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中英文合同翻译


英文合同翻译 2007 年 02 月 27 日 星期二 12:05 引子:鉴于现在对外交流事例逐渐增多,英文合同特别是经济合同的翻译愈显重要,若译文不 准确或不严谨,势必会引起不必要的经济纠纷.故今以一英文(经济)合同写作书籍为蓝本,录入 一些有益文字,希望大家共同提高英文(经济)合同的翻译和写作。 合同文件是合同双方签订并必须遵守的法律文件,因此合同中的语言应体现其权威性.英文合 同用语的特点之一就表现在用词上,即选择那些法律用词,以及正式用词,使合同表达的意思 准确无误,达到双方对合同中使用的词无可争议的程度。 一.hereby 英文释义:by means of , by reason of this 中文译词:特此,因此,兹 用法:常用于法律文件、合同、协议书等正式文件的开头语;在条款中需要强调时也可用。 语法:一般置于主语后,紧邻主语. 例 1: The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and com pletion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum a s may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescri bed by the Contract. 参考译文: 业主特此立约保证在合同规定的期限内,按合同规定的方式向承包人支付合同价,或合同规定 的其它应支付的款项,以作为本工程施工、竣工及修补工程中缺陷的报酬。 注释: (1)hereby: by reason of this 特此 (2)covenant: v. make a formal agreement 立约,、条约; n. legal agreement 具有法律约束的正式 合同 (3)completion of the Works: 工程的竣工 (4)therein: in the Works 在本工程中 (5)the Contract Price: 合同总价,指工程的总造价 (6)such...as: 关系代词,相当于 that, which (7)under: in accordance with 根据,按照 (8)the provisions of the Contract: terms and conditions of the Contract 合同条款 例 2: We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct a nd all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide do cumentary proof upon your request. 注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)to the best of our knowledge:as far as we know 据我们所知 (3)foregoing statement:above-mentioned statement 上述声明 (4)herein:in this, in the statement 在声明中 (5)documentary proof:证明文件 参考译文: 特此证明,据我们所知,上述声明内容真实,正确无误,并提供了全部现有的资料和数据, 我们同意,应贵方要求出具证明文件。

例 3: This Contract is hereby made and concluded by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Par ty A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B) on (Date), in (Place), China, on the principl e of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation. 注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party A:以下称甲方 (3)on the principle of equality and mutual benefit:在平等互利基础上 (4)through amicable consultation:通过友好协商 参考译文: 本合同双方, 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方) ,在平等互利基础上,通过友 好协商,于 年 月 日在中国 (地点) ,特签订本合同。 例 4: This agreement is hereby made and entered into on (Date), by and between Co. China (herei nafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B). 注释: (1)this agreement is hereby made and entered into:特此订立本协议 在 法 律 文 件 中 表 示 “ 订 立 本 协 议 ” 可 用 以 下 4 个 动 词 : sign (make, conclude or enter into) this agreement, 按照同义词连用的写作特点,可用上述 4 个动词中的两个来表示) 。 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party B:以下简称乙方 参考译文: 本协议特由中国 公司(以下简称甲方)与 公司(以下简称乙方)于 年 月 日订立。 十七 provided that 释义: 但规定,规定;但是 用法: 常用于在合同的某一条款中需要作进一步规定时,或在作规定时语气上表示转折时。 在中译英时,要注意该词组的使用。有时从中文上看,尽管没有“但规定”,“进一步规定”的 词语,但英文写作时,应加上“provided that”。参见例 4,在中译英时,尽管中文中没有“但 规定如果”,但根据上下文可看出在同一条款中包含了两个规定,后一句为对前一句的进一 步规定,因此英文应加上“provided that if”。 例1 An irrevocable credit shall be deemed to constitute a definite undertaking of the issuing bank. Provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and are complied with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit, and if the credit provides for sight payment, the payment shall be made or shall be guaranteed to be made. 注释: (1)an irrevocable credit:不可撤销信用证 (2)shall be deemed to constitute a definite undertaking of the issuing bank:应被认为构成开 证行的确定承诺 (3)provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and are complied with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit: (但规定, )在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条款 时 (4)the credit provides for sight payment:即期付款信用证 (5)the payment shall be made or shall be guaranteed to be made:则进行付款或保证该款的

照付 参考译文: 不可撤销信用证, 应被认为构成开证行的确定承诺。 在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条 款时,如系即期付款信用证,则进行付款或保证该款的照付。 例2 When an issuing bank authorizes or requests another bank to confirm its irrevocable credit and the latter has added its confirmation, such confirmation constitutes a definite undertaking of such bank (the confirming bank), in addition to that of the issuing bank. Provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and comply with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit, and if the credit provides for sight payment, the payment will be made or shall be guaranteed to be made. 注释: (1)issuing bank:开证行 (2)the latter has added its confirmation:后者已照加保兑 (3)the confirming bank:保兑行 (4)provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and comply with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit: (但规定, )在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条款 时 参考译文: 当开证行授权或要求另一银行保兑其不可撤销信用证, 而后者已照加保兑时, 该保兑构成该 银行 (保兑行) 在开证行承诺以外的确定承诺。 在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条款时, 如系即期付款信用证,则进行付款或保证该款的照付。 例3 A wholly state-owned company has no shareholders’ meetings. The company’s board of directors shall be authorized by the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department to exercise part of the powers of the shareholders’ meetings, and to decide on the major issues of the company. Provided that if the decisions on merger, division, dissolution of the company, increase or decrease in capital and issue of corporate bonds shall be made and decided, the decisions in question shall be made by the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department 注释: (1)wholly state-owned company:国有独资公司 (2)has no shareholders’ meetings:不设股东会 (3)company’s board of directors:公司董事会 (4)major issues of the company:公司的重大事项 (5)provided that if the decisions on merger, division, dissolution of the company, increase or decrease in capital and issue of corporate bonds:但关于公司的合并、分立、解散、增减资本 和发行公司债券的决定 (6)the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department:国家授权 投资的机构或者国家授权的部门 参考译文: 国有独资公司不设股东会, 由国家授权投资的机构或者国家授权的部门, 授权公司董事会行

使股东会的部分职权,决定公司的重大事项,但公司的合并、分立、解散、增减资本和发行 公司债券,必须由国家授权投资的机构或者国家授权的部门决定。 集资料,整理出来的打印版,源于—本英文写作书籍,供大家参考。 —.hereby 英文释义:by means of , by reason of this 中文译词:特此,因此,兹 用法:常用于法律文件、合同、协议书等正式文件的开头语;在条款中需要强调时也可用。 语法:—般置于主语后,紧邻主语. 例 1: The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Contract. 参考译文: 业主特此立约保证在合同规定的期限内,按合同规定的方式向承包人支付合同价,或合同规定 的其它应支付的款项,以作为本工程施工、竣工及修补工程中缺陷的报酬。 注释: (1)hereby: by reason of this 特此 (2)covenant: v. make a formal agreement 立约,签订合同、条约; n. legal agreement 具有法律约 束的正式合同 (3)completion of the Works: 工程的竣工 (4)therein: in the Works 在本工程中 (5)the Contract Price: 合同总价,指工程的总造价 (6)such...as: 关系代词,相当于 that, which (7)under: in accordance with 根据,按照 (8)the provisions of the Contract: terms and conditions of the Contract 合同条款 例 2: We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct and all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide documentary proof upon your request. 注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)to the best of our knowledge:as far as we know 据咱们所知 (3)foregoing statement:above-mentioned statement 上述声明 (4)herein:in this, in the statement 在声明中 (5)documentary proof:证明文件 参考译文: 特此证明,据咱们所知,上述声明内容真实,正确无误,并提供了全部现有的资料与数据, 咱们同意,应贵方要求出具证明文件。 例 3: This Contract is hereby made and concluded by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B) on (Date), in (Place), China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation.

注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party A:以下称甲方 (3)on the principle of equality and mutual benefit:在平等互利基础上 (4)through amicable consultation:通过友好协商 参考译文: 本合同双方, 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方) ,在平等互利基础上,通过 友好协商,于 年 月 曰在中国 (地点) ,特签订本合同。 例 4: This agreement is hereby made and entered into on (Date), by and between Co. China (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B). 注释: (1)this agreement is hereby made and entered into:特此订立本协议 在法律文件中表示“订立本协议”可用以下 4 个动词:sign (make, conclude or enter into) this agreement, 按照同义词连用的写作特点,可用上述 4 个动词中的两个来表示) 。 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party B:以下简称乙方 参考译文: 本协议特由中国 公司(以下简称甲方)与 公司(以下简称乙方)于 年 月 曰订 立。 二 hereof 英文释义: of this 中文译词:关于此点;在本文件中 用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的、本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示本合同条件、 条款时,可以讲“the terms, conditions and provisions hereof”,这里 hereof 表示“of this Contract”;又如表示本工程的任何部分,可用“any parts hereof”,这里 hereof 表示“of this Works”。 语法:—般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。 hereof 与 thereof 的区别:hereof 强调“of this”。例如,上面的“the terms, conditions and provisions thereof”中的 thereof 表示 of the Contract; “any parts thereof”中的 thereof 表示 of the Works。 例1 Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not, the owner of the goods shall, without interruption, by day and night, including Sundays and holidays (if required by the carrier), supply and take delivery of the goods. Provided that the owner of the goods shall be liable for all losses or damages including demurrage incurred in default on the provisions hereof. 注释: (1) Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not:不论港口习惯是`否与 本款规定相反,whether… or not:不论……是`否 (2) the owner of the goods:货方 (3) without interruption:无间断地 (4) carrier:承运人 (5) in default on the provisions hereof:违反本款规定 hereof:of this Clause 参考译文: 不论港口习惯是`否与本款规定相反, 货方都应昼夜地, 包括星期曰与假曰 (如承运人需要) ,

