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高中英语定语从句Attributive Clause课件必修二


Language study

The clause used as the attribute in a sentence is called…

Attributive Clause
structure:
relative pron. (as sub. or obj.) antecedent + (先行词)
(that / which / who(m) / whose)

relative adv. (as adverbial)
(when / where / why)

Language study

Relative pronouns
Talking about things Talking about people Do you know the man who / that came to see Xiao Yang this morning. He is a man who / whom / that we should all learn from. I couldn’t find the book which / that I bought yesterday. The table which / that you just saw is made of plastics.

whose
Do you know the boy whose parents are on holiday?

I’ve never been to the room whose windows are broken.

who/ whom/ that
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这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从 句中作主语和宾语。 E.g. Is he the man who/that wants to see you? (who/that在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. (whom/that在从句中作宾语)

whose
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用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还 可以同of which the互换)
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. Please pass me the book whose (of which the) cover is green.

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关系代词that 的用法
1)关系代词不用that的情况
a) 引导非限定性定语从句时 e.g. The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. (wrong) ? b) 介词后不能用 e.g. We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

2). 关系代词只能用that的情况
1.先行词为all, anything, nothing, something, little, few, much等不定代词时.
我能用的(东西)极其少. There is little that I can use. 2.先行词被all, each, few, much, every, no ,some, any等 不定代词修饰时.

你需要的书都在这儿.
All the books that you need are here. 3.先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时. 这是他用英语写的第一篇作文. This is the first composition that he has written in English.

4.先行词既有人又有物时 。 他谈到了他曾拜访过的老师和学校。 He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. 5.主句是以who或which开头的疑问句 在那里说话的人是谁? Who is the man that is speaking over there? 6.先行词被the only, the very, the last等修饰时 这正是我在找的枪。 This is the very gun that I am looking for.

7.先行词在从句中做表语时 他已经不是三十年前的那个年轻人了。 He is not the young man that he was thirty years ago. 8.在there be 句型中,如先行词指物,用that,而不 用which. There are many books that were written by him in my home. There is a house that has beautiful windows.

关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或原因的 名词,在从句中作状语。 e.g. ? July and August are the months when the weather is hot. (时间状语) She’s going home where she can rest.(地点状语) Do you know the reason why I left early? (原因状 语)

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判断关系代词与关系副词
把先行词放回从句,看它在从句中所作的成分。

1. 如果不需要添词句子仍然完整,那先行词在从句 中作主语、宾语、定语(表所属关系),选择关系 代词(who, whom, that, which, whose)。

2. 如果需要添介词才能使从句完整,那么先行词在 从句中作状语,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语, when 时间状语,why 原因状语)。

判断改错:
? ? ?

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This is the mountain village where I visited last year. I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. I‘ll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副 词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关 系词的误用上。

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判断关系代词与关系副词
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方法: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、 宾、定、状),就能正确选择出关系代词/关系副 词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

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判断关系代词与关系副词
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例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了 主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代 词,所以应选D。 例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的 状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。 而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

确定关系词在从句中的成分
1.The man who came to our school is Mr. Wang. 2.The girl whom I met is Lucy. 3.A child whose parents are dead is called Tom. 4.I like the book which you bought yesterday. 5. His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone whose family was poor. 6. I like the person to whom you just talked. 7. We shall never forget the days that we spent together. 8. We shall never forget the days when we lived together.

介词+关系词引导的定语从句
1)某些在从句中充当时间,地点等状语的"介词+关系词"结 构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。例如: This is the house _____ I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day ______ you joined our club? 2)介词后面的关系词不能省略。 3)先行词是物,关系词用which, 先行词是人,则关系词用 whom. 4)表所属关系时用of which/whom The boy whose/ of whom the parents are both doctors won the first place in the exam. 5)表原因,用for which

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

介词+关系词结构中介词的确定

1.来源于构成完整时间、地点状语所需补出的 介词. This is the mountain village ____ I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days ____ I worked together with you. 2.来源于动词短语. He is really the person __ whom we have a lot to learn. The girl __ whom you are talking is working for an international organization.

限制性和非限制性定语从句
定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语 从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意 思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的 附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它 与主句之间通常用逗号分开。e.g.
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This is the house which we bought last month. 这 是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。 (非限制性)

as & which 引导的非限制性定语从句
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由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和 which指代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。 as一般放在句首,which在句中。 例如: ? As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 ? The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。 ? The sun heats the earth, and _____ is very important to us.

典型例题
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1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he
答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰, 而用which.it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独 立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不 通。

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典型例题
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2)The weather turned out to be very good, (and) ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语 从句,而what不可。that 不能用于非限定性定语 从句,it不为连词,使用逗号连接的两个句子并 在一起在英语语法上行不通。

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典型例题
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3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it

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答案B. as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这 两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定 语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有 两点: (1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时, 从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从 句中的关系代词只能用which.。在本题中,prevent 由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

关系代词as 的用法
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1) the same…as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结 构, 和……一样……。例如: I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 2) as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。例如: As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. As is known, smoking is harmful to one's health. as是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中, 它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

what/whatever
1)what = the thing which; whatever = anything。 e.g. ? What you want has been sent here. 你要的动词 都送来了。 ? Whatever you want makes no difference to me. 不管你要什么,跟我没什么关系。
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who/ whoever

who= the person that whoever= anyone who e.g. ? (WRONG)Who breaks the law will be punished. ? (WRONG)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear. ? (RIGHT)Whoever breaks the law will be punished. 王子犯法,与庶民同罪。 ? (RIGHT)Who robbed the bank is not clear. 谁抢 了银行还不清楚。

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先行词和关系词二合一
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1) Whoever spits in public will be punished here. (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替) 2) The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.(what 可以用all that代替)

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用关系词填空
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1. City people in Britain and the US stand closer than those____live in other countries. 2. The old lady used to stand in front of the window, though ____she could see what was happening. 3. The international research group was made up of 20 scientists, three of ___ are experts on DNA. 4. Lost in the thick forest, the old man had got no person___he could turn for help.

用关系词填空
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5. Jackie, ____life had once been very hard, become a well-known actor. 6. Do you still remember the days ____ we spent happily together last year. 7. The tree, ____ leaves have turned red, was planted by my uncle. 8. The boy, one of ____ is my brother, are making a plan for the weekend.

Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions

without 1. The sun gives us heat and light, ________ which we can’t live.
about / to 2. The student __________ whom we were talking just now is the best student in our class. on 3. I’ll never forget the day _____ which she said good-bye to me. in 4. Is that the newspaper _____which you often write articles? for 5. 1949 was the year ____which the P.R.C. was founded.

Proofread the sentences
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in?
^ the one

3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada.
^ to

4. July 1,1999 is the day when we’ll never forget.
which/that

5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with them.
^ when

6. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me.
which/that

Language study

Proofread the sentences

7. Which is known to all, many satellites are going As around in the sky. 8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your friend.
that in which / lessons.

9.This is the last time when I’ve given you
that

10. Soon they came to a farm house, and in front of which sat a small boy. 11. We heard the news which our team won the game.
that

12. The reason which he explained it sounds reasonable.
why

Language study

Proofread the sentences
13. Those at the desk^want to buy tickets write down your names.who 14. That was the reason because she looked old. why
15. Miss Chen is the only one of the few teachers who give us wonderful English lessons in our gives school. 16. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to China. as 20. The students and things which you spoke of that are known to us.


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