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高一英语考点集汇讲解和训练--短语动词和句型


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学而思教育· 思考成就未来! 学而思教育·学习改变命运 思考成就未来!
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高一英语考点集汇讲解和训练--短语动词和句型
九. 短语动词和句型 【考点直击】 1. 短语动词的辨析; 2. 英语句子的基本句型结构; 3. 初中阶段主要句型的用法。 【名师点睛】 短语动词是中考的重要内容之一。在初中阶段,我们已经学习了不少短语 动词,把他们加以归纳总结,进行重点复习是十分必要的。英语中有许多短语 动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动 词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。 1. 短语动词的分类 (1)动词+介词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 look for, look after, ask for, laugh at, hear of 等。这类短语动 词的宾语只能放在介词后。如: Don’t laugh at others. Tom asked his parents for a bike. (2)动词+副词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in,等。这类短语动 词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果 是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如: You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow. Please don’t forget to hand it in. (3)动词+副词+介词 动词+ 动词 副词+ 常见的有 go on with, catch up with 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在 介词后边。如: Go on and I’ll catch up with you in five minutes. After a short rest, he went on with his research work. (4)动词+名词+介词 动词+ 动词 名词+ 常见的有 take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这 类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如: You should pay attention to your handwriting. We should make full use of our time. (5)动词+形容词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 leave open, set free, cut open 等。这类短语动词的宾语如果 是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代 词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如: The prisoners were set free. He cut it open. (6)动词+名词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 take place, make friends 等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。 如: This story took place three years ago.
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I make friends with a lot of people. 2. 短语动词的辨析 (1)be made in(在……生产或制造) ,be made of(由……组成或构成) (2)come down(下来;落), come along(来; 随同), come to oneself(苏醒), come true(实现),come out(花开;发芽;出现;出来),come over(过来;顺 便来访) ,come in(进来),come on(来吧;跟着来;赶快), come up with(找 到;提出) (3)do one’s best(尽最大努力), do well in(在……干得好), do one’s homework(做 作业),do some reading(阅读) (4)fall asleep(入睡), behind(落在…..后面), off(从……掉下), down(到 fall fall fall 下;跌倒) (5)get down(下来; 落下), on(上车), to(到达), up(起床), back(回 get get get get 来;取回),get off(下来),get on well with(与……相处融洽),get married(结 婚),get together(相聚) (6)give up(放弃),give…a hand(给与……帮助),give a concert(开音乐会) (7)go back(回去),go on(继续),go home(回家),go to bed(睡觉),go over(过 一遍; 仔细检查), out(外出; go 到外面), wrong(走错路), on doing(继 go go 续做某事),go shopping(买东西),go boating(去划船), go fishing(去钓鱼), go hiking(去徒步旅行),go skating(去滑冰),go straight along(沿着……一直 往前走) (8)have a look(看一看), have a seat 坐下) have supper 吃晚餐) have a rest ( , ( , (休息), have sports(进行体育活动), have a cold(感冒), have a cough (咳嗽), have a good time(过得愉快), have a headache(头痛) ,have a try(尝 试;努力) (9)look for(寻找),look out(留神; 注意),look over(仔细检查),look up(向上 看;抬头看),look after(照顾; 照看),look at(看; 观看),look like(看起 来像),look the same(看起来像), (10)make friends(交朋友),make phone calls(打电话),make money(赚钱), make the bed(整理床铺), make a noise(吵闹), make a faces(做鬼脸), make one’s way to(往 ……走去 ), make room for(给 …… 腾 出地 方 ),make a decision(做出决定), make a mistake(犯错误), make up one’s mind(下决心) (11)put on(上演;穿上;戴上),put up(挂起;举起),put down(把某物放下 来),put away(把某物收起来), put off(推迟) (12)take off(脱掉衣服),take photos(照相),take time(花费时间),take out(取 出),take a seat(坐下),take an active part in(积极参加),take care of(照顾; 照料;注意),take exercise(做运动),take one’s place(坐某人的位置;代 替某人的职务),take turn(轮流) (13)talk about(谈话;交谈),talk with(和……交谈) (14)turn on(打开电灯,收音机,煤气,自来水等),turn off(关上电灯,收音 机,煤气,自来水等),turn down(关小;调低),turn…over(把…..翻过来) (15)think of(认为;想起),think about(考虑) 3.句子的基本句型结构 句子的基本句型结构 句子的基本句型 根据句子所用动词的不同,句子可归纳为五个基本句型。