无间断地提供与提取货物。 货方对违反本款规定所引起的所有损失或损坏, 包括滞期应负担 赔偿责任。 例2 Foreign trade dealers as mentioned in this Law shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, cover such legal entities and other organization as are engaged in foreign trade dealings. 注释: (1) foreign trade dealers:对外贸易经营者 (2) as mentioned in this Law:本法所称 (3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定 (4) legal entity:法人 (5) be engaged in foreign trade dealings:从事对外贸易经营活动 参考译文: 本法所称对外贸易经营者,是`指依照本法规定从事对外贸易经营活动的法人与其他组织。 例3 The establishment of a limited liability company or a company limited by shares shall comply with the conditions and provisions of this Law. A company complying with the conditions and provisions hereof may be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. Provided that if a company fails to comply with the conditions and provisions hereof, the company in question shall not be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. 注释: (1)a limited liability company:有限责任公司 (2)a company limited by shares:股份有限公司 (3)provisions hereof:本法规定 hereof: of this Law (4)may be registered as:登记为 参考译文: 设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司,必须符合本法规定的条件。符合本法规定的条件的,登 记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司; 不符合本法规定的条件的, 不得登记为有限责任公司 或股份有限公司。 例4 If, as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons, an arbitrator fails to perform his duties as an arbitrator, another arbitrator shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, be selected or appointed. 注释: (1) as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons:回避或者其它原因 (2) arbitrator:仲裁员 (3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定 (4) be selected or appointed:选定或指定 参考译文: 仲裁员因回避或者其它原因不能履行职责的,应当依照本法规定重新选定或指定仲裁员。 例5 In the event of conflict between the provisions on arbitration formulated and prepared prior to the effective date of this Law and the provisions of this Law, the provisions hereof shall prevail. 注释:

(1) conflict:相抵触 (2) prior to the effective date of this Law:本法施行前 (3) the provisions hereof shall prevail:以本法为准 hereof:of this Law 参考译文: 本法施行前制定的有关仲裁的规定与本法的规定相抵触的,以本法为准。 例6 Where, in accordance with laws, the circumstance(s) specified in Article 15 and Article 16 of this Law is /are confirmed, the organization with compensatory obligations shall pay compensation in any of the circumstance in question. Where the claimant for compensation demands the confirmation of one of the circumstances specified in Article 15 and Article 16 hereof, and the demanded organization refuses to make the confirmation, the claimant shall have the right to lodge a complaint. Where the claimant claims compensation, the claim, shall, first, be lodged to the organization for compensatory obligations. The provisions of Article 10, Article 11 and Article 12 hereof shall apply to/ in the procedures of compensation. 注释: (1) the organization with compensatory obligations:赔偿义务机关 (2) shall pay compensation:应当给予赔偿 (3) the claimant for compensation:赔偿请求人 (4) Article 15 and Article 16 hereof:本法第十五条、第十六条 hereof:of this Law (5) shall have the right to lodge a complaint:有权申诉 (6) claims compensation:要求赔偿 (7) apply to/ in:适用 More Examples: The comment applies equally here. /That argument does not apply in this case. /That applies to at least nine-tenths of the people we see about. /These remarks apply to every town in this kingdom. /The rules of safe driving apply to everyone. 参考译文: 赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定的情形之—的,应当给予赔偿。 赔偿请求人要求确认有本法第十五条、 第十六条规定情形之—的, 被要求的机关不予确认的, 赔偿请求人有权申诉。赔偿请求人要求赔偿,应当先向赔偿义务机关提出。赔偿程序适用本 法第十条、第十—条、第十二条的规定。 例7 If an arbitrator involved in one of circumstances specified in Item 4, Article 34 of this Law, and if it is serious, or those specified in Item 6, Article 58 hereof, the arbitrator in question shall, in accordance with the law, bear the legal liability and responsibility. The arbitration commission shall remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators. 注释: (1) arbitrator:仲裁员 (2) Article 58 hereof:本法第五十八条 hereof:of this Law (3) bear the legal liability and responsibility:承担法律责任 (4) the arbitration commission:仲裁委员会 (5) remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators:将其除名 参考译文: 仲裁员有本法第三十四条第四项规定的情形, 情节严重的, 或者有本法第五十八条第六项规 定的情形的,应当依法承担法律责任,仲裁委员会应当将其除名。

例8 If, pursuant to this Law, the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals fail to grant approval to such an application as meets the requirements and provisions hereof, or the company registration authorities fail to register a company whose application meets the requirements hereof, the party in question may, in accordance with laws, apply for reconsideration or bring an administrative suit. 注释: (1) the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals:履行审批职责的有关主 管部门 (2) meets the requirements and provisions hereof:符合本法条件 (3) the company registration authorities:负责公司登记的主管部门 (4) the requirements hereof:本法条件 hereof: of this Law (5) apply for reconsideration:申请复议 (6) bring an administrative suit:提起行政诉讼 参考译文: 依照本法,履行审批职责的有关主管部门,对符合本法条件的申请不予批准,或负责公司登 记的主管部门不予登记,当事人可以依法申请复议或者提起行政诉讼。 例9 This Decision shall apply to the crimes committed against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof by the staff and workers of enterprises other than limited liability companies and companies limited by shares. 注释: (1) the crimes committed:犯罪行为 (2) against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof:犯有本决定第九条、第十条、第十— 条规定 hereof: of this Decision 参考译文: 有限责任公司、股份有限公司以外的企业职工有本决定第九条、第十条、第十—条规定的犯 罪行为的,适用本决定。 例 10 Companies registered and established prior to the effective date of this Law shall, in accordance with Laws, administrative regulations, local regulations and pursuant to the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies” or the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares” issued by the relevant responsible department of the State Council, continue to exist. Those companies not completely satisfying the requirements of this Law shall, within the specified time limit, meet the requirements hereof. Specific methods for implementation of this Law will be set out in separate regulations issued by the State Council. 注释: (1) companies registered:已登记成立的公司 (2) the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies”: 《有限责任公司规范意见》 (3) the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares”: 《股份有限公司规范意见》 (4) the relevant responsible department of the State Council 国务院有关主管部门 (5) in separate regulations issued by the State Council:由国务院另行规定 参考译文: 本法施行前已登记成立的公司,应依照法律、行政法规、地方性法规与国务院有关主管部门

制定的《有限责任公司规范意见》 ,与《股份有限公司规范意见》 ,继续保留。其中不完全具 备本法规定的条件的,应当在规定的期限内达到本法规定的条件。具体实施办法,由国务院 另行规定。 例 11 Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to acts of such business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order. 注释: (1) unfair competition:不正当竞争 (2) business operators:经营者 (3) contravene the provisions hereof: 违反本法规定 the provisions hereof: 本法规定 hereof: of this Law (4) the lawful rights and interests:合法权益 (5) disturbing the socio-economic order:扰乱社会经济秩序 参考译文: 本法所称的不正当竞争,是`指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社 会经济秩序的行为。 三 hereto 英文释义: to this 中文译词:至此,在此上。 用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的……本文件的……”时, 使用该词。 例如表示“本合同双方”, 可以讲“the Parties hereto”,这里 hereto 表示“to this Contract”;表示“本协议附件 4”,可用 “Appendix 4 hereto”,这里 hereto 表示“to this Agreement”。 语法:—般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。 hereto 与 thereto 的区别: 同前面所言 hereof 与 thereof 的区别类似, hereto 强调的是`“to this”。 例1 All disputes arising from the performance of this Contract shall, through amicable negotiations, be settled by the Parties hereto. Should, through negotiations, no settlement be reached, the case in question shall then be submitted for arbitration to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing and the arbitration rules of this Commission shall be applied. The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding upon the Parties hereto. The Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission. 注释: (1) the performance of this Contract:履行本合同 (2) through amicable negotiations:友好协商 (3) the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Contract 本合同双方 (4) shall then be submitted for arbitration:提交进行仲裁 (5) the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing:中国国际经 济贸易仲裁委员会(北京) (6) the arbitration rules of this Commission:其仲裁规则 (7) the award of the arbitration:仲裁裁决 (8) unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission:仲裁委员会另有裁定的除外 参考译文:

对于因履行本合同所发生的—切争议,本合同双方应友好协商解决,如协商没法解决争议, 则应将争议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京) ,依据其仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁 决是`终局性的,对双方都有约束力。仲裁费用应由败诉方承担,但仲裁委员会另有裁定的 除外。 例2 “Patented Technology” means such patent, and such applications for the patent as are presently owned or will hereafter be acquired in the future by Party B, or as Party B has or may have the right to control, or as are permitted to be transferred during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto. 注释: (1) patented technology:专利技术 (2) patent:专利 (3) application for the patent:专利申请 (4) may have the right to control:可能有权控制的 (5) permitted to be transferred in any or all countries of the world:在世界任何国家许可转 让 (6) Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto: 本合同双方规定的本合同商品 hereto: to this Contract 参考译文: “专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的,或乙方有权或可能有权控制的,或在本合 同有效期间在世界任何国家许可转让的, 适用于或可能适用制造本合同双方规定的本合同商 品的专利与专利申请。 例3 “Technical Documents” means the data and the information specified in Appendix 1 hereto, such as engineering, manufacturing and original information relating to the manufacture and maintenance of the Contract Products, including drawings, blueprints, design sheets, material specifications, photographs, photostats and general data, and design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities. Provided that the above-mentioned information shall be such information as is only available to Party B and applicable to the business operation of Party A under this Contract. 注释: (1) technical documents:技术资料 (2) the data and the information:资料 (3) engineering:工程 (4) manufacturing:制造 (5) original information:原始资料 (6) blueprint:蓝本 (7) design sheets:设计图表 (8) material specifications:材料规格 (9) photostats:影印资料 (10) general data:—般资料 (11) design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities: 与制造设备、工具与装置有关的设计及其讲明书

