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剑桥商务英语BEC中级阅读讲义


BEC 中级阅读

第一课时

开场白 评分标准: A、B、C 考试通过(Passing Grade) D、E 考试不及格(Failing Grade) BEC 阅读 考试时间:1 小时 题目数:45 道题 题型: 1、Matching(搭配题或匹配题) 第一部分共 7 道题,文章 250-350 字,是商业环境中的文章(产品广 告,招聘广告)。要么是一篇较长文章中选出 4 个相关段落,或者是 相关主题的 4 篇短文章 题目难度中等 侧重于辨认具体的信息或具体的细节,极少考主旨 2、Matching(搭配题或匹配题) 考察把握文章结构和段落大意的能力 给出 1 篇正文(商业类报刊文章或报告中选出并稍加改写),留有可 填写 1 句话的一些空格。加上 7 个选项,第二部分字数为 450-580。 考官共留出 6 个空格,实际上考生只需填写 5 个空格,因为第一个空格 都是作为 example 给出的,其答案为 G。故只需 6 选 5 难度较大 3、Multiple Choice(单项选择题) 4 选 1 的单项选择题 6 个题目 文章是一篇 450-550 字的正文(一般的或商务的出版物、公司文献或 管理方面的书籍。正文可能经过编辑,但来源是真实的) 正确答案不会是简单的词汇搭配,而是对文章中句子的意译或解释 题目难度较大 4、选择题形式的完成句子题 15 个题目 200-300 字的一篇正文,有 15 个空格,每道题都有 4 个选项,从中选择 1 个意义最合适的 文章不是特别难,考查考生词汇能力 5、Correction(改错题) 考 12 个题目,全部是找出额外的和不必要的单词 考查语法知识

命题题材: 1、商业信函(Business Letter) 常出现在第四、五部分 2、广告(Advertisement) 第一部分常考 3、关于经济或者商业的一些消息或者公告(Public Information) 4、产品介绍(Product Description) 5、商务活动方面的计划、安排、决定或建议(Business Plan / Proposals / Recommendations) 6、会议记录(Record of Meeting) 7、非正式信息(Informal Messages) PART ONE 解题步骤: 1、阅读题目及七个单句,划出句意关键词。对于谈论相似主体的句子, 需区别内容的相同处和不同处,注意体现不同处的关键词 2、快速浏览短文(依靠小标题迅速抓住各篇短文的主题)。浏览过程中 如果发现答题的具体信息,可在具体信息下面划线并标上题号以备最 后检查 关键词:(定位词) 原词重现:人名、地名、数字、时间、百分比、金钱、黑体字、斜体字 原意重现: 1、同义相似 2、同义差异 题目对原文进行归纳与总结: 广告: 产品、招聘、招生、书评 人力资源、财经 1、产品广告(Product Advertisement) 1)产品名称 2)产品特征 练习 1. Furniture Ads 1. These can be piled up neatly without taking up much space. 2. It is usually placed in front of a dressing table. 3. When folded it turns into a soft and comfortable bed. 4. People can adjust the height of this to get a conformable sitting position. 5. There is a circular metal frame at the bottom where you can rest your feet. 6. This set of furniture is characterized by space-saving and easy storage. 7. The top of this can be stretched to certain length.

A. Folding Table with Chairs Folding Oak Finish Table with 4 Chairs. Unique space saving design converts from a small compact unit to a full size dining table! Chairs fit inside table when folded-Oak finish on selected beech solids and veneers. Table closed: 34 ―wide, 11‖ deep; table opened: 34 ―wide, 62‖ long. B. High Fashion Bar Stool Oversized deep slung 3.5″padded seat. Back supports serve as functional armrests. New hefty 1 diameter steel foot-ring. Adjustable height. 24 ―to 30‖ high. Easy to assemble with simple hand tools. C. White Wire Stack Chair Sturdy wire welded steel construction for a sleek, high tech look. Practical seating that keeps you cool. Outside on the patio or deck; inside in the kitchen or family room. These lightweight chairs stack neatly for easy access. Quick and convenient storage. D. Folding Cushioned Chairbed Comfortable seating converts to become a single sleeper in seconds! Sleeps on adult. The perfect solution when unexpected overnight guests arrive! Ideal for college dorm, Kid‘s room, den or spare room. Sturdy Herculon tweed fabric cover in grey/blue. 31 ―W x 72‖ L x 25‖ H. E. You‘ll be ?sitting pretty‘ with this vanity bench. White powder coated finish on welded steel. It can be used as a companion to a vanity table or alone as an attractive bath accent. Grid style seat, complete with removable comfort cushion. 19 ― W x 12.75‖ L x 20‖ H. easy assemble.

第二课时
试题 11 Example: You can take it for only a short time if you prefer. Answer: C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. It is located outside the city. It will be easy to use for various types of retail business. You know how much money it took last year. This business already manufactures goods for sale. Its price includes living accommodation. It has been operating for many years. You will have to find out the price from the agents.

EBTA BUSINESS TRANSFER AGENTS The following businesses in the region are offered for sale:

A RESTAURANT A large, well-decorated restaurant in an excellent position near the city centre. Open three years with annual turnover of ? 100,000. Regular trade and bookings for weddings, special occasions etc. Available on 50-year lease. Price on request

B ESTABLISHED POTTERY Family business established for over fifty years in city‘s main commercial area. Small pottery, currently employs twelve people producing china figures, vases and other decorative items. Price includes premises plus equipment and raw materials. Price ? 200,000

C VACANT SHOP Located in superb historic building on excellent city centre site. Large premises recently renovated to a very high standard. Would suit a wide range of different trades. Available on limited (three-year) lease, or longer if required. Short lease ? 15,000

D GARAGE & CAR REPAIR Small business with great potential for development. Garage with petrol station on main road between city and coast. Includes large workshop suitable for car repair business. Small, three-bedroom house attached to workshop, and room for further building. Whole property ? 190,000

2、招聘广告 1)title Job vacancy / Wanted 2)正文 (1)公司名称及职位(Corporation & Position) (2)对工作职位的描述(Job description) (3)Requirements & Qualifications

(4)待遇(Treatments / Benefits) (5)公司的联系方式及地址(Contact way / Address) 试题 8 Example: You must have a first degree in English. Answer: B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You are free to choose when you will begin and end your workday. You should provide the names of two people who can give letters of recommendation. You must have the experience of working abroad. You have to work every other Saturday. You should have successful working experience as a secretary. The job requires some experience as well as excellent qualifications. You need to be able to speak several languages.

A. Salesperson is required for our new Portman Street Showroom to work a flexitime 30 – hour week, including alternate Saturdays. Fileco specialize in office furniture and equipment. The showroom displays our very latest in integrated office design and is intended to serve as our window on the business world. Applicants should have some experience in business and fluency in a second language would be a distinct advantage.

B. Eurofile, one of Europe‘s leading publishers is seeking a self-motivated Assistant Accountant to help run its busy accounts department. The successful candidate should possess excellent accounting qualifications and have at least 2 years‘ accounting experience. S/he should also be computer literate and able to carry out all essential day-to-day accounting tasks. Management experience and European languages are a definite advantage, Salary 15 – 17,000 p. a. Send CV to Joanna Jarvis, Eurofile, Stack Street, Manchester, MN8 4TX, quoting reference JAC/01/TN.

C. The Bell Educational Trust seeks applications from teachers of English as a foreign language to work in China. Candidates should have: ---- a degree plus a qualification in TEEL (PGCE or RSA) diploma ---- a minimum of 3 years experience with at least one year overseas ---- experience in preparation of materials and in teaching ESP / EAP Applications with full C. V. and the names of two referees, one of whom must be the most recent employer, together with recent photograph of yourself, to Lewis Kerr, The Bell Educational Trust, Hillscross, 1 Red Cross Lane, Cambridge CB2 2QX. D.

We are a major company with an international reputation with customers throughout Europe, the Middle East and S. E. Asia. Qualifications: ---- Proven secretarial skills ---- Languages ( French, German, Arabic Mandarin) ---- Ability to work as part of team and on own initiative Non-native speakers will have a fluent command of spoken and written English. Benefits include generous salary, 6 weeks‘ holiday, and promotion prospects. Send C. V. to Video Unlimited, Morecombe Gardens, Manchester. 练习 4. Job Advertisements 1. This work has something to do with people‘s mental health. 2. How much the person earns will depend on his practical experience. 3. This advertisement offers employees the prospect of getting promoted. 4. If you get the job, you‘ll have to make business trips every now and then. 5. This business needs a person with managerial experience and skills. 6. Experience in advertising would be helpful in this job. 7. This business provides a wide range of service items. A. Management Diversified service business seeking experienced (10 years plus) executive for top-level spot. Excellent salary, bonuses, and profit-sharing for person with proven problem-solving, marketing and people skills. B. Communications Major Southeastern chemical corporation requires a professional to fill a vacancy in the Communications Department. Applications must have demonstrated experience in all phases of promotion, including: media, production, writing, trade shows, public relations and special event handling. Travel required. CBC preferred. Position can lead to Department Management. C. Technical sales representative Our Pigment Division seeks a NJ based salesperson for the NJ, PA, MD, DE territory. Pigment sales experience necessary. BS Chemistry or Physical Science degree preferred. Generous, immediate and free benefits package. Salary commensurate with experience. D. Psychiatric social worker Private mental-health clinic seeks 2 experienced certified Social Workers to provide individual, group and family psychotherapy to children, adolescents and adults. Function as a member of multidisciplined team. Excellent supervision; starting salary $ 30,988. Comprehensive medical, dental and pension benefits. E. Marketing executive

This important position has recently been created by one of the country‘s leading clothes manufacturers. It is an outstanding opportunity for a graduate with two years‘ experience in design or magazine publishing. The successful candidate will be given responsibility for a major, recently launched brand. It would be an advantage to have experience of promotional activities. Excellent fringe benefits on offer.

第三课时
试题 10 Example: The job offers perks in addition to the basic salary. Answer: D 1. Experience in advertising would be helpful in this job. 2. This job would probably suit somebody who has worked in the purchasing department of a large chain of stores. 3. Three years' experience would not be enough for this job. 4. For this job it would be useful if you have studied how to carry out surveys into consumer attitudes. 5. In this job you would take charge of a product which has been on the market for many years. 6. To get this job it is not necessary to have work experience. 7. Such a high-ranking position does not come up very often. A Product Manager This company has at present about 30% of the market and a turnover of more than ? 500 million. The person appointed will have responsibility for a long-established product which is a household name. Experience in the insurance market is necessary and a background in accountancy would be helpful.

B Group Product Manager This is a rare opportunity to work at a senior level for a market leader in the food industry, located in the north of the country. The person appointed will report directly to the Marketing Director and take full responsibility for a turnover in excess of ? 80 million and a team of three managers. Applicants need to have a minimum of five years‘ experience in product management. A market research qualification would be an advantage.

C Management Trainees For this exciting position in the leisure industry we are seeking management trainees to develop excellent buying skills. Possibly a new graduate, the successful applicant

may have experience with a big national retailer, but must certainly possess excellent negotiation and communication skills.

D Marketing Executive This important position has recently been created by one of the country‘s leading clothes manufacturers. It is an outstanding opportunity for a graduate with two years‘ experience in design or magazine publishing. The successful candidate will be given responsibility for a major, recently launched brand. It would be an advantage to have experience of promotional activities. Excellent fringe benefits on offer.

3、招生广告 试题 5 Example: You would learn about deductions from salaries. Key: C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You need to have worked in an office before attending this course. You would learn something about preventing accidents at work. You would be able to sit an examination in typing. This course is useful if your job involves greeting people and dealing with enquiries. This course would suit someone with budgetary responsibility. You would get practice in helping people in a group to communicate. You would learn how to change the appearance of a letter or memo.

A. Tuesday 13.00-15.00 This course provides training in arranging meetings, conducting them effectively and making travel arrangements. The topics will include drawing up agendas, preparing for meetings, introducing speakers or participants, managing discussions successfully, keeping to an agreed timetable, and writing follow-up reports. Previous experience of typing and general office work are essential for this course. B. Mon, Thu, Fri 10.00-12.00 This courses is intended both for beginners and for those who have reached an elementary level in typewriting. You will have the opportunity to develop your skills on up-to-date electronic equipment, gaining experience of producing all kinds of typed material in a variety of modern layouts. Students will be given ample opportunities for ―hands on‖ experience of word-processing on the latest personal computers. Typewriting tests can be taken for widely recognised qualifications. C.

Monday 9.00-11.00 This course is designed to provide students with experience of operating a set of accounts, comparable with those of a small family firm, and of dealing with the more general financial aspects of running a small business. Topics will include profit and loss, maintaining records efficiently, cash payments, taxation, insurance and computerised accounting. External examinations can be arranged. D. Friday 11.00-13.00 Participants on this course will develop their telephone skills and reception techniques in practical situations. Other topics included in the course are dealing with correspondence, the latest development in fax equipment and photocopiers, and the advantages these new facilities offer. The course also covers health and safety, including recent important changes in safety regulations governing the workplace. 试题 9 Example: This course will improve your typing skills. Answer: C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A Interactive Training Have you ever considered a career in training? Apply now to join one of our Interactive Training courses. All our trainers have had leading roles in Staff Development and they will demonstrate a variety of training techniques from individual and group involvement to using drama. Course participants contribute their experience in the discussions which follow each activity. Guidance in designing a range of courses including Word Processing, Typing, Time Management and Accounting is provided. Contact Ian Draper: Phone 23345454 Fax 2334 5778 Apply for this course if you are interested in running courses in office skills. This course will teach you how to repair computers. Applicants must give reasons for wanting to join this course. This course promises very quick results. You will be shown a range of teaching methods on this course. If you complete this course successfully, you may be given a job. The organisers will cover some of your costs while you are on this course.

B Euromoney Trainee Scheme Students interested in creating or selling financial products are invited to apply for six-month training schemes. An expenses allowance is paid monthly to each trainee. At the end of the six months, trainees will be assessed on their aptitude and a selected number will be offered permanent employment in our central office. Students wishing to apply should send a CV plus a 200-word summary of why they think they are suitable for this scheme. Applications to: Euromoney, Unit 3, Dearing Commercial Estate, Singapore C Cercos High Technology Courses Regardless of previous experience, if you are aged eighteen or over, Cercos' professional seven week full-time training programme provides the gateway to employment in the rapidly expanding computer maintenance industry. Learn how to diagnose faults using the latest technological aids and to deal effectively and efficiently with problem machinery and problem customers! Contact John Segarro on 0772 4313 for application form and course contents. D Wizard Training Courses Many people are confused by the arrangement of letters on a computer keyboard and never progress beyond tapping slowly away with two fingers. Our courses concentrate on training the fingers to find all the letters on the keyboard. Easy, short drills with three-letter words help you master the skills of typing within a matter of days. Phone 34254422 for costs and further details. 4、书评广告 试题 6 Example: The book offers some information about communication style. Answer: A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. It aims to train the students to become sensitive to different styles of writing. Students are expected to learn something about American society. It mainly focuses on the development of your reading techniques. Students are encouraged to participate in group activities. Some useful information is offered on how to further your academic study. One chapter deals with different aspects of culture in America. The material chosen for the book is from the real life.

