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In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE, using no more than three words in each gap. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes while completing the task. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Now, listen to the mini-lecture. Understanding Academic Lectures Listening to academic lectures is an important task for university students. Then, how can we comprehend a lecture efficiently? I. Understand all (1) _______ A. words B. (2) _______ —stress —intonation —(3) _______ II. Adding information A. lectures: Sharing information with audience B. listeners: (4) _______ C. sources of information —knowledge of (5) _______ —(6) _______of the world D. listening involving three steps: —hearing —(7) _______ —adding III. (8) _______ A. reasons —overcome noise —save time B. (9) _______ —content —organization IV. Evaluating while listening A. help to decide the (10) of notes B. help to remember information



In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview. 1. Theresa thinks that the present government is ________. [A] doing what they have promised to schools [B] creating opportunities for leading universities [C] considering removing barriers for state school pupils [D] reducing opportunities for state school pupils 2. What does Theresa see as a problem in secondary schools now? [A] Universities are not working hard to accept state school pupils. [B] The number of state pupils applying to Oxford fails to increase. [C] The government has lowered state pupils’ expectations. [D] Leading universities are rejecting state school pupils. 3. In Theresa’s view, school freedom means that schools should ____. [A] be given more funding from education authorities [B] be given all the money and decide how to spend it [C] be granted greater power to run themselves [D] be given more opportunities and choices 4. According to Theresa, who decides or decide money for schools at the present? [A] Local education authorities and the central government. [B] Local education authorities and secondary schools together. [C] Local education authorities only. [D] The central government only.

5. [A] [B] [C] [D]

Throughout the talk, the interviewer does all the following EXCEPT ____. asking for clarification challenging the interviewee supporting the interviewee initiating topics



In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY.Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO. Questions 6 and 7 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.

News Item 1

6. What is the main idea of the news item? [A] Fewer people watch TV once a week. [B] Smartphones and tablets have replaced TV. [C] New technology has led to more family time. [D] Bigger TV sets have attracted more people.

News Item 2
7. How many lawmakers voted for the marijuana legalization bill? [A] 50. [B] 12. [C] 46. [D] 18. 8. The passing of the bill means that marijuana can be________. [A] bought by people under 18 [B] made available to drug addicts [C] provided by the government [D] bought in drug stores

News Item 3
9. What did the review of global data reveal? [A]Diarrhea is a common disease. [B]Good sanitation led to increase in height. [C]There were many problems of poor sanitation. [D] African children live in worse sanitary conditions. 10. The purpose of Dr. Alan Dangour ’s study was most likely to ________. [A] examine links between sanitation and death from illness [B] look into factors affecting the growth of children [C] investigate how to tackle symptoms like diarrhea [D] review and compare conditions in different countries

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

In 2011, many shoppers chose to avoid the frantic crowds and do their holiday shopping from the comfort of their computer. Sales at online retailers gained by more than 15%, making it the biggest season ever. But people are also returning those purchases at record rates, up 8% from last year. What went wrong? Is the lingering shadow of the global financial crisis making it harder to accept extravagant indulgences? Or that people shop more impulsively - and therefore make bad decisions - when online? Both arguments are plausible. However, there is a third factor: a question of touch. We can love the look but, in an online environment, we cannot feel the quality of a texture, the shape of the fit, the fall of a fold or, for that matter, the weight of an earring. And physically interacting with an object makes you more committed. When my most recent book Brand washed was released, I teamed up with a local bookstore to conduct an experiment about the differences between the online and offline shopping experience. I carefully instructed a