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(1)主语 连系动词 表语。例如: 主语+连系动词 表语。 主语 连系动词+表语 My mother is a doctor. Her voice sounds nice. (2)主语 不及物动词。例如: 主语+不及物动词 主语 不及物动词。 He runs fast. We study hard. (3)主语 及物动词 宾语。例如: 主语+及物动词 宾语。 主语 及物动词+宾语 Children often sing this song. He studies English. 1)常用-ing 形式, 而不用不定式作宾语的动词有:enjoy, finish, feel like, consider, practise, keep, suggest, mind 等。例如: She enjoys reading novels and swimming. I finished reading the book last night. 2)常用不定式,而不用-ing 形式作宾语的动词有:wish, hope, agree, plan, decide, refuse 等。例如: Where do wish to sit? Tom agreed to lend some money. 3)有些及物动词既可用不定式,由可用-ing 形式作宾语,但意义不同。这 类动词常见的有:remember, forget 等。例如: Please remember to post the letter for me. 请记住替我发了这封信。 I remember posting the letter. 我记得那封信寄过了。 Stop 的用法同上面的词相仿, 不过 stop 后面跟不定式不是作宾语, 而是作状语。试比较下列句子: He stopped to smoke. 他停下来吸烟。 He stopped smoking. 他停止吸烟了。 4)有些及物动词的宾语,既可用不定式,又可用-ing 形式,意义基本相同。 这类动词常见的有:like, love, hate, begin, start, continue 等。例如: I like to swim in summer. I like swimming in summer. (4)主语 及物动词 间接宾语 直接宾语。例如: 主语+及物动词 直接宾语。 主语 及物动词+ 间接宾语+直接宾语 My father bought me a new bike. He gave me an apple. 1)及物动词之后跟有双宾语, 往往一个指人, 一个指物。 指人的为间接宾语, 指物的为直接宾语。一般情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。如果要 把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾语前需加介词。例如: Please pass me a cup of tea.= Please pass a cup of tea to me. Show me your new book, please. =Please show your new book to me. 2)把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾前有时加介词 to, 有时加介词 for, 这主要取决于谓语动词。一般在动词 give, tell, sell, lend, show 之后加 to。 在动词 buy, make, get 等之后加 for。例如:
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Would you lend me your dictionary, please? =Would you lend your dictionary to me, please? Tom’s mother bought him a pair of new shoes. =Tom’s mother bought a pair of new shoes for him. (5)主语 及物动词 宾语 宾语补足语。例如: 主语+及物动词 宾语+宾语补足语 主语 及物动词+宾语 宾语补足语。 We keep our classroom clean and tidy. I hear someone singing in the next room. 1)及物动词指后跟有复合宾语,一个是宾语,一个是宾语补足语。宾语和宾 语补足语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。例如: We call him Jack. Don’t get your hands dirty. 2)在及物动词之后,用不定式作宾语补足语和用-ing 形式作宾语补足语表示 的意思往往不同。用不定式作宾语补足语指事情的全过程;用-ing 形式作 宾语补足语指正在进行的动作的一部分。例如: I heard him sing that song. (我听他唱过那首歌。) When I came back, I heard him singing in the room. (我回来时,听见他正在房间里唱歌。) 3)在感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, listen to, look at 使役动词 let, make, have 等的复合宾语种,不定式须省去 to。但变为被动句时,省去的 to 要加上。例如: I saw him go into the room. He was seen to go into the room. 4. 初中阶段主要句型的用法。 初中阶段主要句型的用法。 1. It's time to (for) …… 表“时间到了;该干…的时间了”之意。 It's time to go home. It's time for school. 注意:to 的后面接动词短语,而 for 的后面接名词。 2. It's bad (good) for …… 表示“对…有害(有益)的”含义。 Please don't smoke. It's bad for your health. Please take more exercise. It's good for your health. 3. be late for (school) 是“上学(迟到)”之意。for 后面还可以接 meeting 或 class。 He was late for school this morning. Don't be late for class, please. 4. had better do / not do sth. 表示“最好做/不做某事”之意。 You had better put on the coat when you go out. It's cold outside. We had better stop to have a rest. 注意:用 had better 时,后面一定要直接跟动词原形,决不能加 to do sth. 否定一定用在第二个动词之前,是动词不定式的否定式。 5. be (feel) afraid of …… 表示“恐怕”,“害怕…”之意。 He is afraid of snakes. Mary feels afraid of going out alone. 6. enjoy doing sth. 是“喜欢(爱好)做某事”之意,doing 是动名词作动词 enjoy 的宾语。enjoy 有欣赏之意。