A. This classic cross-culture book provides reading passages, culture notes, and discussion topics which focus on values, behavior, attitudes and communication styles. It features a chapter on cultural diversity in the US; an explanation of mainstream US values with examples which reveal some of the more hidden aspects of culture; examples of cross-cultural differences in a wide variety of cultures; and extensive readings and exercises. B. As a multi-stand course---organized according to functions, discussion techniques and communication concepts--- this text develops the speaking skills of business professionals or business students. It is easily adaptable to differing class sizes, student needs and interests. A special feature of the course is its carefully staged discussion activities which structure and facilitate group participation. C. This series is intended for students now ready to approach English literature. Each book deals with both the literary and the language aspects of their texts. Some exercises focus on a personal response, others on discussing literary qualities such as style, character, imagery and ideas. Other exercises concentrate on the development of language awareness in terms of grammar, vocabulary and different styles of writing. D. Authentic texts covering a wide range of topics provide a stimulating basis for a skills and strategies approach to academic reading. Techniques of skimming and scanning, identifying main ideas, understanding text organization and guessing unknown vocabulary provide the basis for each unit. These are followed by more advanced strategies, such as analyzing a writer‘s use of time, evaluating a writer‘s attitude and assessing the degree of certainty in arguments. Each unit ends with discussion topics which lead to a writing task based on the reading texts. 试题 12 Example: It is the work of a successful writer. Answer: C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A It describes activities which have become increasingly popular. It gives important information as briefly as possible. It deals with an area that has received little attention previously. It describes methods that can help with team-building. It is suitable to people with varying degrees of commercial experience. It was previously published with a different title. It is written for people from different types of professional background.

The Trainer’s Pocketbook Formerly known as The Instructor’s Pocketbook, the eighth edition of this short guide covers ?all the essentials of training‘, from creating the right learning environment to the use of audio-visual equipment. This 78-page book concentrates on presenting the key facts in summary form.

B The Handbook of Health and Safety This is a comprehensive guide intended for managers, union safety representatives and anyone teaching for Occupational Health & Safety examinations. Apart from the usual subjects of legal obligations and risk prevention, it focuses on a relatively neglected issue, that of health concerns about computer use--particularly those associated with keyboard work.

C Writing Effective Advertisements This guide has been put together by best-selling author John Newton and looks at the reasons why some advertisements are more successful than others. Ideal both for someone starting up in business and for the established business person, it contains useful information on advertisement layout and content.

D Using Management Games This second edition, which reflects the growing trend to use management games as training tools, acts as a guide to exercises designed to increase group effectiveness. The writer explains the ways in which exercises, for example puzzles and communication games, can be used to improve group co-operation.

财经类新闻(Business News) 练习 2. Business News 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Shareholders seemed to have a final say in top management. This news suggests bitter competition between computer giants. Some people would take advantage of this period of time to make money. The man would be detained on a foreign land for some time. The buy-out seemed to benefit both companies. The company hadn‘t entered into the American market before it was merged. The change in personnel has boosted shareholders‘ confidence in the company.

A. In a deal valued at more than $ 5 billion, Crown Cork, a leading American packaging company with little presence in Europe, agreed to buy Camaud Metalbox of France, one of Europe‘s largest packagers with little presence in America. A frenzy of dealing sent shares in both

soaring around 15%. B. Another top French businessman was placed under investigation for corruption. The man is being questioned about a 1991 water-supply contract. Meanwhile, a German businessman, who went missing after his property empire collapsed last year, embarrassing the many banks that had backed him, was arrested in Miami. Extradition could take months. C. Kmart, America‘s second-largest retailer, is to have a new boss to replace Joseph Antonini, who was forced to step down earlier this year by unhappy shareholders. Shares soared on the news that Floyd Hall, former chief executive of Target Stores, a rival discounter, is to step into Antonini‘s shoes. D. IBM tried to counter the growth of Microsoft, the world‘s largest software firm, by launching a $3.3 billion hostile bid for Lotus Development, a software company. The $ 60-a –share offer boosted the price of Lotus shares by 89%. IBM sees Lotus‘s Notes software as a passport into the growing market for ?groupware‘ programs that help networks of computers talk to each other. E. The European Commission published a consultative paper on its promise single currency, in which it suggested that there would have to be four years between a final decision to launch the new currency and its arrival in citizens‘ pockets. It predicted that speculators would use the interval to make destabilising bets on the final conversion rates of the old currencies. But the commission is sticking to its deadline of January 1999 for economic and monetary union.

第四课时
Test 2 READING PART ONE Questions 1-7 1 Sometimes it is necessary to insist on further explanation. 2 You shouldn't focus on your response while others are still speaking. 3 People are reluctant to admit that they don't listen well. 4 There are benefits in seeing things from the speaker's perspective. 5 Keen observation of the speaker can support our listening skills. 6 It is risky to think about a different issue while someone is speaking. 7 People do not mind hearing their own views summarised. Good listener, better manager A Too often we accuse others of not listening, pretending that we ourselves are faultless, yet in our hearts we know that many of the mistakes we make come about because we haven't listened

carefully enough. We get things wrong because we haven't quite understood what someone meant when they were talking to us. Anyone who has ever taken the minutes of a long meeting will know how hard it is to remember - despite the benefit of notes - exactly what everyone said. But success depends on getting things right - and that means listening. B Listening is not the same thing as hearing; it is not an effortless activity. It demands attention and concentration. It may mean quizzing the speaker for additional information or for clarification - it is always better to ask than to continue regardless and get things wrong. However, if you allow your mind to wander onto something else, even for a few minutes, you'll miss what the speaker is saying - probably at the very moment when he or she is saying something critical. And not having heard, you won't know you've missed anything until it's too late. C The most common bad habit we have is to start thinking of what we are going to say about the subject long before the other speaker has finished. We then stop listening. Even worse, this often adds rudeness to inattentiveness, as once you have decided what to say there is a fair chance you will interrupt to say it. Good listeners don't interrupt. In fact it is often worth explaining the main idea of what you have just been told before going on to make your own points. Nobody is offended by this and it shows that you have listened well. D Above all be patient and accept that many people are not very good communicators. It's helpful to remember that the ways people move and position themselves while they are speaking can reveal a great deal about what they are saying. Equally importantly you should put yourself in the other person's place, both intellectually and emotionally; it will help you to understand what they are getting at and form a response. But don't be too clever. Faced with a know-all, many people keep quiet because they see no point in continuing.

Test 3 READING PART ONE Questions 1-7 1 Listen to what your boss tells you about how well you are working. 2 Realise that your boss will occasionally need to be left alone. 3 Comment on your boss's work in a positive spirit. 4 Try to impress your boss with your thoroughness. 5 Do not hesitate to involve your boss if you have difficulties with your work. 6 Show your boss that you are capable of working at a higher level. 7 Speak to your boss, even about matters not directly related to your work. MANAGE YOUR BOSS

Advice from four top business people on how you should treat your boss A The Consultant No boss likes nasty surprises. Thinking you can solve a serious problem before he or she finds out is a doomed strategy. Much better to inform your boss about the situation early on, together with your suggested solution. Also, remember that bosses like praise as much as any employee. Do this without making it obvious, if only to earn the right to criticise (constructively, of course). 'Consideration' is the key word. Treat bosses as you hope to be treated - it should help you to move up to the next level. B The Director Of course there are all the formal things in managing your boss - ensuring that you come to meetings well prepared, that you have a good eye for detail, and so on. But you also need to distinguish effectively between things that are important and things that are merely small details. Bosses like it if you can see 'the big picture' because they want to be able to delegate. So it's all about psychology, as well as performance. C The Chairman Bosses want people to understand their objectives, their way of working and the pressures they are under. If you can understand what sort of individual your boss is, it is easier to appreciate why certain reactions might arise, and thus avoid problems. Also, keep the lines o f communication with your boss open. You need to receive ongoing feedback on whether your work is effective, asking about what you do not understand, and, if necessary, discussing personal issues from outside the workplace. When the gap between you is reduced. so are the difficulties. D The Chief Executive Understand that a boss will want to take the glory when things go well. After all, they take ultimate responsibility, so they deserve some of the credit. Also, find out about your boss's outside interests, as this can help to improve the relationship. You may find you have an interest in common. Similarly, recognise that everyone is human, and there are times when a request from you may be unwelcome. Get to know your boss's Personal Assistant, who can advise you when it is a good time to talk to him or her. Part 2 练习 2. Japanese McDonald’s If you always thought of McDonald‘s as an all-American company it, may surprise you to learn that the king of McDonald‘s franchises is named Fujita and that he doesn‘t eat hamburgers. ____1____ By ignoring many of the customs of both his native and his parent company, Fujita has

made McDonald‘s the top fast-food business in Japan and has changed the face of franchising. McDonald‘s came to Japan in 1970 searching for a Japanese partner with whom to create a Japanese McDonald‘s. Fujita was far from the richest potential candidate interviewed, but he was an eager entrepreneur who seemed willing to devote his energies to the new venture. ____2____ Almost immediately, however, Fujita began going his own way. The parent company recommended opening the first Japanese McDonald‘s in the suburbs, where most American fast-food stores are located. Fujita had his own ideas. ____3____ He got his way, opened the first Japanese McDonald‘s in a department store in Tokyo, didn‘t spend anything on advertising. ____4____ McDonald‘s learned its lesson from Fujita and has since opened inner-city restaurant around the world. ____5____ While the Japanese seem fascinated with western styles and tastes, they often don‘t think of themselves as consumers of American products. So Fujita‘s McDonald‘s franchises play down their American origins, to the point where, according to Fujita, some Japanese who visit the United States are surprised to find that we have ?Makudonarudo‘, as the Japanese say it, in America too. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. In fact, Fujita is unusual in many respects, and his uniqueness has made him very rich. McDonald‘s took a chance and chose him. Fujita and McDonald‘s continue to benefit from each other. Other companies might learn from the way Fujita marketed McDonald‘s in Japan. Fujita likes to take credit for a rise in the average weight of his people. And within a year he had broken McDonald‘s world record for one-day sales: $14,000. He thought the young pedestrians of Japan‘s cities were more likely to give up Japan fish-and –rice diet for a hamburger than were the more traditional suburban dwellers. H. But Fujita himself prefers noodles to Big Macs. I. And the Tokyo McDonald‘s that once caused an argument is now one of 500 that Fujita owns in Japan. 答案:1. A;2. B;3. G;4. F;5. D 练习 3. Banks and Banking : Other Bank Services A modern bank provides many services other than checking accounts. ____1____ If you went to a bank to open a savings account, you would go through almost the same procedures followed in applying for a checking account. ____2____ Then you would be given a passbook in which your initial deposit would be recorded. All deposits and withdrawals from your account are entered into your passbook. ____3____ With a regular passbook savings account, you would be able to withdraw money wherever you needed it. All you would have to do is fill out a withdrawal order and present it, along with your passbook to the teller. All banks pay interest on savings accounts. ____4____ Banks also pay interest at different times. ____5____ Suppose, for example, that on January 1, you deposited $ 1,000 in a bank that paid 4 1/2 percent interest semiannually. By July 1,you would have earned $ 22.50 interest. This interest would automatically be credited to your account; and of you left it in the bank, along with your original deposit, you would receive interest on $ 1,022.50 for the next six-month period. That is, your interest would be compounded.

A. But the majority of them pay semiannually, that is, every six months. B. The interest rate varies from bank to bank, but the general range is from 4 1/2 to 6 percent. C. This means that passbook contains an actual record of all transactions made and that you know the exact amount of savings you have at any one time. D. One of these is checking accounts. E. First you would be asked to fill out a signature card. F. But most banks pay interest at the end of a year. G. One of the most important of these is regular passbook savings. H. One can withdraw money whenever necessary. 答案:1.;2. ;3. ;4. B;5. A 试题 1 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this letter to the editor of The Economist. ? Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks. ? For each bland (8-12) mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mar4 any letter twice. ? One answer has been given as an example. Sir, You state on February 13 th that New Mexico has ―few natural resources‖, ____ example____ In 1991 New Mexico ranked fourth in the United States in production of natural gas, seventh in oil and tenth in non-fuel minerals ____8____ Non-fuel minerals contributed about $ 1 billion and coal $ 509 million. Taxes from production of fuels and minerals, and lease payments on state lands have been set aside by legislative acts to endow two permanent funds worth about $ 5.65 billion, ____9____ In addition, during fiscal year 1991 , payments to New Mexico from taxes on federal lands were S 108 million, all earmarked for public education. ____10____ About $566 million came from taxes and permanent-fund earnings attributable to oil and gas production. ____11____ Tourism is an important industry in Mew Mexico, yet its economic impact on the public sector is dwarfed by that of mineral production. New Mexico came through the recent recession in much better shape than most other states. It does not have a deficit. ____12____ States that rely primarily on a sales tax or on an income tax have big problems during economic downturns. Income growth per head in New Mexico averaged 6.1/00 in the year to October 1992-one if the fastest growth rates in the United States. Charles Chapin Example: C

A. That it has a broadly based tax structure is an important point. B. In 1992 it produced more oil than Colorado and Kansas combined. C. However, the extractive mineral industry in New Mexico is one of the state‘s strongest economic forces. D. During fiscal year 1992 New Mexico raised permanent funds worth about $6.1 billion. E. The combined value of oil and gas production was $ 2.8 billion. F. Some 16,000 employees work in the extractive industries and their wages are among the highest of any major industry. G. The $39 million earned by these funds in 1991 was used to finance education and other public services. H. Only S 25 million came from agricultural taxes. I. New Mexico‘s extractive mineral industries contribute about a third of the state‘s $ 1.9 billion general-fund income in fiscal year 1991. 答案:8. E 9. G 10.I 11. F 12. A 试题 7 PART TWO Questions 8 – 12 ? Read the following text. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on page 52 to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8 – 12 mark one letter A – I on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mark any letter twice. The Cash-free Society Imagine a society in which cash no longer exists, Instead, ― cash ‖ is electronic, as in bank-card Systems. Currency and coin are abandoned. ____ example ____ . Theft of cash would become impossible. Bank robberies and cash-register robberies would simply cease to occur ____ ( 8 ) ____ . Purse snatchings would become a thing of the past. Urban streets would become safer ____ ( 9 ) ____ . Security costs and insurance rates would fall. Property values would rise. Neighbourhoods would improve. Drug traffickers and their clients, burglars and receives of stolen property, arsonists for hire, and bribe-takers would no longer have the advantage of using untraceable currency. ____ ( 10 ) ____ These prosecutions, in turn, would inhibit further crimes. In a society devoid of physical money, a change from cash to recorded electronic money would be accompanied by a flow of previously unpaid income-tax revenues running in the tens of billions of dollars. ____ (11) ____ Cash has been the root of much social and economic evil. ____ (12)____ Eighty percent of

Americans regularly use credit cards. The development of a federal system to handle the country‘s 300 billion annual cash transactions in the United States electronically is within reach. Example: H. A. B. C. D. E. F. A national electronic-money system would operate as a debit-card system. Retail shops in once dangerous areas could operate in safety. As a result, income tax rates could be lowered or the national debt reduced. The use of cash has diminished substantially since World War II. Attacks on shopkeepers, taxi drivers, and cashiers would all end. The emergence of electronic funds-transfer technology makes it possible to change the nature of money and to divorce it from evil. G. Almost every present-day cash transaction can be duplicated electronically. H. The immediate benefits would be profound and fundamental. I. Electronic ―money‖ would leave incriminating trails of data, resulting in more arrests and convictions. 答案:Questions 8 – 12: E, B, I, C, F

第五课时
练习 3. Banks and Banking : Other Bank Services A modern bank provides many services other than checking accounts. ____1____ If you went to a bank to open a savings account, you would go through almost the same procedures followed in applying for a checking account. ____2____ Then you would be given a passbook in which your initial deposit would be recorded. All deposits and withdrawals from your account are entered into your passbook. ____3____ With a regular passbook savings account, you would be able to withdraw money wherever you needed it. All you would have to do is fill out a withdrawal order and present it, along with your passbook to the teller. All banks pay interest on savings accounts. ____4____ Banks also pay interest at different times. ____5____ Suppose, for example, that on January 1, you deposited $ 1,000 in a bank that paid 4 1/2 percent interest semiannually. By July 1,you would have earned $ 22.50 interest. This interest would automatically be credited to your account; and of you left it in the bank, along with your original deposit, you would receive interest on $ 1,022.50 for the next six-month period. That is, your interest would be compounded. A. But the majority of them pay semiannually, that is, every six months. B. The interest rate varies from bank to bank, but the general range is from 4 1/2 to 6 percent. C. This means that passbook contains an actual record of all transactions made and that you know the exact amount of savings you have at any one time. D. One of these is checking accounts.

