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Reference Experts:
Dr Paul W. Selleck CSIRO, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) 5 Portarlington Road, Private Bag 24, Geelong 3220, Victoria AUSTRALIA Tel: (61.3) 52.27.50.00 Fax: (61.3) 52.27.55.55
paul.selleck@csiro.au

Avian Influenza
Key Facts
? In 1997, a highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 AI emerged in Southeast Asia and spread throughout numerous Asian, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. It has also been associated with illness and death in humans who have had close contact with infected birds. ? In 2002, mortalities in wild birds due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were reported in Hong Kong. These were the first reported deaths of wild birds as a result of HPAI in Asia. ? The first AI H5N1 case reported in Africa was in February 2006 in Nigeria. ? Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 AI in domestic birds occurring in Asia, Africa and Europe mark the first time in the history of this disease where so many countries have been simultaneously affected with the loss of so many birds.

References:
Dr H. Kida Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Disease Control Kita-18, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 JAPAN Tel: (81.11) 706.52.07 Fax: (81.11) 706.52.73
kida@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp

1. Merck Veterinary Manual,

What is Avian Influenza (AI)?

http://www.merckvetmanual. com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/ bc/206200.htm

2. World Organisation for Animal Health, OIE, Technical Disease Card, http://www.cfsph.iastate.
edu/Factsheets/pdfs/highly_ pathogenic_avian_influenza.pdf

A

vian influenza (AI), caused by the influenza virus Type “A”, can affect several species

of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds with some strains resulting in high mortality rates. The virus has also been isolated from mammalian species including humans, rats and mice, weasels and ferrets, pigs, cats, tigers and dogs. AI viruses are not new. There are many descriptions of historical outbreaks of AI in

General Disease Information Sheets

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheets/avian_influenza/en/

General Disease Information Sheets

Dr John Pasick Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4 Canada Tel: (1.204) 789.20.13 Fax: (1.204) 789.20.38
jpasick@inspection.gc.ca

Dr Ian Brown VLA Weybridge New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB UNITED KINGDOM Tel: (44.1932) 34.11.11 Fax: (44.1932) 34.70.46
i.h.brown@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

3. World Organisation for Animal Health, OIE, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2011; Chapter 10.4.1 4. World Health Organization, Avian Influenza Fact Sheet,

domestic poultry throughout available literature. There are many strains of AI viruses and generally they can be classified into two categories: low pathogenic (LPAI) that typically causes little or no clinical signs in birds and highly pathogenic (HPAI) that can cause severe clinical signs and/or high mortality in birds. The Asian origin highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of the AI virus has attracted much attention over the last few years because of significant outbreaks globally in domestic and wild birds. Concern is raised because of the degree of virulence not only in poultry but also in wild birds as well as the ability to infect mammalian species. While AI viruses are generally highly species specific, the highly pathogenic H5N1 AI virus has also infected humans. Low pathogenic strains of AI H5N1 virus exist but do not produce significant clinical signs in birds. Avian influenza is a disease listed under the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code – 2011 (Article 1.2.3). Notifiable avian influenza includes two particular subtypes, H5 and H7 that must be reported to the OIE (as per Chapter 1.1.2. – Notification of Diseases and Epidemiological Information).

Dr Timm C. Harder Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals (BFAV), Institute of Diagnostic Virology Boddenblick 5a, 17493 Greifswald - Insel Riems GERMANY Tel: (49.383) 51.71.96 Fax: (49.383) 51.72.75
timm.harder@fli.bund.de

Dr B. Panigrahy National Veterinary Services Laboratories P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tel: (1.515) 663.75.51 Fax: (1.515) 663.73.48
brundaban.panigrahy@aphis.usda.gov

? 12, rue de prony ? 75017 paris france ? tel. 33 (0)1 44 15 18 88 - fax 33 (0)1 42 67 09 87 ? www.oie.int ? oie@oie.int

Cover photo : ? G.Cattiau INRA. Inside photos : ? M.Bossene INRA, G.Cattiau INRA ? C.Maitre INRA, ? S.Norman INRA, ? J.Weber INRA.