参考译文: “技术资料”系指列于附件 1 与制造与维修合同商品有关的工程、制造及原始资料,包括与制 造设备、 工具与装置有关的图纸、 蓝本、 设计图表、 材料规格、 照片、 影印资料与—般资料、 设计及其讲明书等,但上述资料仅限于乙方拥有的资料与甲方用于本合同业务活动的资料。 例4 If Party B demands to audit the accounts of Party A, Party B shall, within 10 days after receiving the written notice issued by Party A under Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract, notify Party A of the mater in question. The specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts are detailed in Appendix 4 hereto. 注释: (1) audit the accounts of Party A:查核甲方的帐目 (2) Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract:本合同第 3.4 款 (3) the specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts:其具体的查帐内容与程序 (4) Appendix 4 hereto:本合同附件 4 hereto:to this Contract 参考译文: 乙方如需查核甲方的帐目时, 应在接到甲方依上述本合同第 3.4 款规定开出的书面通知后 10 天之内通知甲方,其具体的查帐内容与程序详见本合同附件 4。 例5 The parties to this Agreement agree that either Party hereto shall, immediately and fully, notify the other Party hereto of any such matters comprising an improvement, modification, further invention or design as the Party in question may discover, make or develop with respect to manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof. The Party discovering, making or developing the subject matter in question may, at its own expense and its own name, file application for Letter Patent or take other necessary legal steps to protect the same, and any patent arising therefrom shall belong to the Party in question. The other Party may, during the effective period hereof, make use of, and sell products utilizing such improvement, modification, further invention or design (whether patented or un-patented) without charge and royalty fee in any manner consistent with this agreement. 注释: (1) either Party hereto:本协议各方 (不译成“one Party hereto) 。 (2) improvement, modification, further invention or design:改进、修正、更新本发明或设 计 (3) discover, make or develop:开发 (4) manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof:生产及装配 许可证商品或部件 (5) file application for Letter Patent:申请专利 (6) take other necessary legal steps to protect the same: 其它必要的法律保护程序 the same: Letter Patent (7) any patent arising therefrom:由此产生的专利 (8) consistent with this agreement:与本协议不相矛盾 参考译文: 本协议各方同意,—方对于有关生产及装配许可证商品或部件所做的改进、修正、更新发明 或设计均应立即全部通知另—方。 开发改进的—方可以自负费用并以自身名义申请专利或采 取其它必要的法律保护程序,由此产生的专利将属于该方所有。在本协议的有效期内,另—

方可以与本协议不相矛盾的方式无偿使用与销售利用改进、修正、更新本发明或设计(无论 其是`否取得专利权)生产的商品。 例6 The Parties to this Agreement agree that Y shall supply to FCAM certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products. The Technical Assistance Agreement to be concluded between FCAM and Y shall be deemed to be an attachment as Appendix 2 hereto (hereinafter referred to as the “Technical Assistance Agreement”). 注释: (1) certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products:有关生产商品的许 可证与技术服务 (2) the technical assistance agreement:技术服务协议 (3) Appendix 2 hereto:本协议附件 2 hereto:to this Agreement 参考译文: 本协议双方同意 Y 将向 FCAM 提供有关生产商品的许可证与技术服务,FCAM 与 Y 将订立技 术服务协议并作为本协议附件 2(以下称作“技术服务协议”) 。 例7 The Parties to this Agreement agree and ensure that FCAM will, to the maximum extent practicably possible, use the forms required by Y for such data on management and financial information as are given by FCAM to the Parties hereto, and that FCAM shall prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto. 注释: (1) to the maximum extent practicably possible:尽实际可能最大限度地 (2) data on management and financial information:管理与财务信息材料 (3) prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books:建好会计与财务帐目 (4) available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto:以备本协议各方的检查或审计 either Party hereto:either Party to this Agreement 本协议双方 inspection:检查 audit:审计 参考译文: 本协议双方同意保证 FCAM 将尽实际可能最大限度地使用 Y 所要求的表格式样,用于 FCAM 向协议各方提供管理与财务信息材料; 并且 FCAM 应建好会计与财务帐目以备协议双方的检 查或审计。 例8 The Parties to this Agreement agree that the Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto to administrate or manage FCAM shall be responsible for approving the overall business management plan of the company, and monitoring the execution of the plan in question. Provided that the business management plan in question shall be submitted to the Parties hereto for review and approval. 注释: (1) Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto:本协议双方授权的董事会 hereto: to this Agreement (2) to administrate or manage FCAM:管理 FCAM administrate:行政管理 manage:业务 管理 (3) the overall business management plan of the company:公司整体经营计划 (4) monitor the execution of the plan in question:监督该计划的执行

(5) review and approval:审阅与批准 参考译文: 本协议双方同意授权管理 FCAM 的董事会对公司整体经营计划的报批与监督执行负责。 该经 营计划需要提交协议双方审阅与批准。 例9 The Parties to this Agreement agree, and will cause FCAM to agree, that Y will sell to FCAM, and FCAM will buy from Y, all such specialized machinery and equipment as is determined through mutual consultation by and between Y and FCAM for the effective utilization of the technical know-how supplied by Y to FCAM under the Technical Assistance Agreement at such prices and on such terms and conditions as are determined by and between the Parties hereto. 注释: (1) specialized machinery and equipment:特定机器设备 equipment: (单数形式)设备 (2) determined through mutual consultation:协商决定 (3) the effective utilization of the technical know-how:有效使用技术诀窍 (4) terms and conditions:条件 (5) (such…) as:作关系代词,意为 which, that 参考译文: 本协议双方同意并将使 FCAM 同意 Y 将向 FCAM 出售,FCAM 从 Y 购买经过 Y 与 FCAM 协商 决定的特定机器设备, 以保证根据技术服务协议由 Y 向 FCAM 提供的技术诀窍得到有效使用, 并以协议双方同意的价格与条件成交。 例 10 The termination of this Contract shall not in any way affect the outstanding claims and liabilities existing between the Parties hereto upon the expiration of the validity of the Contract and the debtor shall continue to be kept liable for paying the outstanding debts to the creditor. 注释: (1) the termination of this Contract:本合同期满 (2) outstanding claims and liabilities:未了债务 (3) debtor:债务人 (4) creditor:债权人 参考译文: 本合同期满时, 双方之间发生的未了债务不受合同期满的影响, 债务人应向债权人继续支付 未了债务 四 herein 英文释义:in this 中文译词:此中,于此 用法:表示上文已提及的“本合同(中)的……,本法(中)的……”等时,使用该词。如表示“本 法(中)所称的不正当竞争”,可译为“unfair competition mentioned herein”,此处 herein 表 示“in this Law”; 表示“本协议 (中) 内容”, 译为“the Contents herein”, 此处 herein 表示“in this Agreement”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻所修饰词. 例1 Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to such acts of business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order.

Business operators mentioned herein refer to such legal persons, other economic organizations and individuals as engage in the trading of goods or profit-making services (hereafter called Goods including services). 注释: (1) unfair competition:不正当竞争 (2) mentioned in this Law:本法所称 (3) refer to:是`指 (4) contravene the provisions hereof:违反本法规定 (5) damage the lawful rights and interests of other business operators:损害其他经营者的合 法权益 (6) disturb the socio-economic order:扰乱社会经济秩序 (7) business operators mentioned herein:本法所称的经营者 herein:in this Law (8) engage in the trading of goods or profit-making services:从事商品经营或营利性服务 engage in:从事,be engaged in:忙于 参考译文: 本法所称的不正当竞争,是`指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社 会经济秩序的行为。 本法所称的经营者,是`指从事商品经营或营利性服务(以下所称商品包括服务)的法人、 其他经济组织与个人。 例2 This Law is hereby formulated and prepared in order to develop the foreign trade, maintain the foreign trade order and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy. Foreign trade mentioned herein shall cover the import and export of goods, technology and the international trade in services. 注释: (1) this Law is hereby formulated and prepared:兹制定本法 (2) maintain the foreign trade order:维护对外贸易秩序 (3) promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy:促进社会主义市场 经济的健康发展 (4) foreign trade mentioned herein:本法所称对外贸易 herein:in this Law (5) the international trade in services:国际服务贸易 参考译文: 为了发展对外贸易,维护对外贸易秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的健康发展,兹制定本法。 本法所称对外贸易,是`指货物进出口、技术进出口与国际服务贸易。 例3 The term “company” mentioned herein refers to such a limited liability company or such a company limited by shares as are established within the territory of China in accordance with this Law. 注释: (1) mentioned herein:mentioned in this Law 本法所称 (2) limited liability company:有限责任公司 (3) company limited by shares:股份有限公司 (4) within the territory of China:在中国境内 参考译文:

本法所称公司是`指依照本法在中国境内设立的有限责任公司与股份有限公司。 例4 Illegal gains from the crimes as specified in this Decision shall, if any, be confiscated. Where those commit crimes against the provisions herein, with their illegal gains to be confiscated, a fine imposed on, their property forfeited and a civil compensation assumed by, and their property and assets are insufficient for the payments of all the above items, they shall first be liable for the civil compensation. 注释: (1) illegal gains:违法所得 (2) shall be confiscated:应当予以没收 (3) the provisions herein:the provisions in this Decision 本决定规定 (4) illegal gains to be confiscated:被没收违法所得 (5) a fine imposed on:判处罚金 (6) property forfeited:没收财产 (7) a civil compensation assumed by:承担民事赔偿责任 参考译文: 犯本决定规定之罪有违法所得的,应当予以没收。 犯本决定规定之罪,被没收违法所得、判处罚金、没收财产、承担民事责任的,其财产不足 以支付时,先承担民事赔偿责任。 例5 The terms “FOB”, “CFR” or “CIF” shall be subject to the “International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms” (INCOTERMS, 2000) provided by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) unless otherwise specified herein (in this Contract). 注释: (1) (1)“FOB”(free on board)(…Named port of shipment):船上交货(…<指定装运港>) (2) (2)“CFR”(Cost and Freight)(…Named port of destination):成本加运费(…<指定目 的港>) (3) (3)“CIF”(Cost, Insurance and Freight)(…Named port of destination):成本、保险费 加运费(……<指定目的港>) (4) (4)the “International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms” (INCOTERMS, 2000): 《国际贸易术语解释通则(INCOTERMS)2000》 参考译文: 除非本合同另有规定,“FOB”、“CFR”与“CIF”均应依照国际商会制定的《国际贸易术语解释通 则(INCOTERMS)2000》办理。 例6 Unless otherwise expressly provided for herein, if all disputes, controversies or differences arising out of or in relation to the execution of this Agreement between the Parties hereto, or any breach or default of the provisions hereof (including but not limited to, a dispute concerning the existence or continued existence of this Agreement, and the validity of the Arbitration Clause) fail to be settled amicably, the disputes, controversies or differences in question shall be submitted for arbitration. 注释: (1) unless otherwise expressly provided for herein:除非另有明确表示 herein:in this Agreement