E. First you would be asked to fill out a signature card. F. But most banks pay interest at the end of a year. G. One of the most important of these is regular passbook savings. H. One can withdraw money whenever necessary. 答案:1.G;2. ;3. ;4. B;5. A 试题 11 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the text below about the management of documents. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once. How do you improve white collar productivity? For many years, technological development was thought to be the key to improving productivity in the office. In the 1980s cheap small computers first appeared on desktops. (example)________ The power of personal computers has increased dramatically, and the uses of software have expanded too. Companies both large and small have spent large sums of money on improving office computer facilities.(8) ________.It seems that business has failed to apply the developments in technology to greater effect, to increase the amount of time which office workers have available for non-routine tasks. To do this, we need to understand how information is processed in business ventures. Typically, information is first gathered, then processed, and finally produced in its changed form as output.(9) ________. Increasingly complex programs have been invented, to feed ever more powerful processing systems. But what about output? A recent study by an American management institute shows that the processing of documents takes up 60% of office workers‘ time, 40% of labour costs and up to 10% of business income.(10) ________. In fact, the international companies studied for the research show that this breakdown is true world-wide, wherever the company operates. Taking these findings into account, the management of documents has become extremely important. Documents support nearly all business transactions. They are increasingly the way to communicate with customers, suppliers and employees. It is therefore upon document output and distribution that we should focus. (11) ________ Unfortunately, technological developments in equipment for document management seem more impressive than they really are.(12) ________ New technological solutions are needed to tackle the problem, to help drive businesses forward to improve their productivity and output. Only now are we beginning to study business objectives and to structure technology to suit them. Our company is attempting to understand how people use technology and how it can be applied to business problems.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

These new methods of handling paperwork have already greatly improved efficiency. This would be a key way of improving white collar productivity. It will help them to make better use of all office employees. However, this enormous investment has not improved productivity as expected. Laser printers have many limitations, and photocopiers have few applications. Most technology has concentrated its attention on the first two of these stages. These figures are hardly surprising since documents convey nine-tenths of all information. Nevertheless, it is an important way to improve business processes and workflow. Since then, these machines have caused a revolution in the way we work in the office. 9.F 10.G 11.B 12.E

答案:8.D

试题 3
PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this text about electrical power in Canada. ? Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks. ? For each blank (8 - 12) mark one letter (A - I) on your Answer Sheet. ? De not mark any letter twice. ? One answer has been given as an example.

ELECTRICITY: WEALTH, MONEY, POWER Canadian industries have prospered for more than a century on the country‘s abundance of cheap, reliable electrical power. ____ example ____. In fact, Canada consumes more electricity on a per person basis than any country except for Norway ____ 8 ____ Electricity is a significant source of export income for Canada. ____ 9 ____ But in the 1970s , Canadian exports rose sharply to address the U. S. demand for cheaper and more reliable. In 1985, exports of Canadian electrical power reached 1,400 million US dollars ____. 10 ____. Net electricity exports account for more than 60% of Canada‘s balance of trade. Domestically, Canada continues to generate electrical power, primarily from water ____ 11 ____ Exports of electricity are now subject to forces far beyond the control of utility managers ____ 12 ____ Example: B A. Besides, electricity from coal and nuclear is 50% to 75% cheaper than many other industrial nations. B. Generated primarily by water, our power supplies have attracted and supported

energy-intensive industries such as mining. C. It also ranks among the top three electricity producers in the world, behind the U. S. and Russia. D. Next to electricity, Canadian paper exports came to 900 million US dollars every year in the 1960s. E. Two large nuclear power plants began to generate electricity. F. Since then, electricity‘ exports have declined but they have continued to exceed 700 million US dollars. G. Environmental and trade policies all influence electrical production and trade. H. Canada and the U. S. imported and exported power in almost equal measures after 1901. I. Therefore, the Canadian government has little influence on these forces. 答案:8.C 9. H 10. F 11. A 12. G 试题 11 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the text below about the management of documents. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once.

How do you improve white collar productivity? For many years, technological development was thought to be the key to improving productivity in the office. In the 1980s cheap small computers first appeared on desktops. (example)________ The power of personal computers has increased dramatically, and the uses of software have expanded too. Companies both large and small have spent large sums of money on improving office computer facilities.(8) ________.It seems that business has failed to apply the developments in technology to greater effect, to increase the amount of time which office workers have available for non-routine tasks. To do this, we need to understand how information is processed in business ventures. Typically, information is first gathered, then processed, and finally produced in its changed form as output.(9) ________. Increasingly complex programs have been invented, to feed ever more powerful processing systems. But what about output? A recent study by an American management institute shows that the processing of documents takes up 60% of office workers‘ time, 40% of labour costs and up to 10% of business income.(10) ________. In fact, the international companies studied for the research show that this breakdown is true world-wide, wherever the company operates. Taking these findings into account, the management of documents has become extremely important. Documents support nearly all business transactions. They are increasingly the way to communicate with customers, suppliers and employees. It is therefore upon document output and distribution that we should focus. (11) ________ Unfortunately, technological developments in equipment for document management seem more impressive than they really are.(12) ________ New technological solutions are needed to tackle the problem, to help drive businesses forward to improve their productivity and output. Only now are we beginning to study business objectives and to structure technology to suit them. Our company is attempting to understand how people use technology and how it can be applied to business problems. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. These new methods of handling paperwork have already greatly improved efficiency. This would be a key way of improving white collar productivity. It will help them to make better use of all office employees. However, this enormous investment has not improved productivity as expected. Laser printers have many limitations, and photocopiers have few applications. Most technology has concentrated its attention on the first two of these stages. These figures are hardly surprising since documents convey nine-tenths of all information. Nevertheless, it is an important way to improve business processes and workflow. Since then, these machines have caused a revolution in the way we work in the office. 9.F 10.G 11.B 12.E 试题 9

答案:8.D

PART TWO Questions 8 - 12 ? Read this advertisement about business book reviews. ? Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8 - 12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mark any letter twice. Special Introductory Offer! Gain a working knowledge of the top Business books – rapidly and easily Now you can read the best business books - in just 15 minutes each! It's the executive dilemma of the Nineties: information overload. ____(example).____ There should be a simpler way to keep track of the latest ideas. And there is. A systematic solution: Suppose you had an assistant who screened and selected only the quality books for you. ____ (8)____ . So you could obtain a working knowledge of the book‘s contents in a fraction of the time. Now you can have that assistant with Executive Book Summaries. Every month, you receive quick-reading, time-saving summaries of the best new business books. ____(9)____ . This means that rather than taking five to ten hours to read, it takes just 15 minutes! How you'll benefit. Executive Book Summaries, designed for the busy executive, are a solution to the growing management problem of too much to read and too little lime to do it. ? Improve your business confidence. You gain a real understanding of the key points of the best new business books. ? Learn more, remember more. We've taken account of extensive research into the memory functions of the human brain ____(10)____ . ? Get ideas you can use. ____(11)____ . In a summary, these ideas are more accessible and ?actionable‘. ? Cut hundreds of hours off your reading load. How often have you opened a new book with great expectations - only to find it a huge disappointment? ____(12)____ The books we summarise cover just about every subject you need to know, from management techniques to guidance on your career.

A) These introductory texts are the most important books and using them can pay big dividends. B) Discover practical tips and techniques you can apply without delay. C) In order to avoid this problem, we select for you only the truly worthwhile titles and reject the rest. D) According to studies published in psychology journals, you retain the content of a summary better than a book. E) He or she would take the most important ideas from each one, and compile them into a neat executive summary. F) With the breadth and depth of knowledge gained from books, it is less likely that you'll be caught off guard. G) Each contains all the key points in the original book, but instead of 200 to 500 pages there are only eight pages. H) There's a sample of the superb business titles that we summarise for you. I) With all the reading you have to do in the normal course of your work, you find it impossible to keep up with all the new business books. 答案:8.E 9.G 10.D 11.B 12.C 试题 1 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this letter to the editor of The Economist. ? Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks. ? For each bland (8-12) mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mar4 any letter twice. ? One answer has been given as an example. Sir, You state on February 13 th that New Mexico has ―few natural resources‖, ____ example____ In 1991 New Mexico ranked fourth in the United States in production of natural gas, seventh in oil and tenth in non-fuel minerals ____8____ Non-fuel minerals contributed about $ 1 billion and coal $ 509 million. Taxes from production of fuels and minerals, and lease payments on state lands have been set aside by legislative acts to endow two permanent funds worth about $ 5.65 billion, ____9____ In addition, during fiscal year 1991 , payments to New Mexico from taxes on federal lands were S 108 million, all earmarked for public education. ____10____ About $566 million came from taxes and permanent-fund earnings attributable to oil and gas production. ____11____ Tourism is an important industry in Mew Mexico, yet its economic impact on the public sector is dwarfed by that of mineral production. New Mexico came through the recent recession in much better shape than most other states. It does not have a deficit. ____12____ States that rely primarily on a sales tax or on an income tax have big problems during economic downturns. Income growth per head in New Mexico averaged

6.1/00 in the year to October 1992-one if the fastest growth rates in the United States. Charles Chapin Example: C

A. That it has a broadly based tax structure is an important point. B. In 1992 it produced more oil than Colorado and Kansas combined. C. However, the extractive mineral industry in New Mexico is one of the state‘s strongest economic forces. D. During fiscal year 1992 New Mexico raised permanent funds worth about $6.1 billion. E. The combined value of oil and gas production was $ 2.8 billion. F. Some 16,000 employees work in the extractive industries and their wages are among the highest of any major industry. G. The $39 million earned by these funds in 1991 was used to finance education and other public services. H. Only S 25 million came from agricultural taxes. I. New Mexico‘s extractive mineral industries contribute about a third of the state‘s $ 1.9 billion general-fund income in fiscal year 1991. 答案:8. E 9. G 10.I 11. F 12. A 试题 2 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this proposal about the CPT Word Processor. ? Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks. ? For each blank (8-12) mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? De not mark any letter twice. ? One answer has been given as an example. 15 June 1993 Ms. Martha Weston Word Processing Supervisor ABC Company Post Office Box 1072 28 King‘s Street London Dear Ms. Weston, Performance of the CPT Equipment

I‘m Pleased to tell you about our experience with the CPT Word Processor as you requested recently____example____ I assume you have looked at several machines and have narrowed down your choices. Here are my observations. An approach to adopting word processors

Eighteen months ago we adopted CPT equipment on limited scale with the idea in mind that we could gradually get rid of electric typewriters as we became familiar with the word processor. ____8____ The stations are actually in pairs so each pair can share a common printer ____9____ We use the equipment as dedicated word processors, although we do have the ability to link up with our computer installation. The step-at-a-time development of our word-processing center has, we think, saved us money and training time. ____10____ Performance

In terms of performance, the CPT equipment is excellent. ____11____ Moreover our service contract and warranty have covered all maintenance costs. We have software packages that check spelling and signal when a mistake occurs. ____12____ Using both printers, we recently prepared 1200 individually typed form letter mailings a under four hours. We have no complaint about our preparation of executive reports. Example: I

A. B. C. D. E. F.

So it works very well and has so many different functions. Also it has reduced the confusion that exists about buying software packages. The train stops at each station for only fifteen minutes. We began with two work stations and now have four. Our routine letters are prepared from disc-stored masters. The Rotary W printer with a speed of 45 characters a second can easily handle two input stations. G. In contrast, its size and weight are ideal for carrying. H. We have not yet experienced mechanical problems so far. I. We are pleased with its performance and multi-functions. 8. D 9. F 10.B 11. H 12. E

PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this text on Dave’s dream. ? Choose the best sentence from the Opposite page 68 to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mark any letter twice. Icon Acoustics: Bypassing Tradition Like most entrepreneurs, Dave Fokos dreams a lot. He imagines customers eagerly phoning Icon Acoustics in Billerica, Massachusetts, to order his latest, custom-made stereo peakers ____example____ Like most entrepreneurs, Dave has taken a long time to develop his dream. ____(8)____ Dave discovered that he had a strong interest in studio engineering, He took independent-study courses in this area and by graduation had designed and built a pair of marketable stereo speakers. Following graduation, Dave pursued his interest in audio engineering. He landed a job as a loudspeaker designer with Conrad-Johnson, a high-end audio-equipment manufacturer headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia ____(9)____ Dave identified a market niche that he felt other speaker firms had overlooked ____(10)____These affluent, well-educated customers are genuinely obsessed with their stereo equipment. ?They‘d rather buy a new set of speakers than eat,‘ Dave observes. Dave faced one major problem---how to distribute Icon‘s products. He had learned from experience at Conrad-Johnson that most manufacturers distribute their equipment primarily through stereo dealers. Dave did not hold a high opinion of most such dealers; he felt that they too often played hardball with manufacturers, forcing them to accept thin margins. ____(11)____This kept those firms that offered more customized products from gaining access to the market. Perhaps most disturbing, Dave felt that the established dealers often sold not what was best for customers, but whatever they had in inventory that month. Dave dreamed of offering high-end stereo loudspeakers directly to the audio-obsessed, bypassing the established dealer network. ____(12)____ ―My vision for the future is one where all manufacturers sell their products directly to end user. In this way, even the audiophiles in Dead Horse, Alaska, can have access to all that the audio-manufacturing community has to offer.‖ Example: I. A. At the age of 28, Dave set out to turn his dreams into reality. B. Furthermore, the dealers concentrated on only a handful of well-known producers C. Who provided mass-produced models. D. The firms tend to plow their money in to developing their products and have little left over to market them. E. Within four years, Dave had designed 13 speaker models and decided to start his own

company. F. To serve the audio-addicts segment, Dave offers only the highest-quality speakers. G. It all began while majoring in electrical engineering at Cornell. By going directly to the customers, Dave could avoid the dealer markups and offer top-quality products and service at reasonable price. H. This niche consisted of ―audio-addicts‖----people who love to listen to music and appreciate first-rate stereo equipment. I. He sees sales climbing , cash flowing, and hundreds of happy workers Striving to produce top-quality products that delight Icon‘s customers. 答案:Questions 8 - 12: F, D, H, B, G

试题 9
PART TWO Questions 8 - 12 ? Read this advertisement about business book reviews. ? Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8 - 12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet.

?