group of volunteers to promote my book in two different ways. The first was a fairly hands-off approach. Whenever a customer would inquire about my book, the volunteer would take them over to the shelf and point to it. Out of 20 such requests, six customers proceeded with the purchase. The second option also involved going over to the shelf but, this time, removing the book and then subtly holding onto it for just an extra moment before placing it in the customer's hands. Of the 20 people who were handed the book. 13 ended up buying it. Just physically passing the book showed a big difference in sales. Why? We feel something similar to a sense of ownership when we hold things in our hand. That's why we establish or reestablish connection by greeting strangers and friends with a handshake. In this case, having to then let go of the book after holding it might generate a subtle sense of loss, and motivate us to make the purchase even more. A recent study also revealed the power of touch, in this case when it came to conventional mail. A deeper and longer-lasting impression of a message was formed when delivered in a letter, as opposed to receiving the same message online. Brain imaging showed that, on touching the paper, the emotional center of the brain was activated, thus forming a stronger bond. The study also indicated that once touch becomes part of the process, it could translate into a sense of possession. This sense of ownership is simply not part of the equation in the online shopping experience. As the rituals of purchase in the lead-up to Christmas change, not only do we give less thought to the type of gifts we buy for our loved ones but, through our own digital wish lists, we increasingly control what they buy for us. The reality, however, is that no matter how convinced we all are that digital is the way to go, finding real satisfaction will probably take more than a few simple clicks. 11. According to the author, shoppers are returning their purchases for all the following reasons EXCEPT that ____. [A] they are unsatisfied with the quality of the purchase [B]they eventually find the purchase too expensive [C] they change their mind out of uncertainty [D] they regret making the purchase without forethought 12. What is the purpose of the experiment in the bookstore? [A] To see which promotion method is preferred by customers. [B]To find out the strengths and weaknesses of both methods. [C] To try to set up a new retailer-customer relationship. [D] To see the effect of an approach on customers' decisions. 13. Why does the author cite the study by Bangor University and the Royal Mail Service? [A]To compare similar responses in different settings. [B] To provide further evidence for his own observation. [C] To offer a scientific account of the brain's functions. [D] To describe emotional responses in online shopping. 14. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A]Real satisfaction depends on factors other than the computer. [B] Despite online shopping we still attach importance to gift buying. [C] Some people are still uncertain about the digital age. [D] Online shopping offers real satisfaction to shoppers.

Text B
My professor brother and I have an argument about head and heart about whether he overvalues IQ while I learn more toward EQ. We typically have this debate about people—can we be friends with a really smart jerk(怪 物) ?—but there’s corollary to animals as well. I’d love it if our dog could fetch the morning paper and then read it to me over coffee, but I actually care much more about her loyal and innocent heart. There’s already enough thinking going on is our house, and we probably spend too much time in our heads, where we need some role modeling is in instinct, and that’s where a dog is a roving revelation. I did not grow up with dogs, which meant that my older daughter’s respectful but unyielding determination to get one required some adjustment on my part. I often felt she was training me: from ages of 6 to 9, she gently schooled me in various breeds and their personalities, whispered to the dogs we encountered so they would charm and persuade me, demonstrated by her self-discipline that she was ready for the responsibility. And thus came our dog Twist, whom I sometimes mistake for a third daughter. At first I thought the challenge would be to train her to sit, to heel, to walk calmly beside us and not go wildly chasing the neighborhood rabbits. But I soon discovered how much more we had to learn from her than she from us. If it is true, for example, that the secret to a child’s success is less rare genius than raw persistence, Twist’s ability to stay on task is a model for us all, especially if the task is trying to capture the sunbeam that flicks around the living room as the wind blows through the branches outside. She never succeeds, and she never gives up. This includes when she runs square into walls. Then there is her unfailing patience, which breaks down only when she senses that dinnertime was 15 minutes ago and we have somehow failed to notice. Even then she is more eager than indignant, and her refusal to whine shows a restraint of which I’m not always capable when hungry. But the lesson I value most is the one in forgiveness, and Twist first offered this when she was still very young. When she was about 7 months old, we took her to the vet to be sprayed(切除卵巢). We turned her over to a stranger, who proceeded to perform a procedure that was probably not pleasant, But when the vet returned her to us, limp and tender, there was no recrimination(反责),no how could you do that to me? It was as though she really knew that we could not intentionally cause her pain, and while she did not understand, she forgave and curled up with her head on my daughter’s lap. I suppose we could have concluded that she was just blindly loyal and docile. But eventually we knew better. She is entirely capable of disobedience, as she has proved many times. She will ignore us when there are more interesting things to look at, rebuke us when we are careless, bark into the twilight when she has urgent messages to send. But her patience with our failings and fickleness and her willingness to give us a second chance are a daily lesson in gratitude. My friends who grew up with dogs tell me how when they were teenagers and trusted no one in the world, they could tell their dog all their secrets. It was the one friend who would not gossip or betray, could provide in the middle of the night the soft, unbegrudging comfort and peace that adolescence conspires to disrupt. An age that is all about growth and risk needs some anchors and weights, a model of steadfastness when all else is in flux. Sometimes I think Twist’s devotion keeps my girls on a benevolent lash, one that hangs quietly at their side as they trot along but occasionally yanks them back to safety and solid ground. We’ve weighed so many decisions so carefully in raising our daughters what school to send them to and what church to attend, when to give them cell phones and with what precautions. But when it comes to what really shapes their character and binds our family, I never would have thought we would owe so much to its smallest member. 15. In the first paragraph, the author suggests that____.

