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生产运作管理CH09-Layout Strategy


Operations Management
Layout Strategy Chapter 9

9-1

Outline
? GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: MCDONALD’S ? THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF LAYOUT DECISIONS ? TYPES OF LAYOUT ? FIXED-POSITION LAYOUT ? PROCESS-ORIENTED LAYOUT
Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts ? Work Cells ? The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory
?
9-2

Outline - Continued
? OFFICE LAYOUT ? RETAIL LAYOUT
? ?

Servicescapes

? WAREHOUSING AND STORAGE LAYOUTS
Cross-Docking ? Random Stocking ? Customizing

? REPETITIVE AND PRODUCT-ORIENTED LAYOUT
?

Assembly-Line Balancing
9-3

Learning Objectives
When you complete this chapter, you should be able to : Identify or Define:
Fixed-position layout ? Process-oriented layout ? Work cells ? Focused work center ? Office layout ? Retail layout ? Warehouse layout ? Product-oriented layout ? Assembly-line factory
?
9-4

Learning Objectives
When you complete this chapter, you should be able to : Describe or explain:
? ?

How to achieve a good layout for the process facility How to balance production flow in a repetitive or product-oriented facility

9-5

McDonald’s - New Kitchen Layout
? Fifth major innovation - kitchen design
?
? ?

?
? ?

?
?

No food prepared ahead except patty Elimination of some steps, shortening of others New bun toasting machine (11 seconds vs 30 seconds) Repositioning condiment containers (one motion, not two) Sandwiches assembled in order Production levels controlled by computer Discard only meat when sandwiches do not sell fast enough Savings of $100,000,000 per year in food costs

9-6

McDonald’s - New Kitchen Layout
?No food prepared ahead except patty ?Elimination of some steps, shortening of others ?New bun toasting machine (11 seconds vs 30 seconds) ?Repositioning condiment containers (one motion, not two)

9-7

Innovation at McDonald’s
? Indoor seating (1950’s) ? Drive-through window (1970s) ? Adding breakfast to the menu (1980s) ? Adding play areas (1990s) (three out of the four are layout decisions)

9-8

Objectives of the Layout Strategy
? Develop an economical layout which will meet the requirements of:
product design and volume (product strategy) ? process equipment and capacity (process strategy) ? quality of work life (human resource strategy) ? building and site constraints (location strategy)
?

9-9

Types of Layouts
? Fixed-position layout ? Process-oriented layout ? Office layout ? Retail layout ? Warehouse layout ? Product-oriented layout

9-10

What is Facility Layout
? Location or arrangement of everything within & around buildings ? Objectives are to maximize
Customer satisfaction ? Utilization of space, equipment, & people ? Efficient flow of information, material, & people ? Employee morale & safety
?

9-11

Strategic Importance of Layout
Proper layout enables: ? Higher utilization of space, equipment,and people ? Improved flow of information, materials, or people ? Improved employee morale and safer working conditions ? Improved customer/client interaction ? Flexibility

9-12

Six Layout Strategies
? Fixed-position layout
?

large bulky projects such as ships and buildings

? Process-oriented layout
?

deals with low-volume, high-variety production (“job shop”, intermittent production)
positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information

? Office layout
?

9-13

Six Layout Strategies - continued
? Retail/service layout
?

allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior addresses trade-offs between space and material handling seeks the best personnel and machine use in repetitive or continuous production

? Warehouse layout
?

? Product-oriented layout
?

9-14

Layout Strategies
Project
(fixed-position)

Job Shop
(Processoriented)

Office

Retail

Warehouse
(storage)

Repetitive /Continuous
(productoriented)

Examples
Ingal Ship Building Corp. Trump Plaza
Pittsburgh Airport

Shouldice Hospital Olive Garden

Allstate Insurance Microsoft

Kroger’s Supermarket Walgreens Bloomingdales

Federal-Mogul’s Warehouse The Gap’s distribution center

Sony’s TV Assembly Line Dodge Caravans Minivans Equalize the task time at each workstation

Problem
Move material to the limited storage areas around the site Manage varied material flow for each product Locate workers requiring frequent contact close to each other 9-15 Expose customer to high-margin items Balance lowcost storage with low-cost material handling