Do not mark any letter twice. Special Introductory Offer! Gain a working knowledge of the top Business books – rapidly and easily Now you can read the best business books - in just 15 minutes each! It's the executive dilemma of the Nineties: information overload. ____(example).____ There should be a simpler way to keep track of the latest ideas. And there is. A systematic solution: Suppose you had an assistant who screened and selected only the quality books for you. ____ (8)____ . So you could obtain a working knowledge of the book‘s contents in a fraction of the time. Now you can have that assistant with Executive Book Summaries. Every month, you receive quick-reading, time-saving summaries of the best new business books. ____(9)____ . This means that rather than taking five to ten hours to read, it takes just 15 minutes! How you'll benefit. Executive Book Summaries, designed for the busy executive, are a solution to the growing management problem of too much to read and too little lime to do it. ? Improve your business confidence. You gain a real understanding of the key points of the best new business books. ? Learn more, remember more. We've taken account of extensive research into the memory functions of the human brain ____(10)____ . ? Get ideas you can use. ____(11)____ . In a summary, these ideas are more accessible and ?actionable‘. ? Cut hundreds of hours off your reading load. How often have you opened a new book with great expectations - only to find it a huge disappointment? ____(12)____ The books we summarise cover just about every subject you need to know, from management techniques to guidance on your career.

A) These introductory texts are the most important books and using them can pay big dividends. B) Discover practical tips and techniques you can apply without delay. C) In order to avoid this problem, we select for you only the truly worthwhile titles and reject the rest. D) According to studies published in psychology journals, you retain the content of a summary better than a book. E) He or she would take the most important ideas from each one, and compile them into a neat executive summary. F) With the breadth and depth of knowledge gained from books, it is less likely that you'll be caught off guard. G) Each contains all the key points in the original book, but instead of 200 to 500 pages there are only eight pages.

H) There's a sample of the superb business titles that we summarise for you. I) With all the reading you have to do in the normal course of your work, you find it impossible to keep up with all the new business books. 答案:8.E 9.G 10.D 11.B 12.C 试题 13 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the text below about career planning. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once. Career Planning For many employees, automatic promotion up the ranks of a company is becoming increasingly rare. A new study suggests that, in response, employers need to consider how they can help staff develop their careers. Employers need to rethink their approach to career management completely, according to the latest research by the Institute of Employment Studies. The new study finds that in fact there is little opportunity for individual career development in many large organisations. (example)____.The Institute of Employment Studies makes it clear that it is not good practice for companies to hand over career development to individual employees and then simply leave them to get on with it. (8) ____. So how should employers help their staff develop a career? Most employees have come to accept that career development is not always the same thing as upward promotion and a higher salary. (9) ____.They must also ensure that these opportunities are extended to all their staff and not just to selected individuals. Nick Bridges, who is Director of Human Resources Policy at the Bank of Eastern England, believes there is more talk than action in this area. (10) ____. One way, he believes, for companies to show how serious they are about individual learning is to make it an official part of company practice, as the Bank of Eastern England has done. (11)____. This document, he points out, has made the role of managers clear, and the company has also invested huge amounts of money educating managers so that they can then train their staff. Another company, British Chemicals, has contracted an independent organisation to help staff with confidential career advice. According to John Yates, the head of Individual Learning and Development at British Chemicals, there is an important role for outside agencies to play in the career management process. He adds that it is company policy for managers to give all staff ?roadmaps‘ which show possible career routes within the company structure. (12)____. This has worked especially well, he says, for staff who are used to depending on their line managers for guidance. Many large organisations now recognise that career development cannot be regarded in isolation, and must be part of an overall business strategy. Human Resources has a real role to play in

building a strong workforce which meets a company‘s long-term business needs and makes it more competitive. A B C D E F G H Its policy statement says that by 2006, eighty per cent of its staff will have a professional qualification. His recommendations go even further than that, and he has called for a national debate on the issue of what should be regarded as a career in the future. This change of attitude means employers need to place more emphasis on giving staff the chance to develop a range of skills through horizontal job moves. It points out that employees need to know what the overall company vision is in order to achieve many of these. The problem that often arises is that, while they are increasingly encouraged to manage their own careers, they are not provided with the knowledge and training to do this. They are able to see that, contrary to expectations, jobs in different fields are similar, and they can also see how it is possible to cross over to other areas. Its employees are no longer motivated by these factors alone, and the problem today is matching a person‘s motivation with the right job. He argues that while Human Resources managers are saying the way forward is through self-managed learning and self-development, they are still failing to provide adequate learning resources. The main reasons for this, it concludes, are the recent cuts in the number of middle-management posts, and the changes that have taken place in the responsibilities of personnel departments. 9.C 10.H 11.A 12.D 试题 8

I

答案:8.E

PART TWO Questions 8 – 12 ? Read the following text. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on page 36 to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8 – 12 mark one letter A – I on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not mark any letter twice. Marketing In the past, the concept of marketing emphasised sales. The producer or manufacturer made a product he wanted to sell. ____ example ____ . Basically, selling the product would be accomplished by sales promotion, which included advertising and personal selling ____ (8) ____ Distribution consisted of transportation, storage, and related services such as financing, standardisation and grading, and the related risks. The modern marketing concept encompasses all of the activities mentioned, but it is based on a different set of principles ____ (9) ____ In other words, goods should be produced only if they can

be sold. Therefore, the producer should consider who is going to buy the product ------ or what the market for the product is ---- before production begins. Marketing now involves first deciding what the customer wants, and designing and producing a product that satisfies these wants at a profit to the company ____(11)____ This is much more difficult since it involves human behaviour. ____(12)____ Thus, demand and market forces are still an important aspect of modern marketing, but they are considered prior to the production process.

Example: C

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

It subscribes to the notion that production can be economically justified only by consumption. Marketing was the task of figuring out how to sell the product. Marketing is as important in today‘s economy as the production of goods and services. Production, on the other hand, is mostly an engineering problem. Such markets must be created and stimulated by managers. This is very different from making a product and then thinking about how to sell it. More than half the cost of consumer goods can be traced to marketing activities. In addition to sales promotion, marketing also involved the physical distribution of the product to the places where it was actually sold. Instead of concentrating solely on production, the company must consider the desires of the consumer.

I.

答案:Questions 8 - 12: H, A, F, I, D 试题 9

PART TWO Questions 8 - 12 ? Read this advertisement about business book reviews. ? Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8 - 12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet.

?

Do not mark any letter twice. Special Introductory Offer! Gain a working knowledge of the top Business books – rapidly and easily Now you can read the best business books - in just 15 minutes each! It's the executive dilemma of the Nineties: information overload. ____(example).____ There should be a simpler way to keep track of the latest ideas. And there is. A systematic solution: Suppose you had an assistant who screened and selected only the quality books for you. ____ (8)____ . So you could obtain a working knowledge of the book‘s contents in a fraction of the time. Now you can have that assistant with Executive Book Summaries. Every month, you receive quick-reading, time-saving summaries of the best new business books. ____(9)____ . This means that rather than taking five to ten hours to read, it takes just 15 minutes! How you'll benefit. Executive Book Summaries, designed for the busy executive, are a solution to the growing management problem of too much to read and too little lime to do it. ? Improve your business confidence. You gain a real understanding of the key points of the best new business books. ? Learn more, remember more. We've taken account of extensive research into the memory functions of the human brain ____(10)____ . ? Get ideas you can use. ____(11)____ . In a summary, these ideas are more accessible and ?actionable‘. ? Cut hundreds of hours off your reading load. How often have you opened a new book with great expectations - only to find it a huge disappointment? ____(12)____ The books we summarise cover just about every subject you need to know, from management techniques to guidance on your career.

A) These introductory texts are the most important books and using them can pay big dividends. B) Discover practical tips and techniques you can apply without delay. C) In order to avoid this problem, we select for you only the truly worthwhile titles and reject

the rest. D) According to studies published in psychology journals, you retain the content of a summary better than a book. E) He or she would take the most important ideas from each one, and compile them into a neat executive summary. F) With the breadth and depth of knowledge gained from books, it is less likely that you'll be caught off guard. G) Each contains all the key points in the original book, but instead of 200 to 500 pages there are only eight pages. H) There's a sample of the superb business titles that we summarise for you. I) With all the reading you have to do in the normal course of your work, you find it impossible to keep up with all the new business books. 答案:8.E 9.G 10.D 11.B 12.C

试题

13

PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the text below about career planning. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once. Career Planning For many employees, automatic promotion up the ranks of a company is becoming increasingly rare. A new study suggests that, in response, employers need to consider how they can help staff develop their careers. Employers need to rethink their approach to career management completely, according to the latest research by the Institute of Employment Studies. The new study finds that in fact there is little opportunity for individual career development in many large organisations. (example)____.The Institute of Employment Studies makes it clear that it is not good practice for companies to hand over career development to individual employees and then simply leave them to get on with it. (8) ____. So how should employers help their staff develop a career? Most employees have come to accept that career development is not always the same thing as upward promotion and a higher salary. (9) ____.They must also ensure that these opportunities are extended to all their staff and not just to selected individuals. Nick Bridges, who is Director of Human Resources Policy at the Bank of Eastern England, believes there is more talk than action in this area. (10) ____. One way, he believes, for companies to show how serious they are about individual learning is to make it an official part of company practice, as the Bank of Eastern England has done. (11)____. This document, he points out, has made the role of managers clear, and the company has also invested huge amounts of money

educating managers so that they can then train their staff. Another company, British Chemicals, has contracted an independent organisation to help staff with confidential career advice. According to John Yates, the head of Individual Learning and Development at British Chemicals, there is an important role for outside agencies to play in the career management process. He adds that it is company policy for managers to give all staff ?roadmaps‘ which show possible career routes within the company structure. (12)____. This has worked especially well, he says, for staff who are used to depending on their line managers for guidance. Many large organisations now recognise that career development cannot be regarded in isolation, and must be part of an overall business strategy. Human Resources has a real role to play in building a strong workforce which meets a company‘s long-term business needs and makes it more competitive. A B C D E F G H Its policy statement says that by 2006, eighty per cent of its staff will have a professional qualification. His recommendations go even further than that, and he has called for a national debate on the issue of what should be regarded as a career in the future. This change of attitude means employers need to place more emphasis on giving staff the chance to develop a range of skills through horizontal job moves. It points out that employees need to know what the overall company vision is in order to achieve many of these. The problem that often arises is that, while they are increasingly encouraged to manage their own careers, they are not provided with the knowledge and training to do this. They are able to see that, contrary to expectations, jobs in different fields are similar, and they can also see how it is possible to cross over to other areas. Its employees are no longer motivated by these factors alone, and the problem today is matching a person‘s motivation with the right job. He argues that while Human Resources managers are saying the way forward is through self-managed learning and self-development, they are still failing to provide adequate learning resources. The main reasons for this, it concludes, are the recent cuts in the number of middle-management posts, and the changes that have taken place in the responsibilities of personnel departments. 9.C 10.H 11.A 12.D 试题 PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read this memorandum. ? Choose the best sentence from the list A – I to fill each of the blanks. ? For each blank (8 - 12) mark one letter (A - I) on your Answer Sheet. ? De not mark any letter twice. 4

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答案:8.E

?

One answer has teen given as an example.

MEMORANDUM To: Filma Williams, school of Architecture From: Ram S. Johnson, Physical Plant Operations Subject: Air-conditioning Installation Costs for East Hall. Date: 4.4.94 As you requested in your memo of March 15, we have studied the costs of installing air conditioning for the seven offices and two studio classrooms in East Hall ____ Example ____ Office and Classroom installation Estimates were obtained from three contractors on the costs of covering the offices and classrooms ____ 8 ____ The work would take about three weeks. Because the central unit would be installed on the roof, some noise problems might occur during a four-or five-day period ____ 9 ____ Sheet metal work to build out lest in the classes could be dine on weekends, and the overtime labour costs of about $ 1,500 have been included in the estimates. Arrangements were not made to do the office space installation on weekends … 10 … Additional Installation Because a larger installation, including a more powerful central unit, would be necessary to handle the halls and stairways, an additional $6,000 would be required for the equipment. ____ 11 ____ If this additional work were delayed until a later time, a new central unit would be required along with changes in the pipe way ____ 12 ____ Summary The total job for the building would be about $ 35,000 if done at one time. A two-stage installation would cost about $55,000. I can get official bids at your request. Example: A A. As you suggested, we also sought information on the additional cost of air conditioning in the entrance halls and stairways. B. All these three were in the $ 20,000 to $ 25,000 range. C. This later installation would cost about $20,000. D. However, class interruption should be minimal. E. In the same way, each of these three would take at least one month. F. Therefore, the total cost was this $6,000 plus another $5,000. G. Labour costs would be an additional S 5,000, bringing the total cost of the addition to $11,000. H. Each faculty member could expect to have workers in office for about one day. I. So faculty members can continue their office work as usual.

答案:8.B

9. D

10. H

11. G

12. C 试题 10

PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? ? ? ? Read the text below about work uniforms. Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. For each gap 8-12, mark one letter A-I on your Answer Sheet. Do not use any letter more than once.

Altered Images We have teamed up with The Career and Workwear Show to find the best-dressed organization. Two hotel groups and a management center have made it to the shortlist. Uniforms project an instant image about a business, as well as creating a team spirit among staff. Choose the wrong workwear and you risk upsetting your customers and employees. Three entrants have been shortlisted in the competition to find the best-dressed business: Country Hotel Group, Goring Residential Management College and Major Hotels. (example) ----------. A detailed entry form set out to discover the thought processes the entrants had used before they selected their new uniforms. (8) ____. In addition to price and style the judges wanted to know how the organisation introduced the new look and what lessons it had learnt. The Country Hotel Group was looking for a uniform that was comfortable to wear and presented a relaxed country image to guests. The firm admits to placing a great emphasis on the clothing and appearance of its staff. (9) ____. A brief was issued to a number of companies who then had to present their ideas in a fashion show format to 50 employees. After the design was chosen, one hotel tried out the uniform for three months. (10) ____ The aim of the new uniform at Goring Residential Management College was to make staff instantly recognisable to course participants. The chosen design from Classy Rags established a clear corporate image at the college. There were many different outfits but only three fabrics had been used throughout the range and therefore the uniform was easily recognisable. One of the judges in the competition, fashion journalist Sally Bain, was also impressed with the value for money aspect of the uniforms. (11) ____ At Major Hotels a new uniform was needed to replace the old one which was considered to be ?old-fashioned and unattractive.‘ The new design was well received by the reception staff of the hotel chain. (12) ____. The new bottle-green uniforms were selected from Rayner Corporate Clothing. It was felt that it was a functional choice of colour and made a pleasant change from the more traditional black.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

Feedback was then collected from staff at the hotel and minor changes were made before the uniform was introduced across all hotels. The award will be presented to the competition winners at The Career and Workwear Show which will be held at Business Design Centre in London. They all believe that its introduction has led to a modern, more professional corporate image and greater confidence among them. One entry predicted that uniform fabrics would incorporate security aids which are read by sensors on doors and only allow access to authorised personnel. In her opinion this had been achieved at half the cost of the other entries, with the average cost per person being ? 201,and each uniform being expected to last two years. It asked why the uniform was introduced, who it was designed to be worn by, and how the firm went about selecting a supplier. She felt that the head receptionist at the hotel should be asked to put forward the views and preferences of the team. In its entry it said:‘Substantial investment has been made in this uniform because uniforms are seen as a very important area.‘

I)One reason for this is that all three proved to the judges that they had thoroughly researched their choice of new uniforms. 答案:8.F 9.H 10.A 11.E 12.C

练习 3. Banks and Banking : Other Bank Services A modern bank provides many services other than checking accounts. ____1____ If you went to a bank to open a savings account, you would go through almost the same procedures followed in applying for a checking account. ____2____ Then you would be given a passbook in which your initial deposit would be recorded. All deposits and withdrawals from your account are entered into your passbook. ____3____ With a regular passbook savings account, you would be able to withdraw money wherever you needed it. All you would have to do is fill out a withdrawal order and present it, along with your passbook to the teller. All banks pay interest on savings accounts. ____4____ Banks also pay interest at different times. ____5____ Suppose, for example, that on January 1, you deposited $ 1,000 in a bank that paid 4 1/2 percent interest semiannually. By July 1,you would have earned $ 22.50 interest. This interest would automatically be credited to your account; and of you left it in the bank, along with your original deposit, you would receive interest on $ 1,022.50 for the next six-month period. That is, your interest would be compounded. A. But the majority of them pay semiannually, that is, every six months. B. The interest rate varies from bank to bank, but the general range is from 4 1/2 to 6 percent.