Dr Ilaria Capua Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Laboratorio Virologia Via Romea 14/A, 35020 Legnaro, Padova ITALY Tel: (39.049) 808.43.69 Fax: (39.049) 808.43.60
icapua@izsvenezie.it

Avian Influenza
Where is the disease found?
AI occurs worldwide and different strains are more prevalent in certain areas of the world than others. Of particular interest are outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 AI that began in south-east Asia in late 2003. Over the past years, several other Asian countries have reported outbreaks and in some, the disease is now considered to be endemic (always present). Outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 have also been reported in Africa and Europe. Apart from being highly contagious among AI viruses can be spread through direct contact poultry, avian from infected birds, especially with secretions influenza viruses are readily transmitted from farm to farm by feed, water, faeces or through contaminatedthe movement of domestic live birds, people (especially when equipment and clothing. shoes from being highly contagious among Apart and other clothing are contaminated), and poultry, avian vehicles, equipment,are readily contaminated influenza viruses feed, and transmitted from farm to farm by can movement cages. Highly pathogenic viruses the survive for long periods live birds, people (especially of domestic in the environment, especially when temperatures are low. For contaminated), and shoes and other clothing areexample, the highly contaminated vehicles,can survive in bird faeces pathogenic H5N1 virus equipment, feed, and cages. Highly days at low temperature (4oC). At a for at least 35 pathogenic viruses can survive for much higher temperature (37oC), H5N1 viruses long periods in the environment, especially when temperatures are low. For example, the highly have been shown to survive, in faecal samples, pathogenic H5N1 virus can survive in bird faeces for six days. Other species including cats can for at least 35 days at low temperature (4oC). At a exceptionally become infected with the HPAI H5N1 virus. temperature pigs by other strains much higher Infections of (37oC), H5N1 viruses have been shown to survive, in faecal samples, of avian influenza are of concern because the for six days. Other species includingboth avian species is susceptible to infections of cats can exceptionally become infected this may provide and human influenza viruses and with the HPAI H5N1 virus the opportunity pigs by othermutate. the AI virus. Infections of to reassort or strains of avian influenza are of concern becauseboth While sporadic infection with HPAI virus in the species is susceptible to infections of both avian have been reported over the past years and human influenza viruses and thissuggest that there is no scientific evidence to may provide the AI virus the opportunity to reassort or mutate. either species plays a significant role in the While sporadic infection with HPAI virus in both epidemiology of the disease or as a source of virus to have been reported over the past years species other species. there is no scientific evidence to suggest that either species plays a significant role in the What is the public health risk epidemiology of the disease or as a source of associated with this disease? virus to other species. The disease is a zoonosis (a disease which primarily is the public causes disease in What affects animals, but health risk humans). associated with this disease? AI viruses are highly species-specific, but have, Therare occasions, zoonosis the species barrier on disease is a crossed (a disease which primarily humans. Transmission to humans has to infect affects animals, but causes disease in humans).when there is close contact with infected occurred AI viruses are highlycontaminated environments. birds or heavily species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect While AI caused by highly pathogenic virus strains have sometimes humans has to infect humans. Transmission to been shown occurred when this disease should not be confusedbirds man, there is close contact with infected with or heavily human influenza, a very common seasonal contaminated environments. While human disease (generally caused by H1 and H3 viruses). Due to the highly pathogenic virus strains it is AI caused by potential for human infection, have recommended that those people man, this disease sometimes been shown to infect working with, or in contact not be confused with seasonal human should with poultry suspected of being infected with AI, wear a very common human disease (generally influenza,protective clothing including face masks, caused by H1 and H3 viruses). goggles, gloves and boots. Due probability for the H5N1 AI virus to change to The to the potential for human infection, it is recommendedhighlythose people working with, or in a form that is that infectious for humans and that will spread readily from person of being is unknown. contact with poultry suspected to personinfected with However, protective clothing including face masks, AI, wear this possibility combined with the increasing goggles, gloves and boots. virus to currently available resistance of the H5N1 AI The probability for and H5N1 AI virus to change to a antiviral treatment the lack of complete vaccination effectiveness make this a critical human and that will form that is highly infectious for humans health risk. spread readily from to suggest that the consumption There is no evidence person to person is unknown. However, this possibility combined with the increasing of cooked poultry or eggs could transmit the AI virus resistance of the H5N1 AI virus to currently available to humans. antiviral treatment and lack of complete vaccination effectiveness make this a critical human health risk. What are the clinical signs of There is no evidence to suggest that the consumption the disease? eggs could transmit the AI virus of cooked poultry or to humans. form, signs of illness may be expressed In the mild only as ruffled feathers, reduced egg production, or mild effects on the clinical signs of What are the respiratory system. In the severe form of the disease, the virus not only the disease? tract, as in the mild form, but affects the respiratory In the mild form, signsorgans and tissuesexpressed also invades multiple of illness may be that can result in massive internal haemorrhaging. only as ruffled feathers, reduced egg production, or mild effects of the following clinical signs are evident Some or all on the respiratory system. in the severe form of the disease, the virus not only In birds infected with a highly pathogenic strain of AI (including respiratory tract, as in the mild form, but affects theH5N1 strain): ? quietness multiple organs and tissues that can also invades and extreme depression; result in massive internal haemorrhaging. of which ? sudden drop in production of eggs, many Some or all of the following clinical signs are evident are soft-shelled or shell-less; ? wattles and combs a highly pathogenic strain of AI in birds infected with become swollen and congested; (including H5N1 strain): ? swelling of the skin under the eyes; ? quietness and extreme depression; coughing, sneezing and nervous signs; ? sudden drop in production of eggs, many of which diarrhoea; ? are soft-shelledon the hock; haemorrhages or shell-less; ? wattles and combs become swollen and congested; a few deaths may occur over several days, ? swelling of the skin under the a mortality rate that followed by rapid spread and eyes; ? coughing,approach 100% within 48 hours. can then sneezing and nervous signs; ? diarrhoea; ? haemorrhages on the hock; available in the OIE More detailed information is ? a few deaths may occur over several days, Avian Influenza Technical Disease Card.http://www. oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_ World/docs/pdf/AVIAN_INFLUENZA_FINAL.pdf
Avian Influenza

