 Excruciating折磨人的 Improvisational即兴的 Undue rivalry不当竞争

Acrobatics 杂技

2. 为什么教授提到了现代艺术和现代音乐 ? To explain that modern dance also broke with traditions 3. Isadora Duncan 的舞蹈表演有哪两个特 点? ? She wore free-flowing constumes ? She danced without shoes

背景知识: 芭蕾舞

舞蹈,通称芭蕾舞。这是在欧洲各地民间舞 蹈的基础上,经过几个世纪不断加工、丰 富、发展而形成的,具有严格规范和结构形 式的欧洲传统舞蹈艺术。

4. 为什么教授提到了Duncan观看了Anna 芭蕾舞是用音乐﹑舞蹈和哑剧手法来表 Pavlova的练习? 演戏剧情节。女演员舞蹈时常用脚趾尖点 ? To help explain how Duncan’s opinion of 地。意指:一种舞台舞蹈形式,即欧洲古典 ballet was formed 5. 什么作者暗示了传统芭蕾(classical ballet)和现代舞(modern dance)之间的对 立(rivalry) ? It is not strong now as it was in Duncan’s time. 6. 何出此言?[And ballet was extremely important in Russia] ? To help explain why Duncan’s style was not appreciated by some dance critics

TPO 24 LECTURE 3

主题: Archeology 考古学
Glossary
Archaeology

内容精要:
考古
Megafauna巨型动物

Mammoth长毛象Clovis People克洛维斯人 Mastodon乳齿象 Tusk长牙 Camel骆驼 Sloth Accumulation

积累

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Explanations for the disappearance of large animals in North America 2. 为什么教授提到了在南加州(Southern California)的一个考古点(archaeological site)? ? To present evidence that supports the hunting theory 3. 教授对Clovis 人有什么观点? ? They were less accomplished at hunting mammoths than the hunting theory suggests 4.根据气候变化理论, 在冰河时代(ice age)末尾时的气候变化为什么使得大型动物 难以生存? ? By forcing them to endure a wider range of temperatures ? By reducing the variety of food available to them 5. 教授暗示气候变化理论的一个什么问题? ? Large animals had survived previous climate changes 6. 教授提到了一系列电脑模拟(computer simulations),这些模拟说明了什么? ? The killing of only a few mammoths could lead to a significant reduction in the mammoth population. ? Both hunting and climate change contributed to the extinction of the mammoths

Debris瓦砾 Tundra苔原 Reproduction 繁殖

懒惰

Substitute替代

背景知识: mammoth 长毛象
长毛象是在冲积世中期,大约37万年出现, 但在1万年前就绝种的动物。全身长着褐色 的长毛,且有着大而弯曲的牙齿。它的长毛 和肥厚的皮下脂肪能保护身体,御防酷寒, 而长大的牙能帮它挖起被冰雪所覆盖的草。 长毛象的化石在欧洲、西伯利亚、北美和北 海道发现。从西伯利亚的永久的冻土层中发 掘出骨、皮、肉、毛、完全保存着冷冻前形 状的化石。像这样冷冻的长毛象,被发现有 2.5万头之多还原封不动的保存下来。

TPO 24 LECTURE 4

主题 :天文学 Astronomy
Glossary
Venus金星 Soviet 苏联 Canyon峡谷

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? Conclusions about the surface of Venus drawn from recent observation 2.科学家们是怎么得到金星表面(Venus’s surface)的新信息的? ? Satellites were used to get radar images of Venus’ surface. ? Space modules sent photographs after landing on Venus.

Crater 火山口 Lava 熔岩 dome圆顶 Magma岩浆 Molten熔融 stratovolcano成层火山

Tectonic plate地壳构造板块 Lubricate润滑 Fluctuation波动 Spell out清楚地说明 Sulfur dioxide二氧化硫 Shield volcano盾状火山

3. 教授提到了金星上的火山和地球上的火 山有什么不同之处? ? Volcanoes on Venus are mostly shield volcanoes 背景知识: 金星上可谓火山密布,是太阳系中拥有火山 ? Many volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in specific zones. 数量最多的行星。业已发现的大型火山和火
山特征有1600多处。此外,还有无数的小火 山,没有人计算过它们的数量,估计总数超 过10万,甚至100万。 金星没有板块构造, 没有线性的火山链,没有明显的板块消亡地 带。

4. 为什么教授提到金星表面没有水? ? To suggest an explanation for why Venus does not have moving tectonic plates 5. 进行表面的云层是哪里来的(origin) ? Gases released as a result of volcanic activity. 6. 教授对金星上的活(active)火山的理论是 怎么看的? ? At least two kinds of evidence support the theory.