C.

This means that passbook contains an actual record of all transactions made and that you know the exact amount of savings you have at any one time. D. One of these is checking accounts. E. First you would be asked to fill out a signature card. F. But most banks pay interest at the end of a year. G. One of the most important of these is regular passbook savings. H. One can withdraw money whenever necessary. 答案:答案:1.G;2. E;3. ;4. B;5. A

第六课时

练习 1. Problems at Southford Plant Dear MR Ballard, You asked for a brief report concerning the recent events at the Southford Plant. We have consulted the files and spoken to relevant members of the higher management and thus are able to provide an explanation for the breakdown reported in the press on 17 May of this year. ____1____ The handling equipment used to deliver the components to the assembly line has been known to be in need of an overhaul for the past six months. The plant has been working to full capacity to finish the American orders according to schedule. As you know, we had commissioned a study by Industrial Research Consultants. ____2____ In it they warned that there was not enough space available to store sufficient components ____3____ We had decided to install fully automated robot system. However, at the same time it was clear to our production director that given the present maintenance staff, we would not have sufficient staff available if big problems were to arise____4____But we were still only working a two-shift system so the machines were not getting the necessary cover. We all agree that the breakdown was extremely unfortunate and yet we must admit that, under the circumstance, it was not entirely unexpected. We now believe that we have managed to sort out the major problems which we had been having with the conveyor equipment ____5____ Added to this is the fact that personnel department has been successful in recruiting some highly qualified maintenance staff who makes us confident that a repetition of the 16 May now seems entirely unlikely. A. They also recommended expanding the present two-shift system to a three-shift one. B. And also when the new robots are installed in September, we feel certain that such problems will become a thing of the past. C. Unfortunately, as you know, there has been a major problem with recognizing the maintenance schedule. D. The wide range of machine we operate is not fully supervised at all times. E. The cause of the breakdown was very simple.

F. They submitted their report on April 5. G. There have been a number of delays and breakdowns in production recently which have been reported in the press. H. The firm has been advertising for maintenance engineers for some weeks. I. All the facilities in the plant will be coordinated to enable the workers to step up production of the new range of machines. 答案:1. E;2. F;3. A;4. H;5.B

试题

14

PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the article below about job interviews. ? Choose the best sentence from the list on the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12 mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once. How to Succeed at Interviews The aim of a job interview is to establish whether you are likely to do well in a particular job in a specific organisation. This is not only a matter of having the necessary technical knowledge and skills. You must also have the motivation, the ability to adapt to new ways of working and to a new work environment, and the personality to do the job and fit into a new team. (example)____. These include getting on with people, oral and written communication, teamworking, problem solving and good time management. Most people think that interviewers know what they are looking for and will recognise it when they see it. (8) ____. This applies to recruiters as much as anyone else. In fact a former head of selection at one big firm used to say that ―some interviewers are so poor they would do better to rely on chance‖. In companies which recognise this, various methods are used to try to find the right person (9) ____. Research has shown that this approach is more reliable than the ordinary job interview, though not as effective as using personality tests or assessment centres. In a structured interview the interviewer groups the qualities listed in the job specification under various headings. There are two well-established structures for this: the National Institute of Industrial Psychology‘s Seven-Point Plan and the Five-Fold Grading System. Both these systems cover factors such as physical appearance, qualifications, general intelligence, motivation and previous experience.(10) ____. However, they should not give equal weight to each one. Some factors are more important in one job than another. For example, physical appearance and manner will be more important in a sales position than in a researcher who works behind the scenes. It is also a fact that the impact the candidate makes in the first three of four minutes of an interview is of major importance.(11)

____.A decision not to hire is often made during those first few minutes. It is not always possible to tell whether structured interview techniques are being used. If interviewers ask questions systematically, using some kind of checklist, and occasionally make a brief note, they probably are. On the other hand, if the interviewer goes through your application form to confirm what you have already said, or asks irrelevant questions, or jumps from one topic to another the interview is unlikely to be structured. Before you attend any interview, look again at the job description and the personal specification. (12) ____. If you already have a mental list of the key points that you need to mention, you are unlikely to waste time giving irrelevant information or to omit important points in your favour. A B C D E F G H I Study them closely and assess what your interviewer will be looking for. However, people are actually not very good at assessing one another. A number of skills are common to most of these interviewing situations. Although a favourable impression may be reversed later in the interview, a negative impression is rarely changed. The most common is the structured interview. The effectiveness of the interviewer can be improved by training. For each of these areas the interviewers score candidates against how well they fit the job specification. The ability to cope with stress and get on with people is essential. But there are other personal skills that affect your success in a job. 9.E 10.G 11.D 12.A

答案:8.B

Finding the right people When a small company grows, managers must take on many new roles. Besides the day-to-day running of the business, they find themselves responsible for, among other things, relations with outside investors, increased levels of cashflow and, hardest of all, recruitment. For most managers of small and medium-sized enterprises, the job of searching for, interviewing and selecting staff is difficult and time-consuming. ___(0) G___. Interviewing, for example, is a highly skilled activity in itself. ―We have found the whole process very hard,‖ says Dan Baker, founding partner of a PR company. ―In seven years we have grown from five to eighteen staff, but we have not found it easy to locate and recruit the right people.‖ ___(8)___. As Dan Baker explains, ―We went to one for out first recruitment drive, but they took a lot of money in advance and didn‘t put forward anybody suitable. In the end we had to do it ourselves.‖ Most recruitment decisions are based on a pile of CVs, a couple of short interviews and two cautious references. David Rowe, a business psychologist, studied how appointments were made in five small companies. He claims that selection was rarely based in clear criteria. ___(9)___. This kind of approach to recruitment often has unhappy consequences for both employers and new recruits. Small companies often know what kind of person they are looking for. ___(10)___.

According to David Rowe, this means that small company managers themselves have to devote more time and energy to recruitment. It shouldn‘t be something that is left to the evenings or weekends. Many companies start the recruitment process with over-optimistic ideas about the type of person that will fit into their team. ―It‘s very easy to say you must have the best people in the top positions,‖ says Alex Jones, managing partner of an executive recruitment company. ―But someone who is excellent in one company may not do so well in another environment. ___(11)___. You can never guarantee a successful transfer of skills.‖ Whatever the candidate‘s qualifications, their personal qualities are just as important since they will have to integrate with existing members of staff. This is where, the recruitment industry argues, they can really help. According to Alex Jones, ―a good recruitment agency will visit your company and ask a lot of questions. ___(12)___. They can ask applicants all sorts of you with a shortlist of people who not only have the skills, but who are likely to fit in with your company‘s way of doing things.‖ A. A finance director in a big company, for example, will often make a terrible small company finance director because he or she is used to having a team doing the day-to-day jobs. B. More often than not, the people making the choice prioritized different qualities in candidates or relied on guesswork. C. Recruitment would seem an obvious task to outsource, but the company‘s experience of recruitment agencies was not encouraging. D. They need paying for that, of course, but you will have them working for you and not for the candidate. E. They are usually in very specific markets and the problem they face is that recruitment agencies may not really understand the sector. F. This means that companies cannot spend more than the standard ten minutes interviewing each applicant. G. Yet few are trained and competent for all aspects of the task. 答案:8.C;9.B;10.E;11.A;12.D Part 3 作业: Part 3 Exercise1 Questions 1-6 Read the article below about public relations. For each question 1-6, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. Public Relations A company does not function in a vacuum, but rather as part of a society. That society consists of the people who work for it, the people and companies that do business with it, the public at large,

and the government that regulates and taxes it. These groups are known as a company‘s ―publics.‖ In order for a company to deal with these publics effectively, a relationship of trust must exist. Employees will not cooperate with or put forth their best efforts for a company that they do not trust or that they feel is taking advantage of them. The public will not buy products or services from a company that, in their view, is not responsible or trustworthy. And the government, as the protector of the society it governs, is especially vigilant in dealing with a company that it regards as not operating in the public interest. Given these circumstances, every business, whether it is a giant corporation or a small factory, a five-star hotel or a roadside tavern, needs to give some thought to the relationship it has with all the various publics it interacts with. The techniques that a company uses to improve these relationships are known as ―public relations‖, also called PR. The goal of public relations is usually to improve the climate or atmosphere in which a company operates. Here are some results a company might expect from a successful public relations campaign: Its products and services are better known. Its relationship with employees has improved. Its public reputation has improved. A successful public relations campaign can get people to do something that will help a company, stop them from doing something that might hurt it, or at least allow the company to proceed with a course of action without criticism. ―An organization with good public relations has a favourable image or reputation, perhaps as a result of public relations activities.‖ Says Richard Weiner, a noted and award-winning public relations counselor. In developing and implementing public relations plans, companies often use a simple five-step process: research or fact finding, planning, action, communication, and evaluation. A classic example of public relations at work is McDonald‘s. It has always been important to McDonald‘s to be known as a company that values cleanliness. Indeed, founder Ray Kroc emphasized cleanliness a long with quality, service, and value as being the four most important things in any McDonald‘s operation. For that reason, Kroc instructed the first McDonald‘s franchisees to pick up all litter within a two block radius of their stores, whether it was McDonald‘s litter or not. The company also did many other things to help protect the environment. In 1990, it announced a program called McRecycle in which McDonald‘s committed itself to buy $100 million in recycled materials for use in building and remodeling its restaurants. It is important to understand the role public relations has played in all the company‘s decisions. McDonald‘s has always been socially responsible and extremely concerned about its image. These two facts are part and parcel of its public relationships. To McDonald‘s, public relationships activities go much deeper than simply sending out press releases and having corporate officers serve on various charitable boards. The company understands that real public relations means taking significant action first, then announcing them to the public. Without the first step, the second would be meaningless. Many companies do not understand this basic principle: If you want to make news, you must first do something newsworthy. 1. According to the passage, a company‘s publics refer to A. people in a society

B. employees and employers within a company C. people and organization in and outside a company D. the company and the government 2. A good public relationship is based on A. mutual understanding B. mutual familiarity C. mutual attraction D. mutual trust The aim of public relations is to A. improve a company‘s operating environment B. make a company‘s products known to the public C. make a company‘s name known to the public D. establish a good relationship with employees The passage tells us that a good reputation of a company mostly comes from A. its high quality products B. the fame of its executives C. its public relation activities D. its relationship with the government According to the text, how many steps are usually adopted to implement public relations plans? A. Three. B. Five. C. Eight. D. Not mentioned. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? A. Public relations first, business second. B. Actions speak louder than words. C. It is easier said than done. D. One should seek truth from facts.

3.

4.

5.

6.

PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about business meetings and the questions on the opposite page. ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose. GETTING THE MOST OUT OF MEETING One aspect of business life which many managers are unhappy with is the need to attend meetings. Research indicates that managers will spend between a third and a half of their working lives in meetings. Although most managers would agree that it is hard to think of an alternative to

meetings, as a means of considering information and making collective decisions, their length and frequency can cause problems with the workload of even the best-organised executives. Meetings work best if they take place only when necessary and not as a matter of routine. One example of this is the discussion of personal or career matters between members of staff and their line and personnel managers. Another is during the early stages of a project when the team managing it need to learn to understand and trust one another. Once it has been decided that a meeting is necessary, decisions need to be taken about who will attend and about the location and length of the meeting. People should only be invited to attend if they are directly involved in the matters under discussion and the agenda should be distributed well in advance. An agenda is vital because it acts as a road map to keep discussion focused and within the time limited allocated. This is also the responsibility of the person chairing the meeting, who should encourage those who say little to speak and stop those who have a great deal to say from talking too much. At the end of a well organised meeting, people will feel that the meeting has been a success and be pleased they were invited. They will know not only what decisions were made but also the reasons for these decisions. Unfortunately, at the end of a badly organised meeting those present will leave feeling that they have wasted their time and that nothing worthwhile has been achieved. Much together has been given over the years to ways of keeping meeting short. One man who has no intention of spending half his working life in meeting is Roland Winterson, chief executive of a large manufacturing company. He believes that meetings should be short, sharp and infrequent. ―I try to hold no more than two or three meetings a week, attended by a maximum of three people for no longer than half an hour,‖ he says. ―They are clearly aimed at achieving a specific objective, such as making a decision or planning a strategy, and are based on careful preparation. I draw up the agenda for every meeting and circulate it in advance; those attending are expected to study it carefully and should be prepared to both ask and answer questions. Managers are best employed carrying out tasks directly connected with their jobs not attending endless meetings. In business, time is money and spending it in needless meetings that don‘t achieve anything can be very costly. Executives should follow the example of lawyers and put a cost on each hour of their time and then decide whether attending a long meeting really is the best way to spend their time.‖ 13. What do most managers think about meetings? A. Meetings take up most of their working life. B. Meetings allow them to monitor decision-making. C. Meetings prevent them from establishing a routine. D. Meetings are the only way they know of achieving certain objectives. 14. According to the writer, an example of a valuable meeting is one which A. allows colleagues to achieve a better working relationship. B. requires managers to discuss staffing needs with personnel. C. selects a suitable group of people to work together as a team.

D. encourages staff to present ideas on improvements in management. 15. According to the writer the agenda is important because it A. is seen by everybody before the meeting. B. helps to give direction to the discussions. C. contains items of interest to all those present. D. shows who should speak at each stage of the meeting. 16. The writer says that people leaving a well organised meeting will understand A. the reason for their invitation to attend. B. how the decisions taken were relevant to them. C. the importance of proposals under discussion. D. why certain courses of action were agreed upon. 17. What does Roland Winterson say about the meetings that he organises? A. He aims to hold them on a regular basis. B. He ensures they have a definite purpose. C. He requires his managers to draw up the agenda. D. He uses them to make decisions about strategy. 18. What is Roland Winteson‘s opinion about meetings? A. They ban be a bad use of a manager‘s time. B. Their importance is often underestimated. C. They frequently result in wrong decisions. D. Their effectiveness could be improved with better planning. 答案:13.D;14.A;15.B;16.D;17.B;18.A PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about how to avoid working long hours and the questions on the opposite page ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. Morning, noon and night The long-hours culture at work Working an eight-hour day is a luxury for most professional people. Nowadays, the only way to guarantee an eight-hour working day is to have the kind of job where you clock on and off. Those professionals who have managed to limit their hours to what was, 20 years ago, the average do not wish to identify themselves. ―I can quite easily achieve my work within a normal day, but I don‘t like to draw attention to it,‖ says one sales manager. ―People looked at me when I left at 5 o‘clock. Now, I put paperwork in my bag. People assume I‘m doing extra hours at home.‖ But more typical is Mark, who works as an account manager. He says, ―My contract says I work

from 9 until 5 with extra hours as necessary. It sounds as if the extra hours are exceptional. In fact ,my job would be enough not only for me, but also for someone else part-time. The idea of an eight-hour day makes me laugh!‖ He says he has thought about going freelance but realises that this doesn‘t guarantee better working hours. Professors Cary Cooper, occupational psychologist at the University of Manchester, is the author of the annual Quality of Working Life survey. The most recent survey found that 77% of managers in Britain work more than their contracted hours, and that this is having a damaging effect on their health, relationships and productivity. Professor Cooper is critical of the long-hours culture. He says that while bosses believe long hours lead to greater efficiency, there is no evidence to support this. ―In fact, the evidence shows that long hours make you ill.‖ There are, he says, steps that can be taken. One is to accept that the in-tray will never be empty. ―There are always things to do. You just have to make the rule that on certain days you go home early.‖ Prioritising work and doing essential tasks first helps, he says. He also thinks it‘s time to criticize bad employers and unreasonable terms of employment. ―By all means, show commitment where necessary but when expectations are too high, people have to begin saying openly that they have a life outside of work.‖ Personal development coach Mo Shapiro agrees that communication is important. Staff need to talk to managers about the working practices within a company. Both parties should feel that the expectations are realistic and allow them to have responsibilities and interests outside work. She recongnises, however, that in many organizations the response might well be, ―If you want more interests outside work, then find another job.‖ She believes that senior staff have a duty to set an example. ―I recently worked for a firm of solicitors where the partners started at 7.30am. What kind of message is that to send to the staff?‖ She believes there is no shame in working sensible hours – in fact quite the reserve. ―Some people might be in at 7.30am but will be doing very little. You can work really hard from 9 to 5 and achieve the same. If you find it difficult to achieve an eight-hour day, there is, as a last resort, the old trick of leaving your jacket on your chair and your computers switched on, even after you have left the building.‖ 13. What does the writer say in the first paragraph about people who work an eight-hour day? A. They are reluctant to admit to this. B. They are disliked by their colleagues. C. They are limited to certain professions. D. They often catch up on work in the evenings. 14. What does Mark say about his work? A. His main concern is job security. B. Too much of his time at work is wasted. C. The terms of his contract are misleading. D. He objects to being given other people‘s work.