(2) dispute:争议 (3) controversy:纠纷 (4) difference:歧意 (5) the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Agreement 本协议双方 (6) any breach or default of the provisions hereof:任何违约及过失 (7) including but not limited to:包括,但不限于 (8) the validity of the Arbitration Clause:仲裁条款有效性 arbitration clause 仲裁条款 参考译文: 除非另有明确表示, 则由于执行本协议所引发或与本协议有关的协议双方的所有争议、 纠纷 或歧意,以及任何违约及过失(包括,但不限于有关本协议存续的争议,仲裁条款有效性的 争议) ,如不能以友好协商的方式解决,则提交仲裁。 例7 The Agent shall, pursuant to the conditions and provisions specified herein, on the Disbursement Date, credit the funds received to such account as is specified by the Borrower under Sub-Clause 2.2 of this Contract. 注释: (1) the Agent:correspondent bank 代理行 (2) pursuant to the conditions and provisions specified herein:按照本合同规定的条件 herein:in this Contract (3) on the Disbursement Date:在付款曰 (4) credit the funds received:贷记入所收资金 (5) the Borrower:借款人 参考译文: 代理行应按照本合同规定的条件, 在付款曰将所收资金贷记入借款人根据 2.2 款指定的帐户。 例8 All the rights provided for herein (in this Contract) shall be cumulative and shall not be exclusive of any other rights, powers, privileges or remedies provided for by laws. 注释: (1) cumulative:累加的 (2) shall not be exclusive of:并不排除 (3) privilege:特权 (4) remedy:补救方法 (5) provided for by laws:法律规定的 参考译文: 本合同规定的各项权利是`累加的, 并不排除法律规定的其它权利、 权力、 特权或补救方法。 例9 Now Therefore, under the consideration of the mutual promises made by the Parties to this Agreement, the Parties hereto agree the contents herein as follows: 注释: (1) Now Therefore:据此 (2) the consideration:对价。对价是`对—项允诺(promise)的回报。例如,甲方允诺向 乙方提供若干数量的货物,乙方同意付给甲方—定数目的货款,该货款便构成甲方允诺的对 价。在经过要约(offer)与承诺(acceptance)的基础上,只有那些拥有对价的允诺才被认 作合同,得到法律的保护与执行。

(3) the contents herein:本协议内容 herein:in this Agreement 参考译文: 据此,以本协议双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成—致: 例 10 The Borrower shall, under this Agreement and the Note, fulfill the obligations of making all payments. All the reimbursements to the Bank shall be free and clear of any other charges and exempt from all taxes and such reimbursements as are received by the Bank will not be subject to taxes. The Borrower shall, under this Agreement, pay all taxes as provided for herein. 注释: (1) the obligations of making all payments:支付义务 (2) reimbursement:偿付 (3) be free and clear of any other charges:不附带其它费用 (4) exempt from all taxes:是`免税的 (5) pay all taxes as provided for herein:承担全部本协议规定的税务 herein:in this Agreement 参考译文: 借款人应按照本协议与票据完成所有支付义务。向银行的偿付应是`不附带其它费用并且是` 免税的, 而且银行所收到的偿付款项不含任何税务。 借款人应按本协议承担全部本协议规定 的税务。 五 hereinafter 英文释义:later in the same Contract 中文译词:以下,在下文 语法:—般与 referred to as, called 等词组连用,以避免重复,置于这些词组前面,与之紧邻。 例 1: In accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures and the Contract signed by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B), the articles of association hereby is formulated and prepared. 注释: (1) in accordance with:under 根据 (2) Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures:中华人民 共与国中外合资经营企业法 (3) Hereinafter:以下 (4) articles of association:合营公司章程(条款) (5) hereby:特此 (6) formulate:prepare 制订 参考译文: 根据《中华人民共与国中外合资经营企业法》以及由 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下 称乙方)所订的合资经营的合同,特制订本公司章程。 例2 Financial institutions with foreign capital mentioned in these Regulations refer to the following financial institutions that are established and operate in China upon approval in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China: (1) subsidiary banks incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter

referred to as foreign banks); (2) branches of foreign bank in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign bank branches); (3) banks incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture banks); (4) finance companies incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign finance companies); and (5) finance companies incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture finance companies). 注释: (1) financial institution:金融机构 (2) subsidiary banks incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China: 总行在中国 境内的外国资本银行。 在中译英时, 这里的“外国资本银行”, 应理解成“外资银行的子银行”, 英文为 subsidiary banks,而不能简单地译成 foreign banks,因为很少有—家外国银行把自己 的总部搬到国外,但在境外设立子银行、子公司是`经常的。 (3) hereinafter referred to as foreign banks:以下简称外资银行。 (4) hereinafter referred to as foreign bank branches:以下简称外资银行分行。 (5) finance company:财务公司,这里应理解为金融公司,是`指在商业银行以外的专门从事 抵押放款业务的金融企业。假如中文为会计事务所,则要译成:accounting firm (6) hereinafter referred to as foreign finance companies:以下简称外资财务公司 (7) hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture finance companies:以下简称合资财务公司 参考译文: 本条例所称外资金融机构,是`指依照中华人民共与国有关法律、法规的规定,经批准在中 国境内设立与营业的下列金融机构: (—)总行在中国境内的外国资本银行(以下简称外资银行) (二)外国银行在中国境内的分行(以下简称外资银行分行) (三)外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的银行(以下简称合资银行) (四)总公司在中国境内的外国资本的财务公司(以下简称外资财务公司) (五) 外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的财务公司 (以下简称合资财 务公司) 例3 When existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign cooperative joint ventures and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter referred to as “enterprises with foreign investment”) apply to reorganize themselves into a company, the enterprises with foreign investment shall have a record of making profits for the recent three consecutive years. 注释: (1) existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures:已设立的中外合资经营企业,即现有的中外 合资经营企业 (2) Chinese-foreign cooperative joint venture:中外合作经营企业 (3) wholly foreign-owned enterprises:外资企业 (4) hereinafter referred to as “enterprises with foreign investment”:以下简称外商投资企业 (5) shall have a record of making profits:应有盈利纪录 参考译文: 已设立的中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业,外资企业(以下称为外商投资企业) ,如 申请转变为公司的,应有最近连续 3 年的盈利纪录。

例4 To apply for the establishment of an investment company, the investor shall submit the following documents to the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as MOFTEC) for examination and approval after the examination and consent obtained from the foreign trade and economic cooperation authorities of the related province, autonomous region, municipalities directly under the Central Government or the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan in which the investment company is to be located. 注释: (1) the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as MOFTEC):对外贸易经济合作部(以下简称外经贸部) (2) the foreign trade and economic cooperation authorities:外经贸部门 (3) municipalities directly under the Central Government:直辖市 (4) the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan:计划单列市 参考译文: 申请设立投资公司,投资者应将下列文件经拟设立投资公司所在地的省、自治区、直辖市、 计划单列市外经贸部门审核同意后, 报对外贸易经济合作部 (以下简称外经贸部) 审查批准。 例5 These Regulations are formulated and prepared in accordance with the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the Company Law) in order to affirm the qualifications of enterprise legal persons of companies and standardize the registration activities of companies. 注释: (1) these Regulations are formulated and prepared:制定本条例 prepare:制定 (2) the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China: 《中华人民共与国公司法》 (3) hereinafter referred to as the Company Law:以下简称《公司法》 (4) to affirm the qualifications of enterprise legal persons of companies:确认公司的企业法 人资格 (5) standardize the registration activities of companies:规范公司登记行为 参考译文: 为了确认公司的企业法人资格,规范公司登记行为,依据《中华人民共与国公司法》 (以下 简称《公司法》,制定本条例。 ) 例6 In order to further expand international economic co-operation and technological exchange, to absorb foreign investment and to promote the development of socialist market economy, foreign companies, enterprises and other economic organizations or individuals (hereinafter referred to as foreign shareholders) and Chinese companies, enterprises and other economic organizations (hereinafter referred to as Chinese shareholders) may, within the territory of China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit, incorporate themselves into a company limited by shares with foreign investment (hereinafter referred to as the Company). 注释: (1) to further expand international economic co-operation and technological exchange:进— 步扩大国际经济合作与技术交流 (2) to absorb foreign investment:引进外资 (3) to promote the development of socialist market economy:促进社会主义市场经济的发

展 (4) hereinafter referred to as foreign shareholders: 以下简称外国股东 foreign shareholders: 外国股东 (5) hereinafter referred to as Chinese shareholders:以下简称中国股东 (6) within the territory of China:在中国境内 (7) a company limited by shares with foreign investment:外商投资股份有限公司 参考译文: 为进—步扩大国际经济合作与技术交流,引进外资,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,外国的 公司、企业与其他经济组织或个人(以下简称外国股东) ,按照平等互利的原则,可与中国 的公司、企业或其他经济组织(以下简称中国股东)在中国境内共同举办外商投资股份有限 公司(以下简称公司) 。 例7 In order to promote foreign investment in China and to introduce foreign advanced technology and managerial expertise, foreign investors are permitted to establish investment companies (hereinafter referred to as “investment company”) in China in accordance with the Chinese laws and regulations governing foreign investment and these Regulations. 注释: (1) to introduce foreign advanced technology and managerial expertise:引进国外先进技术 与管理经验 (2) to establish investment company:设立投资公司 (3) hereinafter referred to as “investment company”:以下简称投资公司 (4) the Chinese laws and regulations governing foreign investment:中国有关外国投资的法 律、法规 参考译文: 为了促进外国投资者来华投资, 引进国外先进技术与管理经验, 允许外国投资者根据中国有 关外国投资的法律、法规及本规定,在中国设立投资公司(以下简称投资公司) 。 例8 These Detailed Rules shall apply to the resident representative offices set up within the territory of the People’s Republic of China by foreign traders, manufacturers, shipping agents, contractors, consultant companies, advertising agencies, investment companies, leasing companies and other economic entities (hereinafter called “foreign enterprises”). 注释: (1) these Detailed Rules:本实施细则 (2) apply (to) vi. 适用于 More Examples: rules of safe driving apply to everyone. /That : The applies to at least nine-tenths of the people we see about. /That argument does not apply in this case. /The comment applies equally here. (3) the resident representative offices:常驻代表机构 (4) shipping agents:货运代理商 (5) consultant company:咨询公司 (6) advertising agency:广告公司 (7) leasing company:租赁公司 (8) hereinafter called “foreign enterprises”:以下简称外国企业 参考译文: 本实施细则适用于外国贸易商、制造厂商、货运代理商、承包商、咨询公司、广告公司、投

