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新视野大学英语读写教程(第二版)第一册


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Text Study Notes to the Text Words and Expressions Idea Sharing Writing

Understanding Structure Analysis Summary Reproduction

Text Study—Understanding

I. Understanding
1. Match the Numbers (Paras.1-2)
e __ killed since 1970s __ killed in the past few years d __ expected to die a c __ infected with HIV virus __ black & Latinos diagnosed b with HIV a. 185,000 b. nearly 500,000 c. one million d. 102,000 e. 204,000

Text Study—Understanding

2. Tick the Right (Paras.3-6)
What are correct about the South Carolina AIDS Education Network ? a. It is a government organization. b. It combats the spread of AIDS.

c. It gets a lot of money.
d. It operates programs out of a beauty shop.

e. It uses videos and publications.
f. Hairdressers are not in the network.

Text Study—Understanding

3. Explain the Methods (Paras.7-13)
Work in pairs and explain methods 1-3 with the help of the key words in the following charts:

Method 1/2/3 Problem
Solution Evaluation

speak to your community

Method 1

speak to your community

Problem
Solution

a low literacy rate
draw pictures, familiar faces and language more effect

Evaluation

Text Study—Understanding

Method 2
Problem

train teenagers
spread fastest among teenagers in the rural South establish program

Solution

Evaluation

simple, better than adult can help

Method 3

redefine “at risk”

Problem

misinformation

Solution

emphasize, regardless

Text Study—Structure Analysis

II. Structure Analysis
A. The Writing Model of the Passage:
Problem + Solution + Evaluation + Summary The basic structure of this pattern is problemsolution-evaluation. There are some possible differences in the pattern but the basic parts are problems and solutions. Can you list some typical expressions for this pattern?

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The typical expressions for this pattern: expressions function
the problem, ? the question ? to solve …, ? the solution ? the result, ? as a result
? ? ?

introduce a problem introduce the solution

?

introduce result, effect or evaluation

Now, find the problem, solution and evaluation of this passage. Tips

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The Problem:
1. AIDS has killed many Americans, and still many with the HIV virus are expected to die. (Para. 1) 2. Women and youth in some communities are making up the fastest segment of people with AIDS. (Para. 2)

3. American governments have been slow in stopping the spread of the disease. (Para. 3)

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The Solution:
A number of local organizations have emerged. The South Carolina AIDS Education Network is one of them. (Paras.3-4) 1. The organization operates its educational programs out of a beauty shop. (Paras.4-5) 2. The network began helping the hair stylists set up similar programs in their shops. (Para.6)

Text Study—Structure Analysis

3. It has developed several techniques useful to other groups doing similar work. (Para.7) ? Speak to your community in a way they can hear. (Paras.8-9) ? Train teenagers to educate their peers. (Para.10) ? Redefine “at risk” to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status. (Paras.11-12)

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The Evaluation :
These programs are not the only solutions to the crisis but, until there is a cure for AIDS, they are only safe measures against the virus. (Para.13)

The Summary :
We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done. Nor can we let political inefficiency stop us from our task. Everyone must become an educator and learn to live. (Para.14)

Text Study—Structure Analysis

B. The way to develop paragraphs:
A General Statement + Problem-solution-evaluation The writer lists some ways of winning the war against AIDS. Each method is presented in a general statement. He tries to argue for the idea in a problem-solution-evaluation way.

Text Study—Structure Analysis

Method 2 :
Train teenagers to educate their peers. The problem The solution

The evaluation

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The problem AIDS is spreading fastest among teenagers in the rural South. The solution Establish an “AIDS Busters” program. The program trains youth (from 8 to 26) to go into the community and teach AIDS lessons to their peers.

Text Study—Structure Analysis

The evaluation ? Young people make the lessons simple. ? They explain the risk of catching AIDS to their friends much better than an adult can. ? They help parents understand the peer pressure their children experience.