TPO 25 LE LECTURE CTURE 1

主题: 谈话生物学 Conversation Biology
Glossary
Unprecedented 史无前例的,空前的 Take one’s course 听其自然,按某人意愿做 Invasive 扩散的,侵略性的 Proliferate 增值,扩散,激增 Fungus 真菌,霉菌,菌类 Invertebrate 无脊椎的;无脊椎动物(n) 背景知识:

内容精要:

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To discuss a controversial approach to conserving plant and animal species 2. Assisted Migration 要解决什么问题? ? To diminishing amount of undeveloped land that species can migrate through 3. 教授用海蟾蜍的例子(cane toad)来说 明什么? ? Translocated species may spread too quickly in their new environment. 4. 当教授提到生物网(networking of species)的时候,她在暗示什么? ? There are aspects of interdependency that are unknown. [many species are interdependent, intimately connected to one another...it’s hard to know where to draw the line. ] 5. 教授为什么要提到政府在管理辅助迁 移方面的角色? ? The government needs to increase its involvement in the issue. 6. 教授对于拯救佛罗里达香榧(Florida Torreya)这一行动的态度? ? She is concerned because it may have unintended consequences.

辅助迁移 Assisted Migration
科学家认为,随着全球气候变化的影响,许 多物种已经濒临灭绝或失去自主迁移的能 力。因此,人类应该选择一系列物种,帮助 他们迁移到更适合生活的栖息地,以此来帮 助物种繁衍生息。但是什么物种应该被迁 移,怎么搬运生物网等问题仍存在争议。

TPO 25 LECTURE 2

主题: 音乐历史 Music history
Glossary nationalism 民族主义 ground-breaking 独创的;开拓性的 realism 现实主义 orchestras 管弦乐队 ethnomusicologist 人种音乐学家 glissando 滑奏;滑音

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The influence of folk music on the compositions of one Hungarian composer. 2. 为什么提到19世纪早期在AustriaHungary的浪漫主义音乐(romantic music)? ? It motivated Bart’k to listen to other types of music. 3. 为什么提到乡村当地的庆祝活动? ? To give an example of occasions when Bart’k had an opportunity to hear folk music. 4. Bart’k最初去东欧旅行的目的是什 么? ? To document the local popular music. 5. 为什么Bart’k 的音乐在AustriaHungary很流行? ? Bartok’s compositions incorporated music from the local culture. 6. 何出此言?[Gelli Sandor is, well, I’ve got a recording of Bartok here.] ? He will use an example of glissando to help define the term.

背景知识:
贝拉·巴托克 Bela Bartok 1881年3月25日生于匈牙利的纳吉圣米克洛 斯,是二十世纪最伟大的作曲家之一,是 匈牙利现代音乐的领袖人物。同时也是钢 琴家,民间音乐学家。他的很多创举剧烈 震动了整个20世纪艺术圈, 一些专家们甚 至坚信他的精华可以与贝多芬相提并论。

TPO 25 LECTURE 3

主题: 埃及象形文字 Egyptian
Glossary
Hieroglyph象形文字 Phonetic语音的,语音学的 Demotic通俗的; (古埃及)通俗文字 Pictograph [语] 象形文字 Remarkable卓越的;非凡的 Rosetta Stone 罗塞达石 背景知识:

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) The circumstances that led to the solution of an archaeological puzzle 2. 在古埃及,通俗体文字(demotic script)是用来干什么的? Administrative documents 3. 为什么学者难以翻译用古埃及象形 文字写成的文书? The same words were often represented by several different symbols 4. 教授对于Thomas Young所说的关于 象形文字的话持什么态度? She is surprised that Young did not recognize his own accomplishments 5. 什么导致了对罗塞达石(Rosetta Stone)的解码? A hieroglyph that represented the name of a person 6. Young and Champollion的研究与之 前对象形文字的研究有何不同? Young and Champollion both guessed that hieroglyphs were symbols for sounds

Jean-Fran?ois Champollion
商博良是一位法国埃及古物学家,是现代 埃及学之父。他在他短暂的职业生涯取得 了很多东西,但他是因他的罗塞塔石碑的 工作而闻名。这是他对石头奠定了埃及考 古学的基础所载的象形文字破译。“罗塞 达石”是在1799年在埃及的罗塞达发现的 碑石,碑文由古埃及的象形文字、古埃及 俗语和希腊文字写成,由此考古学家解读 了古埃及的象形文字。

TPO 25 LECTURE 4

主题: 动物行为 Animal Behavior
Glossary
Self-handicapping 自我妨碍; 自我设限 Submissive 顺从的;服从的 Flexibility 灵活性; 适应性 Persuasive 有说服力的 Bounce 弹跳 Wolf Pup 狼崽

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) Differing explanations of the reasons for play 2. 一个学生举出狼崽(wolf pup) 玩耍的例 子,这个例子使他相信什么? That the play-as-preparation hypothesis is probably correct

3. 教授对play-as-preparation hypothesis的 背景知识: 态度? Play-as-preparation hypothesis It does not explain some important aspects 这个假设认为动物幼年时期的玩耍实际上 of play
是在为成年做准备。动物幼崽可以在一个 很安全的环境内,学习并且预先演练那些 对他们以后有用的技巧。这个理论的支持 者认为玩耍能够帮助肌肉记住那些生存所 会涉及到的移动,比如说追逐和奔跑等。