[A]a person can either have a high IQ or a low EQ [B]her professor brother cares too much about IQ [C]we need examples of how to follow one's heart [D]she prefers dogs that are clever and loyal 16. According to the passage, all the following are Twist's characteristics EXCEPT____. [A]resignation [B]patience [C]forgiveness [D]tenacity 17. According to the context, the meaning of the word “square” is closest to____. [A]fast [B]blindly [C]straight [D]stubbornly 18. That Twist's devotion keeps my girls on a benevolent leash means that____. [A]Twist is capable of looking after the girls [B]Twist and the girls have become friends [C]Twist knows how to follow the girls [D]Twist's loyalty helps the girls grow up 19. What does the author try to express in the last paragraph? [A]Difficulties in raising her children. [B]Worries about what to buy for kids. [C]Gratitude to Twist for her role. [D]Concerns about schooling and religion.

Text C
Most West African lorries ate not in what one would call the first flush of youth, and I had learnt by bitter experience not to expect anything very much of them. But the lorry that arrived to take me up to the mountains was worse than anything I had seen before: it tottered on the borders of senile decay. It stood there on buckled wheels, wheezing and gasping with exhaustion from having to climb up the gentle slope to the camp, and I consigned myself and my loads to it with some trepidation. The driver, who was a cheerful fellow, pointed out that he would require my assistance in two very necessary operations: first, I had to keep the hand brake pressed down when travelling downhill, for unless it was held thus almost level with the floor it sullenly refused to function. Secondly, I had to keep a stern eye on the clutch, a willful piece of mechanism that seized every chance to leap out of its socket with a noise like a strangling leopard. As it was obvious that not even a West African lorry driver could be successful in driving while crouched under the dashboard in a pre-natal position, I had to take over control of these instruments if I valued my life. So, while I ducked at intervals to put on the brake, amid the rich smell of burning rubber, our noble lorry jerked its way towards the mountains at a steady twenty miles per hour; sometimes, when a downward slope favored it, it threw caution to the winds and careered along in a madcap fashion at twenty-five. For the first thirty miles the red earth road wound its way through the lowland forest, the giant trees