Method 1 & 3 are developed in the same way. Work with your partner and find the details.

Text Study—Summary

III. Summary
Since it was ________ in 1970s, AIDS has killed diagnosed _________ of Americans. Women and youth in thousands rural Southern communities are most ______ to likely be infected with AIDS. In place of the spread ________ _____ of AIDS and lack of government activity to stop it, some local organizations ________. The South emerged Carolina AIDS Education Network formed to help _______ the number of AIDS _____. In some reduce cases communities, handing ____ AIDS literature and out ________ people to read it is not very effective _______ expecting

Text Study—Summary

because many people cannot read. Besides, AIDS is spreading fastest among teenagers in ________ the _____ South. So these groups have rural _________ some ____ methods of combating ________ developed best the spread of AIDS, ______ include: speak to which your community in a way they can hear; train teenagers to educate their _____; and redefine ______ peers “at risk” to include women from different backgrounds and marriage ______. In other status _____, everyone should ________ the war words sign up for ______ AIDS. against

Text Study—Reproduction

IV. Reproduction
Group work. Suppose you are committee
members of the South Carolina AIDS Education Network. Now a meeting is being held to find solutions to the spread of AIDS. After the meeting, send your representative to report your solutions, which are expected to be reasonable, convincing and effective. Make good use of the information in Section A.

A sample beginning

Text Study—Reproduction

A sample beginning
After discussion, we’ve worked out some solutions to the problems we are faced with. To begin with, immediate actions should be taken to collect money to keep our organization going…

Active Expressions

Focus Study

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

I. Active Expressions
In English, you may find some expressions formed by very common words, but they are active and powerful. e.g. ? What’s on at the cinema tonight? 今晚电影院上演什么? ? What’s he up to? 他忙什么呢?

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

Find the active expressions:
1. Another 185,000…with the HIV virus are expected to die within the next year. 2. …and state governments have been slow in implementing programs… 3. To reach more people in the community, … programs operate out of a beauty shop. 4. The owner hands out AIDS information to all her clients … 5. … the AIDS epidemic threatens to wipe out an entire generation and …

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

expect sb. to do ? be slow in
?

? ?

think that sth. will happen

hesitate to act; ? not quick to learn ? hand out v. ? distribute sth.; ? Handout n. ? a piece of paper with information distribute by a teacher ? reach ? communicate with; speak to
?

wipe out

?

destroy, remove, or get rid of sth. completely

Practice

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

Translation
1.

今天是星期天,我没有想到这么多人来听讲座。

2.
3. 4. 5.

据报道,这个城市在交通管理方面非常滞后。
救济人员在向生还者分发紧急配给品。

这是我的电话,以防你要联系我。
由于操作不当,所有储存于电脑的信息消失殆尽。

keys

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Today is Sunday. I didn’t expect so many people to attend this lecture. It has been reported that this city is very slow in traffic management. Relief workers were handing out emergency rations to the survivors. Here’s my telephone number, in case you need to reach me. Due to his improper operation, all the information stored has been wiped out.

More Practice

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

More Practice
1. 2.

下周二你们要做一个有关爱滋病主题的课堂发言。 他数学学得很好,但学语言却很迟钝。

3.
4. 5.

你可以在讲义的最后一页看到完整参考书目。
经过两年的谈判,双方终于达成了协议。 据说这个村有一半人口患艾滋病死了。

keys

Notes to the Text—Active Expressions

1. Next Tuesday, you are expected to give a presentation on AIDS. 2. He is smart at mathematics, but very slow in learning languages. 3. I am so tired today that I don’t feel like going to work. 4. After two years of negotiation, the two parties have finally reached a settlement. 5. It is said the half the population in this village was wiped out by AIDS.

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

II. Focus Study
1. To solve this problem, ask people in the community who can draw well to create lowliteracy AIDS education publications.(para.8) sb/sth + attributive clause

e.g.
?

