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Part one: Translate the following into Chinese or explain in English( 每小题 2 分,共 30 分) 1. The House of Lords 3. Capitol Aill 5. Fund—raising party 7. Westinghouse Science Talent Search 8. Asia—Pacific summit 10. British Foreign Secretary 11. Christian 13. royal family 15. spokesman Part two: Reading Comprehension (共 70 分) Campaign strategists have agreed to focus to focus on the Senate, where leaders hope to complete work on the budget package by May 1. “We felt that if the Senate defeated the proposal, it would not even come up in the House,” says John Rot her, legislative director for the 18—million—member American Association of Retired persons. 12. economic recession 14. the Commonwealth 9. Sovereignty 2. Social Security 4. Speaker 6. Senior citizen

Targeted mainly are Republicans, who control the Senate, with particular emphasis on the 21 who face re—election next year. The next election looms large in the lobbyists’ strategy. “We shall not forget if Congress behaves in an unfriendly fashion to the senior citizens of the United States,” warns Jacob Clay man, president of the NCSC, which represents 4.5 million persons. “We shall remember—and 1986 is just around the corner.”Eric Shulman, legislative director for the NCSC, explains: “Those up for reelection will have their ears closest to the ground—and we are making as much of a rumble as we can. We see this issue being won or lost not in Washington but out in the countryside.” Adds Arthur Flemming, former U. S. commissioner on aging and now a lobbyist for the elderly:” “It’s the grass roots that convey the message most effectively.” I.Choose the right answer to each question(每小题 5 分,共 20 分) 1.…… where leaders hope to complete … A.House leaders B.floor leaders C.Congressional D.Senate leaders

2.… it would not even come up in the House … A. the House of Commons C.the House of Lords B. the House of Representatives D.the Senate

3.Targarted mainly are Republicans who cantrol the Senate … A.so said because the Democrats hold more seats in the Senate B.so said because the Republicans hold more seats in the Senate C.so said because the Republicans hold less seats in the Senate D.so said because the Republicans Party holds more congressional seats 4.“It’s the grass roots that convey the message most effectively.” A.ordinary citizens or voters B.basic structures

C.politicians D.Congressmen II.(每小题 10 分,共 50 分) Blacks’ history in America (1660—1860) American Blacks are without doubt all of African origin. The first group of 20 Blacks sold to English settlers of Virginia in 1619 were brought in by a Dutch ship. From that time to the mid—19th century, some 14 million blacks were transported from West Africa to Virginia and other southern colonies of the New World. Almost all of them were sold into slavery and subjected to white rule. Not only would they work for their masters as slaves for life but also their descendants would be slaves the moment they were born. Of course no person would have voluntarily chosen to be sold away from his native country. He was either sold by his own rulers or captured by white slave traders as portrayed in Alex Haley’s noval Roots. Some of the details in Haley’s story were similar to those in other books. The kidnapping of slaves and their miserable life under the supervision of slave owners and overseers existed and the conditions on the voyage from Afraca to America were horrible. The slaves’ bodies were bound together and their limbs either tied or chained with shackles like Kunta, an important character in Roots. The air in the holds was filthy with the smell of sweat, vormit and body waste. When they caught infections diseases, many slaves died on the voyage. Some even died of flogging or starvation. It was said that only about half slaves could survive the voyage. Though some survived, the fate of those survivors was no better than being sold at auction like animals. After 1700, a large number of Africans arrived in America. In the first half of the century, they made up 20 percent of the colonial population. Many of them were in the southern colonies. They worked either on plantations or in houses. Then in 1793, the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney resulted in a new demand for more slaves as it provided an inexpensive method of separating cotton seeds from fibres. With the increase in cotton acreage, slavery persisted in the South and became the foundation of its economy.

Slavery was anyhow a moral evil. It was inhuman and was also an institution restricting the development of industry. Many people, mostly people in the North desired an immediate end to the evil institution so that they would be able to develop industry. Some assumed that the only way to solve the problem was to ship all Blacks back to Africa. With the aid of such leading figures as James Monroe (president), John Marshall (Supreme Court justice), Henry Clay and Daniel Webster (senators), they established the American Colonization Society in the 1820’s. This organization was finally successful in getting some land in West Africa for those willing to go back home, thus forming the new nation: the Republic of Liberia, the place of freedom. They named its capital Monrovia after the U. S. president at the time. However, the resettlement policy did little to solve the dilemma. No more than 15,000 Blacks returned to Africa between 1821 an d1860; most of the others preferred to stay in the places they had been born. Those rejecting the policy of being sent home claimed American citizenship on the ground that they were Americans by birth so that they were entitled to the rights set forth in the Declaration of independence. II. Answer the following questions: 1. How did the first group of Blacks arrive in America?

2.Describe the voyage to America for the slaves on the ship.

3.Where did many of the slaves settle? why ?

4.What solution did President Monroe propose to solve the problem of slavery? 5.What does the Republic of Liberia mean?



一、1. 英国贵族院 2. 社会保障计划 3. 美国国会山 喻美国国会 4. 议长 5. 筹 款[宴]会 6. 老年人 7. 西屋发掘少年科技英才赛 8. 亚大首脑仁义或峰会 9. 主 权 10.英国外交大臣 11.基督徒 12.经济衰退 13.王室 14.英联邦 15.发言人 二、 I. 1.D 2.B 3.B 4.A

II. 1. They arrived in America by a Dutch ship. 2. Their bodies were hound together and their limbs either tied or chained. The air in the holds was filthy. Many of them died of diseases on the voyage, and some even died of flogging or starvation. 3. Most of them settled in the southern colonies because in 1793, the intention of the cotton resulted in a new demand for move slaves. 4. He proposed to ship all blacks back to Afoica. 5. It means the place of freedom.

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