How is the disease diagnosed? that followed by rapid spread and a mortality rate

can then approach 100% within 48 hours. Laboratory tests are required to confirm the diagnosis. (Prescribed and Alternative Diagnostic Tests for OIE More detailed information is available in the OIE Avian Influenza Technical Disease 1.3, Terrestrial Animal Listed Diseases, Chapter Card. (http://www.cfsph. iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/highly_pathogenic_ Health Code, 2011; Avian Influenza, Chapter 2.3.4, avian_influenza.pdf) Tests & Vaccines for Terrestrial Manual of Diagnostic Animals).

Measures that are recommended at the farm level include: Measures that are recommended at the farm level include:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? keep poultry away from areas frequented by wild keep poultry away from areas frequented by wild fowl; keep control over access to poultry houses by fowl; keep control over access to poultry houses by people and equipment; do not and equipment; on property that may people provide elements do not wild birds; attract provide elements on property that may maintain sanitation of property, poultry houses attract wild birds; maintain sanitation of property, poultry houses and equipment; avoid the introduction of birds of unknown disease and equipment; avoid the introduction of birds of unknown disease status into flock; status into flock; report illness and death of birds appropriate disposal of manure and dead poultry. report illness and death of birds appropriate disposal of manure and dead poultry. If the disease is detected, generally a “stamping If the (culling) is detected, generally a “stamping out” disease policy is used in the efforts to out” (culling) disease. Elements included in to eradicate the policy is used in the efforts a response the include: eradicate effortdisease. Elements included in a response effort include: humane destruction of all infected and exposed humane (see Guidelinesall infected and exposed animals destruction of for the killing of animals animals (see Guidelines for the killing of animals for disease control purposes, Chapter 7.6, for disease control purposes, Chapter 7.5, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2011); Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2009); appropriate disposal of carcasses and all animal appropriate disposal offor the disposalall animal products (Guidelines carcasses and of dead animals, (Guidelines Terrestrial Animal dead products Chapter 4.12,for the disposal ofHealth animals, Chapter 4.12, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2011); Code, 2009); surveillance and tracing of potentially infected or exposed poultry;