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Are you enjoy living in Beijing? Do you enjoy listening to music? 7. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 stop to do sth. 停下来做某事 It's time for class. Stop talking, please. When she saw me, she stopped to talk with me. 8. Let (make) sb. do 让(使)某人做某事。 Let's go to school. Father made his son clean the room again. 注意:当 make sb. do sth. 用于被动语态时,第二个动词前面就一定要加 to 了。如: His son was made to clean the room again. he was made to work twelve hours a day in the past. 9. like to do / like doing sth. 是“喜欢做某事”之意。 like to do sth. 是表示比较具体的喜欢做某事; doing sth. 是表示宠统的喜欢 like 做某事。如: I like to swim in the swimming pool. 我喜欢在游泳池中游泳。 (喜欢的具体的地方游泳) I like swimming. 我喜欢游泳(只讲喜欢这项运动) 10. ask (tell) sb. to do. (not to do) sth. 请(让)某人(不)做某事 Jim asked his mother to help him with his lessons. When did you tell him not to shout loudly? 11. give (lend) sb. sth. = give (lend) sth. to sb. 给(借给)某人某物 Mike gave me a new pair of stockings. Please lend us your car. 12. be busy doing sth. 表示“忙于做某事”之意。 The students are busy getting ready for the exams. Is Mrs Black busy washing clothes? 13. too …… to …… 表示“太…以致不能…”的含义。 She is too young to go to school. The old man was too tired to walk farther. 14. not……until …… 是“直……才……”之意。 My daughter didn't go to bed until 11 o'clock last night. We won't have time to rest until the summer holiday comes. 15. so ……that 是“如此……以致……”的意思。 Peter is so clever that all the teachers like him very much. The song is so wonderful that everyone likes to listen to it. 16. neither ……nor ……是“既不……也不……”之意。 Mr. Smith is neither a worker nor a soldier. He is a scientist. Neither you nor I am free. 17. enough to do sth. 是“足以去做某事”之意。 She is old enough to go to school. Peter was tall enough to reach the apple. 19. prefer……to ……是“比起来,还是……好,”“喜欢……而不喜欢”之意。
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I prefer English to maths = I like English better than maths He prefers playing football to playing basketball. 20. not ……at all ……是“根本不……”之意。 I don't know Mr. King at all. David doesn't like singing at all. 21.keep sb. doing sth. 是“使某人继续做某事”之意。 Mr. Wang didn't come to school on time. She kept me waiting for two hours. Don't keep your mother doing everything for you You should do it by yourself. 22. keep sth. + adj. 是“保持某物处于某种状况”之意。 Please keep our classroom clean and tidy. That wool sweater kept her body warm enough. 23. see sb. doing sth. 表示“看见某人正在做某事”之意。 When my brother passed the post office, he saw a little boy crying at the door. Did you see a car coming here ? 24. see sb. do sth. 是“看见某人做了某事”之意。 That girl saw an old woman fall down on the road yesterday. Have you seen the leaves drop into the river ? 25. hear sb. doing sth. 是“听到某人正在做某事”之意。 Listen ! Can you hear someone singing on the hill? We heard him talking with Mr. Li loudly just now. 26. hear sb. do sth. 表示“听见某人做了某事”之意。 He was often heard to sing in his room in the past. Why didn't you hear me come into the sitting rom ? 27. be used for doing sth. 是“被用来做某事”的意思。 Knives are used for cutting things. Teapot is used for keeping tea warm. 28. It's three metres long / high/ wide. 它是三米长(高、宽)形容词要放在后面作 后置定语。句型是 It / 主语+ be +数词+米/公里+形容词。 His father is one and seventy metres tall. That river is fifty metres wide. 29. What's wrong with ……? / What's the problem with ……?/ What's the trouble with ……?/ What's the matter?表示“出了什么毛病?”“…哪儿不舒服?”“怎么 啦?”的含义。 What's wrong with your car? What's wrong with you, little girl? What's the matter with your watch? 30. Would you like (to do) ……? 是“你想要…吗?”的意思。like 后面可以接名词, 词组或动词不定式。提出一种建议或邀请。 Would you like some fish? Would you like to go to the cinema with me? 31. Will you please do sth? 是“你想要做……吗?” Will you please say it more slowly? Will you please not open the window? I feel cold. 32. It takes sb. some time to do sth. 是“做某事花费某人一段时间”之意。可以用于