4. 教授在提到自我设限(selfhandicapping) 时暗示了什么? It commonly occurs in play but not in other activities; it contradicts the play-aspreparation hypothesis 5. 从大脑发育和玩耍的关系,学生可以 总结出什么? Animals that do not play have lessdeveloped brains than animals that play 6. 何出此言? She disagrees with the other student’s opinion about play behavior

TPO 26 LECTURE 1

主题 :
Glossary
green marketing 绿色营销 imperiled 岌岌可危的 valid 有效的

广告 advertising
内容精要:

charm 魅力 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) tap into 挖掘
?

The development of a trend to market products as environmentally friendly.

endangered 岌岌可危的 valid 有效的 2. 教授是怎么组织授课的?(organize the

Earth Day 世界地球日 follow through on 落实

fluorescent light bulb 荧光灯泡

lecture) ? She gives some historical background, then she presents a case study. 3. 为什么第一次推广(Eco-light)会失 败? ? The ads did not mention the long-term cost savings that result from using the Eco-light. 4. 教授提到了“Extreme green”和“Lean green”的公司时,暗示了什么? ? A system is available to classify companies according to their environmental programs. 5. 教授对使用绿色广告(green advertising campaigns)的公司持什么态度? ? The companies should be fully committed to protecting the environment. 6. 何出此言?[But some green markets learned the hard way.] ? Some marketers had unpleasant experiences with green campaigns.

背景知识: 绿色营销 green marketing
以人为本的绿色广告,在重视消费和满足消 费者合理的物质需求的同时,更重视人的精 神需求和人的价值,反对用物化的价值、变 异的价值遮蔽和压抑人的价值,用物欲的膨 胀挤压人的精神空间,而是以人为主体和目 的,有利于人的全面发展。绿色广告所强调 的满足人的精神需要,是努力满足和引导人 们积极向上的精神需求,杜绝对消极有害的 精神需求的满足,更不能利用消费者在诸如 健康、名誉、金钱、美色、地位等方面的渴 望,发布虚假欺骗广告,误导消费。

TPO 26 LECTURE 2

主题:
Glossary
trace metal 微量金属 zinc 锌 conversion 转变 respiration 呼吸 enzyme 酶 scarce 稀缺 cadmium 镉 culprit 罪魁祸首

生物 biology
内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The role trace metals play in carbon cycling. 2. 教授暗示了在植物中二氧化碳分子的转 换的什么?(conversion of carbon dioxide molecules) ? It is regulated by an enzyme that may contain zinc. 3. 为什么一些海洋植物(marine plants) 能在海洋表面生存让人惊奇? ? Surface water contain low quantities of zinc. 4. 硅藻(diatom)有什么作用? ? They distribute carbon throughout the ocean. 5. 教授谈论隔(cadmium)对人类有毒 (poisonous)时候想说明什么? ? That cadmium and zinc can serve a similar function in plant enzymes. 6. 教授表示含有隔得酶(enzyme)的发现 很重要,有两个原因? ? It may lead to the discovery of new enzymes that use other trace metals. ? It may help scientists better understand global warming.

quantity 数量 assist in 协助 molecule 分子 carbonic acid 碳酸

photosynthesis 光合作用 diatom 硅藻 toxic 有毒的

背景知识: Trace Metals微量金属 存在动物和植物的细胞和组织中,数 量极少.它们是生命活动和营养的必 要组成部分.摄入,暴露于过量的微量 金属通常有害. 但是血浆或组织中缺 少微量元素也会造成疾病,比如缺少 铁.

TPO 26 LECTURE 3

主题: 天文 Astronomy
Glossary comet 彗星 Neptune 海王星 Jupiter 木星 vaporize 蒸发 gravitational重力的 背景知识: 彗星 Comet
中文俗称“扫把星”,是太阳系中小天体 之一类。由冰冻物质和尘埃组成。彗星是 冰冻物质和尘埃的凝结物,更像是一堆如 一座小城大小的脏冰。彗星和其他行星一 样绕太阳公转,但其路径更长更夸张。 [1]当它靠近太阳时即为可见。太阳的热 使彗星物质蒸发,在冰核周围形成朦胧的 彗发和一条稀薄物质流构成的彗尾。由于 太阳风的压力,彗尾总是指向背离太阳的 方向。

内容精要:
orbit 轨道 elongate

periodic 定期的 Halley’s comet哈雷彗星
拉长

nucleus 核心 precede 在…之前 Saturn 土星

parabolic-orbit 抛物线轨道 vicinity 附近

1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? The orbits of comets. 2. 当彗星接近太阳时,会发生什 么? ? Its nucleus loses some material. ? It moves faster. 3. 为什么教授强调了哈雷彗星 (Halley’s)在Jupiter轨道外的时间? ? To explain why the comet is not visible from Earth very often. 4. 教授暗示了哈雷彗星历史的什 么? ? Halley’s Comet did not always have the same orbit it has now. 5. 教授对”parabolic-orbit comets”的名字持何观点? ? It is probably not strictly accurate. 6. 彗星如何从“parabolic-orbit” 变到“periodic-orbit comet”. ? The gravitational influence of a planet.

