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任务型阅读 (建议用时: 20 分钟) 1 (2013· 徐州模拟) Simply increasing physical activity levels alone is unlikely
to reduce body weight in young children, and therefore will probably not prevent obesity(肥胖), although it may set the stage for a healthier lifestyle, the results of a study conducted in Scotland suggest. Instead, a combination of increased physical activity and other lifestyle changes like sticking to a healthy diet may be needed to stop the trend of obesity. “Many children are obese, even at preschool age, ”Dr John J. Reilly from the University of Glasgow and his colleagues note in the British Medical Journal. Considering the general lack of evidence on proper ways to prevent obesity in this age group, Reilly’s team had 545 children from 36 nursery schools in the “Movement and Activity Glasgow Intervention(干 预)in Children” or MAGIC trial. The trial was specifically designed to see if an increase in activity
could reduce body mass index(身体质量指数). Each week for 24 weeks roughly half of the preschoolers, who were an average of 4. 2 years old, participated in three 30-minute active workouts while at nursery school and their parents were encouraged to increase the child’s activity levels at home. The other half of the children, serving as contrasts, followed their usual nursery school schedule. According to the researchers, the physical activity intervention had no significant effect on body mass index of the children. However, compared with contrast children, intervention children show greater gains in body movement skills, which, the researchers say, may increase confidence in physical ability, perhaps increasing the opportunities of future participation in physical activity or sports. In a word, Reilly and his colleagues suggest that “successful interventions to prevent obesity in early childhood may require changes not just at nursery school, and home, but in the wider environment. Changes in other behaviors, including diet, may also be necessary. ” Whether exercise alone can(1) Topic children. Dr John J. Reilly and his(2) Researchers Glasgow People 545 children from 36 nursery schools researched from the University of obesity in young
◇about half of the preschoolers(3)
4. 2 on average:
◇participating in active workouts at nursery school Process ◇(4) parents to increase their activities levels at home
the other half: ◇living(5) according to the nursery school schedule. on losing weight.
◇Exercise alone has no(7)
◇Intervention children show greater gains in body(8) skills, which can make them more(9) (6) ability. ◇Successful interventions to prevent obesity in early childhood may require changes in both the(10) other behaviors, including diet. 2 (2013· 南通模拟) Could you believe that the ideal person is never the best at anything? Our heads are so full of ambitions about wealth and power that we spin our wheels until we burn ourselves out and are left hopeless and exhausted. There is great pressure to attain the highest level of achievement. By satisfying our vanity(虚荣)we do ourselves more harm than good. The only way to achieve sustainable happiness is to practice the Golden Mean(中庸 之道). The idea of the Golden Mean has existed for thousands of years. It is and in physical
at the centre of both Eastern and Western philosophy and has more influence than the teachings of Aristotle and Confucius. The idea is simple. Every quality has extremes at both ends. The Golden Mean is the natural balance between these extremes. At this harmonious point goodness and beauty are achieved. Socrates used the example of extreme devotion to athletics versus(与……相比)extreme devotion to music to illustrate this idea. The athlete becomes overly aggressive and cruel, while the musician becomes overly soft and womanish. The ideal is someone who practices both athletics and music and acquires a harmonious mixture of both qualities. Consider an example from modern times that I’m sure everyone has observed. The first person is extremely career driven. Each day he focuses on advancing himself. He spends long hours at the office, competes mercilessly with his coworkers, and flatters his superiors. As a result he has almost no personal life. The second person’s only pursuit is leisure. He likes to waste time with his friends watching television and playing video games. Which of these persons is superior? Many people would argue for the hard worker. But at second glance his life is rather cold. His obsession( 痴 迷)with success has conflicted with his coworkers and left him without a family. He may become rich, but how will he enjoy it? The second man is no better. He has wasted his life in laziness. He has refused to develop
himself and exists as a lazybones. Both men are worthy of pity. I think we’d all agree the ideal would be somewhere in between these two people. So how do we find the abstract Golden Mean? It all starts with setting the right goals. Whenever you make a goal you need to do it with the right intention. Don’t set goals with the intention to command other people. Instead, try to start with a goal that is in between total selfishness and total selflessness. The next step to reaching the Golden Mean is knowing your limits. You need to know when one more project is going to stress you out. The idea is to maintain balance at all times. Another step to achieving the Golden Mean is being aware of your personal needs. Sure we need money and success, but having good relationships with friends and family is just as important. I know the Golden Mean is hard to live by, but it is the key to finding your inner confidence. Ben Franklin said, “The wise keep learning from the mistakes of others, fools, scarcely from their own. ”Next time you find yourself willing to do anything to be the best of the best, take a moment to reconsider. You may find it is better to be the best “you” you can be. What is the Golden Mean? Passage outline Problems solution Passage details and ◇We(1) so much about wealth and power that
we can burn ourselves out.