I don’t like the way he talks to others.

More Practice

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Complete the following
? I’ll never forget the city where I spent my child___________________ hood with Mary (我和玛丽在那里度过童年时光). ____________ ? He won a gold medal, ____________________ which the whole family ____________________ considered a great honor (全家人认为这是个了 不起的荣誉).

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

2. They also show people who look like those we need to educate, since … (para. 9) Contextual clues can help one better understand sentences. What do “they” and “people” refer to? They = These books, people = the pictures 这些书籍也展示一些看上去和那些需要接受教育 的人很相似的图片,……

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

3. Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have always been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. (para. 3) Despite... , … 尽管···,还是··· ··· ···

Practice

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Translation
? ?

尽管有许多困难,他还是设法在三周内完成了工作。 他第三次考试未通过,尽管他一直都很努力。

? Despite a lot of difficulties, he managed to finish the work within three weeks. ? He failed in the exam a third time despite his continuous hard working.

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

4. Like no other plague before, the AIDS
epidemic threatens to wipe out an entire generation and leave another without parents. (para 14) leave sth./sb. ... e.g. The trial left a lot of questions unanswered. 让某人/物处于某状态··· ···

Practice

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Translation
? ?

别让她在外边雨中等着。 外面那么冷,我希望你不要再让门开着。

? Don’t leave her waiting outside in the rain. ? I wish you’d stop leaving the door open. It’s cold outside.

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

5. This is an undeclared war that everyone must sign up for in order for us to win. (L65) (para.13) Sth./Sb. is …, ······是 ···, ···

Practice

Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Translation
? ?

电脑是一种电子装置,这种装置能够储存信息 并能根据一套被称为程序的指令做事情。 好老师是那些能够引起学习者学习兴趣的老师。

? A computer is an electric machine that can store information and do things with it according to a set of instructions called a program. ? The greatest teachers are the ones who can arouse students’ interests to learn.

Old to New

Chinese to English
Word Using

Words and Expressions—Old to New

I. Old to New
form, make up
carry out fear, worry group instead of
?
? ? ? ?

constitute
implement alarm organization in place of

fight, battle

?

combat

Words and Expressions—Old to New

I. Old to New
customer teach
? ?

client educate

teacher
tell danger

?
?

educator
relate

?

risk

Words and Expressions—C to E

II. Chinese to English
20世纪70年代末期 20世纪70年代初期 20世纪70年代中期 资源 出版物 文学 受教育比例低
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

in the late 1970s in the early 1970s in the middle 1970s resources publication literature a low literacy rate

Words and Expressions—C to E

高死亡率 婚姻状况 经济状况 就业情况 法律地位 效率 效率低下

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

a high death rate marriage status economic status job status legal status efficiency inefficiency

Words and Expressions—Word Using

III. Word Using
1. acquire vt. get by skill or ability, by one’s own efforts or behavior (由技术、能力、努力或行为而)获得;学到 e.g. ? acquire a good knowledge of English 熟谙英文 ? acquire a reputation for dishonesty

蒙上不诚实恶名
? acquire a taste for brandy 养成喝白兰地的嗜好

Words and Expressions—Word Using

1. acquire vt. get by skill or ability, by one’s own efforts or behavior (由技术、能力、努力或行为而)获得;学到 e.g. The company has recently acquired a new office building in central Shanghai.

这家公司最近在上海市中心买了一栋新的办 公楼。

Words and Expressions—Word Using

2. diagnose 诊断 vt. ① diagnose sb. with … ② diagnose + illness/sb.’s condition as …
e.g. ? The woman is diagnosed with diabetes (糖尿病). ? The doctor diagnosed the illness as cancer.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

3. constitute vt. form sth. from parts
e.g. Twelve months constitute a year.

Use It
How many students constitute your study group?