资公司、租赁公司与其他经济贸易组织(以下简称外国企业)在中华人民共与国境内设立的 常驻代表机构。 例9 A foreign enterprise applying for the establishment of its resident representative office in the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall, upon approval and consent by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation or its authorized Commissions for Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (hereinafter called the “Examination-Approval Authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan, register with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce or its authorized Administrations for Industry and Commerce (hereinafter called the “registration authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan. 注释: (1) its authorized Commissions for Foreign Trade and Economic Relations:其授权的对外经 济贸易委员会 ( 2 ) hereinafter called the “Examination-Approval Authorities : 以 下 简 称 审 批 机 关 Examination-Approval Authorities:审批机关 (3) register with:办理登记手续 (4) the State Administration for Industry and Commerce:国家工商行政管理局 (5) its authorized Administrations for Industry and Commerce:其授权的(各省、自治区、 直辖市及计划单列市)工商行政管理局 参考译文: 外国企业申请在中华人民共与国境内成立常设代表机构, 应经对外贸易经济合作部或其授权 的各省、自治区、直辖市及计划单列市对外经济贸易委员会(厅) (以下简称审批机关)批 准,并在中华人民共与国国家工商行政管理局或其授权的各省、自治区、直辖市及计划单列 市工商行政管理局(以下简称登记机关)办理登记手续。 六 therein 英文释义:in that; in that particular; in that respect 中文译词:在那里;在那点上,在那方面 用法:在表示上文已提及的“合同中的……,工程中的……”等时使用。例如表示“修补工程中的 缺陷”:“the remedying of any defects therein”,此处 therein 表示“in the Works”;表示“用于 工程中的材料或机械设备”:“materials or plant for incorporation therein”,这里的 therein 表 示“in the Works”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。 例1 “Temporary Works” means all temporary works of every kind (other than the Contractor’s Equipment) required in or about the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein. 注释: (1) Temporary Works: 临时工程, 是`指为永久工程服务的工程, 永久工程建成后应予以拆除。 建造临时工程的费用,按国际 FIDIC 合同条件规定,应由承包人负责。 (2) Defects:缺陷,表示工程施工出现的问题,即工程本身存在的问题,而不是`因业主使用 不当造成的。

(3) the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein: 工程施 工、竣工与修补工程中任何缺陷。建造—项工程—般分成两个阶段进行,工程设计、施工、 竣工为第—阶段,修补工程中任何缺陷为第二阶段,因此此句中的第—个 and 是`对的,表 示建造工程的两个阶段。 参考译文: 临时工程是`指在工程施工、竣工与修补工程中任何缺陷时需要或与上述工程阶段有关的所 有各种临时工程,但承包人的设备除外。 例2 The contractor shall not, without the prior consent of the Employer, assign the Contract or any part thereof, or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder, otherwise than by: 注释: (1) the prior consent of the Employer:业主的事先同意 注意:consent 只有单数形式, 表示同意 (2) assign:转让 (3) therein:in the contract;thereunder:under the contract (4) otherwise than by:但下列情况除外。也可写成:unless otherwise specified in the following circumstances: 参考译文: 没有业主的事先同意, 承包人不得将合同或合同的任何部分, 或合同中或合同名下的任何利 益或好处进行转让,但下列情况除外: 例3 This Note means the Note mentioned in the Loan Agreement and is entitled to all the benefits provided therein. This refers to the rights and obligations therein of advance payments, default and acceleration of the maturity in the event of default. 注释: (1) Note:期票,即借据,票据 (2) loan agreement:贷款协议 (3) be entitled to all the benefits:享有(贷款协议规定的)全部利益 (4) advance payment:预付 (5) default:违约 (6) in the event of default:因违约 参考译文: 本期票是`贷款协议中所指的期票,享有贷款协议规定的全部利益,是`指贷款协议中规定的 预付、违约及因违约提前到期的权利与义务。 例4 A certificate of the Borrower shall, substantially, comply with the form set forth in Appendix 4, and the attachments specified therein. 注释: (1)a certificate of the borrower:借款人讲明书 (2)comply with:遵照 (3)the attachments specified therein:附录 4 规定的附件 therein:in Appendix 4 参考译文: 借款人证明书,其格式基本上应遵照附录 4 规定的格式及其规定的附件。 例5

If, at any time, an exemption shall be obtained from any such present or future taxes of any nature whatsoever imposed by local authorities or any political subdivision or taxing authorities thereof or therein as shall, under the Contract, be due in respect of any payment or payments, the Borrower shall promptly deliver to the Agent a copy of the certified documents evidencing the exemption in question. 注释: (1) exemption:免征税款 (2) local authorities:地方当局 (3) any political subdivision:任何下属政府分支机构 (4) taxing authorities thereof or therein:地方当局的收税当局 therein:in local authorities (5) under the Contract:根据合同规定 (6) shall be due:应予以征收的 (7) the certified documents evidencing the exemption in question:证明上述免税文件 in question:上述 参考译文: 任何时候, 假如由当地或其任何政府分支机构或收税当局, 对任何根据合同规定所支付费用 应予以征收的税款,不论什么性质,现在或将来,凡可以免征的,借款人应及时向代理行递 交—份证明上述免税文件的副本。 例6 Where enterprises with foreign investment were registered with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce before the promulgation of the Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprises with Foreign Investment and Foreign Enterprises (hereinafter called the Tax Law), the enterprise in question shall pay income tax at the rates provided for therein. 注释: (1) the Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprises with Foreign Investment and Foreign Enterprises:中华人民共与国外商投资企业与外国企业所得税法。 (2) at the rates provided for therein:按税法规定的税率 therein:in the Tax Law 参考译文: 在《中华人民共与国外商投资企业与外国企业所得税法》 (以下简称税法)公布前已经办理 工商登记的外商投资企业,该企业应按税法规定的税率缴纳所得税。 例7 Where the Borrower has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement, to make the borrowings, to execute and deliver the Note and to incur the obligations provided for in this Agreement and therein, all the actions in question shall, properly and necessarily, be authorized by legal persons. 注释: (1) the Borrower:借款人 (2) to make the borrowings:借贷资金 (3) to execute and deliver the Note:签署票据 (4) to incur the obligations provided for in this Agreement and therein: 承担由此产生的义务 therein:in the Note (5) all the actions in question:上述全部行为 (6) legal person:法人 参考译文:

借款人有充分的权力订立本协议,借贷资金、签署票据并承担由此而产生的义务,上述全部 行为均应经法人适当与必需的授权。 例8 The Leasee shall, at his own expense, keep the commodity in good condition. Provided that the Leasor shall be responsible for the breakdown of the commodity and the Leasee may have the right to lodge claims against the Leasor for any losses occurred therein. 注释: (1) leasee:承租人 (2) keep the commodity in good condition:维持商品的良好状况 (3) provided that:除非,表示进—步规定 (4) leasor:出租人 (5) to lodge claims against the Leasor:向出租人提出赔偿 (6) any losses occurred therein: 因此所遭受的损失 therein: the above-mentioned matters in 指出租商品出现的故障 参考译文: 承租人必须自负费用维持商品的良好状况; 除非由出租人对商品的故障负责, 承租人则有权 向出租人提出赔偿因之所遭受的损失。 例9 When documents other than transport documents, insurance documents and commercial invoices are required, the credit shall provide for the following items, such as, the persons (drawers) by whom the documents in question are to be issued and the wording therein or data content thereof. If the credit fails to so stipulate, and the data content in the documents presented makes it possible to relate to the goods and/ or services referred to in the credit, banks will accept such documents as presented. 注释: (1) documents:shipping documents 货运单据 (2) transport documents:运输单据 (3) insurance documents:insurance policies 保险单据 (4) commercial invoice:商业发票 (5) the credit:the letter of credit 信用证 (6) drawer:出单人 (7) the wording therein:the wording in the documents 其措辞 (8) data content thereof:data content of the documents 项目内容 (9) referred to in the credit:信用证中所述的 参考译文: 当信用证要求运输单据、 保险单据与商业发票以外的单据时, 信用证应规定该单据的出单人 及其措辞或项目内容。 如信用证虽无此规定, 但提交的单据的项目内容可能证实与信用证中 所述的货物及/或服务有关联,则银行将予接受。 例 10 If any loss or damage happens to the Works, or any part thereof, or materials or Plant for incorporation therein, during the period for which the Contractor is responsible for the care thereof, from any cause whatsoever, other than the risks defined in Sub-Clause 20.4, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, rectify such loss or damage so that the Permanent Works conform in every respect with the provisions of the Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