Layout Example - Office

9-16

Requirements of a Good Layout
? an understanding of capacity and space

requirements ? selection of appropriate material handling equipment ? decisions regarding environment and aesthetics ? identification and understanding of the requirements for information flow ? identification of the cost of moving between the various work areas
9-17

Constraints on Layout Objectives
? Product design & volume ? Process equipment & capacity ? Quality of work life ? Building and site

9-18

Layout Strategies, Examples, and Criteria
Layout strategy
Service/retail

Example
Drug store Grocery store Department store Distributor Warehouse TV assembly line

Criteria
Expose customer to high margin items Minimize storage and handling costs Minimize line imbalance, delay, and idle time

Storage Product oriented

9-19

Areas of Concern in Layout Strategy
Communication

Service Areas
Warehousing Safety

Material Attributes

Layout Strategy
Material Flow

Work Cell

9-20

Fixed-Position Layout
? Design is for stationary project ? Workers and equipment come to site ? Complicating factors
? ?

Limited space at site Changing material needs

9-21

Factors Complicating a Fixed Position Layout
? There is limited space at virtually all sites ? At different stages in the construction process, different materials are needed – therefore, different items become critical as the project develops
? The volume of materials needed is dynamic

9-22

Process-Oriented Layout
? Design places departments with large flows of material or people together ? Department areas having similar processes located in close proximity
?

e.g., All x-ray machines in same area

? Used with process-focused processes

9-23

Emergency Room Layout
E.R.Triage room
Patient A broken leg Patient B - erratic pacemaker

Hallway

E.R. beds
9-24

Pharmacy

Billing/exit

Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout
1 Construct a “from-to matrix” 2 Determine space requirements for each department 3 Develop an initial schematic diagram 4 Determine the cost of this layout 5 By trial-and-error (or more sophisticated means), try to improve the initial layout 6 Prepare a detailed plan that evaluates factors in addition to transportation cost
9-25

Cost of Process-Oriented Layout n n
Minimizecost ? ?? X ijC ij
i ?1 j?1

where n ? totalnumber of work centers or department s i, j ? individual department s X ij ? number of loads movedfrom department to departmentj i C ij ? cost tomovea load between department and departmentj i
9-26

Interdepartmental Flow of Parts
1 2 3 4 5 6

1
2 3 4 5 6

50

100
30

0
50 20

0
10 0 50

20
0 100 0 0

9-27

Interdepartmental Flow Graph Showing Number of Weekly Loads
100
1 2 3

50

30

100

10
4

50

5

6

9-28

Possible Layout 1
Room 1 Assembly Department (1) Receiving Department (4) Room 4 Room 2 Printing Department (2) Shipping Department (5) Room 5 60 ’ 9-29 Room 2 Machine Shop Department (3) Testing Department (6) Room 6 40 ’

Interdepartmental Flow Graph Showing Number of Weekly Loads
30
1 2 3

50

100

100

4

50

5

6

9-30

Possible Layout 3
Room 1 Painting Department (2) Receiving Department (4) Room 4 Room 2 Assembly Department (1) Shipping Department (5) Room 5 60 ’ 9-31 Room 3 Machine Shop Department (3) Testing Department (6) Room 6 40 ’

Computer Programs to Assist in Layout
? CRAFT ? SPACECRAFT ? CRAFT 3-D ? MULTIPLE ? CORELAP ? ALDEP ? COFAD ? FADES - expert system
9-32

Out-Patient Hospital Example
CRAFT
Legend:
A = xray/MRI rooms B = laboratories C = admissions D = exam rooms E = operating rooms F = recovery rooms

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 A A A A B B

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 D D D D B B

2 A A 3 D D 4 C C 5 F F 6 E E

A A B B D D D D

D D D D F F F D E E E D

2 D D 3 D D 4 C C 5 A A 6 A A

D D B B D E E E

D E E F A A A F A F F F

Total cost: 20,100 Est. Cost Reduction .00 Iteration 0
9-33

Total cost: 14,390 Est. Cost Reduction 70. Iteration 3

Cellular Layout - Work Cells
? Special case of product-oriented layout - in what is ordinarily a process-oriented facility ? Consists of different machines brought together to make a product ? Temporary arrangement only ? Example: Assembly line set up to produce 3000 identical parts in a job shop