Words and Expressions—Word Using

4. alarm vt. cause sudden fear or worry; give a warning or feeling of danger to
使恐慌,使担忧;警告 e.g. Everybody was alarmed at the news that war might break out. 人人听到战事可能爆发的消息都感到恐慌。

Words and Expressions—Word Using

4. alarm vt. cause sudden fear or worry; give a warning or feeling of danger to
使恐慌,使担忧;警告

Translation
枪声惊动了千百只鸟。

Key
The noise of the shot alarmed hundreds of birds.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

4. alarm n. ①[U] sudden fear and worry 恐慌,担忧; ②[C] a piece of equipment that warns people about danger, the time, etc. 报警器;闹钟
e.g. ? a fire alarm 火警 ? set the alarm(-clock) for 6 o’clock 把闹钟拨到6点

e.g. He jumped up in alarm.
他惊慌地跳了起来。

Words and Expressions—Word Using

5. organization

n. a group of people with a special purpose
What do these organizations mean?

WHO
OPEC NATO

World Health Organization
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries North Atlantic Treaty Organization

More

Words and Expressions—Word Using 6. emerge vi. ① come to appear

e.g. The sun emerged from behind a cloud.

Use It
? What does the photo show us? ? It shows a beautiful scene when the morning sun emerges from the sea surface.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

6. emerge vi. ② become known
e.g.

? Different ideas emerged in the heated
discussion.

? Later, it emerged that the
judge had been employing an illegal immigrant.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

7. illustrate vt. make clear by giving pictures or examples e.g. These graphs illustrate the results of the experiment.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

7. illustrate vt. make clear by giving pictures or examples

Translation
他用统计数据来说明观点。

Key
He illustrated his point with statistics.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

8. risk vt. ① place in danger

Translation
士兵冒着生命危险去救落水的女孩。

Key
The soldier risked his life to save the drowning girl.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

8. risk n. ② danger at risk: in danger 处境危险

Translation
疾病在蔓延,5岁以下的儿童都有被传染的危险。

Key
The disease is spreading, and all children under 5 are at risk.

More phrases

Words and Expressions—Word Using

at any risk
at all risks

不管冒什么风险

at the risk of (doing) sth. 冒着……的危险
take/run the risk of (doing) sth. 冒着……的危险

take/run the risk to do sth. 冒险……
Practice

Words and Expressions—Word Using

Which is right?
1. I am risking my job. 2. I am taking the risk of losing my job. 3. I am at the risk of losing my job.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

9. distract sb. from sth. = take sb.’s attention from sth. 使分心 e.g. Most Chinese parents think puppy love will distract their children from their school work. 多数中国父母认为早恋 会让孩子学习分心。

Words and Expressions—Word Using

9. distract sb. from sth. = take sb.’s attention from sth. 使分心

Translation
街上的嘈杂声使我不能专心读书。

Key
The noise in the street distracted me from my reading.

Words and Expressions—Word Using

10. sign up for = put one’s name on a list to take part in sth. 报名参加

Translation
上个学期她报名参加了青年志愿者组织。

Key
She signed up for the Young Volunteer team last semester.

Make a Comparison

Idea Sharing

Compare the Situation of AIDS in China with that in America.
Search for related information :
1. the first case; the infected population 2. high-infection areas 3. high-risk group 4. government work 5. unofficial program 6. education work 7. people’s attitude Tips

Idea Sharing

Tips
1. The first case of AIDS was diagnosed/ reported ..., ... years later than ... ; by the year ..., there will be ... infected with HIV ... 2. The AIDS high-infection areas include ...

3. ... constitute the fastest growing segment/group of people with AIDS ...
4. The governments have been slow/quick/ active/efficient in ...; political inefficiency

Idea Sharing

5. help ... through an organization; community; emerge; establish; hand out ...; 6. educate; operate educational program; ... attach importance to ...; lay stress on ...; videos; publications

7. get worried; don’t like talking about ...;
be scared by ...;refuse to ...; concern about… Lead-in video clip

Idea Sharing

AIDS Spread

The Problem-SolutionEvaluation Pattern Practical Writing

Writing—Structure Writing

I. The Problem-Solution- Evaluation Pattern
The basic structure of this pattern is problemsolution-evaluation. There are some possible differences in the pattern but the basic parts are problems and solutions.

Development
a general statement solution Sample evaluation problem

Writing—Structure Writing

Sample

a general statement

problem

Parents should be the main solution to children’s lack of physical exercise. Clearly children are spending too many hours watching TV. Their lack of exercise could lead to health problems. If parents set a good example and take exercise with their children, it would seem a natural part of life. Parents can motivate their children to be active from an early age.

solution
Useful Expressions

evaluation

Writing—Structure Writing

Useful Expressions for Problem-SolutionEvaluation Pattern
A general statement: ... may help you ... A problem: ... is really a problem; one of the difficulties is ...; the question is …

A solution: to solve ... /the solution to ...
An evaluation: by doing ... you will ...; … play a vital role in ...; it is effective to ...; as a result

Writing—Structure Writing

Writing Task
Write a paragraph, following the problem-solutionevaluation pattern.
Topics: ? How to Keep Healthy
?

Job Problems for Graduates

For your reference

Writing—Structure Writing

(For reference) Job Problems for Graduates College graduates find it increasingly difficult to get a rewarding job. One reason perhaps is that many colleges and universities fail to adapt their courses to the development of economy. Second, there is an oversupply of graduates in certain specialties. What should be done to solve this problem? To begin with, the colleges should get students out of the ivory tower and have their courses meet the needs of industry and business To be continued

Writing—Structure Writing

so as to suit the on-going development of the national economy. Second, the government should provide college graduates with more opportunities to develop new skills. The third solution, I think, is to adopt strong measures of birth control because the greater the population, the less the opportunity for everyone to get a job.

Writing—Practical Writing

II. Practical Writing

Invitation

Writing—Practical Writing

较正式的宴会请柬多用于隆重的社交场合,因此行 文中不使用第一人称 I 或 we,而使用第三人称, 如 Mr.等。英文请柬常在最后加上 R.S.V.P. ,是 法文repondez s’il vous plait 的缩写,意思是 Please reply。

Sample 1

Writing—Practical Writing

Sample 1
Mr. Sun Zhiwei requests the pleasure of the company of Mr. and Mrs. Zhang Hua to dinner 7:00 p.m. on Friday, 18th January at Room 402, 102 Jianguo Road (W)

R. S. V. P.
谨定于一月十八日星期五下午七时在建国路 102号402室举行晚宴。 敬请张华先生和夫人光临。 孙志伟

Writing—Practical Writing

Sample 2
李翔先生: 兹定于二零零三年五月五日星期日上午十一点在和平饭 店举行女儿孙佳与张汉先生的婚礼。

敬请光临
孙志军 赵 敬约 梅

Writing—Practical Writing

Sample 2
Mr. and Mrs. Li Xiang accept with pleasure Mr. and Mrs. Sun Zhijun’s kind invitation to the wedding reception of their daughter Sun Jia and Mr. Zhang Han Sunday, the fifth of May at eleven o’clock forenoon Peace Hotel. 以上是对结婚请柬的回复。此信也可简化如下: Mr. and Mrs. Li Xiang accept with pleasure Mr. and Mrs. Sun Zhijun’s kind invitation for Sunday, the fifth of May.

Writing—Practical Writing

Sample 2
Mr. and Mrs. Li Xiang regret that they will be unable to accept Mr. and Mrs. Sun Zhijun’s invitation to the wedding reception of their daughter Sun Jia and Mr. Zhang Han. 以上是对婚宴邀请的辞谢。作为被邀请的客人, 如不能应邀出席,应尽快予以回复,可不写原 因,但说明原因更有礼貌。


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