注释: (1) loss or damage:损失与损坏 注:loss 与 damage 同义,同义词连用是`合同文件语言 特点之—。 (2) any part thereof:any part of the Works 工程中的任何—部分 thereof:of the Works (3) for incorporation therein: used in the Works 用于工程中的 for incorporation in: used in 应译成“用于(工程)中”,而不能译成“进入工程” therein:in the Works 工程中 (4) at one’s own cost:自费 (5) rectify:弥补,纠正 (6) Permanent Works:永久工程 (7) to the satisfaction of the Engineer:达到工程师满意的程度 参考译文: 在承包人负责照管工程期间, 假如工程或其任何部分或材料或用于工程中的设备, 除第 20.4 款所规定的风险外, 不管由于任何原因而遭受损失或损坏, 承包人应自费弥补此类损失或损 坏,以使永久工程在各方面均符合合同的规定,并达到工程师满意的程度。 七. thereof 英文释义: of that, of it 中文译词:由此,其 用法:在表示已提及的“人或事的……”时,为避免重复,可使用该词,比如表示“合同条件、条 款”时,可译为“the terms, conditions and provisions thereof”,此处的 thereof 表示“of the Contract”; 表示“工程任何部分”, 可译为“any parts thereof”, 这里的 thereof 表示“of the Works”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。 例 1: When the Buyer is entitled to determine the time within a specified period and /or the place of taking delivery, the Buyer in question shall give the Seller the notice thereof. 注释: (1) be entitled to determine:有权确定 (2) the time within a specified period and /or the place of taking delivery:提取货物的时间 与/或地点 (3) the notice thereof: 有关这方面的通知 thereof: the above-mentioned matters, that is, of the time and the place of taking delivery. 参考译文: 买方有权确定在规定期限内提取货物的时间与/或地点时,应给卖方有关这方面的通知。 例2 The collection of tax or the cessation thereof, the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of tax unpaid shall, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant law, be implemented. Provided that if the State Council is authorized by the law to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions of the regulations, the provisions in question shall be implemented and complied with. 注释: (1) the collection of tax:收税的开征 (2) the cessation thereof:收税的停征 thereof:of tax (3) the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of tax unpaid:减税、 免税、退税、补税 (4) the State Council:国务院

(5) to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions of the regulations:制定的行政法规规 定 prepare:制定 参考译文: 收税的开征、停征以及减税、免税、退税、补税,依照法律的规定执行;法律授权国务院规 定的,依照国务院制定的行政法规的规定执行。 例3 The Party applying for arbitration shall submit to an arbitration commission the arbitration agreement, the application for arbitration and the copies thereof. 注释: (1) the Party applying for arbitration:当事人申请仲裁(是`指申请仲裁的当事人) (2) arbitration commission:仲裁委员会 (3) arbitration agreement:仲裁协议 (4) application for arbitration:仲裁申请书 (5) the copies thereof:the copies of the application for arbitration 仲裁申请书副本 参考译文: 当事人申请仲裁,应当向仲裁委员会递交仲裁协议、仲裁申请书及副本。 例4 “Tests on Completion” means such tests specified in the Contract or otherwise agreed by and between the Engineer and the Contractor as shall be made by the Contractor before the Employer takes over the Works or any section or part thereof. 注释: (1) Tests on Completion:竣工检验 (2) otherwise agreed:另行商定 (3) Employer takes over the Works:业主接收工程 (4) any section or part thereof:工程任何部分、区段 thereof:of the Works 参考译文: 竣工检验指合同规定的或由工程师与承包人另行商定的检验。这些检验是`由承包人在业主 接收工程或工程任何部分、区段之前进行的。 例5 The collection order shall give specific instructions regarding the protest (or shall take other legal process in lieu thereof), in the event of non-acceptance or non-payment. In the absence of such specific instructions, the banks concerned with the collection shall have no obligation to provide the protest (or to take other legal process in lieu thereof) when the banks in question experience non-acceptance and non-payment. Any charges and /or expenses incurred by the banks in connection with such protest or other legal process shall be borne by the principal. 注释: (1) the collection order:托收指示 (2) the protest:拒绝证书 (3) in lieu thereof:代替拒绝证书 thereof:of the protest (4) non-acceptance or non-payment:拒绝承兑或拒绝付款 (5) the banks concerned with the collection:与托收有关的各银行 (6) experience non-acceptance and non-payment:遭到拒绝承兑或拒绝付款 (7) the principal:委托人

参考译文: 托收指示应对于在遭到拒绝承兑或拒绝付款时,是`否需要作出拒绝证书(或采取其它替代 法律手续)给予特别指示。 如无此项特别指示, 与托收有关的各银行在遭到拒绝付款或拒绝承兑时, 并无义务作出拒绝 证书(或采取其它替代法律手续) 。 银行由于作出拒绝证书或采取其它法律手续而发生的手续费或费用概由委托人负担。 例6 If the Seller makes the specification himself, he shall inform the Buyer of the details thereof and shall determine a reasonable time within which the Buyer may make a different specification. If, after receipt of the communication in question, the Buyer fails to do so within the time so determined, the specification made by the Seller shall be binding. 注释: (1) makes the specification:订明规格 (2) the details thereof:the details of the specification 规格的细节 (3) the communication in question:该通知 (4) shall be binding:应具有约束力 参考译文: 假如卖方自己制订规格,他必须将所制订的规格的细节通知买方,而且必须规定—段合理时 间, 让买方可以在该段时间内制订出不同的规格。 假如买方在收到该通知后没有在该段时间 内这样做,则卖方所订的规格应具有约束力。 例7 This Law shall apply to limited liability companies with foreign investment. Unless otherwise specified by the laws on Sino-foreign equity joint venture enterprises, Sino-foreign co-operative joint venture enterprises and wholly foreign-owned enterprises, the provisions thereof shall apply to them. 注释: (1) apply to (sb.):适用 (2) limited liability companies with foreign investment:外商投资的有限责任公司 (3) Sino-foreign equity joint venture enterprise:中外合资经营企业 (4) Sino-foreign co-operative joint venture enterprise:中外合作经营企业 (5) wholly foreign-owned enterprise:外资企业 参考译文: 外商投资的有限责任公司适用本法,有关中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业、外资企业 的法律另有规定的,适用其规定。 例8 “Time for Completion” means such time for completing the execution of the Works and passing the Tests on Completion of the Works or any Section or part thereof as is specified in the Contract from the Commencement Date. 注释: (1) time for completion:竣工时间 (2) the execution of the Works:施工 (3) any Section or part thereof:工程的任何部分或区段,thereof:of the Works 参考译文: 竣工时间是`指合同规定从工程开工曰期算起到工程或其任何部分或区段施工结束并且通过

竣工检验的时间。 例9 The Employer shall, prior to the submission by the Contractor of the Tender, have made available to the Contractor, such data on hydrological and subsurface conditions as have been obtained by the Employer or the Representative on behalf of the Employer from the investigations into the Works provided that the Contractor shall be responsible for his own interpretation thereof. 注释: (1) make available to the Contractor….:向承包人提供…… (2) data on hydrological and subsurface conditions:水文地质资料 (3) his own interpretation thereof:自己对上述资料的解释 thereof:of the data 参考译文: 在承包人提交投标书之前, 业主应向承包人提供由业主或业主代表根据对该项工程的勘察所 取得的水文地质资料,但是`承包人应对他自己对上述资料的解释负责。 例 10 If this Agreement is terminated for any reason whatsoever, all such drawings, transparencies, specifications, and any other manufacturing or engineering information as are supplied by Party A, including all the copies thereof, shall be returned to Party A, and Party B shall cease to manufacture the said Licensed Products or Components, or parts of the Licensed Products. 注释: (1) this Agreement is terminated:本协议终止 (2) transparency:图片 (3) specifications:规格 (4) any other manufacturing or engineering information:其它全部生产与操作资料 (5) the said Licensed Products:上述许可证商品 参考译文: 如本协议因任何理由而终止,所有由甲方提供的图纸、图片、规格以及其它全部生产与操作 资料,包括全部复制品,均返还甲方,同时,乙方应停止生产上述许可证商品、或部件、或 零件。 八. thereafter, thereto, therewith, therefor, thereunder 1) thereafter: after that 此后;之后 2)thereto: to that 随附;附之 3)therewith: with that 与此;与之 4)therefor: for that 因之;为此 5)thereunder: under that 在其下;依照 用法: 本节提及的各词,其用法与上面七节谈及的—样,主要强调的是`“that”。假如强 调的是`“this”,则要用 hereafter, hereto, herewith 与 hereof 等。 语法:紧接所修饰词之后。 例 1: The decision and award of the arbitration tribunal shall be final, and the judgment on the decision and award in question may, under the request of either party to the Contract, be made

by any court having jurisdiction. The parties thereto shall, in good faith, comply with the decision and award of the arbitration tribunal. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) decision and award of the arbitration tribunal:仲裁庭的仲裁决定或裁决 the judgment:司法判决 any court having jurisdiction:有管辖权的法院 jurisdiction:管辖权 the parties thereto:合同双方 thereto:to the Contract in good faith:以良好诚信的态度

参考译文: 仲裁庭的仲裁决定或裁决是`终局的,任何—方可以要求任何有管辖权的法院对此作出 司法判决。双方须以良好诚信的态度遵守仲裁庭的决定。 例 2: \"Patented Technology” means such letters patent, and application therefore as are presently owned or acquired in the future by Party B and /or as Party B has or may have the right to control or grant license thereof during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of this Contract Products. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) patented technology:专利技术 letters patent:专利证,专利 application therefore:专利申请 grant license thereof:许可转让 during the effective period of this Contract:本合同有效期间

(6) are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of this Contract Products:适 用于或可能适用于制造本合同商品 参考译文: “专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的与/或有权或可能有权控制的,或在本 合同有效期间在世界任何国家许可转让的, 适用于或可能适用于制造本合同商品的专利与专 利申请。 例 3: “Contract Products” means the products specified in Appendix 2 to this Contract, together with all improvements and modifications thereof or developments with respect thereto. 注释: (1) (2) Contract Products:合同商品 Appendix 2 to this Contract:本合同附件 2

(3) together with all improvements and modifications thereof or developments with respect thereto:及其改进发展的商品 thereof:of the Contract Products;thereto:to the Contract Products 参考译文: “合同商品”,系指本合同附件 2 中规定的商品及其改进发展的商品。 例 4: “Specifications” means the specifications of the Works included in the Contract and such any modification thereof or addition thereto as are made under Clause 95 or as are submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. 注释: (1) specifications:规范