15. What does Cary Cooper say about recent trends in the workplace? A. He believes that a long working day is counter-productive. B. He has doubts about the results of the Quality of Working Life survey. C. He says that employers should accept the link between working hours and safety. D. He argues that further research is needed into the relationship between work and health. 16. How does Cary Cooper think people should deal with the requirements of the workplace? A. Obtain help in negotiating terms of employment. B. Let people know when demands are unreasonable. C. Delegate the less important work to other staff. D. Accept that the modern workplace is a competitive place. 17. What does Mo Shapiro see as a problem for employees today? A. They lack the communication skills that modern business requires. B. Many employers would not regard requests for shorter hours favourably. C. Most employers do not want to be responsible for the professional development of staff. D. They have difficulties adapting to the rapid changes occurring in working practices. 18. What does Mo Shapiro think about present working hours? A. In many companies senior staff need to work a long day. B. The best staff are efficient enough to finish their work within eight hours. C. There are too many staff deceiving employers about their hours of work. D. Top executives should use their influence to change the long-hours culture. 答案:13.A;14.C;15.A;16.B;17.B;18.D

PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about managing a small business and the questions on the opposite page. ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. The Difficulties Of Managing A Small Business Ronald Meers asks who chief executives of entrepreneurial or small businesses can turn to for advice. ―The organisational weaknesses that entrepreneurs have to deal with every day would cause the managers of a mature company to panic, ‖ Andrew Bidden wrote recently in Boston Business Review. This seems to suggest that the leaders of entrepreneurial or small businesses must be unlike other managers, or the problems faced by such leaders must be the subject of a specialised body of wisdom, or possibly both. Unfortunately, neither is true. Not much worth reading about managing the entrepreneurial or small business has been written, and the leaders of such

businesses are made of flesh and blood, like the rest of us. Furthermore, little has been done to address the aspects of entrepreneurial or small businesses that are so difficult to deal with and so different from the challenges faced by management in big business. In part this is because those involved in gathering expertise about business and in selling advice to businesses have historically been more interested in the needs of big business. In part, in the UK at least, it is also because small businesses have always preferred to adapt to changing circumstances. The organisational problems of entrepreneurial or small businesses are thus forced upon the individuals who lead them. Even more so than for bigger businesses, the old saying is true – that people, particularly those who make the important decisions, are a business‘s most important asset. The research that does exist shows that neither money nor the ability to access more of it is the major factor determining growth. The main reason an entrepreneurial business stops growing is the lack of management and leadership resource available to the business when it matters. Give an entrepreneur an experienced, skilled team and he or she will find the funds every time. Getting the team, though, is the difficult bit. Part of the problem for entrepreneurs is the speed of change that affects their businesses. They have to cope with continuous change yet have always been suspicious about the latest ―management solution‖. They regard the many offerings from business schools as out of date even before they leave the planning board and have little faith in the recommendations of consultants when they arrive in the hands of young., inexperienced graduates. But such impatience with ―management solutions‖ does not mean that problems can be left to solve themselves. However, the leaders of growing businesses are still left with the problem of who to turn to for advice. The answer is horribly simple: leaders of small businesses can ask each other. The collective knowledge of a group of leaders can prove enormously helpful in solving the specific problems of individuals. One leader‘s problems have certainly been solved already by someone else. There is an organisation called KITE which enables those responsible for small businesses to meet. Its members, all of whom are chief executives, go through a demanding selection process, and then join a small group of other chief executives. They come from a range of business sectors and each offers a different corporate history. Each group is led by a ―moderator‖, an independently selected businessman or woman who has been specially trained to head the group. Each member takes it in turn to host a meeting at his or her business premises and, most important of all, group discussions are kept strictly confidential. This encourages a free sharing of problems and increase the possibility of solutions being discovered. 13. What does the writer say about entrepreneurs in the first paragraph? A. It is wrong to assume that they are different from other managers. B. The problems they have to cope with are specific to small businesses. C. They find it difficult to attract staff with sufficient expertise. D. They could learn from the organisational skills of managers in large companies.

14. According to the second paragraph, what has led to a lack of support for entrepreneurs? A. Entrepreneurs have always preferred to act independently. B. The requirements of big businesses have always taken priority. C. It is difficult to find solutions to the problems faced by entrepreneurs. D. Entrepreneurs are reluctant to provide information about their businesses. 15. What does the writer say about the expansion of small businesses? A. Many small businesses do not produce enough profits to finance growth. B. Many employees in small businesses have problems working as part of a team. C. Being able to recruit the right people is the most important factor affecting growth. D. Leaders of small businesses lack the experience to make their companies a success. 16. What does the writer say is an additional problem for entrepreneurs in the fourth paragraph? A. They rely on management systems that are out of date. B. They will not adopt measures that provide long-term solutions. C. They have little confidence in the business advice that is available. D. They do not take market changes into account when drawing up business plans. 17. What does the writer say the members of the KITE organisation provide? A. Advice no how to select suitable staff. B. A means of contacting potential clients. C. A simple checklist for analyzing problems. D. Direct experience of a number of industries. 18. The writer says that KITE groups are likely to succeed because A. members are able to elect their leader. B. the leaders have received extensive training. C. members are encouraged to adopt a critical approach. D. information is not passed on to non-members 答案:13.A;14.B;15.C;16.C;17.D;18.D 讲解: Part 3 Exercise1 Questions 1-6 Read the article below about public relations. For each question 1-6, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. Public Relations A company does not function in a vacuum, but rather as part of a society. That society consists of

the people who work for it, the people and companies that do business with it, the public at large, and the government that regulates and taxes it. These groups are known as a company‘s ―publics.‖ In order for a company to deal with these publics effectively, a relationship of trust must exist. Employees will not cooperate with or put forth their best efforts for a company that they do not trust or that they feel is taking advantage of them. The public will not buy products or services from a company that, in their view, is not responsible or trustworthy. And the government, as the protector of the society it governs, is especially vigilant in dealing with a company that it regards as not operating in the public interest. Given these circumstances, every business, whether it is a giant corporation or a small factory, a five-star hotel or a roadside tavern, needs to give some thought to the relationship it has with all the various publics it interacts with. The techniques that a company uses to improve these relationships are known as ―public relations‖, also called PR. The goal of public relations is usually to improve the climate or atmosphere in which a company operates. Here are some results a company might expect from a successful public relations campaign: Its products and services are better known. Its relationship with employees has improved. Its public reputation has improved. A successful public relations campaign can get people to do something that will help a company, stop them from doing something that might hurt it, or at least allow the company to proceed with a course of action without criticism. ―An organization with good public relations has a favourable image or reputation, perhaps as a result of public relations activities.‖ Says Richard Weiner, a noted and award-winning public relations counselor. In developing and implementing public relations plans, companies often use a simple five-step process: research or fact finding, planning, action, communication, and evaluation. A classic example of public relations at work is McDonald‘s. It has always been important to McDonald‘s to be known as a company that values cleanliness. Indeed, founder Ray Kroc emphasized cleanliness a long with quality, service, and value as being the four most important things in any McDonald‘s operation. For that reason, Kroc instructed the first McDonald‘s franchisees to pick up all litter within a two block radius of their stores, whether it was McDonald‘s litter or not. The company also did many other things to help protect the environment. In 1990, it announced a program called McRecycle in which McDonald‘s committed itself to buy $100 million in recycled materials for use in building and remodeling its restaurants. It is important to understand the role public relations has played in all the company‘s decisions. McDonald‘s has always been socially responsible and extremely concerned about its image. These two facts are part and parcel of its public relationships. To McDonald‘s, public relationships activities go much deeper than simply sending out press releases and having corporate officers serve on various charitable boards. The company understands that real public relations means taking significant action first, then announcing them to the public. Without the first step, the second would be meaningless. Many companies do not understand this basic principle: If you want to make news, you must first do something newsworthy. 1. According to the passage, a company‘s publics refer to

A. B. C. D. 2.

people in a society employees and employers within a company people and organization in and outside a company the company and the government

A good public relationship is based on A. mutual understanding B. mutual familiarity C. mutual attraction D. mutual trust The aim of public relations is to A. improve a company‘s operating environment B. make a company‘s products known to the public C. make a company‘s name known to the public D. establish a good relationship with employees The passage tells us that a good reputation of a company mostly comes from A. its high quality products B. the fame of its executives C. its public relation activities D. its relationship with the government According to the text, how many steps are usually adopted to implement public relations plans? A. Three. B. Five. C. Eight. D. Not mentioned. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? A. Public relations first, business second. B. Actions speak louder than words. C. It is easier said than done. D. One should seek truth from facts.

3.

4.

5.

6.

第七课时

PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about business meetings and the questions on the opposite page. ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose.

GETTING THE MOST OUT OF MEETING One aspect of business life which many managers are unhappy with is the need to attend meetings. Research indicates that managers will spend between a third and a half of their working lives in meetings. Although most managers would agree that it is hard to think of an alternative to meetings, as a means of considering information and making collective decisions, their length and frequency can cause problems with the workload of even the best-organised executives. Meetings work best if they take place only when necessary and not as a matter of routine. One example of this is the discussion of personal or career matters between members of staff and their line and personnel managers. Another is during the early stages of a project when the team managing it need to learn to understand and trust one another. Once it has been decided that a meeting is necessary, decisions need to be taken about who will attend and about the location and length of the meeting. People should only be invited to attend if they are directly involved in the matters under discussion and the agenda should be distributed well in advance. An agenda is vital because it acts as a road map to keep discussion focused and within the time limited allocated. This is also the responsibility of the person chairing the meeting, who should encourage those who say little to speak and stop those who have a great deal to say from talking too much. At the end of a well organised meeting, people will feel that the meeting has been a success and be pleased they were invited. They will know not only what decisions were made but also the reasons for these decisions. Unfortunately, at the end of a badly organised meeting those present will leave feeling that they have wasted their time and that nothing worthwhile has been achieved. Much together has been given over the years to ways of keeping meeting short. One man who has no intention of spending half his working life in meeting is Roland Winterson, chief executive of a large manufacturing company. He believes that meetings should be short, sharp and infrequent. ―I try to hold no more than two or three meetings a week, attended by a maximum of three people for no longer than half an hour,‖ he says. ―They are clearly aimed at achieving a specific objective, such as making a decision or planning a strategy, and are based on careful preparation. I draw up the agenda for every meeting and circulate it in advance; those attending are expected to study it carefully and should be prepared to both ask and answer questions. Managers are best employed carrying out tasks directly connected with their jobs not attending endless meetings. In business, time is money and spending it in needless meetings that don‘t achieve anything can be very costly. Executives should follow the example of lawyers and put a cost on each hour of their time and then decide whether attending a long meeting really is the best way to spend their time.‖ 13. What do most managers think about meetings? A. Meetings take up most of their working life. B. Meetings allow them to monitor decision-making. C. Meetings prevent them from establishing a routine. D. Meetings are the only way they know of achieving certain objectives.

14. According to the writer, an example of a valuable meeting is one which A. allows colleagues to achieve a better working relationship. B. requires managers to discuss staffing needs with personnel. C. selects a suitable group of people to work together as a team. D. encourages staff to present ideas on improvements in management. 15. According to the writer the agenda is important because it A. is seen by everybody before the meeting. B. helps to give direction to the discussions. C. contains items of interest to all those present. D. shows who should speak at each stage of the meeting. 16. The writer says that people leaving a well organised meeting will understand A. the reason for their invitation to attend. B. how the decisions taken were relevant to them. C. the importance of proposals under discussion. D. why certain courses of action were agreed upon. 17. What does Roland Winterson say about the meetings that he organises? A. He aims to hold them on a regular basis. B. He ensures they have a definite purpose. C. He requires his managers to draw up the agenda. D. He uses them to make decisions about strategy. 18. What is Roland Winteson‘s opinion about meetings? A. They ban be a bad use of a manager‘s time. B. Their importance is often underestimated. C. They frequently result in wrong decisions. D. Their effectiveness could be improved with better planning. 答案:13.D;14.A;15.B;16.D;17.B;18.A

PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about how to avoid working long hours and the questions on the opposite page ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. Morning, noon and night The long-hours culture at work Working an eight-hour day is a luxury for most professional people. Nowadays, the only way to guarantee an eight-hour working day is to have the kind of job where you clock on and off. Those

professionals who have managed to limit their hours to what was, 20 years ago, the average do not wish to identify themselves. ―I can quite easily achieve my work within a normal day, but I don‘t like to draw attention to it,‖ says one sales manager. ―People looked at me when I left at 5 o‘clock. Now, I put paperwork in my bag. People assume I‘m doing extra hours at home.‖ But more typical is Mark, who works as an account manager. He says, ―My contract says I work from 9 until 5 with extra hours as necessary. It sounds as if the extra hours are exceptional. In fact ,my job would be enough not only for me, but also for someone else part-time. The idea of an eight-hour day makes me laugh!‖ He says he has thought about going freelance but realises that this doesn‘t guarantee better working hours. Professors Cary Cooper, occupational psychologist at the University of Manchester, is the author of the annual Quality of Working Life survey. The most recent survey found that 77% of managers in Britain work more than their contracted hours, and that this is having a damaging effect on their health, relationships and productivity. Professor Cooper is critical of the long-hours culture. He says that while bosses believe long hours lead to greater efficiency, there is no evidence to support this. ―In fact, the evidence shows that long hours make you ill.‖ There are, he says, steps that can be taken. One is to accept that the in-tray will never be empty. ―There are always things to do. You just have to make the rule that on certain days you go home early.‖ Prioritising work and doing essential tasks first helps, he says. He also thinks it‘s time to criticize bad employers and unreasonable terms of employment. ―By all means, show commitment where necessary but when expectations are too high, people have to begin saying openly that they have a life outside of work.‖ Personal development coach Mo Shapiro agrees that communication is important. Staff need to talk to managers about the working practices within a company. Both parties should feel that the expectations are realistic and allow them to have responsibilities and interests outside work. She recongnises, however, that in many organizations the response might well be, ―If you want more interests outside work, then find another job.‖ She believes that senior staff have a duty to set an example. ―I recently worked for a firm of solicitors where the partners started at 7.30am. What kind of message is that to send to the staff?‖ She believes there is no shame in working sensible hours – in fact quite the reserve. ―Some people might be in at 7.30am but will be doing very little. You can work really hard from 9 to 5 and achieve the same. If you find it difficult to achieve an eight-hour day, there is, as a last resort, the old trick of leaving your jacket on your chair and your computers switched on, even after you have left the building.‖ 13. What does the writer say in the first paragraph about people who work an eight-hour day? A. They are reluctant to admit to this. B. They are disliked by their colleagues. C. They are limited to certain professions. D. They often catch up on work in the evenings.

