Cultural pluralism is the dynamic by which minority groups participate fully in the dominant society, yet maintain their cultural differences. A pluralistic society is one where different gro
ups can interact while showing a certain degree of tolerance for one another, where different cultures can coexist without major conflicts, and where minority cultures are encouraged to uphold their customs. Kinesics：is the term used for communicating through various types of body movements including facial expressions,gestures,posture and stance ,and other mannerisms that may accompany or replace oral messages. “ Language is system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. It is a s ystem, since linguistic elements are arranged systematically, rather than randomly. Arbitr ary, in the sense that there is usually no intrinsic connection between a work (like “book”) and the object it refers to. 1. Phatic function 2. Informative language function: 3. Expressive language function 4. . Directive language function 5. Performative utterances: 6. Recording function 7. physiological function 8. .Interrogative function
Characteristics of Culture 1. Culture is transmissible 2. Culture is shared. Members of a culture share a set of ideas, values, and standards of behaviors, and this set is what gives meaning to their lives, and what bonds them togethe r as a culture. 3. Culture is mostly learned unconsciously /acquired. Culture is learned, not inherited （ 遗 传 的 ） . It derives from one ’ s social environment, not from one’s genes. 4.Culture is symbolic. 5. Culture is integrated. To keep the culture functioning, all aspects of the culture must be integrated. 6. Culture is dynamic. Culture is subject to change. It’s dynamic rather than static（静态 的） , constantly changing and evolving under the impact of events and through contact w ith other cultures. It changes through three most common mechanisms: innovation （ 创 新）, diffusion（传播）and acculturation（文化适应）. 7. Culture is ethnocentric （ 民 族 中 心 主 义 的）. 8.Culture is the guiding principles for actions.
We all have ideas about what kinds of foods are good to eat. We also have ideas about what kinds of foods are bad to eat. As a result, people from one culture often think the foods that people from another culture eat are disgusting or nauseating. When the famous boxer Muhammad Ali1 visited Africa, for example, one member of his group became quite sick when he saw someone pick up a butterfly and eat it. Many people would find it disgusting to eat rats, but there are forty-two different cultures whose people regard rats as appropriate food. Thropologists believe that most food likes and dislikes are a result of the ways of life of different people. Some people live in areas where there are both large animals and many insects. It is difficult for these people to kill large animals, and it requires a lot of energy. It is easier for them to use insects for food because it is not difficult to catch insects and it does not require a lot of energy. Nomadic people who move around4 will not want to keep pigs for food. People will not eat pets such as dogs. Americans eat a lot of beef because there is plenty of land for raising cattle and their meat can be shipped cheaply for long distances by railroads. 食品和文化 On one hand, we know that so many kinds of food have existed for a long time, bu t how they come into being and become popular finally? It’s difficult to explain the source s of all the food, so I just choose “mutton eaten with hands”, a famous and popular food i n Mongolia On the other hand, food can also affect the culture of this nation. For example, Fre nch red wine, one of the well-known wines in the world, gives a romantic atmosphere to l overs sitting around the dinner tables. One bottle of red wine, two clean and transparent glasses with light music, just think about it, no wonder every couples with love want to ex perience such a scene. That is why the French are considered as a group of romantic pe ople, even Paris, the capital of France, is also regarded as the city of romance.
culture s elements affect international business . (1) Social structure. Basic to every society is its social structure , the overall frame work that determines the roles of individuals in the society , the stratification of the society , and individual’s mobility within the society (2) Language . Linguistic ties often create important competitive advantages becau se the ability to communicate is so important in conducting business transactions . (3) Communication . Like communication, culture is prevalence and has a profoun d effect on humans. Culture is also invisible yet pervasive. (4) Religion . Religion is an important aspect of most societiees . It affects the way s in which members of a society relate to each oter and to outsiders . (5) Values and Attitudes . Culture also affects and reflects the secular values and a ttitudes of the members of a society Understanding culture differences is critical to the success of firms engaging in int ernational business . A society’s culture affects the political , economic , social and ethical rules a firm must follow in its business dealings within that society . A society’s culture ref
lects its values , beliefs , behiviors , customs , and attitudes . Culture is learned behavior t hat is transmitted from one member of a society to another . The elements of culture are i nterrelated and reinforce each other . A society’s culture comprises numerous elements li ke social structure , language , religion , values and attitudes and communication . Thus we should be familiar with the culture differences of each country and also their cul tural background , especially their verbal or nonverbal habits , values , way of thoughts , way of actions and psychological characteristics in order to make full preperation and to a chieve more interest .