How is the disease transmitted and spread?
Several factors can contribute to the spread of AI viruses including globalization and international trade (legally and illegally), marketing practices (live bird markets), farming practices and the presence of the viruses in wild birds. Wild birds normally can carry avian influenza viruses in their respiratory or intestinal tracts and usually do not get sick. Wild birds have historically been known as reservoirs for AI viruses, mostly of low pathogenicity. Around the world, surveillance measures have been put in place to monitor occurrence and characteristics of AI viruses in wild birds. In wild birds, it isis common during routine testing to it common during routine testing to find some influenza viruses. The vast majority of these find some influenza viruses. The vast majority of viruses do notdo not cause disease. these viruses cause disease. In studying current HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, the exact role of wild birds in spreading the virus over long distances is still not fully understood in all situations. Generally, there are many uncertainties about the wild species involved, the migratory routes used and, above all, the possibility that some species could become permanent reservoirs of the H5N1 virus, with carriers showing no clinical signs of the disease. AI viruses can be spread through direct contact with secretions from infected birds, especially faeces or through contaminated feed, water, equipment and clothing.

Laboratory tests are required tomeasuresdiagnosis. Prevention and control confirm the (Prescribed and Alternativehave early detection and It is extremely important to Diagnostic Tests for OIE Listed Diseases, and prevention Terrestrial in place warning systems Chapter 1.3, measures Animal Health Code, effective strategy for AI.Chapter 2.3.4, as part of an 2009; Avian Influenza, This needs to Manual of Diagnostic Tests & Vaccines for Terrestrial be coupled with similar efforts placed on preparing Animals; 2008). for a potential outbreak. Around the world, surveillance measures have been put in Whatplace to detect the presence of infection is being done to prevent in poultry according to OIE Standards for the or control this disease? Surveillance of Avian Influenza (Chapter 10.4.29, Prevention and control measures Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2011). It is extremely important toprogrammes monitor and Additionally, surveillance have early detection the warning systems and prevention measures in place occurrence, prevalence and characterisation of AI as part of an effective strategy for AI. This needs to viruses found in wild birds. Wild bird surveillance be coupled with similar efforts placed on preparing considers different migratory flyways and particularly formingling points for migrating birds from different at a potential outbreak. Around the world, surveillance measures have been continents. put in place tofor poultry producers to maintain It is essential detect the presence of infection in poultry practices toto OIE Guidelines for the biosecurity according prevent introduction of Surveillance of Avian Influenza (Chapter 10.4, Article virus in their flock. 10.4.27, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2009). Additionally, surveillance programmes monitor the occurrence, prevalence and characterisation of AI viruses found in wild birds. Wild bird surveillance considers different migratory flyways and particularly at mingling points for migrating birds from different continents. It is essential for poultry producers to maintain biosecurity practices to prevent introduction of the virus in their flock.

How is the disease diagnosed? What is being done to prevent Avian influenza (AI) may be suspected on the basis or control this disease? of clinical signs and events leading to the disease.

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? ?

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? surveillance and tracing of potentially infected or ? strict quarantine and controls on movement of exposed poultry; poultry and any at-risk vehicles; ? thorough decontamination of infected premises;of strict quarantine and controls on movement ? a period atany at-risk vehicles; poultry and least 21 days before restocking; ? Culling may be complemented by a vaccination thorough decontamination of infected premises; ? policy for poultry in 21 days before restocking; a period at least a high-risk area. Culling may be complemented by a vaccination Vaccination poultry in a high-risk area. susceptible policy for aims to protect the population of birds from potential infection thereby reducing the incidence the the severity Vaccination aims to protect or susceptible of disease. Vaccination from potential effectively population of birds strategies can infection be usedreducing emergency effort in the face thereby as an the incidence or the severity of disease. Vaccination astrategies measure in an an outbreak or as routine can effectively endemic area. an emergency effort must the given be used as Careful consideration in be face prior to implementing a routine measure in and of an outbreak or as vaccination policy an requires that the recommendations from the World endemic area. Careful consideration must be given Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on vaccination prior to implementing a vaccination policy and and vaccines the recommendations from the World requires that are closely followed. Any decision foruse vaccination (OIE) on vaccination Organisation to Animal Health must include an exit strategy. and vaccines are closely followed. OIE guidelines emphasize that prevention and control Any decision to use vaccination must include an exit measures such as surveillance and reporting of strategy. findings of NAI in wild that prevention and control OIE guidelines emphasize birds and vaccination of domestic poultry as surveillance andinreporting of unjustified measures such should not result trade restrictions in wild birds and vaccination of findings of NAI (Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2009; Chapter 10.4). domestic poultry should not result in unjustified trade restrictions (Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2011; Chapter 10.4.1).

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