9-34

Improving Layouts by Moving to the Work Cell Concept

9-35

Work Cells - Some Advantages
? Reduced work-in-process inventory ? Less floor space required ? Reduced raw material and finished goods inventories required ? Reduced direct labor costs ? Heightened sense of employee participation ? Increased utilization of equipment machinery ? Reduced investment in machinery and equipment
9-36

Work Cell Advantages

Inventory Floor space Direct labor costs

Equipment utilization Employee participation Quality

9-37

Work Cell Floor Plan
Saws Drills Office

Tool Room

Work Cell

9-38

Requirements for Cellular Production
? Identification of families of products - group technology codes ? High level of training and flexibility on the part of the employees ? Either staff support or flexible, imaginative employees to establish the work cells initially ? Test at each station in the cell
9-39

Work Cells, Focused Work Centers and the Focused Factory
Work Cell
A temporary assembly-line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a processoriented facility Example: job shop with rearranged machinery and personnel to produce 30 unique control panels

Focused Work Center

A permanent assembly-line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a processoriented facility Example: manufacturing of pipe brackets at a shipyard
A permanent facility to produce a product or component in a product-oriented facility Example: a plant to produce window mechanisms for automobiles
9-40

Focused Factory

Number of Product Lines and Operating Performance
15

10

More focused plants
?

?

I(2)

?

G(1)

?

H(2) ? K(2)
? ?

J(1)

5
?

E(4)

Less focused plants
? ?

A(6)

D(6) ? F(6)

0

C(5)

B(5)

-5

100 Sales ($M)
9-41

Office Layout
? Design positions people, equipment, & offices for maximum information flow ? Arranged by process or product
?

Example: Payroll dept. is by process

? Relationship chart used ? Examples
?
?

Insurance company Software company
9-42

? 1995 Corel Corp.

Office Layout Floor Plan

Finance Manager

Accounting
Fin. Acct.

Brand X

9-43

Relationship Chart
1 President 2 Costing A 3 Engineering O I

1
O

2
U

3
A

Ordinary closeness: President (1) & Costing (2)

4

4 President’s Secretary
I = Important U = Unimportant
9-44

Absolutely necessary: President (1) & Secretary (4)

Office Relationship Shart
1 President

2 Chief Technology Officer
3 Engineer’s Area 4 Secretary 5 Office entrance 7 Equipment cabinet 8 Photocopy equipment 9 Storage room 9 Storage room

O A O A

U I I

Val. Closeness

A
I

I I

A

X
O U

E

U I O O A E U O E E U U A O U I O X A E

I

Absolutely necessary Especially important Important

E I

O
U X

Ordinary OK
Unimportant Not desirable

9-45

Retail/Service Layout
? Design maximizes product exposure to customers ? Decision variables
Store flow pattern ? Allocation of (shelf) space to products
?

? Types
? ?

Grid design Free-flow design

Video

9-46

Retail Layouts Some Rules of Thumb
? Locate high-draw items around the periphery of the store ? Use prominent locations such as the first or last aisle for high-impulse and high margin items ? Remove crossover aisles that allow customers the opportunity to move between aisles ? Distribute what are known in the trade as “power items” (items that may dominate a shopping trip) to both sides of an aisle, and disperse them to increase the viewing of other items ? Use end aisle locations because they have a very high exposure rate
9-47

Retail /Service Layout Grid Design
Grocery Store
Bread Milk Meat Produce Frozen Foods

Office

Carts

Checkout

9-48

Store Layout - with Dairy, Bread, High Drawer Items in Corners

9-49

Retail/Service Layout Free-Flow Design
Apparel
(服装)

Store

Feature

Trans. Counter
Display Table
9-50

Retail Store Shelf Space
? Computerized tool for shelf-space management ? Generated from store’s scanner data on sales ? Often supplied by manufacturer ? Example: P&G
5 facings

PERT

PERT

PERT

PERT

PERT

VO-5

VO-5

VO-5

SUAVE

VO-5 VO-5

2 ft.
9-51

SUAVE

A Good Service Layout (Servicescape) Considers
? Ambient conditions - background characteristics such as lighting, sound, smell, and temperature. ? Spatial layout and functionality - which involve customer circulation path planning ? Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts - characteristics of building design that carry social significance

9-52

Warehouse Layout
? Design balances space (cube) utilization & handling cost ? Similar to process layout ? Items moved between dock & various storage areas ? Optimum layout depends on
Variety of items stored ? Number of items picked
?