◇People are in pursuit of their extremes under great(2) .
◇The only way to solve these problems is to practice the Golden Mean. The Golden Mean is the natural(3) Explanation of the these extremes which exist at both ends of every Golden Mean quality. ◇By(5) the athlete and the musician, Socrates between
believes the ideal person should acquire a harmonious mixture of both qualities. ◇The career-driven person is(6) Supporting(4) work, competing with his colleagues and flattering his supervisors. The leisure-seeking person wastes his life in laziness. Both deserve pity. ◇Set the right goals, which are neither totally selfish nor totally(8) (7) achieving Golden Mean . balance at all to his office
to ◇Know your limits and(9) the times.
◇Know your personal needs. Money and success are needed, but having good relationships with others also(10) .
1 1. 【解析】prevent。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对文中第一段 “therefore will probably not prevent obesity”信息识别能力。 2. 【解析】colleagues。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对文中第三 段“Dr John J. Reilly from the University of Glasgow and his colleagues” 信 息识别能力。 3. 【解析】aged。此题属于转换词汇中的词组转换。本题考查学生对 文中第四段“roughly half of the preschoolers, who were an average of 4. 2 years old”理解和运用能力。此题 aged 4. 2 相当于 of 4. 2 years old。 4. 【解析】encouraging。此题属于转换词汇中的词形转换。本题考查 学生对文中第四段 “and their parents were encouraged to increase the child’s activity levels at home. ”理解和运用能力。根据表格上一行的 participating, 可知此空应填 encouraging。 5. 【解析】normally。此题属于转换词汇中的句型转换。本题考查学生 对 文 中 第 四 段 “The other half of the children, serving as contrasts, followed their usual nursery school schedule. ”理解和概括能力。 6. 【解析】Conclusion。此题属于概括性词汇。本题考查学生对于表格 右侧内容的高度概括能力。
7. 【解析】effect。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对文章倒数第三 段“the physical activity intervention had no s ignificant effect on body mass index of the children. ”信息识别能力。 8. 【解析】movement。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对文章倒数 第二段“intervention children show greater gains in body movement skills” 信息识别能力。 9. 【解析】confident。此题属于转换词汇中的词形转换。本题考查学 生对于文章倒数第二段“may increase confidence in physical ability”理解 和运用能力。原文 confidence 作动词 increase 的宾语, 此题 confident 作 them 的补足语。 前面说过, “make +名词/代词+形容词”是一个常用句 型。 10. 【解析】environment。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对于文章 最后一段“but in the wider environment. ”信息识别能力。 2 1. 【解析】expect/desire。此题属于转换词汇中的词组转换。本题考查 学生对文中第一段“Our heads are so full of ambitions about wealth and power” 理 解 和 运 用 能 力 。 此 处 将 be of ambitions about 换 成 了 expect/desire。 2. 【解析】pressure。此题属于原文词汇。本题考查学生对文中第二段 “There is great pressure to attain the highest level of achievement. ” 信息识 别能力。 3.【解析】 balance。 此题属于原文词汇。 本题考查学生对文中第三段“The
Golden Mean is the natural balance between these extremes. ”信息识别能 力。 4. 【解析】examples。此题属于原文/概括性词汇。本题考查学生对表 格右栏信息的高度概括能力。当然, 此题也可从文中“Socrates used the example of”得到暗示。 5. 【解析】comparing。此题属于转换词汇中的词组转换。本题考查学 生对文中“versus(与……相比)”理解与运用能力。 6. 【解析】devoted/dedicated/committed 。此题属于转换词汇中的词组 转换。本题考查学生对文中“Each day he focuses on advancing himself. He spends long hours at the office”信息理解和运用能力。 7. 【解析】Steps。此题属于概括性/原文词汇。本题考查学生对表格右 侧信息的高度概括能力。 当然, 此题也可从“The next step to reaching the Golden Mean”得到暗示。 8. 【解析】selfless。此题属于转换词汇中的词形转换。本题考查学生 对文中“try to start with a goal that is in between total selfishness and total selflessness. ”理解和运用能力。此处将 selflessness 转换成了形容词。 9. 【解析】 maintain/keep。 此题属于原文词汇。 本题考查学生对文中“The idea is to maintain balance at all times. ”信息识别能力。 10. 【解析】counts/matters。此题属于转换词汇中的句型转换。本题考 查学生对文中“having good relationships with friends and family is just as important. ”理解和运用能力。count 意思是“重要”, 注意此处的主谓一 致。
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