TPO 26 LECTURE 4

主题:艺术保存 Art Conservation
Glossary restore 复原 artifact 手工艺品 palimpsest 重写本 treaty 条约 crumble 粉碎 bookworm 书虫 ultraviolet 紫外线 diagram 图标 背景知识: 阿基米德 Archimedes
(公元前287年—公元前212年),古希 腊哲学家、数学家、物理学家。出生于 西西里岛的叙拉古。阿基米德到过亚历 山大里亚,据说他住在亚历山大里亚时 期发明了阿基米德式螺旋抽水机。后来 阿基米德成为兼数学家与力学家的伟大 学者,并且享有“力学之父”的美称。 阿基米德流传于世的数学著作有10余 种,多为希腊文手稿。

preserve 保存 sphere 球体 manuscript 手稿 moldy 发霉的 parchment 羊皮纸 spinach 菠菜 commonplace 平凡的

内容精要: 1. 文章的主旨(main purpose ) ? To describe the restoration of a valuable ancient text. 2. 教授提到艺术保存(art conservation)领域提出了什么点? ? It often brings together experts from a variety of fields. ? It involves conserving not just art but also other objects of historical value. 3. 教授认为Archimedes Palimpsest最 珍贵的特点(attribute)是什么? ? It contains the only known copy of Archimedes’ Method. 4. 为什么文士要把阿基米德的手稿消 去? (manuscript’s pages) ? He needed blank parchment for his own writing project. 5. 为什么教授提到了在manuscript中 原来的墨(ink)中含有铁 ? ? To explain why x-rays were used to study the palimpsest. 6. 何出此言?[So, unfortunately, that’s quite a history.] ? To emphasize the difficulty of a restoration project.

TPO 27 LECTURE 1

主题: Marine Biology 海洋生物
Glossary:
marine 海生的,海洋的 coral reef 珊瑚礁 limestone 石灰岩 mitigate 减轻,缓和 paramount 最重要的,至高统治者 refugia (refugium) 避难所 resilience 恢复力,弹力 mangrove 红树林 vicinity 邻近,附近 fishery 渔业,渔场 urchin 海胆

内容精要:
1.文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To talk about several techniques being employed today that could prove useful in assuring the future of the reefs 2. 珊瑚白化(coral bleaching/whitening)是什 么? ? It is a symptom that the coral is suffering. Coral is very sensitive to water temperature. Even though one or two degree Celsius rise in sea surface temperature for a relatively short amount of time can cause bleaching 3. 珊瑚移植(coral transplantation)是什么? ? This involves moving young coral from a healthy reef onto a degraded reef, in an attempt to regenerate the degraded reef by encouraging young healthy coral to take over. 4.珊瑚移植的缺陷是什么? ? This method is costly. Even if it’s successful, it still fails to address the ongoing problem. 5. Refugia是什么? ? Refugia are areas on the reef that are seemingly, well resistant to bleaching. These are often the lower areas of the reef, those located in deeper water, where temperatures are lower. 6. 还提到了什么保护珊瑚礁的方法? ? we can also protect the reefs by protecting the surrounding ecosystems, like mangrove forests and seagrass beds. ? fishery’s management is another key strategy. Overfishing can be seriously disruptive to coral.

背景知识:
[珊瑚礁]coral reef 是指造礁石珊瑚群体死后 其遗骸构成的岩体。这个结构可以大到影响 其周围环境的物理和生态条件。在深海和浅 海中均有珊瑚礁存在,它们是成千上万的由 碳酸钙组成的珊瑚虫的骨骼在数百年至数千 年的生长过程中形成的。珊瑚礁为许多动植 物提供了生活环境,其中包括蠕虫、软体动 物、海绵、棘皮动物和甲壳动物,此外珊瑚 礁还是大洋带的鱼类的幼鱼生长地

TPO 27 LECTURE 2

主题: History of Musical Instruments 乐器史 海
Glossary:
acoustical 声学的,听觉的 eardrum 耳膜,鼓膜 vintage 古老的,最佳的 counterpart 副本,配对物 fingerboard (提琴等的)指板 fungus 真菌,霉菌,菌类

内容精要:
1.文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To explain why tone quality differs from instrument to instrument. 2. lecture中提到,世界上最好的小提琴出自哪 里? ? There’s a particularly interesting case with an extraordinary generation of violins made in Northern Italy, in the city of Cremona, back in the late 1600s - early 1700s. These vintage Cremonese violins are considered the best in the world. 3. 后人模仿Cremonese violin的哪些物理特征? ? Their dimensions, shape, their fingerboard height, general craftsmanship, the varnish used to coat and protect the violins 4. 为什么小提琴看起来一样,但是音色差别那么 大呢? ? There are something special about the wood the violins were made from 5. Cremonese violin所用的木材有什么特点? ? The density of the wood in the Cremonese violins is more uniform 6. 后人如何仿制Cremonese wood? ? Exposed the wood to a species of fungus, a mushroom. ? In the forest, fungi are decomposers. They break down dead wood. But this particular fungus nibbles away only at certain layers in the wood, leaving other layers alone. ? As a result, the density differential of the fungitreated wood approach that of the Cremonese wood.