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一般现在时,一般过去式和一般将来时态。 It will take us two hours to go over all the words and expressions. It took Mr Wang half an hour to clean the bedroom. 33. I'd like sb. to do sth. 是“我希望某人来做某事”之意。 I'd like my friend to help me with my lessons. He'd like Jim to teach him how to use the computer. 34. There's sth. wrong with ……是“某物/人出了问题”,“某物/人有了毛病”之意。 There is something wrong the TV set. = Something is wrong with the TV set. There must be something wrong with the car. It doesn't move. 35. I don't think that + clause 是“我想…不会…”“我认为…不…”之意。 I don't think that any of the questions is difficult. We don't think he will have time tomorrow. 36. What about ……? 表示征求意见,询问消息,是“…好不好?”“…怎么样?”之意。 What about some tea? What about your mother? Is she all right? 37. Why not do ……? 是表示建议,“为什么不……?”之意。 Why not have a rest? You have already worked for four hours. Why not come to play games with us? =Why don't you come to play games with us? 38. What do you mean by ……? 是“请问…是什么意思?”之意。 What do you mean by "scientist", please? What do you mean by "manager", please? 可以说 What is the meaning of "manager"?或 What does the "manager" mean? 39. You like singing very much. So do I. 你非常喜欢唱歌。我也非常喜欢。 So do I. = I like singing very much, too. So 在句型"so + be (have,助动词或情态动词)+主语中"有“也”,“同样”的意思,表示 前面所说的情况,也适合于另一个人(或物) 。 He saw the accident, and so did I. She can ride a horse, and so can I. 40. It's easy for him to learn English well. 学好英语对他来说很容易。 It's + adj. + for sb. + to do sth. 是“对某人来说做某事怎么样”之意。 是代词作形式主 It 语,真正的主语是动词不定式(或短语) ,为避免句子头重脚轻而将主语放在了后 面。 It is dangerous for children to play in the street. It was easy for her to tidy her room just now. 【实例解析】 1. (2004 年北京市中考试题) When he home, he saw his mother cleaning the room. A. got up B. got back C. got off D. got on 答案:B。该题考查的是短语动词的用法。根据题意,空白处所填的短语动词的意 思应该是“回到” ,所以选 got back。 2. (2004 年北京市中考试题) Father is sleeping. You’d better quiet. A. to keep B. keep C. keeping D. kept 答案:B。该题考查的是常见句型。had better 后接动词原形,所以应选 keep。
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3. (2004 年北京海淀区中考试题) Would you mind my pet dog while I’m away. Sure, no problem. A. setting up B. looking after C. turning down D. keeping out 答案:B。该题考查的是短语动词的用法。根据题意,空白所填短语动词的意思应 该是“照看” ,所以选 B。 4. (2004 年常州市中考试题) Mum, I’m offered 8,000 yuan a month of the job. Really? It just sounds to be true. A. so well B. too good C. good enough D. too well 答案:B。该题考查的是“too…to”句型的应用。too good to be true 表示太好了, 以至于不会是真的。 【中考演练】 一. 单项选择 1. Would you please drive faster ? My flight is . A. taking off B. getting off C. turning off D. putting off 2. On October 15, 2003 China its first man-made spaceship, which made Yang Liwei a hero to many kids. A. set out B. Set off C. sent up D. sent out 3. How is the play going ? We are going to the day after tomorrow. A. put on it B. put it off C. put it on D. put it off 4. Mr Green is busy the newspaper while his wife is busy the housework. A. reading ; with B. to read ; with C. to read ; doing D. with ; to do 5. We have to our things if we travel on a train or a bus. A. look at B. look up C.look like D. look after 6. If you a new idea, please call me as soon as possible. Sure, I will. A. keep up with B. catch up with C. feed up with D. come up with 7. Zhou Jielun is so cool. I’m his fan. . A. So do I B. So I do C. So am I D. So I am 8. Your new sweater looks beautiful. Is it pure wool ? Yes, and it’s Inner Mongolia. A. made by ; made for B. made of ; made by C. made of ; made in D. Made by ; made from 9. Please the box carefully. It is filled with glasses A. put down B. put on C. put off D. put together 10. ! There’s a car coming ! Oh. Thanks. A. Look over B. Look up C. Look on D. Look out 11. Look! The bus is coming. But it’s full of people. We can’t .