14. What does Mark say about his work? A. His main concern is job security. B. Too much of his time at work is wasted. C. The terms of his contract are misleading. D. He objects to being given other people‘s work. 15. What does Cary Cooper say about recent trends in the workplace? A. He believes that a long working day is counter-productive. B. He has doubts about the results of the Quality of Working Life survey. C. He says that employers should accept the link between working hours and safety. D. He argues that further research is needed into the relationship between work and health. 16. How does Cary Cooper think people should deal with the requirements of the workplace? A. Obtain help in negotiating terms of employment. B. Let people know when demands are unreasonable. C. Delegate the less important work to other staff. D. Accept that the modern workplace is a competitive place. 17. What does Mo Shapiro see as a problem for employees today? A. They lack the communication skills that modern business requires. B. Many employers would not regard requests for shorter hours favourably. C. Most employers do not want to be responsible for the professional development of staff. D. They have difficulties adapting to the rapid changes occurring in working practices. 18. What does Mo Shapiro think about present working hours? A. In many companies senior staff need to work a long day. B. The best staff are efficient enough to finish their work within eight hours. C. There are too many staff deceiving employers about their hours of work. D. Top executives should use their influence to change the long-hours culture. 答案:13.A;14.C;15.A;16.B;17.B;18.D PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about managing a small business and the questions on the opposite page. ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose. The Difficulties Of Managing A Small Business Ronald Meers asks who chief executives of entrepreneurial or small businesses can turn to for advice. ―The organisational weaknesses that entrepreneurs have to deal with every day would cause the

managers of a mature company to panic, ‖ Andrew Bidden wrote recently in Boston Business Review. This seems to suggest that the leaders of entrepreneurial or small businesses must be unlike other managers, or the problems faced by such leaders must be the subject of a specialised body of wisdom, or possibly both. Unfortunately, neither is true. Not much worth reading about managing the entrepreneurial or small business has been written, and the leaders of such businesses are made of flesh and blood, like the rest of us. Furthermore, little has been done to address the aspects of entrepreneurial or small businesses that are so difficult to deal with and so different from the challenges faced by management in big business. In part this is because those involved in gathering expertise about business and in selling advice to businesses have historically been more interested in the needs of big business. In part, in the UK at least, it is also because small businesses have always preferred to adapt to changing circumstances. The organisational problems of entrepreneurial or small businesses are thus forced upon the individuals who lead them. Even more so than for bigger businesses, the old saying is true – that people, particularly those who make the important decisions, are a business‘s most important asset. The research that does exist shows that neither money nor the ability to access more of it is the major factor determining growth. The main reason an entrepreneurial business stops growing is the lack of management and leadership resource available to the business when it matters. Give an entrepreneur an experienced, skilled team and he or she will find the funds every time. Getting the team, though, is the difficult bit. Part of the problem for entrepreneurs is the speed of change that affects their businesses. They have to cope with continuous change yet have always been suspicious about the latest ―management solution‖. They regard the many offerings from business schools as out of date even before they leave the planning board and have little faith in the recommendations of consultants when they arrive in the hands of young., inexperienced graduates. But such impatience with ―management solutions‖ does not mean that problems can be left to solve themselves. However, the leaders of growing businesses are still left with the problem of who to turn to for advice. The answer is horribly simple: leaders of small businesses can ask each other. The collective knowledge of a group of leaders can prove enormously helpful in solving the specific problems of individuals. One leader‘s problems have certainly been solved already by someone else. There is an organisation called KITE which enables those responsible for small businesses to meet. Its members, all of whom are chief executives, go through a demanding selection process, and then join a small group of other chief executives. They come from a range of business sectors and each offers a different corporate history. Each group is led by a ―moderator‖, an independently selected businessman or woman who has been specially trained to head the group. Each member takes it in turn to host a meeting at his or her business premises and, most important of all, group discussions are kept strictly confidential. This encourages a free sharing of problems and increase the possibility of solutions being discovered. 13. What does the writer say about entrepreneurs in the first paragraph?

A. It is wrong to assume that they are different from other managers. B. The problems they have to cope with are specific to small businesses. C. They find it difficult to attract staff with sufficient expertise. D. They could learn from the organisational skills of managers in large companies. 14. According to the second paragraph, what has led to a lack of support for entrepreneurs? A. Entrepreneurs have always preferred to act independently. B. The requirements of big businesses have always taken priority. C. It is difficult to find solutions to the problems faced by entrepreneurs. D. Entrepreneurs are reluctant to provide information about their businesses. 15. What does the writer say about the expansion of small businesses? A. Many small businesses do not produce enough profits to finance growth. B. Many employees in small businesses have problems working as part of a team. C. Being able to recruit the right people is the most important factor affecting growth. D. Leaders of small businesses lack the experience to make their companies a success. 16. What does the writer say is an additional problem for entrepreneurs in the fourth paragraph? A. They rely on management systems that are out of date. B. They will not adopt measures that provide long-term solutions. C. They have little confidence in the business advice that is available. D. They do not take market changes into account when drawing up business plans. 17. What does the writer say the members of the KITE organisation provide? A. Advice no how to select suitable staff. B. A means of contacting potential clients. C. A simple checklist for analyzing problems. D. Direct experience of a number of industries. 18. The writer says that KITE groups are likely to succeed because A. members are able to elect their leader. B. the leaders have received extensive training. C. members are encouraged to adopt a critical approach. D. information is not passed on to non-members 答案:13.A;14.B;15.C;16.C;17.D;18.D

第八课时
PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about managing a small business and the questions on the opposite page.

?

For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A,B,C or D) on your Answer Sheet, for the answer you choose.

The Difficulties Of Managing A Small Business Ronald Meers asks who chief executives of entrepreneurial or small businesses can turn to for advice. ―The organisational weaknesses that entrepreneurs have to deal with every day would cause the managers of a mature company to panic, ‖ Andrew Bidden wrote recently in Boston Business Review. This seems to suggest that the leaders of entrepreneurial or small businesses must be unlike other managers, or the problems faced by such leaders must be the subject of a specialised body of wisdom, or possibly both. Unfortunately, neither is true. Not much worth reading about managing the entrepreneurial or small business has been written, and the leaders of such businesses are made of flesh and blood, like the rest of us. Furthermore, little has been done to address the aspects of entrepreneurial or small businesses that are so difficult to deal with and so different from the challenges faced by management in big business. In part this is because those involved in gathering expertise about business and in selling advice to businesses have historically been more interested in the needs of big business. In part, in the UK at least, it is also because small businesses have always preferred to adapt to changing circumstances. The organisational problems of entrepreneurial or small businesses are thus forced upon the individuals who lead them. Even more so than for bigger businesses, the old saying is true – that people, particularly those who make the important decisions, are a business‘s most important asset. The research that does exist shows that neither money nor the ability to access more of it is the major factor determining growth. The main reason an entrepreneurial business stops growing is the lack of management and leadership resource available to the business when it matters. Give an entrepreneur an experienced, skilled team and he or she will find the funds every time. Getting the team, though, is the difficult bit. Part of the problem for entrepreneurs is the speed of change that affects their businesses. They have to cope with continuous change yet have always been suspicious about the latest ―management solution‖. They regard the many offerings from business schools as out of date even before they leave the planning board and have little faith in the recommendations of consultants when they arrive in the hands of young., inexperienced graduates. But such impatience with ―management solutions‖ does not mean that problems can be left to solve themselves. However, the leaders of growing businesses are still left with the problem of who to turn to for advice. The answer is horribly simple: leaders of small businesses can ask each other. The collective knowledge of a group of leaders can prove enormously helpful in solving the specific problems of individuals. One leader‘s problems have certainly been solved already by someone else. There is an organisation called KITE which enables those responsible for small businesses to meet. Its members, all of whom are chief executives, go through a demanding selection process, and then join a small group of other chief executives. They come from a range of business sectors and each

offers a different corporate history. Each group is led by a ―moderator‖, an independently selected businessman or woman who has been specially trained to head the group. Each member takes it in turn to host a meeting at his or her business premises and, most important of all, group discussions are kept strictly confidential. This encourages a free sharing of problems and increase the possibility of solutions being discovered. 13. What does the writer say about entrepreneurs in the first paragraph? A. It is wrong to assume that they are different from other managers. B. The problems they have to cope with are specific to small businesses. C. They find it difficult to attract staff with sufficient expertise. D. They could learn from the organisational skills of managers in large companies. 14. According to the second paragraph, what has led to a lack of support for entrepreneurs? A. Entrepreneurs have always preferred to act independently. B. The requirements of big businesses have always taken priority. C. It is difficult to find solutions to the problems faced by entrepreneurs. D. Entrepreneurs are reluctant to provide information about their businesses. 15. What does the writer say about the expansion of small businesses? A. Many small businesses do not produce enough profits to finance growth. B. Many employees in small businesses have problems working as part of a team. C. Being able to recruit the right people is the most important factor affecting growth. D. Leaders of small businesses lack the experience to make their companies a success. 16. What does the writer say is an additional problem for entrepreneurs in the fourth paragraph? A. They rely on management systems that are out of date. B. They will not adopt measures that provide long-term solutions. C. They have little confidence in the business advice that is available. D. They do not take market changes into account when drawing up business plans. 17. What does the writer say the members of the KITE organisation provide? A. Advice no how to select suitable staff. B. A means of contacting potential clients. C. A simple checklist for analyzing problems. D. Direct experience of a number of industries. 18. The writer says that KITE groups are likely to succeed because A. members are able to elect their leader. B. the leaders have received extensive training. C. members are encouraged to adopt a critical approach. D. information is not passed on to non-members PART FOUR Questions 21-35 ? Read the text below, which gives advice about job interviews. ? Choose the best work from A, B, C or D on the opposite page to fill each gap.

?

For each question 21-35, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your Answer Sheet.

Success often (example) ┄┄┄on your performance at an interview. For those who are well prepared, it can be a positive 21 ┄┄┄but for others it can be a terrifying time. Love them or hate them, though, your 22 ┄┄prospects are largely dependent on your interview 23 ┄┄┄. It‘s not unusual for a company to have fifty or sixty applicants for a job, so if you are asked to 24 ┄┄┄an interview, you are a serious contender being seriously considered for the post. Usually companies give you at least a day‘s 25 ┄┄┄of an interview, so use that time to prepare yourself well Read through the job 26 ┄┄┄and any other information sent to you, and 27 ┄┄┄answers to as many questions as you can think of. At the interview try to present a ?pleasant‘ version of yourself. You need to 28 ┄┄┄the employer that you can do the job, but you mustn‘t 29 ┄┄┄over-confident. Being pleasant, however, doesn‘t mean that you should agree with everything that the interviewer says. Most companies want to 30 ┄┄┄someone with his or her own opinions. It‘s also important to make 31 ┄┄┄that you really listen to what is being asked. In your preparation you will have rehearsed answers to a number of imaginary questions, but you must tailor your response to 32 ┄┄┄the question. It‘s worthwhile spending a few moments after the interview analysing your 33 ┄┄┄.You can do this best before you know the 34 ┄┄┄. What aspects of the interview went well? What do you need to 35 ┄┄┄? What would you do differently next time? Interview Success

Example: A relies B depends C trusts D counts

Example:

A B C D □ ■ □ □

21. 22. 23. 24.

A. A. A. A.

practice job craft visit

B. B. B. B.

experience occupation proficiency stay

C. C. C. C.

knowledge position qualifications come

D. D. D. D.

happening profession skills attend

25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A.

caution description make prove show place clear suit performance achievement advance

B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B.

news account prepare confirm reveal appoint definite agree production result encourage

C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C.

notice record bring convince display commission sure correspond management effect improve

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

advice explanation arrange guarantee appear elect positive belong transaction judgement progress

PART FOUR Question 21-35 ? Read the letter below. ? Choose the best word from A, B, C or D on the opposite page to fill each gap. ? For each question 21-35, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet. Dear Miss Brown, Thank you for your letter of 5 October, concerning (example) ┄┄goods purchased in our store in Basingstoke. I am very sorry indeed that you were not satisfied with the celebration chocolates that you bought from our store. I can 21 ┄┄ your disappointment when you discovered that the chocolates were not as shown on the 22 ┄┄and were, in 23 ┄┄, all the same shape. Our company is always trying to improve the 24 ┄┄of its merchandise, and we are very unhappy when one of our products does not 25 ┄┄satisfaction. The manufacturers of our chocolates have 26 ┄┄guidelines for production, which should 27 ┄ ┄instances such as this from happening. Obviously our checking and packing procedures were not 28 ┄┄, and we will discuss this with the manufacturers. In the 29 ┄┄, I regret the disappointment you were 30 ┄┄. As a gesture of goodwill, I have pleasure in refunding the 31 ┄┄of the chocolates, and enclose a gift voucher that you can 32 ┄ ┄in our Basingstoke branch. Thank you for bringing this matter to our 33 ┄┄. I hope any future purchases you may 34 ┄┄ at our stores will be up to our 35 ┄┄high standards. Yours sincerely, A N Ferguson A N Ferguson Customer Relations

Example: A. faulty

B. wrong

C. incorrect A B C D ■□

D. inadequate

Example:

□ □

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A.

know packaging point worth meet straight prevent followed while brought cost employ view move ordinary

B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B.

distinguish layer fact goodness supply pure avoid admitted meantime caused money operate attention have usual

C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C.

understand parcel honesty quality present immediate forbid confirmed period effected amount apply sight make common

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

recognise envelope detail grade give clear contain engaged space produced bill use regard do natural

第九课时

PART FOUR Questions 21-35 ? Read the letter below. ? Choose the correct word A, B, C or D on the opposite page to fill each gap.

RICHMAN RING International Movers

?

Our ref: 21st March 1998 For each question 21-35, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet.

F/2/J

Dear Mr. Ratanara, Re: Removal of business equipment from Singapore to Hong Kong Thank you for your telephone enquiry. I am (example)┈┈┈to provide you with the quotation that you requested. 21┈┈┈addition to this, I am including further details of our service. The price is 22┈┈┈on the items that you mentioned in your phone cal and will, of course, vary if you decide to add extra items or 23┈some. In order to keep the cost as low as 24┈┈┈, we will move your equipment when it is most convenient for us. We will try to 25┈┈┈your move with those of other clients who ask us to transport goods at around the same time. I am sure you will 26┈┈┈that if we were to make a special trip just for your equipment the cost would be much 27┈┈┈. This means that 28┈┈ ┈you requested a move on 23 June, this precise date may not be possible. However, we regularly transport goods 29┈┈┈Singapore and Hong Kong, and we would 30┈┈┈to be able to move your equipment within two or three days of your requested date. The 31┈┈┈ does not include packing. I understand that you prefer to 32┈┈┈out your own packing since 33┈┈┈of your equipment is quite fragile. I hope that these initial details meet with your 34┈┈┈, and ask that you do not hesitate to 35┈ ┈┈us if you require any further advice. Yours sincerely, Dave Ring Dave Ring Transport Manager

Example: A. sending

B. communicating

C. writing A B C D □ □ ■ □

D. working

Example:

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A.

In built decrease realistic associate appreciate appreciated still among forecast guess end part kindness dial

B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B.

With created prevent possible gather satisfy higher even beside think value carry section approval connect

C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C.

On based omit probable mix wish heavier despite between choose estimate bring piece permission reach

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

By made reduce desired combine consider superior although along expect judgement take bit allowance contact

PART FIVE Section A Questions 36 - 40 ? Read this book review. ? In most of the lines 36 – 40 there is one extra word which does not fit. One or two lines, however, are correct. ? ? If the line is correct, put a tick (?) in the space on your Answer Sheet. If there is an extra word in the line, write that word in the space on your Answer Sheet.

Example: Most of the world's business in marine insurance is centred …?… in London though whatever there are other important markets …whatever…

36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Where and How to Raise Finance by A J McKeon The search for capital often begins and ends with a bank manager, but it doesn't need to be that way. A visit to the bank may be the first step in a difficult hunt but it shouldn't to be the only one. Funding arrangements are developing constantly and the number of sources is growing up. This book is a comprehensive guide written in an accessible format with the lists of possible sources and how to make the most of them.

PART FIVE Section A Questions 36-40 ? Read the text below about a conference. ? In most of the lines 36-40 there is one extra word which does not fit. One or two lines, however, are correct. ? If a line is correct, put a tick (√) in the space on your Answer Sheet. ? If there is an extra word in the line, write that word in the space on your Answer Sheet. Examples: In order to meet the requirements of our customers and our Finance…… √ …… Department, we have introduced to a new pricing policy …… to …… September 18-20: Russian Capital Markets and Investor Conference (Moscow) A three-day conference has been arranged by Dow Jones Telerate and 36 the Wall Street Journal Europe. It will be look at the latest developments 37 in capital markets of the Russian Federation and prospects for 38 investment in key sectors and regions. Presentations that will be 39 given by government ministers, including the Deputy Prime Minister 40 of the Russian Federation, as well as too representatives from the Central Bank, and Russian investment bankers. PART FIVE Section A Questions 36-40 ? Read the advertisement below for a global telephone card. ? In most of the lines 36-40 there is one extra word which does not fit in. One or two lines, however, are correct. ? If a line is correct, put a tick (√) in the space on your Answer Sheet. ? If there is an extra word in the line, write that word in the space on your Answer Sheet. Example: Phoning is even the cheaper with our Global Calling Card.…the… For further information call 0171 563879. …√…

36 37 38 39 40

Executives traveling internationally know all about the horrors of phoning to home from abroad. They will be familiar with large hotel phone bills and the problems involved in trying to find the right local coins for the payphone or trying to communicate with foreign operators. World Telecom knows all about these problems so it has been introduced a charge card especially for to keep business travellers‘ costs down. Call costs are far lower than with competitors, and the card is simple to use.

PART FIVE Section A Questions 36-40 ? Read the short article below. ? In most of the lines 36-40 there is one extra word which does not fit. One or two lines, however, are correct. ? If a line is correct, write CORRECT on your Answer Sheet. ? If there is an extra word in the line, write the extra word in CAPITAL LETTERS on your Answer Sheet.

Examples: 0 Manufacturing the pens and pencils is becoming a truly global 0 T H E

00 business, and the profits that can be made are enormous. 00 C O R R E C T

36 37 38 39 40

Hamson Bell yesterday announced a range of new products which it hopes will make it to the world‘s leading pencil manufacturer by the year of 2010. The company is currently in third position in terms of market share, behind KPX and Unipen. Achieving its goal of number one position might be difficult, according to opinions market analysts, because its competitors are also working extremely hard to increase their market share.

试题 15 Candidate Name _______________ Centre Number Candidate Number

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE Examinations in English as a Foreign Language BUSINESS ENGLISH CERTIFICATE Vantage Test of Reading Saturday 1 JUNE 2002 Additional materials: Answer Sheet Test 022 1 hour 0352/1

Morning

TIME 1 hour INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATE Do not open this paper until you are told to do so. Write your name, Center number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page. Write these details in pencil on your Answer Sheet if these are not already printed. Write all your answers in pencil on your Answer Sheet—no extra time is allowed for this. Read carefully the instructions for each part and the instructions for completing your Answer Sheet. Try to answer all the questions. At the end of the examination hand in both this question paper and your Answer Sheet. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDTES There are forty-five questions on this question paper.

This question paper consists of 10 printed pages and 2 blank pages. SP(SLC) S22086/3 UCLES 2002 Turn Over PART ONE Questions 1-7 ? ? ? ? Look at the statements below and the book reviews on the opposite page. Which book (A, B, C or D) does each statement 1 – 7 refer to? For each statement 1 – 7, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet. You will need to use some of these letters more than once.

Example: 0 It includes studies of a number of companies around the world. 0 A B C D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

It looks at how business organizations can affect the environment. It contains practical advice for people involved in data collection. It claims that earlier analyses of this aspect of organizations were too simplistic. It examines contrasting approaches to staff selection. It gives a better explanation of the issues than other books on the subject. It draws on the personal experience of the writers. It looks at how external influences can impact on the effectiveness of managers.

A MANAGERS IN THE MAKING As examples of ?organizational‘ and ?market‘ approaches to society, Japan and Britain provide a useful contrast, showing the national and cultural factors which affect the performance of executives. There is extensive research data behind this book, and key areas of comparison between the two countries include their different systems of recruitment and their diverse attitudes both to management control and the work environment. B Analyzing Organizations This book provides support for managers who need to plan organizational research with a step-by-step, ?how-to‘ guide. The authors describe each part of the process, the advantages and disadvantages that result from many of the choices that must be made, and the lessons they have learnt from years spent designing and conducting surveys. The sections on research into recruitment and employment relationships are particularly informative. C The Culture Of Organizations This book looks at the culture of business organizations and the writers suggest that this is more complex and diverse than had previously been recognized. A variety of different and non-traditional research settings across industries are represented, including a car plant in Slovenia, a US software developer and a Korean electronics company. D Images Of Organizations This book shows how organizations can be managed and designed in new ways. There are chapters on the complexity of corporate culture, and on how managers can deal with the negative impact organizations may have on society and the natural world. No other publication covers the arguments so clearly while developing the implications for management with such force.

PART TWO Questions 8-12 ? Read the article below about a recruitment company. ? Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps. ? For each gap 8-12, mark one letter (A-G) on your Answer Sheet. ? Do not use any letter more than once. ? There is an example at the beginning. (0). PROSPECTS ARE GROWING Jane Woodford, head of Prospects recruitment group, talks about how the company is set to grow. How many jobs have managing directors reading this article had already? Five? More than ten? Well, Jane Woodford, head of the Prospects recruitment group, has had an amazing seventeen jobs. Woodford has kept a careful count of jobs, which include working in fast food, at a theatre and as a dress-maker. (0) …… In February of this year, after several years as a partner in the business, she became the managing director of the Prospects group. Prospects was started in 1988 as the Job Shop group, by Hilary Marks. A former estate agent, she decided to go it alone and launched the company in a three-metre by three-metre office, after a downturn in the property market. (8) …… ?I don‘t think she believed she could find anybody who cared as much about her ?baby‘ as she did,‘ says Woodford. Surely it must have been difficult for Marks when Woodford became the MD and she became marketing director? Yes, Woodford agrees it was: ?It was extremely hard for Hilary, because originally she had been her own boss. But how to manage changes in the company was something we all had to learn about.‘ (9) …… Some benefited from this opportunity while others didn‘t, though the company has only lost two of its long-serving managers. The change in the head of the company happened at the same time as the company‘s name changed. A brainstorming session between Woodford, Marks and their accountant produced the name Prospects. The company now has three separate trading divisions, each with its own internal management structure. One of Prospects‘ operations, New Directions, provides IT training for clients and courses about employment affairs for students, teachers and educational advisers. (10) …… ?We need to be closely involved with the educational system,‘ she says. Always looking to encourage and motivate staff, Prospects has appointed team leaders, giving them extra responsibility for dealing with the company‘s accounts, budgeting and day-to-day operations. (11) …… ?We accept that they may go on to become directors of other companies,‘ Woodford explains. So, what are Woodford‘s own ambitions for Prospects? ?I‘d like to consolidate all the work we have already done and continue to build up a good team of people,‘ she replies simply. (12) ……

?When a recruiter has been with us for three years we offer financial bonuses towards the cost of opening his or her own Prospects branch,‘ she says. Example: 0 A B C D E F G

A The reasoning behind this decision was that these people will help the company to progress, and yet their own careers will benefit at the same time. B Originally, she wasn‘t looking for a business partner at all. C She joined the company in 1995 as business development manager, and became a shareholder in 1996 and a director in 1997 before taking on her current position. D Woodford sees this activity as particularly important for Prospects because recruitment isn‘t something she believes should stand on its own. E She is also keen for her trusted consultants, as she calls them, to share in the company‘s success through its internal reward scheme. F Discussion group were set up to help staff at every level make necessary adjustments. G This very wide experience of working life has without a doubt helped her as a highly successful recruiter.

第十课时
PART THREE Questions 13-18 ? Read the article below about Smithson’s, a British department store, and the questions on the opposite page. ? For each question 13-18, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose. Department Store Magic For most of the 20th century Smithson‘s was one of Britain‘s most successful department stores, but by the mid-1990s, it had become dull. Still profitable, thanks largely to a series of successful advertising campaigns, but decidedly boring. The famous were careful not to be seen there, and its sales staff didn‘t seem to have changed since the store opened in 1908. Worst of all, its customers were buying fewer and fewer of its own-brand products, the major part of its business, and showing a preference for more fashionable brands. But now all this has changed, thanks to Rowena Baker, who became Smithson‘s first woman Chief Executive three years ago. Since then, while most major retailers in Britain have been losing money, Smithson‘s profits have been rising steadily. When Baker started, a lot of improvements had just been made to the building, without having any effect on sales, and she took the bold decision to invite one of Europe‘s most exciting interior designers to develop the fashion area, the heart of the store. This very quickly led to rising sales, even before the good on display were changed. And as sales grew, so did profits. Baker had ambitious plans for the store from the start. ?We‘re playing a big game, to prove we‘re up there with the leaders in our sector, and we have to make sure people get that message. Smithson‘s had fallen behind the competition. It provided a traditional service targeted at middle-aged, middle-income customers, who‘d been shopping there for years, and the customer base was gradually contracting. Our idea is to sell such an exciting variety of goods that everyone will want to come in, whether they plan to spend a little or a lot.‘ Baker‘s vision for the store is clear, but achieving it is far from simple. At first, many employees resisted her improvements because they just wouldn‘t be persuaded that there was anything wrong with the way they‘d always done things, even if they accepted that the store had to overtake its competitors. It took many long meetings, involving the entire workforce, to win their support. It helped when they realized that Baker was a very different kind of manager from the ones they had known. Baker‘s staff policies contained more surprises. The uniform that had hardly changed since day one has now disappeared. Moreover, teenagers now get young shop assistants, and staff in the sports departments are themselves sports fans in trainers. As Baker explains, ?How can you sell jeans if you‘re wearing a black suit? Smithson‘s has a new identity, and this needs to be made clear to the customers.‘ She‘s also given every sales assistant responsibility for ensuring customer satisfaction, even if it means occasionally breaking company rules in the hope that this

will help company profits. Rowena Baker is proving successful, but the City‘s big investors haven‘t been persuaded. According to retail analyst, John Matthews, ?Money had already been invested in refurbishment of the store and in fact that led to the boost in sales. She took the credit, but hadn‘t done anything to achieve it. And in my view the company‘s shareholders are not convinced. The fact is that unless she opens several more stores pretty soon, Smithson‘s profits will start to fall because turnover at the existing store will inevitably start to decline.‘ 13. According to the writer, in the mid-1990s Smithson‘s department store A. was making a loss B. had a problem keeping staff C. was unhappy with its advertising agency D. mostly sold goods under the Smithson‘s name 14. According to the writer, Smithson‘s profits started rising three years ago because of A. an improvement in the retailing sector B. the previous work done on the store C. Rowena Baker‘s choice of designer D. a change in the products on sale 15. According to Rowena Baker, one problem which Smithson‘s faced when she joined was that A. the number of people using the store was failing slowly. B. its competitors offered a more specialized range of products. C. the store‘s prices were set at the wrong level. D. customers were unhappy with the service provided. 16. According to the writer, many staff opposed Baker‘s plans because A. they were unwilling to change their way of working. B. they disagreed with her goals for the store. C. they felt they were not consulted enough about the changes. D. they were unhappy with her style of management. 17 Baker has changed staff policies because she believes that A. the corporate image can be improved through staff uniforms. B. the previous rules were not fair to customers. C. customers should be able to identify with the staff serving them. D. employees should share in company profits. 18. What problem does John Matthews think Smithson‘s is facing? A. More money needs to be invested in the present store. B. The company‘s profits will only continue to rise if it expands. C. The refurbishment of the store is proving unpopular with customers. D. Smithson‘s shareholders expect a quick return on their investments.

PART FOUR Questions 19-33 ? Read the advice below abut how to make meetings more effective. ? Choose the best word to fill each gap from A, B, C or D on the opposite page. ? For each question 19-33, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet. ? There is an example at the beginning, (0). GETTING THE BEST OUT OF MEETINGS Many people feel that meetings are a complete (0) …… of time and try to avoid them. However, they don‘t have to be, as long as a few rules are (19) …… Meetings are very rarely held without at least one day‘s (20) …… This is because the first rules is that all the participants need to (21) …… for the meeting, not just the Chair. Being asked to (22) …… a meeting means you are seen as having something to (23) …… , so make sure this is the case. You should also ensure that any item you want to discuss is put on the agenda. If you are planning to (24) …… an issue you know is difficult, find out before the meeting if you have any (25) …… for your point of view. If you are the Chair, there are three other (26) …… rules. Firstly, respect your participants by being punctual, always starting and ending on time. If you don‘t, they‘ll spend the (27) …… meeting looking at their watches and wondering how late you‘re going to (28) …… them. Secondly, (29) …… a meeting only when it is absolutely necessary. Look closely at what you want to (30) …… in the meeting. If your aim is to complete a task that requires (31) …… or no discussion, ask yourself whether e-mail or the phone could do the job. Finally, invite only as many people as are needed to get the job done. Don‘t, however, exclude people who may be able to (32) …… the best ideas, just because of their (33) …… in the organization.

Example: A. excess 0 A B. surplus B C. rubbish C D. waste D

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

A. observed A. instruction A. prepare A. occupy A. send A. launch A. assistance A. chief A. entire A. restrict A. tell A. acquire A. small A. contribute A. scale

B. watched B. direction B. arrange B. place B. transfer B. raise B. protection B. key B. absolute B. limit B. do B. achieve B. little B. subscribe B. degree

C. seen C. notice C. order C. attend C. pass C. bring C. confirmation C. top C. major C. keep C. make C. reach C. tiny C. insert C. rank

D. copied D. advice D. manage D. enter D. offer D. lift D. support D. high D. contain D. contain D. call D. possess D. short D. serve D. priority

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