背景知识:
[小提琴历史] 近代小提琴约在1550年就已 为人们所熟悉,系由当时流行的乐器雷贝克 和臂提利拉琴演变而来。通常所说小提琴前 身维奥尔,在构造、调弦、演奏技巧等方面, 对现代小提琴的形成都无决定性影响。人们 曾普遍认为意大利北部的米兰、威尼斯、布 雷西亚和克雷莫纳一带是小提琴的诞生地。 16世纪后期,意大利的小提琴制作业出现了 两个著名的小提琴制作流派,一派是以阿马 蒂父子为代表的克雷莫纳制琴派;另一派是以 萨洛的加斯帕罗(1540~1609)和他的学生 G.P.马吉尼为代表的布雷西亚制琴派。这两 派制作的 小提琴各 有特长, 经历了几 百年,至 今仍属上 等珍品。

TPO 27 LECTURE 3

主题: Zoology 动物学
Glossary: Mesozoic 中生代 mineralize 使矿物化 anatomy 解剖,解剖学 guesswork 猜测,臆测 skull 头盖骨,脑壳 reptile 爬行动物 ostrich 鸵鸟

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To discuss sauropod by comparing the fossil record to modern animals. 2. sauropod 堪称及其成功的恐龙种类,为什 么? ? There’s evidence of sauropods in the fossil record for an unusually long time, over one hundred million years 3. sauropod的生物劣势在哪些方面? ? Large animals like elephants, say, they require much more food and energy and have fewer offspring than smaller animals. 4.尽管有先天生物劣势,sauropod是怎么存活下 来的? ? They had enormous stomach capacity, the ability to digest food over a long period, converting it to energy at a slower pace, saving it for later. For animals with small stomachs, it takes lots of energy to constantly look for food and then digest it. With larger stomachs and slower digestion, you don’t need as much energy 5. Sauropod没有咬肌(chewing muscle),不能 咀嚼食物,那他们是怎么消化食物的呢? ? They swallow stones, stones that are used to help grind up the food before it’s actually digested in the stomach. These stones are called gastroliths. Gastroliths make food easier to digest, essentially smashing food up, just as we do when we chew

背景知识: Sauropd 蜥脚类动物
古爬行动物,蜥臀目恐龙的一亚目,体 躯庞大,是所有陆生脊椎动物种最具大 的。头很小,颈和尾部长,四肢粗壮, 以四足行走,以植物为食,主要生活于 沼泽地带,侏罗纪最盛,至白垩纪末灭 绝,著名的迷惑龙,梁龙,蜿龙,以及 我国的天山龙,马门溪龙,盘足龙皆属 此类。

马门溪龙

TPO 27 LECTURE 4

主题: Studio Art 工作室艺术
Glossary: primary color 原色 secondary color 次生色 violet 紫罗兰,紫色 prism 棱镜 spectrum 光谱,频谱 optics 光学 chromatics 色彩学 disclaimer 免责声明

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To introduce theories of colors 2. 文中提到了哪些主要颜色理论? ? The idea of primary colors, and specifically the idea of red, yellow, and blue being the primary colors. ? Issac Newton’s theory: He used a prism to break white light down into the various colors of the spectrum. And he theorized, rightly so, that different colors are essentially different wavelengths of light. 3. 歌德作为一个作家,为什么开始思考颜色的问 题呢? ? Goethe was part of the Romantic Movement in western literature. And he was a Romantic, through and through, meaning that he explained objects and phenomena in terms of the spiritual, emotional impact they had, as opposed to explaining them in terms of their scientific nature. 4. 歌德关于颜色的主要看法是? ? He believed that when we see color, it stimulates our emotions. And different colors appeal to or inspire different emotions in different people. 5. 歌德的实验最终得出了什么结果? ? his experiments actually did show a lot about the relationships between colors themselves, about how colors change when placed next to other colors, about how they interact with one another. But Goethe wasn’t really able to establish a clear connection between colors and emotions. 6. Runge 在给歌德的信中提到了什么? ? Runge outlined his own color theory, specifically the connections he made between colors and emotions. And his ideas about what colors symbolize, about the emotions that different colors inspire were based on the colors red, yellow and blue