9-53

Warehouse Layout Floor Plan
Conveyor
Truck

Zones
9-54

Order Picker

Cross Docking
? Transferring goods
? ?

? Avoids placing goods into storage ? Requires suppliers provide effective addressing (bar codes) and packaging that provides for rapid transhipment

from incoming trucks at receiving docks to outgoing trucks at shipping docks

Incoming

Outgoing

? 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. ? 1995 Corel Corp.

9-55

Random Stocking Systems Often:
? Maintain a list of “open” locations ? Maintain accurate records of existing inventory and its locations ? Sequence items on orders to minimize travel time required to pick orders ? Combine orders to reduce picking time ? Assign certain items or classes of items, such as high usage items, to particular warehouse areas so that distance traveled is minimized
9-56

Product-Oriented Layout
? Facility organized around product ? Design minimizes line imbalance
?

Delay between work stations

? Types: Fabrication line; assembly line

9-57

Product-Oriented Requirements
? Standardized product ? High production volume ? Stable production quantities ? Uniform quality of raw materials & components

9-58

Product-Oriented Layout - Assumptions
? Volume is adequate for high equipment utilization ? Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment in specialized equipment ? Product is standardized or approaching a phase of its life cycle that justifies investment in specialized equipment ? Supplies of raw materials and components are adequate and of uniform quality to ensure they will work with specialized equipment
9-59

Product-Oriented Layout Types

Fabrication Line
(制造)

Assembly Line
? ? ? ? ? Assembles fabricated parts Uses workstation Repetitive process Paced by tasks Balanced by moving tasks

? ? ? ? ?

Builds components Uses series of machines Repetitive process Machine paced Balanced by physical redesign

9-60

Product-Oriented Layout Advantages
? Lower variable cost per unit ? Lower material handling costs ? Lower work-in-process inventories ? Easier training & supervision ? Rapid throughput

9-61

Product-Oriented Layout Disadvantages
? Higher capital investment
? Special equipment

? Any work stoppage stops whole process ? Lack of flexibility
Volume ? Product
?

9-62

An Assembly Line Layout

9-63

Repetitive Layout
Work

1

Station

3

4

Work Station

Work Station

2

5
Belt Conveyor

Office Note: 5 tasks or operations; 3 work stations
9-64

Assembly Line Balancing
? Analysis of production lines ? Nearly equally divides work between workstations while meeting required output ? Objectives
? ?

Maximize efficiency Minimize number of work stations

9-65

Assembly Line Balancing The General Procedure
? Determine cycle time by taking the demand (or production rate) per day and dividing it into the productive time available per day ? Calculate the theoretical minimum number of work stations by dividing total task time by cycle time ? Perform the line balance and assign specific assembly tasks to each work station

9-66

Assembly Line Balancing Steps
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Determine tasks (operations) Determine sequence Draw precedence diagram Estimate task times Calculate cycle time Calculate number of work stations Assign tasks Calculate efficiency

9-67

Precedence Diagram Example

10 Min.

A

11

C
4

5 3 7 3

B

F
11

G

I

D
12

E

H

9-68

Assembly Line Balancing Equations
Cycle time Minimum number of work stations = Production time available Demand per day

?? Task times = Cycle time
?? Task times (Actual number * (Cycle time) of work stations)

Efficiency

=

9-69

Six Station Solution
5
C

10
A

11
B

3
F

7
G

4
D

3
I

12
E

11
H

9-70

Layout Heuristics for Assigning Tasks in Assembly Line Balancing
? Longest task time - choose task with longest operation time ? Most following tasks - choose task with largest number of following tasks ? Ranked positional weight - choose task where the sum of the times for each following task is longest ? Shortest task time - choose task with shortest operation time ? Least number of following tasks - choose task with fewest subsequent tasks
9-71

Video1

9-72

Video 2

9-73

Hospital layout

9-74

Factory layout

9-75

Exercise
? 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.17

9-76


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