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How to grow old


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How to grow old
Bertrand Russell

How to grow old

How to grow old

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell [?r?s?l]

? “Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric.” ? 不要害怕怀有怪念头,因为现在人们接受 的所有的观念都曾经是怪念头。

Who is Bertrand Russell?
Bertrand Russell was a British philosopher, logician, essayist and social critic.

He also did a lot of work in the areas of education, history, political theory and religious studies.

Bertrand Russell: The Philosopher
? Along with G.E. Moore, Russell is generally recognized as one of the founders of analytic philosophy.
? His most influential contributions include his defense of logicism (the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic), and his theories of definite descriptions and logical atomism.

Russell?s Paradox
Russell's paradox is the most famous of the logical paradoxes.
The paradox arises by considering the set of all sets that are not members of themselves. Such a set appears to be a member of itself if and only if it is not a member of itself, hence the paradox.

Including 4 marriages, a slew of awards…. and controversies —The life of Bertrand Russell can certainly be described as full and wondrous!

His first wife
? Russell first met the American Quaker, Alys[?eilis] (艾丽斯)Pearsall Smith, when he was seventeen years old. Russell fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys and in marrying her in December 1894 he distanced himself from the world of Pembroke Lodge(彭布罗克度假屋 ). ? He was once attracted to her younger sister Mary, who later married the distinguished art historian Bernard Berenson.

This is a photograph of Bertrand Russell's first wife, Alys Pearsall Smith.

The marriage between Russell and Alys Pearsall Smith in 1894
was ended by separation in 1911. In 1921 they divorced.

His second wife Dora Russell and children: John and Katharine

Bertrand Russell, John Russell, Katharine Russell

His third wife — Patricia ("Peter") Russell and son

The photo
? Russell, his wife Peter and son Conrad in Cambridge in April 1945. ? Trinity College made amends(修改) for its expulsion(开除) of Russell in 1916 by offering him in 1944 a five-year lectureship and fellowship. ? The photo is from a set used to illustrate Russell's article, "The Problems of Peace"

Patricia ("Peter") Russell
? When Russell's marriage with Dora broke up, he took as his third wife in 1936 the attractive Oxford undergraduate, Patricia ("Peter") Spence. ? She had been his children's governess in the summer of 1930.

His fourth wife
? Russell with his fourth wife Edith (Finch). ? They had known each other since 1925. ? Edith had lectured in English at Bryn Mawr College(布林莫尔学院), near Philadelphia. ? This is the photo that Russell and Edith at their wedding on 15 December 1952.

His fourth wife Edith (Finch)

His children
? Bertrand Russell, Patricia Russell, Kate Russell, John Russell ? Kate, Russell, Peter and John in Redwood National Park, 1939. ? In spring 1939 Russell moved to Santa Barbara to take up a professorship (教授职 位)at the University of California at Los Angeles.

The bust of Bertrand Russell
? Bertrand Russell and Conway Hall Behind bust of Bertrand Russell in Red Lion Square in London ? the entrance to Conway Hall can be seen with Royal Mail van parked outside

Bertrand Russell in 1893

伯特兰· 罗素
? 伯特兰· 罗素是二十世纪英国哲学家、数学家、逻 辑学家、历史学家,无神论或者不可知论者,也 是上世纪西方最著名、影响最大的学者和和平主 义社会活动家之一,1950年诺贝尔文学奖得主, 罗素也被认为是与弗雷格、维特根斯坦和怀特海 一同创建了分析哲学。 ? 他与怀特海合著的《数学原理》对逻辑学、数学、 集合论、语言学和分析哲学有着巨大影响。 ? 年,罗素获得诺贝尔文学奖,以表彰其“多样且 重要的作品,持续不断的追求人道主义理想和思 想自由”。

A Brief Timeline
1872
Born in Wales

1874- 1876 1894 1876 Grand Completes
Death of mother, sister & father parents Moral get Sciences custody Tripos (II)

1894 1901

Marries Discovers Alys Russell’s Fined & Pearsall Paradox imprisoned Smith for anti-war
protests.

19161918

1921
Divorce s Alys & marries Dora Black.

1927- 1935- 1940 1943 1949 1950 1931 1936 Appointment Dismiss- Awarded Awarded
Opens experimental school. Becomes Earl

Divorce s Dora. Marries P. Spence.

to NY city college revoked due to public protests.

ed from the Order Nobel Prize Barnes of Merit. for Foundatliterature. ion in PA.

Timeline Continued
1952 1955 1957
Organizes the first Pugwash Conference Divorce from P. Releases RussellSpence and married Einstein Manifesto to Edith Finch.

1958
Becomes the President of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

1961

1970

Imprisoned for Died February 2nd connection to in Wales. antinuclear protests.

Russell’s Defense of Logicism

Russell states that: The vocabulary of mathematics is a proper subset of Logic. And! The theorums of mathematics are subsets of logical ones.

The Best-Selling Books

Gives Russell's views on philosophical subjects and value of philosophical knowledge. 1912

The Best-Selling Books
Arguably outdated, this book gives a general history of philosophy. 1945

Russell: The Activist
Although Bertrand Russell is famous in activist circles for his work against nuclear weapons and Western involvement in the Vietnam War, His social and political activism stretches far beyond that…

The Experimental School
Along with his second wife, Russell opened an experimental school. He believed education was key to conveying his social beliefs.

Dora Black

In the part of this universe that we know there is great injustice, and often the good suffer, and often the wicked prosper, and one hardly knows which of those is the more annoying.
Bertrand Russell

The Rebel
Russell was convicted twice and spent 6 months in prison due to his protests.

He was dismissed from one college and had a job offer revoked from another for similar reasons.

Religion
Russell’s books are notoriously blasphemous. He implies that religion is a comfort we seek to excuse our terrible acts. His message is that we should take responsibility for our own actions.

? So far as I can remember, there is not one word in the Gospels in praise of intelligence. ? 当你看一个人如何接受赞美,就可以看出每 个人的人格。

It has been said that man is a rational animal. All my life I have been searching for evidence which could support this. 据说人是一种理性动物。穷我自己一生,我都在寻找这观点 的证据。 —Bertrand Russell

Unit 11 Text I

How to Grow Old
Bertrand Russell

With wit and humor, Bertrand Russell proposes a recipe for living a healthy life at an advanced age. He also provides insights into the issue of life and death, and the relationship between the individual and the universal life.

Warm-up Questions:
? How should one keep oneself psychologically young? ? How should one perceive death in one?s age?

★ Text Explanation
? This is one of the essays in Bertrand Russell?s Portraits from Memory, which was published in 1956. ? As is indicated at the very beginning, the essay deals with the issue of aging. ? How to keep oneself psychologically young and how to perceive death in one?s old age.

In a light and humorous style, the author turns this social issue into a personal discussion on tow topics:

? how to keep oneself psychologically young? ? how to perceive death in one’s old age?

Edward Gibbon and his book

Edward Gibbon (1737─1794)
? 爱德华· 吉本是近代英国杰出的历史学家, 影响深远的史学名著《罗马帝国衰亡史》 一书的作者,十八世纪欧洲启蒙时代史学 的卓越代表。

Girton College, Cambridge (剑桥大学格腾女子学院 )

Girton College
? Girton College is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge. ? It was England's first residential college for woman, established in 1869 by Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon. ? The full college status was only received in 1948 and marked the official admittance of women to the university. ? In 1976, it was Cambridge's first women's college to become coeducational. ? As of 2010, the college's net assets were valued at ? 104.5 million, including ? million of endowment, and in 200949 10 it admitted 674 full-time undergraduates and postgraduates. ? The college's formal governance is assured by a Mistress, currently Susan J. Smith.

Emily Davies
? Sarah Emily Davies (22 April 1830 – 13 July 1921) was an English feminist, suffragist (主张妇女有权参政者) and a pioneering campaigner for women's rights to university access. ? She was born in Carlton Crescent, Southampton, England to an evangelical clergyman and a teacher,although she spent most of her youth in Gateshead. ? She is principally remembered as being the co-founder and first Mistress (女校长) of Girton College, Cambridge University, the first college in England to educate women. ? In 1910, Davies published Thoughts on Some Questions Relating to Women. ? Russell’s maternal grandmother.

Paragraph 1

Analysis
? In this paragraph the author begins the essay with a humorous answer to the question “how not to grow old”

Qs. What is the humor of Russell?

? “ to choose your ancestors carefully”
Qs. How do you understand the humor?

? Then he tells us some anecdotes about one of his ancestors --his maternal grandmother, who enjoyed a long life partly because she had a healthy attitude towards life.

Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. 1. What does “in this respect” refer to? It refers to choosing one’s ancestors carefully. It is naturally humorous of Russell to say he has done well in choosing his ancestors because in reality no one can choose his or her own ancestors. 2. Translate the sentence. 虽然我的父母皆属早逝,但是考虑到我其他的祖 先,我的选择尚好。

A great grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last day remained a terror to all her descendants.

Qs. Why did the author’s great grandmother remain a “terror” to all her descendants?
She was in such good health that she was held in awe by her children and grandchildren right up until the day of her death.

Question:
? What does the author mean when he says that “But speaking as one of the seventy-two, I prefer her recipe.”?

? The author means that as one of her seventy two grandchildren, he prefers the way she chose to deal with being separated from her family for periods of time.

If you have wide and keen interests and activities in which you can still be effective, you will have no reason to think about the merely statistical fact of the number of years you have already lived, still less of the probable brevity of your future.

Qs. What does the author suggest in this sentence?
He suggests that you should cultivate wide and keen interests and do activities in which you can be effective.

Paragraph 2

Analysis
? In these paragraphs the author gives us a very brief description of this healthy life style, which reflects his attitude towards life.

"...I have little experience of illness ..." --I seldom fall ill....; “…I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health….” -- I never do anything for the reason that it is good for health.

I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome. 1. Do you think the author would do things harmful to his health?What is the implied meaning of this sentence? The author would be unlikely to do anything that is harmful to his health. 2. What can we infer from this sentence? When he does something, he never bothers about whether it does any good to his health, but in reality, the things he likes to do are mostly good for his health.

Language Work
? I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome. --I never do anything for the reason that it is good for health, though the most of things I do are healthy. ? We have grounds to believe that you have been lying at us. ? Do you have any ground for suspecting them? ? Wholesome food ? He looks like a nice wholesome young man.

Paragraph 3—4

Analysis
? After talking about his ancestors? longevity and his own healthy life style, the author directs his discussion to the two things elderly people should avoid, namely living in memories and clinging to youth, which are interrelated, because undue absorption in the past would inevitably lead to clinging to youth.

It does not do to live in memories, in regrets for the good old days, or in sadness about friends who are dead. What do we learn from this sentence? Undue absorption in the past does not benefit one at all.

It is easy to think to oneself that one’s emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and one’s mind more keen. 1. Paraphrase this sentence People tend to believe their emotions used to be more active and their minds used to be quicker than it is now. 2. Translate the sentence. 人们很容易以为过去的情感比现在强烈,过去 的头脑也比现在敏锐。

If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it is forgotten it will probably not be true. What is the implied meaning of this sentence? In this paradox the author intends to say that people of old age should not live in memories. They should try to think of what is coming in the future and do something meaningful. Only in this way will their mind and emotions remain as keen and active as they used to be.

?

? ?

"It does not do to live in memories.”--it is no use always recalling what happened in the past. "…clinging to youth” ---- having undue emotional attachment to youth. “… but one?s interest should be contemplative and if possible, philanthropic…”---but one?s interest should be thoughtful and, if possible, be helpful to them when they are in need.

? Question ? How could one get out of undue absorption in the past? ? To get oneself out of undue absorption in the past, one must direct one?s thought to the future and to things about which there is something to be done.

? Language Work ? 7. Psychologically there are two dangers to be guarded against in old age. One of theses is undue absorption in the past. ? --- From the psychological point of view, there are two dangerous things that old people should try to avoid. One of them is that old people should not think too much about their past. ? Guard against infection ? Guard what you say ? Such a high increase will impose an undue burden on the local tax payer.

? 8. I do not mean that one should be without interest in them, but one?s interest should be contemplative and, if possible, philanthropic, but not unduly emotional. ---- I don not mean that one shouldn?t have any interest in them at all, but one?s interest should be thoughtful and charitable, but not too emotional. ? Her mood was calm and contemplative. ? I?m contemplating going abroad for a year. ? A philanthropic society ? Unduly familiar with strangers ? He seemed unduly concerned about the missing girl.

Paragraph 5

Analysis
? The author stresses the importance of developing impersonal interests. With such interests one will have a fulfilling old age without making his grow-up children feel oppressed. Otherwise, he will either feel empty or unduly concern himself with his children. ? "it is in this sphere that long experience is really fruitful.." ? --- In this regard old people have a lot of useful experience.

Question:
? What, according to the author, should “those who are incapable of impersonal interests” realize? ? According to the author, those who are incapable of impersonal interest should realize that their undue interests in their children are unwelcome, though their “material services” are still appreciated.

? Language Work ? 9. ….the wisdom born of experience can be exercised without being oppressive. ----One can use the wisdom that he has obtained from his life experience to help his grown-pu children without making them feel oppressed. ? an oppressive silence ? oppressive weather ? several people had experienced the same feeling of oppression when they slept in that room.

But if you are one of those who are incapable of impersonal interests, you may find that your life will be empty unless you concern yourself with your children and grandchildren.
Translate the sentence.

但是,如果你的兴趣无法摆脱个人感情 的支配,你也许会发现,假如不关注子 孙,生活就会空虚无望。

Paragraph 6

? Paragraph 6 ? Analysis ? The last paragraph expounds on a correct attitude towards death in old age. According to him, death should not be an oppressive problem for “ an old man who has know human joys sorrows.” He compares one?s life to a river that will eventually be merged with the sea. This metaphor suggest that death is inevitable and, more important, it is part of “ the universal life.”

? Question: ? What is the best way for an old person to overcome the fear of death? ? First of all, they should realize that death is inevitable. The best way to overcome the fear of death is to develop strong impersonal interests involving appropriate activities, so that they will painlessly lose their individual being and become merged in the universal life.

? Language Work ? 10. Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death. In the young there is a justification for this feeling. ---- Some old people are haunted by the fear of death. For young people, there is some reason for this feeling. ? Strange dreams and nightmares oppressed him. ? Poverty oppresses the spirit. ? There is no justification for treating people so badly. ? It can be said, with some justification, that she is one of the greatest actresses on the English stage today.

? 11. the best way to overcome it… is to make your interest gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. ? ---- The best way to dispel that fear is to think more of the outside world, of other people and less of your own self. And finally your life will become part of the eternal universal life.

? The road to the island only appears when the tide has receded. ? With the passage of time, my unhappy memories of the place receded. ? Pink, blue and orange colors merged in the evening sky. ? After a while the narrow track merges with a wider path.

Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer. Why does the author say young men have reason to fear death?

Because it would be a great pity if their lives have been cut short unjustly before they have had a chance to enjoy all the best things that life has to offer.

The best way to overcome it — so at least it seems to me — is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. Paraphrase this sentence

As your interests gradually get wider and more impersonal, the sense of your value and importance as an individual gradually disappears and you will identify yourself more and more with human life in general.

respect: n. a particular point or detail
Grace was a fine woman — perfect in almost every respect. Is China going to continue its measures in this respect for further improvement? 在这方面中国可与任何国家竞争。 China can compete with any other country in this respect. 在这个方面 in this respect Collocations: in every respect 在各个方面 in some respects 在有些方面 在任何方面 in any respect in no respect 绝不

as regards: on the subject of; concerning All citizens are equal as regards their capacity for civil rights.
Could you elaborate on your government policy as regards environmental protection? 至于应该穿什么衣服, 并没有硬性规定。 There are no special rules as regards what clothes you should wear.

cut off: 1) to cause sb. to die sooner than is normal 2) to remove sth. (from sth. larger) by cutting 3) to stop, interrupt or isolate 4) to separate sth. by cutting it away from the main part Directions: Match the above definitions with the sentences below. 1. We were cut off half way through the conversation. 2. He cut off a metre of cloth from the roll. 3. Disease cut Smith off in the best part of his life. 4. Several villages have been cut off by the snow. 5. Don’t cut your fingers off!

inquire: v. to ask for information She inquired of me most politely whether I wished to continue. Learn widely, inquire earnestly, and reflect on what is at hand. 博学,切问,近思。 Collocations: inquire about inquire after inquire for inquire into 查问;查明 问候;问安 查询(货物);求见 查究;调查

part: v. to separate or divide She has parted from her husband. 如果我们必须分手,我希望我们分了手还是朋友。 If we must part, I hope we can be friends. The clouds parted and the sun shone through. 云开日出。

exclaim: v. to cry out suddenly and loudly for pain, anger, surprise, etc. She exclaimed with delight when she saw the present. He could not help exclaiming at how much his son has grown. CF: cry, shout, exclaim & scream
这些动词的均有“喊”,“叫”之意。 一般指因恐惧、痛苦、惊奇等而喊叫。 cry 指有意识地高声喊叫,常用于提出警告、不满、 shout 发命令或唤起注意等。 exclaim 多指因高兴、愤怒、痛苦、惊讶等突发感情而高 声喊叫。 scream 指因恐惧、快乐或痛苦而发出尖叫声。

keen: adj. 1) sharp, active, sensitive Dogs have a keen sense of smell.

2) intense, strong, deep
退休后,他有一种强烈的失落感。 After retirement, he had a keen sense of loss.

3) eager, enthusiastic
She was not very keen on football. After he had dreamed about his birthplace many times, he was very keen to go back.

on the grounds that …: for the reason that … I had to retire on the grounds that I was ill. 他没有因犯罪而受到严厉惩罚,主要是因为他年 纪小。 He was not severely punished for his crime on the grounds that he was young.

guard against: to prevent sth. from happening
In these circumstances he must guard against pessimism. We should take measures to guard against accidents. 暗箭难防。 Hidden arrows are difficult to guard against. Collocations:

guard against disease guard against bad habits guard against suspicion

预防疾病 杜绝陋习 避免嫌疑

undue: adj. more than is reasonable, suitable or necessary Many schools place undue emphasis on the proportion of students entering schools of a higher level. He tried to exercise an undue influence upon his colleagues. Mr. Smith pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules.

cling: vi. to hold tightly; refuse to give up As a people the Chinese cling strongly to tradition. 她坚定地抱着获救的希望。 She clung to the hope of being rescued. Cling to life and be scared of death. 贪生怕死。 Pattern: cling to …

suck: v. 1) take (liquid or air, etc.) into the mouth by using the lip muscles
蚊子会吸我们的血。更糟的是,它会把毒注入 我们的体内。 The mosquito will suck our blood. What’s even worse, it will inject poison into our bodies. 2) to absorb The cleverest students can suck up as much knowledge as teachers can give them. 3) to pull sb. or sth. with great power and force it into or out of a particular place I don’t want to get sucked into the conflict.

indifferent: adj. 1) not caring about or noticing; not interested in
How can you be indifferent to the sufferings of starving people? 探险家们将征途上的危险置之度外。 The explorers were indifferent to dangers of the expedition. 2) not particularly good; mediocre; fairly bad an indifferent book 质量较差的一本书 Pattern: be indifferent to / towards

render: vt. 1) to give, present or offer Many companies come to the customer’s house to render service. Render good for evil.

以德报怨。
2) cause sb. or sth. To be in a particular condition He was rendered helpless by the accident. 他身体肥胖到摸不到自己的脚趾。 His fatness renders him unable to touch his toe.

oppress: vt. 1) to rule unjustly or cruelly The rich oppress the masses by their control of the political systems. 2) to cause sb. to feel worried, uncomfortable 战争的威胁使我们忧心忡忡。 The threat of war oppressed us all.

cheat: v. 1) to deceive or trick They were caught cheating in the exam. 考试作弊是不道德的。

It’s immoral to cheat in a test.
2) to take sth. from (sb.) deceitfully They were cheated of victory. 他们的胜利之果被别人骗走了。

overcome: vt. 1) to successfully control a feeling or a problem that prevents you from achieving sth.; to defeat I managed to overcome my fear of darkness. 他抵制了再次吸食毒品的强烈诱惑。 He overcame a strong temptation to take drugs again. 2) (of smoke or gas) makes sb. sick or unconscious He was sent to hospital after he was overcome by gas fumes. Collocations:
be overcome be overcome be overcome be overcome be overcome by fatigue by grief by emotion by liquor by fumes
筋疲力尽 悲伤过度 不胜感触 醉酒 被烟薰倒

recede: vi. to move back or away She could see the lights of the ship receding on the horizon. 潮起潮落。 The tides advance; the tides recede. We reached the open sea and the coast receded into the distance.

merge: v. 1) to combine; to join things together to form one thing We have decided to merge these small firms into one large company. 这家银行和其主要对手合并了。 The bank merged with its major rival. 2) to fade or change gradually Twilight merged into darkness. The water and the sky merge in one color. 水天一色。


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