背景知识:
歌德的《颜色论》
歌德不同意牛顿对白光通过三棱镜后产生颜色的 解释。他坚持认为,光是当黑-白边界原型出现时 才产生的,所以当歌德把一个白长方形色卡插在一 个较大的黑长方形色卡之中,当他从放在白长方 形边上的棱镜的下角观察时,他发现各种颜色以平 行的方式产生。在白长方形色卡的上面产生了红 和黄两种颜色,而在下面产生了兰色和紫色。在牛 顿折射理论所预测的产生绿色的地方,出现了一条 大带白色。当增加棱镜与色卡之间的距离后,情况 发生了变化.棱镜离色卡越远,兰带和黄带变得越 宽,中间的白带变得越短。当继续增加棱镜与色卡 之间的距离,直到卡上方的黄带与下方的兰带混 在一起时,在原来白色的地方产生出了绿色。这样 一来,牛顿的光谱就被歌德通过颜色游戏重新复制 出来,它只不过是歌德颜色游戏中的其中一种类 型。另外,牛顿主张不同的光具有不同的折射率。 绿光只以一个特定的角度折射,它是同质的。歌德 通过颜色卡游戏反驳了这种主张。他用实验表明, 绿色不是同质的,它是和黄的混合

TPO 28 LECTURE 1

主题: Philosophy 哲学
Glossary:
methodological 方法的,方法论的 mirage 海市蜃楼,幻想 Locke 洛克 (英国哲学家) Descartes 笛卡尔 (法国哲学家,数学家)

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To discuss foundationalism 2. Foundationalism 是什么? ? Foundationalism is the view that our knowledge claims, what we think we know, that is, they need to have a base. And think of knowledge as a house, you need a solid foundation on which to build your house. And if you have a strong foundation, your house is more likely to be solid. 3. Locke的观点是什么? ? Locke’s viewpoint essentially was that when humans are born, their minds are like blank slates, that is, we don’t have any kind of knowledge when we are born. We get our knowledge from our senses, you know, taste, touch, smell, sight, hearing. 4. Descartes 的观点是什么? ? He points out that at some time or another, everyone has been deceived by their senses. We have all had experiences where our senses have been wrong—illusions, perhaps, mirages. Since our senses can deceive us, we ought not take for granted that what they tell us is really true. That’s the first step in his methodological doubt. 5. Descartes 认为什么是一切知识的基础? ? He says, “I exist.” And that’s a start. And other knowledge he tells us can be based on that foundation.

背景知识:
基础主义 [foundationalism] 一种认识论观点,认为有些信念可以正当地直 接掌握(即在感性知觉或理性直觉的基础上), 而无需经由其他信念推论而来。在这样的观 点下,其他种类的信念(也就是关于物质对象 或科学理论实体的信念)并不被认为是基本或 基础的,而需要由其他信念推论而来。基础主 义者的典型特色,就是将自明的真理、感觉材 料与感官材料的呈现视为基本的,在这样的观 点下,这些东西就无需其他信念的支持。因此 这些信念为宏伟的知识体系提供了正确建构 的基础。 Descartes

TPO 28 LECTURE 2

主题: Animal Behavior 动物行为
Glossary:

内容精要:
chimpanzee 黑猩猩 primate 灵长类动物 orangutan 猩猩类动物 bottlenose dolphin 宽吻海豚 corvid 鸦科 noteworthy 值得注意的,显著的 2. 哪些动物有镜像自知能力(MSR)? ? Chimpanzees and other primates, chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and of course, humans. 3. 研究员如何知道动物是否有镜像认知能力? ? Researchers give them a mirror mark test. ? when animals first see themselves in the mirror, they think they are seeing another animal. Often they will look for this animal behind the mirror. ? But some animals, after this period of exploration, exhibit behaviors that show they know they are looking at themselves. For instance, elephants will touch the mark on their heads with their trunks. 4. 鸦类是否有镜像认知能力? ? YES. They passed the test! 5. 动物有镜像认知能力能说明什么问题? ? It is important because it sets animals with a sense of self apart from those without a sense of self. More importantly, many researchers believe that MSR is indicative of other advanced cognitive abilities. 6. 大脑的大小和智力是否有关? ? Corvids do have unusually large brains for birds. But size isn’t the whole story. It’s thought that primates are so intelligent because of a certain part of their brains, which birds simply don’t have. 1.文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To talk about a particular cognitive ability some animals seem to have—the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror.

