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考试时间:60 分钟 完形填空(共 20 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 40 分) After their business trip, John and Mary returned, eager to see their lovely children. As they drove into their home town feeling glad to be back, the

y noticed 1 and they went off their usual route to see what it was. They

found a 2 . Mary said, “Oh, well, it isn’t our fire, let’s go home. ’’ But John 3 closer and screamed, “That home belongs to Fred Jones who works at the plant. He wouldn’t be 4 work vet. Maybe there is something we could do. ” “It has nothing to do with us,” Mary 5 . But John drove

up and stopped and they were both horror-stricken to see the whole house in 6 . A woman on the lawn was screaming,“The children! Get the children!’’ John 7 her by the shoulder saying, “Get a hold of yourself and tell

us where the children are!” “In the _8 ,”cried the woman, “down the hall and to the left.” In spite of Mary’s disagreement, John 9 for the basement which was full of smoke and 10 hot. He found the door and two children. 11 he left, he could hear some more sobbing. He 12 the two badly frightened children into 13 arms and started back asking how many more children were down there. They told him 14 more and Mary grasped his arm and screamed, "John! Don't go back! It's 15 ! That house will fall down any second.’’ 16 he ran

into the smoke-filled hallway and at last he found both children. As he climbed up the 17 stairs, the thought went through his mind that there was something strangely 18 about the little bodies next to him, and at last when they his own children.

came out into the 19 and fresh air, he found that he had just 20

The baby-sitter had left them at this home while she did some shopping. 1.A.direction 2.A.home 3.A.ran 4.A.at 5.A.whispered 6.A.ruins 7.A.pushed 8.A.basement B.mistake B.plant B.walked B.off B.nodded B.pieces B.seized B.department C.danger C.store C.drove C.to C.disagreed C.flames C.greeted C.house D.smoke D.kitchen D.rode D.on D.required D.silence D.stopped D.hall

9.A.went 10.A.heavily 11.A.If 12.A.comforted 13.A.cheering 14.A.many 15.A.dangerous 16.A.Therefore 17.A.Wide 18.A.particular 19.A.car 20.A.rescued

B.reached B.slightly B.As B.delivered B.freezing B.several B.foolish B.So B.endless B.interesting B.sunlight B.found

C.asked C.partly C.Since C.recognized C.waiting C.three C.practical C.Instead C.final C.familiar C.crowd C.lost

D.rushed D.terribly D.Unless D.protected D.suffering D.two D.painful D.But D.dirty D.fortunate D.arms D.missed

第二节 阅读理解(共两节,51 分) A The son of a piano producer. Elwyn Brooks White was born in Mount Vernon in a wealthy family. Aad he was raised with the mix of sophistication(富有经验)and common sense that would mark his writing. After graduation, White spent a year as a newspaper reporter in New York City, then decided to drive across the country with a friend. The trip gave White a lifetime of anecdotes. “When they ran out of money,” White's friend, James Thurber, noted, “they played for their supper -and their gasoline -on an interesting musical instrument that White had made out of some pieces of wire and an old shoe.” When White returned to New York City in the mid-1920s, he spent a few years bouncing between advertising jobs and unemployment before trying his hand again at writing. Not very seriously, he sent some essays to a new magazine called The New Yorker. Since its founding in 1925, the magazine had struggled to find its niche, and White's work helped put The New Yorker on the map. His essays were funny and sophisticated; they spoke equally to socialites(社会名流)and cab drivers, professors and repairmen. Through his essays, which he wrote for nearly 50 years, White helped give The New Yorker its voice and identity. In 1945, already a leading literary figure, White switched to his second occupation writing children's books. He moved from New York to a farm in Maine, where he raised chickens and geese. Seeking a way to amuse his nieces and nephews, White started to write stories for them. “Children were always after me to tell them a story and I found I couldn't do it," he said. “ So I had to get it down on paper.”

By the time he died from Alzheimer's disease in 1985, White's essays had appeared in more literary collections in colleges than those of any other writer. Many said his essays matched his personality: sophisticated without being simple, critical without being mean. 21. What do we learn from Paragraph 2? A. White took the trip to realize his lifelong dream. B. The trip had a lasting effect on White's personality. C. The travelling companion found White's music talent. D. White had many experiences to talk about after the trip. 22. The underlined part "its niche" means something that A. suits its sponsors' tastes C. helps to build its own style 23. What do we know about White's works? A. They originally came from the stories told by his nieces. B. They were intended for people of different social status. C. They helped The New Yorker find its position on the map. D. They were chosen by college textbooks when they came out. B Does style really sell? How can the appearance of a product be more important than what it does? The battle between form and function rose again when James Dyson, British inventor of the Dyson vacuum(真空) cleaner that has sold in millions around the world, resigned as chairman of London’s Design Museum. It is widely believed that Mr. Dyson felt that the museum put too much stress on style and fashion at the expense of serious industrial design. Mr. Dyson accused the museum of not keeping true to itself. He may be right, but these days, museums everywhere can no longer afford to be unique centers of scholarship and learning. Among competition for sponsorship, they must use exhibitions of populist culture, nice cafes and shops or, best of all, a new building by Frank Gehry to increase visitor numbers. On the one hand, some producers can be too old-fashioned and too concerned with the importance of product engineering and the functionality of their goods. On the other hand, there are those who believe that how a product looks is more important. Design is indeed a broad term,involving both function and form. Typically, in any given .