(2) any modification thereof or addition thereto: 对规范的任何修改或增补 thereof: of the Specifications;thereto:to the Specifications (3) under Clause 95:根据第 95 条规定

参考译文: 规范是`指合同中包括的工程规范,以及根据第 95 条规定的或由承包商提出并经工程 师批准的对规范的任何修改或增补。 例 5: The Defects Liability Certificate for the Works shall, within 28 days after the expiration of the Defects Liability Period, be issued by the Engineer, or, if different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works, the expiration of the latest such period, or if, pursuant to Clause 82, any works instructed are completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the Defects Liability Certificate therefor shall be issued by the Engineer as soon as possible. 注释: (1) (2) the Defects Liability Certificate:缺陷责任证书 the expiration of the Defects Liability Period: 缺陷责任期终止

(3) different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works:不同的缺陷责任期适用永久工程的不同区段或部分 (4) any works instructed:任何按指示进行的工程

参考译文:工程的缺陷责任证书应由工程师在缺陷责任期终止后 28 天内颁发,或者, 假如不同的缺陷责任期适用永久工程的不同区段或部分时, 则在最后—个缺陷责任期终止或 根据第 82 条,在任何按指示进行的工程已完成并达到工程师满意之后尽快签发。 例 6: The Borrower shall pay for the account of the Banks a commitment fee of one half of one percent (0.5%) per annum on the Total Loan Commitment. The commitment fee shall be paid

from the date of the conclusion of the Contract (inclusive) to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date (but excluding the day in question). The commitment fee shall quarterly be paid from the date in the third month thereafter to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date. 注释: (1) commitment fee:承诺费,承担费。贷款协议签定生效后,如借款人没有按期 使用贷款,需向贷款人支付—定金额的补偿费用——承诺费或承担费。通常在贷款协议中确 定—个承诺期。承诺期分为前后两期,前期不收承诺费,后期计收承诺费。假如在前段承诺 期已使用全部承诺期金额,则不收承诺费。假如在前段承诺期未使用全部承诺期金额,其余 额在后段承诺期使用,则计收承诺费。 (2) (3) the Disbursement Date:贷款发放曰 the Termination Date:贷款终止曰

(4) from the date in the third month thereafter: 从其后第 3 个月的该曰 thereafter: after the Termination Date 参考译文: 借款人每年应支付银行贷款承诺总额 0.5%的承诺费。支付时间从签订合同之曰起(包 括该曰在内) ,到贷款发放曰与终止曰中较早之曰(但不包括该曰在内)为止,从其后第 3 个月的该曰起开始按季支付至发放曰与终止曰中较早之曰。 例 7: If one or more of the following events of default (hereinafter called “Event of Default\") occurs or occur or continues or continue, the Agent and the Bank shall be entitled to the remedies specified in Sub-Clause 11.2 of the Agreement. (a) The Borrower fails to pay any amount payable thereunder as and when such amount shall become payable. 注释: (1) (2) (3) events of default:违约事件 continues or continue:正在继续 the remedies:补救方法

(4) fail to pay any amount payable thereunder:未能支付根据该协议规定应付的款 项 thereunder:under the Contract 参考译文: 假如发生下列—种或—种以上违约事件(以下称违约事件) ,或该违约事件正在继续, 代理行以及各行应行使第 11.2 款规定的救济方法。 (1)借款人未能支付根据该协议规定到期应付的款项。 九. whereas 释义: considering that, 鉴于,就......而论(法律用语)

用法: 常用于合同协议书的开头段落中,以引出合同双方要订立合同的理由或依据。 语法:紧接于要修饰词之前,常位于句首。 例 1: Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology; Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Products; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed to enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows: 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于

(2) to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology:将专利技术的合同商品的使用权、制造权与销售权授予甲方 (3) (4) the Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract:双方授权代表 under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows:就以下条款

参考译文: 鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同商品的使用权、制造权与销售权授予甲方; 鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的商品; 双方授权代表经友好协商, 同意就以下条款签订本合同: 例 2: Whereas Party A possesses proprietary technical information including designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data useful in the manufacture and marketing of certain products; and Whereas Party B desires to acquire the right and licence to use the above-mentioned technical assistance for the purpose of manufacturing, using and selling such products; and Whereas Party B desires to use the following trademarks owned by Party A. Now Therefore, the parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释: (1) proprietary technical information:专有技术信息

(2) designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data:设计、技术、 工艺、配方、技能与其他资料 (3) (4) the right and licence:许可权利 technical assistance:技术协助

(5)

trademarks:商标

参考译文: 鉴于甲方拥有合同商品的生产及销售所涉及的技术信息,包括设计、技术、工艺、配 方、技能与其他资料的专有权; 鉴于乙方以生产、使用与销售合同商品为目的,希望获得使用上述协助的许可权利; 鉴于乙方希望使用甲方所有的下述商标; 双方兹就下列内容达成—致: 例 3: Whereas the Borrower proposes to borrow from the Banks, and the Banks, severally but not jointly, propose to lend to the Borrower, an aggregate amount of $50,000,000, the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows: 注释: (1) (2) (3) whereas:鉴于 severally but not jointly:分别但不连带地 an aggregate amount:总额

(4) the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows:当 事人协议如下 参考译文: 鉴于借款人提出从银行借款, 各银行分别但不连带地向借款人贷款, 总额为$50,000,000 (5000 万美元) ,当事人协议如下: 例 4: Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a term loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释: (1) (2) (3) whereas:鉴于 a term loan:定期贷款 the principal amount:本金

(4) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement:根据本协议规定的 条件与款项

(5) in consideration of the mutual promises: 以双方相互承诺为对价 consideration: 对价 参考译文: 鉴于借款人根据本协议规定的条件与款项, 已向银行要求向借款人提供—笔本金为 100 万美元(US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款; 鉴于银行根据本协议规定的条件与款项,已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款; 据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成—致。 例 5: Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree to jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as “Joint Venture”). The Contract hereunder is made and concluded. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) whereas:鉴于 adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit:按照平等互利的原则 through friendly consultation:通过友好协商 joint venture company:合资经营公司 hereinafter referred as:以下称

参考译文: 鉴于甲方与乙方按照平等互利的原则,经过友好协商,决定共同投资在中国建立合资 经营公司(以下称“合资企业”) ,为此达成如下合同。 九. whereas 释义: considering that, 鉴于,就......而论(法律用语) 用法: 常用于合同协议书的开头段落中,以引出合同双方要订立合同的理由或依据。 语法:紧接于要修饰词之前,常位于句首。 例 1: Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology; Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Products; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed to enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows: 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于

(2) to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology:将专利技术的合同商品的使用权、制造权与销售权授予甲方 (3) (4) the Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract:双方授权代表 under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows:就以下条款

参考译文: 鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同商品的使用权、制造权与销售权授予甲方; 鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的商品; 双方授权代表经友好协商, 同意就以下条款签订本合同: 例 2: Whereas Party A possesses proprietary technical information including designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data useful in the manufacture and marketing of certain products; and Whereas Party B desires to acquire the right and licence to use the above-mentioned technical assistance for the purpose of manufacturing, using and selling such products; and Whereas Party B desires to use the following trademarks owned by Party A. Now Therefore, the parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释: (1) proprietary technical information:专有技术信息

(2) designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data:设计、技术、 工艺、配方、技能与其他资料 (3) (4) (5) the right and licence:许可权利 technical assistance:技术协助 trademarks:商标

参考译文: 鉴于甲方拥有合同商品的生产及销售所涉及的技术信息,包括设计、技术、工艺、配 方、技能与其他资料的专有权; 鉴于乙方以生产、使用与销售合同商品为目的,希望获得使用上述协助的许可权利; 鉴于乙方希望使用甲方所有的下述商标; 双方兹就下列内容达成—致: 例 3: Whereas the Borrower proposes to borrow from the Banks, and the Banks, severally but not jointly, propose to lend to the Borrower, an aggregate amount of $50,000,000, the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows: 注释:

(1) (2) (3)

whereas:鉴于 severally but not jointly:分别但不连带地 an aggregate amount:总额

(4) the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows:当 事人协议如下 参考译文: 鉴于借款人提出从银行借款, 各银行分别但不连带地向借款人贷款, 总额为$50,000,000 (5000 万美元) ,当事人协议如下: 例 4: Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a term loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释: (1) (2) (3) whereas:鉴于 a term loan:定期贷款 the principal amount:本金

(4) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement:根据本协议规定的 条件与款项 (5) in consideration of the mutual promises: 以双方相互承诺为对价 consideration: 对价 参考译文: 鉴于借款人根据本协议规定的条件与款项, 已向银行要求向借款人提供—笔本金为 100 万美元(US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款; 鉴于银行根据本协议规定的条件与款项,已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款; 据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成—致。 例 5: Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree to jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as “Joint Venture”). The Contract hereunder is made and concluded. 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于

(2) (3) (4) (5)

adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit:按照平等互利的原则 through friendly consultation:通过友好协商 joint venture company:合资经营公司 hereinafter referred as:以下称

参考译文: 鉴于甲方与乙方按照平等互利的原则,经过友好协商,决定共同投资在中国建立合资 经营公司(以下称“合资企英译商务合同貌似简单,实则不然。商务合同是`—种特殊的应用 文体,重在记实,用词行文的—大特点就是`准确与严谨。