standing in solid ranks alongside and their branches entwined in an archway of leaves above us. Flocks of hornbills flapped across the road, honking like the ghosts of ancient taxis, and on the banks, draped decoratively in the patches of sunlight, the agama lizards lay, blushing into sunset coloring with excitement and nodding their heads furiously. Slowly and almost imperceptibly the road started to climb upwards, looping its way in languid curves round the forested hills. In the back of the lorry the boys lifted up their voices in song: Home again, home again, When shall I see ma home? When shall I see ma mammy? I'll never forget ma home . . . The driver hummed the refrain softly to himself, glancing at me to see if I would object. To his surprise I joined in, and so while the lorry rolled onwards trailing a swirling tail of red dust behind it, the boys in the back maintained the chorus while the driver and I harmonized and sang complicated bits, and the driver played a staccato accompaniment on the horn. Breaks in the forest became more frequent the higher we climbed, and presently a new type of undergrowth began to appear: massive tree-ferns standing in conspiratorial groups at the roadside on their thick, squat, and hairy trunks, the fronds of leaves sprouting from the tops like delicate green fountains. These ferns were the guardians of a new world, for suddenly, as though the hills had shrugged themselves free of cloak, the forest disappeared. It lay behind us in the valley, a thick pelt of green undulating away into the heat-shimmered distance, while above us the hillside rose majestically, covered in a coat of rippling, waist-high grass, bleached golden by the sun. The lorry crept higher and higher, the engine gasping and shuddering with this unaccustomed activity. I began to think that we should have to push the wretched thing up the last two or three hundred feet, but to everyone's surprise we made it, and the lorry crept on to the brow of the hill, trembling with fatigue, spouting steam from its radiator like a dying whale. We crawled to a standstill and the driver switched off the engine. “We must wait small-time, engine get hot, he explained, pointing to the forequarters of the lorry, which were by now completely invisible under a cloud of steam. Thankfully I descended from the red-hot inside of the cab and strolled down to where the road dipped into the next valley. From this vantage point I could see the country we had travelled through and the country we were about to enter. 20. That it tottered on the borders of senile decay means that the lorry was_________. [A]about to break down [B]a very old vehicle [C]unable to travel the distance [D] a dangerous vehicle 21. Which of the following words in the first paragraph is used literally? [A]Flush. [B]Borders. [C]Operations. [D]Gasping. 22. We learn from the first paragraph that the author regards the inadequacies of the lorry as _________. [A]inevitable and amusing [B] dangerous and frightening [C] novel and unexpected [D] welcome and interesting

23. All the following words in the last but one paragraph describe the lorry as a human EXCEPT . [A]trembling [B]spouting [C]shuddering [D]crept 24. We can infer from the passage that the author was ________. [A]bored by the appearance of the grasslands ahead [B]reluctant to do any walking in so hot a climate [C]unfriendly towards the local driver and boys [D]a little surprised to have to help drive the lorry 25. A suitable title for the passage would be _______. [A]A journey that scared me [B]A journey to remember [C]The wild West African lorry [D]A comic journey in West Africa

Text D
Have you ever noticed a certain similarity in public parks and back gardens in the cities of the West? A ubiquitous woodland mix of lawn grasses and trees has found its way throughout Europe and the United States, and it’s now spread to other cities around the world. As ecologist Peter Groffman has noted, it's increasingly difficult to tell one suburb apart from another, even when they're located in vastly different climates such as Phoenix, Arizona, or Boston in the much chillier north-east of the US. And why do parks in New Zealand often feature the same species of trees that grow on the other side of the world in the UK? Inspired by the English and New England countrysides, early landscape architects of the 19th Century such as Andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmstead created an aesthetic for urban public and private open space that persists to this day. But in the 21st Century, urban green space is tasked with doing far more than simply providing aesthetic appeal. From natural systems to deal with surface water run-off and pollution to green corridors to increasing interest in urban food production, the urban parks of the future will be designed and engineered for functionality as well as for beauty. Imagine travelling among the cities of the mid-21st Century and finding a unique set of urban landscapes that capture local beauty, natural and cultural history, and the environmental context. They are tuned to their locality, and diverse within as well as across cities. There are patches that provide shade and cooling, places of local food production, and corridors that connect both residents and wildlife to the surrounding native environment. Their functions are measured and monitored to meet the unique needs of each city for food production, water use, nutrient recycling, and habitat. No two green spaces are quite the same. Planners are already starting to work towards this vision. And if this movement has a buzzword it is “hyperfunctionality”--designs which provide multiple uses in a confined space, and a term coined by Richard Pouyat of the US Forest Service. At the moment, urban landscapes are highly managed and limited in their spatial extent. Even the "green" cities of the future will contain extensive areas of buildings, roads, railways, and other built structures. These future cities are likely to contain a higher proportion of green cover than the cities of today, with an increasing focus on planting on roofs, vertical walls, and formerly impervious surfaces like car parks. But built environments will still be ever-present in dense megacities. We can greatly enhance the utility of green space