背景知识:

MSR
mirror self-recognition the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror

TPO 28 LECTURE 3

主题:Botany 植物学
Glossary:
photosynthesis 光合作用 photoreceptor 感光器 far-red 远红外的 spectrum 光谱,频谱 diodes 二极管

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To talk about a way light affects plants 2. 植物怎么感光? ? Plants are also capable of distinguishing between different wavelengths of light. Plants don’t see in the sense that humans or animals do, but they do have photoreceptors 3. 植物判断季节交替的一种方法是? ? One way they know when winter is ending and spring is beginning is by sensing the change in light. Certain plant species won’t flower if they sense too much light and some plants will only flower if they sense a specific amount of light. 4. 植物能感受到的人类肉眼不能看到的光线 是? ? Plants are also able to distinguish between specific wavelengths of light that the human eye cannot even see! Specifically there’s a wavelength called far-red 5. Pampas experiment验证了什么? ? This fascinating experiment showed that plants not only detect and react to specific wavelengths of light, plants can also detect and react to changes in the ratio of one wavelength to another. 6. red light和far-red light的比例对植物有什么影 响? ? A ratio of less red and to more far-red light would cause a reaction from the plant. It would stop growing taller, because that plant would sense that it wasn’t going to get enough sunlight to provide the energy to grow large.

背景知识: Photoreceptor 光感受器
动物体内感受光的器官。如原生动物 的眼点,昆虫的单眼和复眼,乌贼和脊 推动物的眼。 人类光感受器分两类, 分别是视锥和视杆细胞。这些细胞分 布排列在人眼的视网膜上。

TPO 28 LECTURE 4

主题:Archaeology 考古学
Glossary:
Millennium 千年期,千禧年 hub 中心,枢纽 Turkmenistan 土库曼斯坦 inhabitant 居民,居住者 intricate 复杂的,错综的 nomadic 游牧的,流浪的 mound 坟堆,高地

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(the main purpose) ? To introduce the remains of a sophisticated people whose settlement might have been the hub of a civilization few people even thought existed 2. 怎么判断一个地方是否曾今有人居住? ? Mounds such as these are the kinds of geological features that indicate the presence of ancient settlements 3. 在Gonur-depe有什么发现? ? What was found at Gonur-depe was amazing: the ruins of a huge palace complex, the foundations of shops and houses, the remains of thick walls and towers that fortified the city. There was even an elaborate canal system and a lot of very intricate jewelry 4. Conur-depe是否和其他文明有贸易往来? ? We don’t know. Jewelry have been found in Mesopotamia and at archaeological sites in modern-day Pakistan. But archaeologists didn’t know where it came from. 5. 后来Gonur-depe的文明发生了什么变化? ? the site was close to the Murgab river, which they would have depended on for their water. One theory is that the river’s course shifted from the West toward the South, and they simply followed it and built new towns to the South. ? Another theory is that they were involved in wars with neighboring settlements

背景知识:
Gonur Depe is a Bronze Age site in Turkmenistan, dating back to the first half of the second milennium BC, contemporary to the Mesopotamien and Indus Valley civilizations. The first agricultural settlements in the Murgab River delat apperared in the 7th millenium BC. The are was later called Margush in old Iranian texts and Margiana by greek authors. The area of Margiana was 3000 square km wide, it consisted of more than 70 oasis and 150 settlements. Margiana reached its apex in the 16th to 13th cent. BC.

TPO 29 LECTURE 1

主题:Ecology 生态学
Glossary:
biodiversity 生物多样性 property 性质 nitrogen 氮 magnesium 镁 flora and fauna 动植物群 pine needles 松针 litter (一窝)动物的幼崽 soak up 吸收 uproot 连根拔起 partway 部分地,到某种程度
?

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose)
?

To discuss what’s called pedodiversity

2. 分析土壤多样性是在分析哪些方面?
?

When we analyze pedodiversity within an area, we are measuring how much variability there is in soil properties and how many different types of soil there are in a particular area.

3. 为什么森林管理需要考虑土壤多样性? There’s a link between biodiversity and pedodiversity, an obvious relationship between soils and flora and fauna, which is why pedodiversity really should be considered in forest management.

背景知识:
Pedodiversity 土壤多样性 is the variation of soil properties (usually characterised by soil classes) within an area. Pedodiversity studies were first started by analyzing soil series–area relationships (Beckett and Bie, 1978). According to Guo et al. (2003) the term pedodiversity was developed by McBratney (1992) who discussed landscape preservation strategies based on pedodiversity. Recently, examinations of pedodiversity using indices commonly used to characterize biodiversity have been made

4. 密歇根区域原始森林土壤多样性的成因 是? three main causes
? ?

tree species where there are gaps, open areas in the forest, the soil there changes trees being uprooted Forests management impacts soil quality. Forest management practices should mimic natural forest processes. And the goal should be to promote pedodiversity, and through this, biodiversity in general

?

5. 对森林管理的启示?
?

TPO 29 LECTURE 2

主题:Architecture 建筑学
Glossary:
acoustics声学 auditorium 礼堂,会堂 reverberation 混响,回响 drown out 淹没,压过 orchestra管弦乐队 solo 独奏,独唱 racquetball 手球式墙球,回力网球 ornamental 观赏植物,装饰品 plasterwork 灰泥天花板 crystal Chandelier 枝形水晶灯,水晶吊灯

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose)
?

To talk about the relationship between the built world and sound

2. 建筑声学什么时候被纳入科学范畴?
?