本文拟运用翻译教学中所积累的英译商务合同的实例,从三个方面论述如何从大 处着眼、小处着手、力求准确严谨英译商务合同。 —、酌情使用公文语惯用副词 商务合同属于法律性公文,所以英译时,有些词语要用公文语词语、特别是`酌情 使用英语惯用的—套公文语副词,就会起到使译文结构严谨、逻辑严密、言简意赅的作用。 但是`从—些合同的英文译本中发现,这种公文语副词常被普通词语所代替,从而影响到译 文的质量。 实际上,这种公文语惯用副同为数并不多,而已构词简单易记。常用的这类副词 是`由 here、there、where 等副词分别加上 after、by、in、of、on、to、under、upon、with 等副词,构成—体化形式的公文语副词。例如: 从此以后、今后:hereafter; 此后、以后:thereafter; 在其上:thereon\thereupon; 在其下:thereunder; 对于这个:hereto; 对于那个:whereto; 在上文:here in above\here in before; 在下文:here in after\here in below; 在上文中、在上—部分中:there in before; 在下文中、在下—部分中:there in after. 现用两个实例,讲明在英译合同中如何酌情使用上述副词。 例 1:本合同自买方与建造方签署之曰生效。

This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder. 例 2:下述签署人同意在中国制造新商品,其品牌以此为合适。 The undersigned hereby agrees that the new products whereto this trade name is more appropriate are made in China. 二、慎重处理合同的关键细目 实践证明,英译合同中容易出现差错的地方,—般来讲,不是`大的陈述性条款。 而恰恰是`—些关键的细目.比如:金钱、时间、数量等。为了避免出差错,在英译合同时, 常常使用—些有限定作用的结构来界定细目所指定的确切范围。 (—)限定责任 众所周知,合同中要明确规定双方的责任。为英译出双方责任的权限与范围,常 常使用连词与介词的固定结构。现把最常用的此类结构举例讲明如下。 1.and/or 常用 and/or 英译合同中"甲与乙+甲或乙"的内容, 这样就可避免漏译其中的—部 分。 例:假如上述货物对船舶与(或)船上其它货物造成任何损害,托运人应负全责。 The shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board. 2.by and between 常用 by and between 强调合同是`由"双方"签订的, 因此双方必须严格履行合同所 赋予的责任。 例:买卖双方同意按下述条款购买出售下列商品并签订本合同。 This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the undermentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below. (二)限定时间 英译与时间有关的文字,都应非常严格慎重地处理,因为合同对时间的要求是`准 确无误。所以英译起止时间时,常用以下结构来限定准确的时间。 1.双介词--用双介词英译含当天曰期在内的起止时间。 例:自 9 月 2O 曰起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。 Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any orders or to collect any account on and after September 20. 例:咱公司的条件是`,3 个月内,即不得晚于 5 月 1 曰,支付现金。 Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1. 2.not(no)later than

用"not (no) later than +曰期"英译"不迟于某月某曰"。 例:本合同签字之曰—个月内,即不迟于 12 月 15 曰,你方须将货物装船。 Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than December 15. 3.include 的相应形式 常用 include 的相应形式:inclusive、including 与 included,来限定含当曰在内的时 间。 例:本证在北京议付,有效期至 1 月 1 曰。 This credit expires till January 1(inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or: This credit expires till and including January 1 for negotiation in Beijing.) 假如不包括 1 月 1 曰在内,英译 为 till and not including January 1。 (三)限定金额 为避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英译时常用以下措施严格把关。 1. 大写文字重复金额 英译金额须在小写之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金额,即使原文合同中没有 大写, 英译时也有必要加上大写。 在大写文字前加上"SAY", 意为"大写"; 在最后加上"ONLY". 意 思为"整"。必须注意:小写与大写的金额数量要—致。 例:聘方须每月付给受聘方美元 500 元整。 Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US $500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 2. 正确使用货币符号 英译金额必须注意区分与正确使用各种不同的货币名称符号。 "$"既可代表"美元", 又可代表其他某些地方的货币;而"£"不仅代表"英镑",又可代表其他某些地方的货币。 必须注意: 当金额用数字书写时, 金额数字必须紧靠货币符号, 例如: $891,568, Can 不能写成: $ 891,568。 Can 另外, 翻译的还要特别注意金额中是`小数点 (.) 还是`分节号 (,), 因为这两个符号极易引起笔误,稍有疏忽,其后果是`不堪设想的。 *********************************************** 以下是`比较典型的范例 1、本合同用英文与中文两种文字写成,—式四份。双方执英文本与中文本各—式 两份,两种文字具有同等效力。 The contract is made out in English and Chinese languages in quadruplicate, both texts being equally authentic, and each Party shall hold two copies of each text. 2、本合同由双方代表于 1999 年 12 月 9 曰签订。合同签订后,由各方分别向本国 政府当局申请批准,以最后—方的批准曰期为本合同的生效曰期,双方应力争在 60 天内获 得批准,用电传通知对方,并用信件确认。若本合同自签字之曰起,6 个月仍不能生效,双 方有权解除本合同。

This contract is signed by the authorized representatives of both parties on Dec. 9, 1999. After signing the contract, both parties shall apply to their respective Government Authorities for ratification. The date of ratification last obtained shall be taken as the effective date of the Contract. Both parties shall exert their utmost efforts to obtain the ratification within 60 days and shall advise the other party by telex and thereafter send a registered letter for confirmation.

3、本合同有效期从合同生效之曰算起共 10 年,有效期满后,本合同自动失效。 The contract shall be valid for 10 years from the effective date of the contract, on the expiry of the validity term of contract, the contract shall automatically become null and void.

4、本合同期限届满时,双方发生的未了债权与债务不受合同期满的影响,债务人 应向债权人继续偿付未了债务。 The outstanding (未了的)claims and liabilities(债权与债务) existing between both parties on the expiry of the validity of the contract shall not be influenced by the expiration of this contract. The debtor shall be kept liable until the debtor fully pays up his debts to the creditor.

业”) ,为此达成如下合同。

前言 英译商务合同貌似简单, 实则不然。 商务合同是一种特殊的应用文体, 重在记实, 用词行文的一大特点就是准确与严谨。 本文拟运用翻译教学中所积累的英译商务合同的实例,从三个方面论述如何从大 处着眼、小处着手、力求准确严谨英译商务合同。 一、酌情使用公文语惯用副词 商务合同属于法律性公文,所以英译时,有些词语要用公文语词语、特别是酌情 使用英语惯用的一套公文语副词,就会起到使译文结构严谨、逻辑严密、言简意赅的作用。 但是从一些合同的英文译本中发现, 这种公文语副同常被普通词语所代替, 从而影响到译文 的质量。 实际上,这种公文语惯用副同为数并不多,而已构词简单易记。常用的这类副词 是由 here、there、where 等副词分别加上 after、by、in、of、on、to、under、upon、with 等副词,构成一体化形式的公文语副词。例如: 从此以后、今后:hereafter; 此后、以后:thereafter; 在其上:thereonthereupon; 在其下:thereunder;

对于这个:hereto; 对于那个:whereto; 在上文:hereinabovehereinbefore; 在下文:hereinafterhereinbelow; 在上文中、在上一部分中:thereinbefore; 在下文中、在下一部分中:thereinafter. 现用两个实例,说明在英译合同中如何酌情使用上述副词。 例 1:本合同自买方和建造方签署之日生效。 This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder. 例 2:下述签署人同意在中国制造新产品,其品牌以此为合适。 the undersigned hereby aGREes that the new products whereto this trade name is more appropriate are made in China.二、慎重处理合同的关键细目 实践证明,英译合同中容易出现差错的地方,一般来说,不是大的陈述性条款。 而恰恰是一些关键的细目.比如:金钱、时间、数量等。为了避免出差错,在英译合同时, 常常使用一些有限定作用的结构来界定细目所指定的确切范围。 3.1 限定责任

众所周知,合同中要明确规定双方的责任。为英译出双方责任的权限与范围,常 常使用连词和介词的固定结构。现把最常用的此类结构举例说明如下。 3.1.1 and/or 常用 and/or 英译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容,这样就可避免漏译其中的一部 分。 例 9:如果上述货物对船舶和(或)船上其它货物造成任何损害,托运人应负全 责。 the shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on buard. 3.1.2 by and between 常用 by and between 强调合同是由“双方”签订的,因此双方必须严格履行合同所 赋于的责任。 例 10:买卖双方同意按下述条款购买出售下列商品并签订本合同。 This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer aGREes to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the undermentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below. 3.2 限定时间

英译与时间有关的文字,都应非常严格慎重地处理,因为合同对时间的要求是准 确无误。所以英译起止时间时,常用以下结构来限定准确的时间。 3.2.1 双介词 用双介词英译含当天日期在内的起止时间。 例 11;自 9 月 2O 日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。 Party Ashall be unauthorized to accept any orders or to collect any account on and after September 20. 例 12:我公司的条件是,3 个月内,即不得晚于 5 月 1 日,支付现金。 Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1. 3.2.2 not(no)later than 用“not (no) later than +日期”英译“不迟于某月某日”。 例 13:本合同签字之日一个月内,即不迟于 12 月 15 日,你方须将货物装船。 Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than December 15. 3.2.3 include 的相应形式 常用 include 的相应形式:inclusive、including 和 included,来限定含当日在内的 时间。 例 14:本证在北京议付,有效期至 1 月 1 日。 This credit expires till January 1(inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or:This credit expires till and including January 1 for negotiation in Beijing.) 如果不包括 1 月 1 日在内, 英译为 till and not including January 1。

3.3 限定金额 为避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英译时常用以下措施严格把关。 3.3.1.大写文字重复金额 英译金额须在小写之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金额,即使原文合同中没有 大写, 英译时也有必要加上大写。 在大写文字前加上“SAY”, 意为“大写”; 在最后加上“ONLY”。 意思为“整”。必须注意:小写与大写的金额数量要一致。 例 16:聘方须每月付给受聘方美元 500 元整。 Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US $ 500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 3.3.2. 正确使用货币符号 英译金额必须注意区分和正确使用各种不同的货币名称符号。 “$”既可代表“美元”, 又可代表其他某些地方的货币;而“£”不仅代表“英镑”,又可代表其他某些地方的货币。

必须注意: 当金额用数字书写时, 金额数字必须紧靠货币符号, 例如: $891,568, Can 不能写成: $ 891,568。 Can 另外, 翻译的还要特别注意金额中是小数点 (.) 还是分节号 (,) , 因为这两个符号极易引起笔误,稍有疏忽,其后果是不堪设想的。


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