through designs that provide a range of different uses in a confined space. A hyperfunctional planting, for example, might be designed to provide food, shade, wildlife habitat, and pollution removal all in the same garden with the right choice of plants, configurations, and management practices. What this means is that we have to maximise the benefits and uses of urban parks, while minimising the costs of building and maintaining them. Currently, green space and street plantings are relatively similar throughout the Western world, regardless of differences in local climate, geography, and natural history. Even desert cities feature the same sizable street trees and well-watered and well-fertilized lawns that you might see in more temperate climes. The movement to reduce the resources and water requirements of such urban landscapes in these arid areas is called "xeriscaping" a concept that has so-far received mixed responses in terms of public acceptance. Scott Yabiku and colleagues at the Central Arizona Phoenix project showed that newcomers to the desert embrace xeriscaping more than long-time residents, who are more likely to prefer the well-watered aesthetic. In part, this may be because xeriscaping is justified more by reducing landscaping costs in this case water costs than by providing desired benefits like recreation, pollution mitigation, and cultural value. From this perspective, xeriscaping can seem more like a compromise than an asset. But there are other ways to make our parks and natural spaces do more. Nan Ellin, of the Ecological Planning Center in the US, advocates an asset-based approach to urbanism. Instead of envisioning cities in terms what they can't have, ecological planners are beginning to frame the discussion of future cities in terms of what they do have - their natural and cultural assets. In Utah’s Salt Lake City, instead of couching environmental planning as an issue of resource scarcity, the future park is described as "mountain urbanism" and the strong association of local residents with the natural environment of the mountain ranges near their home. From this starting point, the local climate, vegetation, patterns of rain and snowfall, and mountain topography are all deemed natural assets that create a new perspective when it comes to creating urban green space. In Cairns, Australia, the local master plan embraces "tropical urbanism" that conveys a sense of place through landscaping features, while also providing important functions such as shading and cooling in this tropical climate. The globally homogenized landscape aesthetic--which sees parks from Boston to Brisbane looking worryingly similar--will diminish in importance as future urban green space will be attuned to local values and cultural perceptions of beauty. This will lead to a far greater diversity of urban landscape designs than are apparent today. Already, we are seeing new purposes for urban landscaping that are transforming the 20th century woodland park into bioswales--plantings designed to filter stormwater--green roofs, wildlife corridors, and urban food gardens. However, until recently we have been lacking the datasets and science-based specifications for designs that work to serve all of these purposes at once. In New York City, Thomas Whitlow of Cornell University sends students through tree-lined streets with portable, backpack-mounted air quality monitors. At home in his laboratory, he places tree branches in wind tunnels to measure pollution deposition onto leaves. It turns out that currently, many street tree plantings are ineffective at removing air pollutants, and instead may trap pollutants near the ground. My students and I equipped street trees with sensors in and around the trunk in Los Angeles to monitor growth and water use in real time to help find which species provide the largest canopies for the lowest amount of water. Rather than relying on assumptions about the role of urban vegetation in improving the environment and health, future landscaping designs will be engineered based on empirical data and state of the art of simulations. New datasets on the performance of urban landscapes are changing our view of what future urban parks will look like and what it will do. With precise measurements of pollutant uptake, water use, plant growth rates, and greenhouse gas emissions, we are better and better able to design landscapes that require less intensive management and are less costly, while providing more social and environmental uses.

26. According to the passage, which of the following serves as the BEST reason for the similarity in urban green space throughout the West? [A] Climate. [B] Geography. [C] Functional purposes. [D] Design principles. 27. The following are all features of future urban green space EXCEPT that_______. [A] each city has its distinct style of urban green space [B] urban landscape will focus more on cultural history [C] urban green space will be designed to serve many uses [D] more green cover will be seen on city roofs and walls 28. Why are some local residents opposed to "xeriscaping"? [A] It cannot reduce water requirements. [B] It has proved to be too costly. [C] It is not suited for the local area. [D] It does not have enough advantages. 29. According to the passage, if planners adopt an asset-based approach, they will probably_______. [A] incorporate the area's natural and cultural heritage into their design [B] make careful estimation of the area's natural resources before designing [C] combine natural resources and practical functions in their design [D] envision more purposes for urban landscaping in their design 30. According to the passage, future landscaping designs will rely more on_______. [A] human assumptions [B] field work [C] scientific estimation [D] laboratory work

31. Which party is in power now in the UK? [A] The Conservative Party. [B] The Labour Party. [C] The Liberal Democrats. [D] The Scottish National Party. 32. Which of the following lakes does Canada share with the United States? [A] Lake Winnipeg. [B] The Great Slave Lake. [C] The Great Bear Lake. [D] The five Great Lakes. 33. U. S. senators serve for ____ years after they are elected.

[A] four [B] six [C] three [D] two 34. Who were the natives of Australia before the arrival of the British settlers? [A] The Eskimos. [B] The Maori. [C] The Indians. [D] The Aborigines. 35. ____ is best known for the technique of dramatic monologue in his poems. [A] Robert Browning [B] W. B. Yeats [C] William Blake [D] William Wordsworth 36. Which of the following is a contemporary British poet? [A] Ted Hughes. [B] William Wordsworth. [C] E. E. Cummings. [D] Carl Sandburg. 37. Who was the author of Moby-Dick? [A] Nathaniel Hawthorne. [B] Ralph Waldo Emerson. [C] Herman Melville. [D] Washington Irving. 38. The words "tennis, badminton, golf, basketball and football" constitute a ____ field. [A] semantic [B] connotative [C] conceptual [D] collocative 39. A: Do you like ice cream? This is an example of ____. [A] reference [B] substitution [C] conjunction [D] ellipsis B: Yes, I do.

40. Which of the following is a voiceless consonant? [A] [ j ] [B] [ w ] [C] [ p ]

[D] [ l ]

The passage contains TEN errors.Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved.You should proof-read the passage and correct it in the following way: For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a missing word. mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line. For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash”/”and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line. EXAMPLE When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never them on the wall.When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit When I was in my early teens, I was taken to a spectacular show on ice by the mother of a friend. Looked round at the luxury of the rink, my friend’s mother remarked on the “plush” seats we had been given. I did not know what she meant, and being proud of my vocabulary, I tried to infer its meaning from the context. “Plush” was clearly intended as a complimentary, a positive evaluation; that much I could tell it from the tone of voice and the context. So I started to use the word Yes, I replied, they certainly are plush, and so are the ice rink and the costumes of the skaters, aren’t they? My friend’s mother was very polite to correct me, but I could tell from her expression that I had not got the word auite right. Often we can indeed infer from the context what a word roughly Neans, and that is in fact the way which we usually acquire both new words and new meanings for familiar words, specially in our own first language. But sometimes we need to ask, as I should have asked for plush, and this is particularly true in the aspect of a foreign language. If you are continually surrounded by speakers of the language you are learning, you can ask them directly, but often this opportunity does not exist for the learner of English. So dictionaries have been developed to mend the gap.

(1) (2) (3) (4)


(6) (7) (8) (9)



茶花 (camellia)的自然花期在 12 月至翌年 4 月,以红色系为主, 另有黄色系和白色系等, 花色艳丽。 本届花展充分展示了茶花的品种资源和科研水平,是近三年来本市规模最大的一届茶花展。为了使广大植 物爱好者有更多与茶花亲密接触的机会,本届茶花展的布展范围延伸至整个园区,为赏花游客带来便利。 此次茶花展历时 2 个月,展期内 200 多个茶花品种将陆续亮相。

At its heart, psycholinguistic work consists of two questions. One is what knowledge of language is needed for us to use language? In a sense, we must know a language to use it, but we are not always fully aware of this knowledge. A distinction may be drawn between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge of how to perform various acts, whereas explicit knowledge refers to the knowledge of the processes or mechanisms used in these acts. We sometimes know how to do something without knowing how we do it. For instance, a baseball pitcher (投手) might know how to throw a baseball 90 miles an hour but might have little or no explicit knowledge of the muscle groups that are involved in this act. Similarly, we may distinguish between knowing how to speak and knowing what processes are involved in producing speech. Generally speaking, much of our linguistic knowledge is tacit rather than explicit.



There has been a new trend in economic activity--the sharing economy. The biggest section of the sharing economy is travel. You can find a potential host through a website. If you both get along and they are available during your planned trip, you stand a chance of getting a place to stay for free. In addition, people also use websites and apps to rent out their cars, houses, tools, clothes and services to one another. Time magazine has included this trend in a list titled “10 ideas that will change the world”. It said: “In an era when families are scattered and we may not know the people down the streets, sharing things--even with strangers we’ve just met on line--allows us to make meaningful connections.” What do you think of Time’s comment? My Views on the Sharing Economy In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, language and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on Answer Sheet Four.