But it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that architectural acoustics became a scientific field. That was when the physicist Wallace Sabine started to do extensive studies on reverberation

3. 什么是Reverberation?
?

It’s the persistence of sound in a room after the source has stopped making sound.

背景知识:
声学设计要考虑到两个方 面,一方面要加强声音传播途径中有效的 声反射,使声能在建筑空间内均匀分布和 扩散,如在厅堂音质设计中应保证各处观 众席都有适当的响度。另一方面要采用各 种吸声材料和吸声结构,以控制混响时间 和规定的频率特性,防止回声和声能集中 等现象。设计阶段要进行声学模型试验, 预测所采取的声学措施的效果。

4. 回声持续过久会有什么影响?
?

建筑声学

It would be difficult to hear new sounds if you can still hear the old sounds

5. 建造剧院或者音乐厅的时候要考虑什么?
?

The size of the place. The larger the room, the longer the reverberation time. Since music requires more reverberation than speech, a room intended for music needs to be designed differently from a room intended for drama. For music, we need a very large room, a concert hall, actually I should say for full orchestras The shape of the room. Rectangular box-like space with bare walls and ceiling would allow the sound to act like a ball in a racquetball court. Bouncing around and hitting some parts of the walls and ceiling but missing many others.

?

6. 怎样确保声音往各个方向的传播力度相等?
?

Avoid straight, parallel walls

TPO 29 LECTURE 3

主题:Archaeology 考古学
Glossary: hemisphere 半球 spear 矛,枪 clovis point 克洛维斯枪头 plausible 貌似可信的,花言巧语的 chip away 凿开,凿下碎片 craftmanship 技艺,手艺 cache 贮存物,隐藏处
?

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose)
?

To talk about the Clovis people and the two big questions archaeologists have about them .

2. 考古学家关于克洛维斯人的两大问题是?
?

when did the Clovis people arrive in the Americas? what was their culture like? And how do we figure that out?

背景知识:
克洛维斯矛尖(Clovis Point)
1933年,在美国新墨西哥州早已干涸的 克洛维斯湖中,发现了一只十分独特的古代 矛尖(矛头),稍后它被命名为“克洛维斯 矛尖”。尔后在它的发现地点附近,又出土 了一具猛犸(已绝种的古代长毛象)的骨 架,经骨龄测定,知道这头长毛象已死去了 1.15万年,这也正是克洛维斯矛尖的年代。 于是,克洛维斯矛尖成为在北美洲大陆上发 现的最古老的人工制品。紧接着,美国各地 又出土了成千上万只与克洛维斯矛尖的风格 极为相似,制作也同样精美的燧石制品,其 中既有小巧的箭头,也有较大的器具,后者 也许被用在宗教仪式中。

3. 克洛维斯人什么时候到达美洲的?
?

The Clovis people were likely settling North America 11,000 years ago

4. Clovis Caches是什么?
?

The Clovis caches are collections of tools, stone points and other tools made of stone or bone, often at various stages of manufacturing, some were left unfinished.

5. 一些矛尖非常大,是因为它们还没加工完吗?
?

NO. It was originally thought that they were unfinished, that someone was working away a point, then had to stop and put it aside in one of these caches to work on later. actually, far from being unfinished, a lot of these points really show excellent craftsmanship and attention to detail.

6. 这些大矛尖是用来干什么的?
?

People hey would have begun to recognize some places as special, important for some reason. Maybe there was always water available there. Or the hunting was especially good. So maybe the cache was a way to mark the place as significant.

TPO 29 LECTURE 4

主题:Structural Engineering 建筑工程
Glossary: Space Age 太空时代,宇宙空间时代 space shuttle 航天飞机 gravity 重力 escape velocity 逃逸速度 oxygen tank 氧气瓶,氧气筒 haul up 通信距离 tensile拉力的,可伸长的 carbon nanotubes碳纳米管 cylinder 柱面,圆柱状物 tether范围,拴绳

内容精要:
1. 文章的主旨(The main purpose) ? To look at structural engineering in the Space Age 2. 什么是逃逸速度(escape velocity)? ? Escape velocity is simply the speed of an object, let’s say, shot out of a cannon the minimum initial speed so that the object could later escape Earth’s gravity on its own 3. 太空电梯的想法因什么受阻? ? Elevators don’t just rise up. It have to hang on some kind of wire or track or something. 4. 人们发明了什么材料来支撑太空电梯? ? A new material developed recently has a tensile strength higher than diamond, yet it’s much more flexible—— carbon nanotubes. 5. 怎样利用carbon nanotubes制作出结实的绳 索? ? You pull out one nanotube or row of nanotubes, and its neighbor’s come with it, and their neighbors, and so on. So you could actually draw out a 36,000-kilometer strand or ribbon of nanotubes stronger than steel, but maybe a thousandth the thickness of a human hair. 6. 怎样固定绳索? ? We definitely have to anchor it at both ends. So what we need is a really tall tower here o

赞助商链接
相关文章:
更多相关标签: