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Business and Administrative communication

by Kitty O.Locker Ohio State University

Content
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Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

The Building Blocks of Effective Messages Job Hunting Basic Business Messages Interpersonal Communication Reports

Part one The Building Blocks of Effective Messages
Chapter 1 Business Communication, management and success Chapter 2 Adapting Your Message to Your Audience Chapter 3 Building Good will Chapter 4 Making Your Writing Easy to Read Chapter 5 Planning Composing and Revising

Chapter 1
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Communication Ability = Promotability The Managerial Functions of communication The Cost of Correspondence Benefits of Improving Correspondence Criteria for Effective Messages Trends in Business and Administrative Communication Layout of business letter

Communication Ability = Promotability
Reading critically Write critically Make presentation critically
Job-hunting Job-hopping Career advancement

The Managerial Functions of Communication

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Management structure
Top manager President vice president

Middle manager

Department head

front line manager

Supervisor/section chief

The Cost of Correspondence
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Cost of money Cost of efforts Cost of time Cost of goodwill

Benefits of Improving Correspondence
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Save time Make your efforts more effective Communicate your points more clearly Build goodwill

Criteria for Effective Messages

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Clearness Conciseness Courtesy Completeness Correctness Building goodwill

Major criteria

Minor criteria

Trends in Business and Administrative Communication
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Technology—information overload Focus on quality and customers’ needs Entrepreneurship and outsourcing Team-------cross-functional team Diversity-cultural diversity Globalization Legal and ethical concerns----labor contract law Balancing work and family---focus on people Job Flexibility Rapid rate of change----keep on learning

Layout of Business Letter
1.Two forms blocked style (平头式) semi-indented style (混合式)

2. seven major parts letter head (信头) date (日期) inside name and address (信内行名和地址) salutation (表示敬意的称呼) main body (正文) complimentary close (表示敬意的结尾) signature (签名)

Letter sample
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Northwest Import and Export co., Ltd.
151 Bay street, San Francisco, Ca 81153 Tel:(650) 405-7849 web-site: www. northwest. Com Mar.1, 2009 Mr. Henry Wang Sales manager Yantai Import and Export co., ltd. 15 Ying Chun Road, Yantai city, Shandong Province, P.R. China 264005 Dear Mr. Wang I am writing to inform you that the goods under Contract No. 123 has been shipped and the estimated arriving time is Apr.5,2009. The B/L No. is Cosco 20093089. Please get ready for taking delivery of the goods. Please contact me for further questions about shipping .

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Yours sincerely Mary Lain

Sample letter
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Northwest Import and Export co., Ltd.
151 Bay street, San Francisco, Ca 81153 Tel:(650) 405-7849 web-site: www. northwest. Com Mar.1, 2009 Mr. Henry Wang Sales manager Yantai Import and Export co., ltd. 15 Ying Chun Road, Yantai city, Shandong Province, P.R. China 264005 Dear Mr. Wang I am writing to inform you that the goods under Contract No. 123 has been shipped and the estimated arriving time is Apr. 5, 2009. The B/L No. is Cosco 20093089. Please get ready for taking delivery of the goods. Please contact me for further questions about shipping .

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Yours sincerely Mary Lain

Chapter 3 Building Goodwill
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You-Attitude Positive Emphasis Tone, Power and Politeness Reducing Bias in Business Communication

You-Attitude
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Definition
You-attitude is a style of writing that looks at things from the reader’s point of view, emphasizing what the reader wants to know, respecting the reader’s intelligence, and protecting the reader’s ego

How to Create You-Attitude
1. Talk about the reader, not about yourself. 2. Refer to the reader’s request or order specially. 3. Don’t talk about feelings, expect to congratulate or offer sympathy. 4. In positive situations, use you more often than I. Use we when it includes the reader. 5. In negative situations, avoid the word you. Protect the reader’s ego. Use passive verbs and impersonal expressions to avoid assuming blame.

Positive Emphasis
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In most cases, positive information should be emphasized in order to make the reader happy. It shows that the writer is confident, having enough ability to solve critical problems.

Positive Emphasis
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Five techniques to create positive emphasis. 1.Avoid negative words and words with negative connotations 2.State information positively. Focus on what the reader can do rather than what the reader can not do. 3.Justify negative information by giving a reason or linking it to a reader benefit. 4. If the negative is truly unimportant, omit it. 5. Put the negative information in the middle and present if compactly.

Tone, Power, and Politeness
1.Use courtesy titles for people outside your organization whom you don’t know well 2. Be aware of the power implications of the words you use. 3. When the stakes are low, be straightforward. 4. When you must give bad news, consider hedging your statement.

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Making language nonsexist words and phrases job titles courtesy titles pronouns Making language nonracist and non-agist give someone’s race age only if it is relevant to your story. refer to a group by the term it prefers. As preferences change, change your usage. Talking about people with disabilities and diseases. use people first language focuses on the person, not the condition. avoid negative terms, unless the audience prefers them.

Chapter 2 Adapting Your Message to Your Audience
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Identifying Your Audience Ways to Analyze Your Audience Choosing Channels to Reach Your Audience Using Audience Analysis to Adapt Your Messages Reader Benefits

Identifying Your Audience
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Five types of organizational audiences 1. the initial audience 2. a gatekeeper 3. primary audience 4. the secondary audience 5. a watchdog audience

Ways to Analyze Your 1. analyzing individuals Audience an introvert an extravert
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a sensing type a thinking type a perceiving type

an intuitive type a feeling type a judging type

2. analyzing the organizational culture and the discourse community organizational culture discourse community 3. analyzing members of groups
demographic characteristics- age, income, race, religion, education psychographic characteristics—believers, strivers, fulfilleds and actualizers

Choosing Channels to Reach Your Audience
Communication channels vary in speed, accuracy of transmission, cost, number of messages carried, number of people reached, efficiency, and ability to promote goodwill. Depending on the audience, your purposes and the situation , one channel may be better than another.
1. written message—paper is better for someone you are writing for the first time. 2. oral message--- scheduled meetings and oral presentations are more formal than phone calls.

Important messages should use more formal channels, whether they are oral or written.

Using Audience Analysis to Adapt Your Messages
1.What will the audience’s initial reaction be to the message? 2. How much information does the audience need? 3. What obstacles must you overcome? 4.What positive aspects can you emphasize? 5. What expectations does the audience have about the appropriate language, structure, and form for messages? 6. How will the audience use the document?

Reader Benefits
Definition:
Reader benefits are benefit or advantages that the reader gets by using your services, buying your products, following your policies, or adopting your ideas.

Reader Benefits
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Characteristics of good reader benefits:
1. Adapt reader benefits to the audience. 2. Stress intrinsic as will as extrinsic motivators. 3. Prove reader benefits with clear logic and explain them inadequate detail. 4. Phrase reader benefits in you-attitude.

Reader Benefits
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How to identify and develop reader benefits
1. Identify the feelings, fears and needs that may motivate your reader. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: physical safety, security love, belonging esteem, recognition self-actualization 2. Identify the objective features of your product or policy that could meet the needs you have identified. 3. Show how the reader can meet his or her needs with the features of the policy or product.

Chapter 4 Making Your Writing Easy to Read
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Good Style in Business and Administrative Writing Half-truths about Style Building a Better Style Ten Ways to Make Your Writing Easier to Read

Good Style in Business and Administrative Writing
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Use a friendly, informal style to someone you have talked with. Avoid contractions, slang, and even minor grammatical lapses in paper documents to people you don’t know. Pay particular attention to your style when you write people you fear or when you must give bad news.

Half-truths about Style

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1.Write as you talk. 2.Never use I. 3.Never begin a sentence with and or but. 4.Never end a sentence with a preposition 5.Big words impress people.

Building a Better Style
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1. 2. 3.

How to improve your style?
Get a clean paper so that you will not get locked into old sentences. Try EIRMI: ―What I really mean is.‖ Then write the words. Try reading your draft out loud to someone sitting about three feet away. Ask someone else to read your draft. Read widely and write a lot. Study revised sentences and use the ten techniques.

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Ten Ways to Make Your Writing Easier to Read
As you choose words, 1. Use words that are accurate, appropriate,
and familiar. 2. Use technical jargon only when it is essential and known to the reader. Eliminate business jargon

Ten Ways to Make Your Writing Easier to Read
As you write and revise sentences
3. Use active verbs most of the time. 4. Use verbs—not nouns –to carry the weight of your sentence. 5. Tighten your writing 6. Vary sentence length and sentence structure 7. Use parallel structure. Use the same grammatical form for ideas that have the same logical function. 8. Put your readers in your sentences.

Ten Ways to Make Your Writing Easier to Read
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As you write and revise parapgraphs

9. Begin most paragraphs with topic sentences so that readers know what to expect in the paragraph. 10. Use transitions to link ideas.

Chapter 5 Planning Composing and Revising
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The Ways Good Writers Write Activities in the Composing Process Using Your Time Effectively Brainstorming, Planning, and Organizing Business Documents Revising, Editing, and Proofreading Getting and Using feedbacks Overcoming Writer’s Blocks

The Ways Good Writers Write

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1. Realize that the first draft will not be perfect. 2. Write regularly. 3. Break big jobs into small chunks. 4. Have clear goals focusing on purpose and audience. 5. Have several different strategies to choose from. 6. Use rules flexibly. 7. Wait to edit until after the draft is complete.

Activities in the Composing Process

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Planning Gathering Writing Evaluating Getting feedback Revising Proofreading

Using Your Time Effectively
to get the best results form the time you have,
1. Spend only one-third of your time actually writing. 2. Spend at least another one third of your time analyzing the situation and your audience, gathering information and organizing what you have to say. 3. Spend the final third evaluating what you have said, revising the draft to meet your purposes and the needs of the audience and the organization, editing a late draft to remove any errors in grammar and mechanics, and proofreading the final typed copy.

Brainstorming, Planning, and Organizing Business Documents

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Brainstorming: Free-writing Clustering Talk to your audience

Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
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Revising means making changes that will better satisfy your purposes. Editing means making surface-level changes that make the document grammatically correct. Proofreading means checking to be sure the document is free from typographical errors.

Getting and Using feedbacks
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Getting and using feedbacks almost always improve a document. In many companies, it is required.

The process of drafting, getting feedback, revising, and getting more feedback is called cycling.

Overcoming Writer’s Blocks
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1. Participate actively in the organization and the community. 2. Practice writing regularly and in moderation. 3. Learn as many strategies as you can. 4. Talk positively to yourself. 5. Talk about writing to other people.

Chapter 10 Informative and Positive Messages
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Purposes of informative and positive messages Organizing informative and positive messages Subject lines for informative and positive messages Varieties of informative and positive messages Solving a sample problem

Purposes of informative and positive messages
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Primary purposes:
To give information or good news to the reader or to reassure the reader. To have the reader read the message, understand it and view the information positively. To deemphasize any negative elements.

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Secondary purposes:
To build a good image of the writer and the organization To cement a good relationship between the writer and reader To make the message clear so as to avoid further exchange of messages

Organizing informative and positive messages
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How to organize informative and positive messages

1. Give any good news and summarize the main points. 2. Give details, clarification, background. 3. Present any negative elements– as positively as possible. 4. Explain any reader benefits 5. Use a goodwill ending: positive, personal, and forward-looking (Avoid empty talks)

Subject Lines for Informative and Positive Messages

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A subject line is the title of a document. It aids in filing and retrieving the document, Definition:

tells readers why they need to read the document, and provides a framework in which to set what you are about to say.
Subject lines are always necessary for memos and emails, but not always necessary for letters.

Subject Lines for Informative and Positive Messages
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Criteria for good subject line
1. making subject lines specific 2. making subject lines concise 3. making subject lines appropriate for the purpose of your message.

Varieties of Informative and Positive Messages
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1.transmittals 2.confirmations 3.summaries 4. thank-you and congratulatory notes. 5. adjustments and responses to complaints.

Solving a Sample Problem
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Interstate fidelity insurance uses computers to handle its payments and billings. There is often a time lag between receiving a payment from a customer and recording it on the computer. Sometimes, while the payment is in line to be processed, the computer sends out an additional notice: past-due notices, collection letters, even threats to sue. Customers are frightened or angry and write asking for an explanation. Prepare a form letter that can go out to every policyholder who claims to have paid a premium for automobile insurance and resents getting a past-due notice. The letter should reassure readers and build goodwill for IFI.

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Chapter 11 Negative Messages
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Concept of negative message Purposes of negative messages Subject lines for negative messages How to organize negative messages Parts of the negative messages How to deal with apologies Varieties of negative messages Solving sample problems

Concept of negative messages
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When the basic information we convey in the message is negative and it’s likely to make the reader feel disappointed and angry, that means we are sending the negative message.
Examples: refusals announcements of the policy changes that do not benefit customers or employees the request that the reader will see as insulting Negative performance appraisals disciplinary notes Products recalls of defects 产品召回声明

Purposes of Negative Messages
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Primary purposes:
(1)to give the reader the bad news. (2)to have the reader read, understand, and accept the message (3)to maintain as much goodwill as possible by making efforts to reduce the negative effects on the reader

secondary purposes:
(1)to build a good image of the writer and the organization (2)to make the letter clear so as to avoid further exchange of the letters between the reader and the writer.

Subject Lines for Negative Messages
When you write to superiors, use a subject line that focuses on solving the problem. 2. When you write to peers and subordinates, put the topic (but not your action on it) in the subject line. 3. When you write to people you know well, exaggerated subject lines are accepted. 4. When the negative information is quite serious and you want to draw the reader’s special attention to it, use a negative subject line.
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Organizing Negative Messages
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How to organize negative letters to your clients
1. When you have a reason that reader can understand and accept, give the reason before the refusal. As we are heavily committed 2. Give the negative information or refusal just once, clearly. Give priority to your order 3. Present an alternative or compromise, if one is available. 4. End with a positive, forward-looking statement.

Organizing Negative Messages ? How to organize negative memos to superiors
1. Describe the problem. 2. Tell how it happened. 3. Describe the solutions for fixing it. 4. Recommend an effective solution you think and ask for action.

Organizing Negative Messages
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How to organize negative memos to peers and subordinates
1. Describe the problem. 2. Present a solution or compromise, if one is available. 3. If possible, ask for input or action.

Parts of the Negative Messages
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Buffers Reasons Alternatives Endings

Parts of the Negative Messages
buffers:
definition of buffer
Buffer is a neutral or positive statement that allows you to delay the negative information, to prevent the reader from feeling disappointed or angry directly.

Statement often used as buffers
1.good news 2.facts 3.references to enclosures 4. thanks 5. statements of principle
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How to Deal with Apologies
1. No explicit apology is necessary if the error

is small and if you are correcting the mistake. 2. Do not apologize when you are not at fault. 3. When you apologize, do it early, briefly, and sincerely. Let the reader move on to other, more positive information. Don’t continue with how the horrible things happened.

Varieties of Negative Messages
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refusals negative performance appraisals Layoffs and firings.

Solving Sample Problems
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You are Director of Employee Benefits for a fortune 500 company. Today you received the following memo. You have the bad news for Michelle. Although the company does contribute to the retirement fund equal to the amount deducted for retirement fund from the employee’s paycheck, employees who leave with less than seven years of employment get only their own contributions. Michelle will get back only the money that has been deducted form her own pay, plus 4.5% interest quarterly. In addition, She will have to pay income tax on the money she will receive. You can’t process the check until after her resignation is effective, so you will mail the check to her later on. Write a memo with negative information to Michelle .

Solving Sample Problems
Memo attached:
From: Michelle Jagtiani To: Lisa Niaz Subject: getting my retirement benefits

Next Friday will be my last day here. I am leaving to take a position at another firm. please process a check for my retirement benefits, including both the deductions from my salary and the company’s contributions for the last six and a half years. I would like to receive the check by next Friday if possible.

Chapter 12 Persuasive Messages
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Purposes of persuasive messages Choosing persuasive strategies Three kinds of persuasive strategies Organizing a persuasive direct request Organizing a problem-solving message Developing a common ground Dealing with objections Offering reasons for the reader to act promptly Building emotional appeal Varieties of persuasive messages Solving sample problem

Purposes of Persuasive Messages
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Primary purposes: to have the reader act to provide enough information so that the reader knows exactly what to do. to overcome any objections that might prevent or delay action. Secondary purposes: to build a good image of the writer and the organization. to cement a good relationship between the writer and the reader.

Choosing Persuasive Strategies
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1. What do you want people to do? 2. What objections, if any, will the audience have? 3. How strong is your case? 4. What kind of persuasion is best for the organization and the culture?

Three Kinds of Persuasive Strategies
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Direct request pattern Problem-solving pattern Star-chain-knot pattern

Organizing a Persuasive Direct Request
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1.Consider asking immediately for the information or service you want. 2.Gvie readers all the information they will need to act on your request. 3. Ask for the action you want.

Organizing a Problem-solving Message
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1. Catch the reader’s interest by mentioning a common ground. 2. Define the problem you both share. 3. Explain the solution to the problem. 4. Show that any negative elements are outweighed by the advantages. 5. Ask for the action you want.

Developing a Common Ground
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A common ground avoids the me-against-you of some persuasive situations and suggests that both you and your audience have a mutual interest in solving the problems you face. To find a common ground, we analyze the audience, understand their biases, objections, and needs, and identify with them so that we can make them identify with us.

Dealing with Objections
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1. Find out why your audience members resist what you want them to do. 2. Try to find a win-win solution. 3. Let your audience save face. 4. Ask for something small. 5. Present your arguments from your audience’s point of view.

Offering Reasons for the Reader to Act Promptly

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1. Show that the time limit is real. 2. Show that acting now will save time and money. 3. Show that cost of delaying action.

Building Emotional Appeal
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Stories and psychological description are effective ways of building emotional appeal. Emotional appeal works best when people want to be persuaded. to touch other people’s feelings and emotions so that persuasion can be effective

Varieties of Persuasive Messages
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Collection letters Performance appraisals Letters of recommendations

Solving Sample Problem
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In one room of the production department of Nakamura Electronics company, employees work on TV picture tubes under conditions that are scarcely bearable due to the high heat. In June, July, August, the turnover happens. As a production supervisor, you have asked the management to air-condition the room before, but failed. Inflation has pushed the price of insulation and air-conditioning from $300.000 to $500,000, but with such high turnover, you are losing money every summer. Write a memo to the vice president, putting forward your request.

Chapter 10 Sales, Fund-raising, and Promotional Messages
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Components of good direct mail Junk mail Basic direct mail strategy Organization of a sales letter Strategies in sales letters Writing style

Components of Good Direct Mail
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Definition of direct mail
Direct mails are sales letters that are sent directly to the doors of the customers.

components of good direct mail
1. a good product/service or cause 2. a good mailing list 3. a good appeal

Junk Mail
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Definition: Junk mails are usually(1) irrelevant; (2)sleazy, dishonest, deceptive;(3) discarded immediately because of one or both of the above.

Basic Direct Mail Strategy
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1. understand your product, service or organization.
What needs odes the product meet? What benefits does it provide? What problems does it remove? What are the product’s objective features? Size? color? Materials? How does it work? How much does it cost? How is it different form or better than competing products? How easy is it to install? To sue? To maintain?

Basic Direct Mail Strategy
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Identify and analyze your target audience
The target audience is all of the people who are likely to be interested in buying the product, using the service, or contributing to the cause. Target audience should be identified according to the demographic characteristics and psychographic characteristics.

Basic Direct Mail Strategy
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3.choose a central selling point
A central selling point is a reader benefit that by itself could motivate your readers to act and that can serve a s an umbrella under which all the other benefits can fit.

Organization of Sales Letters
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How to organize a sales letter 1. Open your letter with a star designed to catch the reader’s attention. 2. In the body, provide a chain of reasons and logic. 3. End by telling the reader what to do and providing a reason to act promptly. Tie up (knot) the motivation you have created and turn it into action.

Strategy in Sales Letters
Dealing with price (1) Link the price to the benefit the product provides. (2) Show how much the product costs each day, each week, or each month. (3) Allow customers to charge sales or pay in installments.

Organization of Sales Letters
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A good star (opener) makes readers want to read the letter and provides a reasonable transition to the body of the letter. A good chain (body) answers readers’ questions, overcomes their objections, and involves them emotionally. A good knot (act close) tels reader what todo, makes the action sound easy, gives them a reason for acting promptly, and ends with a reader benefit.

Writing Style
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1. Make your writing interesting. 2. Use sound patterns to emphasize words. 3. Use psychological description. 4. Make your letter sound like a letter, not an ad.

Chapter 13 Communicating Across Cultures
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Qualities of a successful international communicator factors leading to diversity Ways to look at culture Values, beliefs and practices Nonverbal communication Oral communication

Qualities of a Successful International Communicator
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Aware that his or her preferred values and behaviors are influenced by culture and are not necessarily right. Flexible and open to change. Sensitive to verbal and nonverbal behavior. Aware of the values, beliefs, and practices in other cultures. Sensitive to differences among individuals within a culture.

factors Leading to Diversity
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Diversity in the workplace is caused by many factors: 1. gender 2. race 3. regional and national origin 4. social class 5. religion 6. age 7. sexual orientation 8. physical ability

Ways to Look at Culture
1. high-context culture Most of the information is inferred from the context of a message little is explicitly conveyed. Japanese, Arabic, Chinese cultures are high context. 2. low-context culture Context is less important, most information is explicitly spelled out. German, north American cultures are low context.

Values, Beliefs and Practices
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Values, beliefs, often unconscious, affect our response to people and situations.
North Americans value fairness, competition, individualism, being quiet in the working place. Hindus do not eat beef; Muslims consider pork unclean. North Americans and Europeans put the family name last; Asians put it first. North American and European printing moves from top to bottom and from left to right, Arabic reads from right to left, but still from top to bottom.

Nonverbal Communication
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1. body language 2.space 3.time 4.other nonverbal symbols

Nonverbal Communication
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Body language
way of walking, eating, sitting eye contact smiling gestures
( The ―thumbs up‖ sign which means ―good work‖ in USA and most of western Europe and Asia, is a vulgar insult in Greece.)

Nonverbal Communication
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Space
personal distance while talking with others touch spatial arrangements Other nonverbal symbols clothing colors age height

Oral Communication
Understatement and exaggeration compliments silence voice qualities (tone, pitch, stress, volume)

Chapter 12 Working and Writing in Groups

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Listening Group interactions Working in diverse groups Conflict resolution

Listening
1. Difference between hearing and listening
Hearing denotes perceiving sounds. Listening means decoding and interpreting the sounds correctly.

2. Difference between listening in class and listening at work
The teacher gives key points clearly and it does not involve feeling. But at work, listening is without key points given. Feelings of being rejected or overworked should be dealt with.

Listening
Acknowledgement responses
Acknowledgement responses are nod, smiles, frowns that can help carry the message that you are listening.

active listening
In active listening, receivers actively demonstrate that they have heard and understood a speaker by feeding back either the literal meaning or the emotional content or both. Active listening takes time and energy.

Listening
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Five steps create active responses
1. Paraphrase the content. Feedback the meaning in your own words. 2. Mirror the speaker’s feelings. Identify the feelings you think you hear. 3. State your own feelings. This strategy works especially well when you are angry. 4. Ask for information or clarification. 5. Offer to help solve the problem.

Group Interactions
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Group can focus on three dimensions:

1. Information messages focuses on content: the problem, the data and possible situations. 2. Procedural messages focuses on method and process. 3.Interpersonal messages focus on people, promoting friendliness, cooperation, and group loyalty. Different kinds of communication dominate during the four stages of the life of a task group: orientation, formation, coordination, and formalization.

Group Interactions
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Roles in groups 1. activities of positive roles: encouraging participation relieving tensions checking feelings solving interpersonal problems 2. activities of negative roles blocking dominating clowning withdrawing

Group Interactions
decision-making strategies: 1. standard agenda Understand the goal of the group. Identify the problem. Gather information. Establish criteria. Generate alternate solutions. Measure the alternatives against the criteria. Choose the best solution. 2. dot planning

Group interactions
Peer pressure and group think
peer pressure comes from your friends and colleagues. Groupthink means to go along with the majority. It is the tendency for groups to put such a high premium on agreement that they directly or indirectly punish dissent.

Conflicts Resolution

steps in conflict resolution
1. Make sure the people involved really disagree. 2. Check to see that everyone’s information is correct. 3. Discover the needs each person is trying to meet. 4. Search for alternatives. 5. Repair bad feelings.

Chapter 13/14 Report Writing
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Basic steps in report writing Varieties of report Defining report problems Designing questions for surveys and interviews Using documentation Analyzing numbers Basic patterns for organizing information Layout of formal report Layout of short report

Basic Steps in Report Writing
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Define the problem. Gather the necessary data and information. Analyze the data and information. Organize the information. Write the report.

Varieties of Report
Considering the formality:
formal report and informal report

Considering the content and purpose
information report, analytical report, recommendation report

Defining Report Problems
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A good report problem in business or administration meets the following criteria: 1.the problem is real important enough to be worth solving narrow but challenging 2. the audience for the report is real able to implement the recommended action 3.the data, evidence, and facts are sufficient to document the severity of the problem sufficient to prove that the recommendation will solve the problem available to you comprehensible to you

Designing Questions for Surveys and Interviews
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A survey questions a large group of people, called respondents or subjects. The easiest way to ask may questions is to create a questionnaire, a written list of questions that people fill out. And interview is a structured conversation with someone who will be able to give you useful information. Closed questions have a limited number of possible responses. Open questions do not lock the subject into any sort of response.

Using Documentation
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Citation means attributing an idea or fact to its source in the body of the report. Documentation means providing the bibliographic information readers would need to go back to the original source. the two useful means of documentation are notes and lists of references.

Analyzing Numbers
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Many reports analyze numbers– either numbers from databases and sources or number from a survey you have conducted. When you have numbers for salaries or other figures, start by figuring the average, or mean, the median, and the range. The average or mean is calculated by adding up all the figures and dividing by the number of the samples. The median the number that is exactly in the middle. The mode is the number that occurs most often. The range is the difference between the high and low figures for that variable.

Basic Patterns for Organizing Information
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1. comparison/contrast 2. problem-solution 3. elimination of alternatives 4. general to particular or particular to general 5. geographic or spatial 6. functional 7. chronological

Layout of Formal Report
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Cover Title page Letter or memo of transmittal Table of contents List of illustrations Executive summary Report body
introduction background or history of the problem body conclusions recommendations notes, references or works cited appendix

Layout of Short Report
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Title Introduction Findings Conclusions recommendations

Chapter 7 Resumes
Evaluating your strengths and interests Guidelines for resume writing Kinds of resumes What to include in a resume

Evaluating Your Strengths and Interests
A self assessment is the first step in producing a good resume. 1. What achievements have give you the most satisfaction? 2. Would you rather have firm deadlines or a flexible schedule? 3. Are you willing to take work home? 4. Where do you want to live? 5. Is it important to you that your work achieve certain purposes or values, or do you see work as just a way to make a living. www.zhaopin.com智联 www.51job.com

Guidelines for Resume Writing
1.Length 2.Emphasis 3.Details 4.Writing style 5.layout,printing,and paper

Kinds of Resumes
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Chronological resume summarizes what you did in a time line (starting with the most recent events and going backward in reverse chronology). It emphasizes degrees, job titles, and dates. It is the traditional resume format. Skill resume emphasizes the skills you have used, rather than the job in which or the date when you used them.

What to Include in a Resume
Name, address and phone number Career objective Summary of qualifications Education Experience Activities Honors References

Chapter 8 Job Application Letter

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How job letters differ from resumes How to find out about employer and jobs Content and organization for job application letters

How Job Letters Differ From Resumes
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A resume is adapted to a position and the letter is adapted to the needs of a particular organization. The resume summarizes all your qualifications. The letter shows how your qualifications can help the organization meet its needs,, how you differ from other applicants and that you have some knowledge of the organization. The resume uses short, parallel phrases and sentence fragments. The letter uses complete sentences in welll-written paragraphs.

How to Find out About Employer and Jobs
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Use directories, annual reports, recruiting literatures, business periodicals, trade journals, and the web to get information about employers and jobs to use in your letter.

Content and Organization for Job Application Letters
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When you know that a co. is hiring,send a solicited job letter. When you want a job with a co. that has not announced openings, send a prospecting job letter.

Content and Organization for Job Application Letters
In both letters, you should 1. Address the letter to a specific person 2. Indicate the specific position for which you are applying 3. Be specific about your qualifications. 4. Show what separates you from other applicants. 5. Refer to your resume (which you would enclose with the letter) 6. Ask for an interview.

Chapter 9 Job Interview
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Developing an interview strategy Taking care of the details Answering traditional interview questions

Developing an Interview Strategy

1. What are the facts about yourself do you want the interviewer to know? 2. What disadvantages or weaknesses do you need to overcome or minimize? 3. What do you need to know about the job and the organization to decide whether or not you want to accept this job if it is offered to you?

Taking Care of the Details
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Wear a conservative business suit to the interview. Bring an extra copy of your resume, something to write on and write with, and copies of your work to the interview. Record the name of the interviewer and what the interviewer liked about you, and negative points that came up, answers to your questions about the co. and when you will hear from the co. Rehearse everything you can.

Answering Traditional Interview Questions
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1. Tell me about yourself. 2. What makes you think you are qualified to work for this co? 3. What two or three accomplishments have given you the greatest satisfaction?名誉、地位、金钱 4. Why do you want to work for us? 5. What college subjects did you like best and least? Why? 6. What is your class rank? Your grade point? 7. What have you read recently? What movies have you seen recently? 8. Show me some samples of your writing.

Answering Traditional Interview Questions
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9. Where do you see yourself in five years? 10. What are your interests outside work? 11. What have you done to learn about this co.? 12. What adjectives would you use to describe yourself? 13. What is your greatest strength? 14. What is your greatest weakness? 15. Why are you looking for another job? 16. What questions do you have?


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