2015 年专八参考答案

PartⅠ Listening Comprehension Section A Mini-lecture
1. parts of language 2. other features 3. rhythm 4. having the ability 5. a particular subject 6. knowledge or experience 7. reinterpreting 8. predicting/making predictions 9. types of predictions 10. contents

Section B Interview
1-5 DCBAC 6-10 CADBB

PartⅡ Reading Comprehension
11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 CDBAC ACDCB BCABD DADAC

Part Ⅲ General Knowledge
31-35 ADBDA 36-40 ACABC

Part Ⅳ Proofreading & Error Correction
1. Looked→Looking 2. and→but 3. complimentary→compliment 4.it→去掉 it 5. very→too 6.∧which→in 7. specially→especially 或 particularly 8. for→about 9. aspect→case 10. been→去掉 been

Part Ⅴ Translation Section A Chinese to English
Camellia’s flowering period starts from December and ends in the next April,and the colors of the flowers are bright and showy with red in majority, yellow, white and other colors in minority. It’s the city’s largest camellia

show in recent three years, which fully displays camellia’s various species as well as human’s scientific research level of it. In order to provide the majority of plant-lovers with more opportunities to closely appreciate the beauty of camellia, the area of the Camellia Show is extended to the whole garden so that it can bring more convenience for the visitors. The Camellia Show takes over two months, in which more than 200 various camellias will be presented successively.

Section B English to Chinese
心理语言学的研究包括两个核心问题。第一,我们使用语言需要什么语言知识?从某种意义上说,我们必 须拥有某种语言的知识才能使用该语言,但却并不总是能完全意识到这种知识。我们可能要对隐性知识和 显性知识加以区分。隐性知识是指如何执行各种动作所拥有的知识,而显性知识是指在这些动作中使用的 过程或者机制所蕴含的知识。有时,我们知道如何做某事,却无法说出我们是怎么做的。比如,一名棒球 投手可能知道如何以每小时 90 英里的速度把球抛出去,但对有关参与此活动的肌群的显性知识却知之甚 少,或一无所知。同样地,我们知道如何说话,但却不清楚言语产生包含哪些过程。总的来说,我们的大 多数语言知识都是隐性知识而非显性知识。

Part Ⅵ Writing
参考范文 My Views on the Sharing Economy The sharing economy refers to the economic pattern in which people share access to resources, such as goods, services and data. This newly emerging trend would be impossible without the development of technology. It is the Internet that makes the sharing cheaper and easier and helps to strike a balance between supply and demand. Time magazine has listed the sharing economy as one of the “10 ideas that will change the world”. As far as the comment is concerned, I cannot agree with Time more. As one of the greatest benefits of the digital age, the sharing economy arises from our oldest instinct as human beings. There is always an urge for us to connect with others, especially in an era when families are scattered and we do not really know the people who live nearby. It has been said that “Joys shared with others are more enjoyed.” However, in my eyes, the resources shared with others are more beneficial to our society. On the one hand, sharing economy leads to a more efficient use of resources. Some items are expensive to buy but widely owned by people who do not make the best use of them. Occasional sharing may provide extra income for the owners and can be less costly for the borrowers. If managed well, a win-win situation is achieved for both parties in the process. Besides, sharing economy contributes to environmental protection. Take accommodation for example. The more hotels are built, the more resources are required, which might in turn result in a decrease in arable land and public green space. On the other hand, the transaction cost is reduced due to the use of Internet and various apps. With a smart phone in your hand, it is not difficult to find a potential host in the neighboring area. People are meeting increasingly on screens, discussing online and purchasing goods domestic and overseas, paying through Internet payment system. To summarize, although the sharing economy is not perfect at present because of concerns in insurance, legal liability, safety and the like, I believe, quite firmly, that it represents the future trend and has the power to change the world for the convenience and flexibility it brings to us. Just as the old Chinese saying goes, the defects cannot obscure the virtues of a splendid jade, and I assume it also applies to the sharing economy.

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