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The Worker as Creator or Machine

Lesson Eight The Worker as Creator or Machine
I. Word explanation 1. cathedral a. religion b. church c. temple d. warehouse 2. mold a. form b. deform c. handle d. ascend 3. lucidly a. cleverly b. reliably c. obscurely d. clearly 4. feverish a. cruel b. savage c. excited d. rash 5. alienate a. ally b. separate c. unite d. oppose 6. devoid a. lacking b. preventing c. avoiding d. damaging 7. premium a. position b. function c. result d. value 8. slovenly a. clean and tidy b. careful and clean c. careless and untidy d. slow and neat 9. friction a. division b. conflict c. connection d. section 10. amass a. spoil b. putrefy c. accumulate d. collapse 11. intoxication a. exhilaration b. extrication c. extinction d. extraction 12. fraudulent a. confusing b. worrying c. trustful d. deceitful 13. craving a. craft b. desire c. statue d. design 14. gadget a. appliance b. figure c. plan d. handtool 15. spontaneous a. compulsive b. forced c. instinctive d. submissive 16. infuse a. fill b. confuse c. contain d. misuse 17. asceticism

a. aesthetics b. self-denial c. self-criticism d. ascent 18. obligation a. responsibility b. duty c. burden d. all the above 19. stultifying a. stupid b. amazing c. not stimulating d. not dull 20. succinctly a. clearly b. successfully c. obviously d. continuously II. Fill in the blanks with words given below: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------obligation, manipulation, passivity, hostility, spontaneous, receptivity, underlying, formulation, transformation, prosecution, rationalization --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. In the Chinese history, there were many ________________ peasant rebellions. 2. Their friendship is regarded with suspicion and _____________. 3. The ideals of womanhood have been produced by men who desire women to be of ________________. 4. He has been promoted, for he is a man with ready ____________ to new ideas. 5. In the western world, many women resent the reality of male ________________ So they go in for the Women Liberation Movement. 6. Deng Xiaoping's _________________ on the problem of Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macao is "one country, two systems". 7. The ___________ theme of the story is very serious and meaningful. 8. Belgium replied that she had always been faithful to her international _____________. 9. A policeman was injured in the ______________ of his duties. 10. The Cultural Revolution caused a ______________ in her character. 11. He lent an open ear to all those ________ proposals. III. Determine the word according to the explanation. The first letter of the word is given: 1. B____________ is a situation of feeling that gives you a great deal of pleasure and makes you very happy. 2. A c____________ is a food made from grain and often other things such as sugar or fruit, which is usually mixed with milk and eaten for breakfast. 3. A person who acts without thinking about what they are doing is often called an a________________. 4. If you c___________ someone, you meet them face to face. 5. A p_______________ is a doctor who treats mental and emotional disorders.

6. Someone who is employed by a business at a senior level is the e__________. 7. If someone or something is your s________________, they save you from serious harm or an extremely unpleasant situation. 8. D_______________ is work that is not enjoyable to do because it is hard or boring. 9. If someone has u_____________ motives or reasons for doing sth. they do not show their motives openly but hide them. 10. If you say someone is a p______ thinker, you mean he is a deep thinker. IV. True or False: 1. According to Fromm, the breakdown of the chains of the feudal society makes people confident and free; so they feel safe and secure in their profession. 2. According to Mills craftsmanship involves the control of the work process by the individual worker. 3. Work, besides its intrinsic positive aspects, becomes purely and simply a method to achieve wealth and success. 4. According to Fromm work as duty and as a means for saving one's soul only existed for those who had only their physical energy to sell. 5. The central theme of this exposition is that in capitalist society the worker feels estranged from or hostile to the work he is doing. 6. Fromm agrees to the activities of those industrial psychologists, whose concerns and the objectives are to increase the productivity of workers. 7. The businessman hates his competitors, his customers and even himself. He feels excited over his success only for a short time. 8. Fromm thinks bourgeois advertising now appeals more to sexual appeal of women in order to sell their goods than to laziness and passivity. 9. Fromm is attacking the capitalist's increasing attention paid to the psychology of the worker and to the "human problem of industry." 10. In the capitalist society, worker is simply a machine. Machines can do anything which can't be performed by human being. V. Translation: 1. 社会主义现代化应该有.繁荣的经济,也应该有繁荣的文化.我国现代化建设的进程,在很 大程度上取决国民素质的提高和人才资源的开发. 2. 科学技术是第一生产力,科技进步是经济发展的决定性因素.人才是科技进步和经济社会 发展最重要的资源. 3. 我们为实现祖国和平统一做了大量卓有成效的工作,我国政府恢复对香港行使主权,洗雪 了中华民族的百年屈辱,可以告慰无数的革命先烈和前辈. 4. 我们要把握"抓住机遇,深化改革,扩大开放,促进发展,保持稳定"的基本方针,全面推进 物质文明和精神文明建设. Key to Lesson Eight: 1. b a d c b a b c b c a d b a c a b d c a II spontaneous 2. hostility passivity 4. receptivity

manipulation 6. formulation underlying 8. obligation prosecution 10. transformation 11.rationalization III. bliss cereal automaton confront psychiatrist executive salvation drudgery ulterior profound IV. F T F F T F T F T F V. 1. Socialist modernization requires both a prosperous economy and a flourishing culture. The process of the modernization drive is largely dependent on the enhancement of the quality of the entire population and the exploitation of intellectual resources. 2. Science and technology being a primary productive force, their progress is a decisive factor in economic development. Talented people are the most important resource for scientific and technological progress and economic and social development. 3. We have done a great deal of work with marked results in the peaceful reunification of the motherland. The Chinese government has resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, which is a consolation to numerous revolutionary martyrs and veterans as it has wiped out the century-old humiliation of the Chinese nation. 4. We should adhere to the basic principle of "seizing the current opportunity to deepen the reform and open China wider to the outside world, promoting development and maintaining stability" for an all-round fostering of both material progress and cultural and ethical progress

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