B. protects its social identity D. voices its authors' concern

product area, it changes from the former to the latter. Clothing is a good example. But surely you would have to be a very shallow person to think something's appearance is more important than what it did. Today nearly all goods at any given price point do much the same job. So almost the only way producers can differentiate their products from those of their competitors is to create some sort of emotional connection with the consumer, which could be through the visual appeal of the product or its packaging; or the imagery (意象) created by advertising. And what of the Dyson vacuum cleaner? Mr. Dyson may believe that people buy these machines because of the graphs showing their superior suction, but most vacuum cleaners do a good job; the main reason people pay extra for a Dyson vacuum cleaner is that it is a vacuum cleaner with a trendy brand. With its inside workings exposed, it is a bit like a Richard Rogers building with all its pipes shown in bright colors on the outside instead of being hidden inside. Functional it may be, but it is a bit of a trick, too. 24. Mr. Dyson left the Design Museum because he thought the museum ________. A. didn't increase the number of visitors B. couldn't provide scholarships for learners C. wasn't loyal to its original purpose of learning D. didn't have great appeal for serious industrial design 25. Speaking of clothing, the underlined word “latter” refers to ______. A. affording protection B. providing warmth C. indicating one's identity D. making someone beautiful 26. What is the author’s opinion in Paragraph 4? A. A product with convenient packaging sells well B. The majority of consumers prefer to buy branded goods C. Most similarly priced products are of a comparable standard D. Emotion contributes much to the development of advertising industry 27. The author believes that people buy the Dyson vacuum cleaner because ________. A. it has very good suction B. it has a fashionable range C. it sells well around the world

D. it is invented by James Dyson 28. What is the author's attitude towards the form of a product? A. Optimistic. C. Disapproving. B. Sceptical. D. Objective. C In this section, we are concerned with reconstructive memory. Suppose you are trying to remember some event. Reconstructive memory would involve( 涉及 )combining the pieces of information about the event you can remember with your relevant knowledge and experience to reconstruct what probably happened. The concept of reconstructive memory is related to schema theory. A schema is an organized package of information containing your knowledge about the world; it helps us to make sense of it all. Schemas are stored in long-term memory. Your schemas tell you that if you were wearing a T-shirt it was likely to be summer. Bower, Black, and Turner showed that most people share similar schemas. Most people listed the following as the most important events associated with having a restaurant meal: sitting down, looking at the menu, ordering, eating, paying the bill, and leaving the restaurant. In the early 1930s, it was generally assumed that memory simply involves remembering the information presented to us. However Bartlett argued that memory was often more complex than that, in that previous knowledge in the form of schemas has influence on our memory. He thought what was of key importance was to ask participants to memorize a text selected to produce conflict between its contents and their knowledge of the world. As a result, the participants would connect their own schemas to the contents. This would result in misrepresentation of the material. For example, if people read a story taken from a different culture, then this would contain words and concepts that were foreign It would be likely that the participants' previous knowledge would influence the way this information was remembered, making it more acceptable from the standpoint of their own cultural background. Bartlett's work suggested that the process of remembering things is an active reconstruction of the bits that are stored. What is involved here has been compared to using a few dinosaur bones to reconstruct what the dinosaur probably looked like. When you learn something, it is actually only elements of the experience that are stored. So reconstructions are made by combining the real elements of a memory with your knowledge of the world. Our prejudices will influence what we think we have seen, and how we later recall the information. 29. How does the author explain the schema theory in Paragraph l A. By giving common examples. B. By comparing different events.

C. By reporting experiment results. 30. What is schema?

D. By explaining principles in daily life.

A. Relevant information showing your understanding of the world. B. An organized package of information that makes sense to people. C. Pieces of information about the event you can remember. D. The most important events associated with each other. 31. Bartlett believed that ___________ . A. earlier experience would affect what people recalled B. memory was more complex than what schema theory supported C. conflict existed in people's knowledge of the world D. people tended to make information acceptable 32. What is the passage mainly about? A. What helps regain memory. C. What the real elements of memory are. 第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 3 分,共 15 分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 B. How memory is reconstructed. D. How schema theory influences memory.

John's scream and his mother's attack on Mary could have been a matter of chance, but John was later seen playing the same tricks on others. 34

Studying behavior like this is complicated, but scientists discovered apes (猿) clearly showed that they intended to cheat and knew when they themselves had been cheated . 35 An ape was annoying him, so he tricked her into

going away by pretending he had seen something interesting. When she found nothing, she “walked back, hit me over the head with her hand and ignored me for the rest of the day.”

Another way to decide whether an animal's behavior is deliberate is to look for actions that are not normal for that animal. A zoo worker describes how an ape dealt with an enemy. “He slowly stole up behind the other ape, walking on tiptoe. When he got close to his enemy, he pushed him violently in the back, then ran indoors.” Wild apes do not normally walk on tiptoe. 36 But looking at the many cases of deliberate trickery in apes, it is

impossible to explain them all as simple copying. It seems that trickery does play an important part in ape societies. 37 Studying the intelligence of our

closest relative could be the way to understand the development of human intelligence. A. In most cases t e animal probably doesn't know it is cheating. B. An amusing example of this comes from a psychologist working in Tanzania. C. And playing tricks is as much a part of monkey behavior as it is of human behavior. D. So the psychologists asked his colleagues if they had noticed this kind of trickery. E. The ability of animals to cheat may be a better measure of their intelligence than their use of tools. F. This use of a third individual to achieve a goal is only one of the many tricks commonly used by baboons. G. Of course it's possible that it could have learnt from humans that such behavior works, without understanding why.

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