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学而思教育· 思考成就未来! 学而思教育·学习改变命运 思考成就未来!
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A.get off B. get down C. get on with D. get on 12. Excuse me. Where’s the Science Museum? Take No.3 bus and at the fourth stop. A. get on B. get off C. get up D. get to 13. It’s very cold today. You’d better put your coat when you go out. A. away B. down C. on D. up 14. Miss Li told the children to walk one after another. She didn’t want them to in the park A. get wrong B. get away C. get lost D. get ready 15. The flowers start to in spring. A. come in B. come out C. come from D. come to 16. Lucy, could you please help me the map on the blackboard? A. put into B. put up C. put out D. put on 17. “Get a ladder, please. I can’t .” Jim said in a tall tree. A. come back B. come out C. come down D. come over 18. I have my parents, and now I’m answering it. A. heard of B. heard from C. heard D. heard about 19. I can’t see the words clearly. Can I the light? A. turn on B. put off C. hold on D. take off 20. As soon as the man walked into the warm room, he his heavy coat and sat down. A. took away B. took down C. took off D. took up 二. 用非谓语动词填空 1. The bus was very crowded, so she wanted a taxi. 2. She enjoys novels before going to bed. 3. It took him two hours his homework. 4. He has made up his mind hard. 5. Would you like the football match this afternoon? 6. The child stopped and listened to the music. 7. Beethoven taught me the music. 8. Thank you for me to the party. 9. He lost his money, so he asked his friend a train ticket for him. 10. Mark Twain liked to tell funny stories to make people . 三. 完成下列句子 1. 请你把这些花送给她,好吗? Will you send ? 2. 你离开教室的时候,不要忘记关窗户。 Don’t forget when you leave the classroom. 3. 我到学校的时候,听见她在唱歌。 When I got to school, I hear . 4. 不仅学生们,而且他们的老师也喜欢那个电影。 Not only the students but also their teacher . 5. 我们都不喜欢跳舞。 None of us is fond of .
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学而思教育· 思考成就未来! 学而思教育·学习改变命运 思考成就未来!
高考网 www.gaokao.com
6. 我用了两个小时修车。 It me two hours the bike. 7. 直到妈妈回来时,他才完成作业。 He finish his homework his mother came back. 8. 他和我都不是老师。 he I am a teacher. 9. 他从小就对数学感兴趣。 He became in maths when he was . 10. 你最好乘火车。 You'd a train. 【练习答案】 】 一. 1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.D 11.D1 2.B 13.C14.C 15.B 16.B 17.C 18.B 19.A 20.C 二. 1.to take 2.reading 3.to do 4.to study 5. to watch 6. playing 7.to play 8.inviting 9.to buy 10.laugh 三. 1.her these flowers 2.to close the windows 3.her singing 4.likes the film 5.dancing 6. took, to mend/ repair/ fix 7. didn’t, until 8. Neither, nor 9. interested, young 10. better, take
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