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高考语法复习虚拟语气


虚拟语气
虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望/假设/猜测/或建议,而不表 示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式 来表示。 1 .虚拟语气用于条件状语从句。 (1)与现在事实相反。 If I had time ,I would go to the cinema with you . (2)与过去事实相反。 If he had caught the first bus t

his morning,he would not have been late for class. (3)与将来事实相反。 If it were to /should rain tomorrow,the meeting would be put off.

虚拟语气用于条件状语从句
条件从句中的谓语动 主句中的谓语动 词的形式 词的形式 与过去事实相反 had+过去分词 与现在事实相反 过去式 1.过去式 与将来事实相反 2.should+动词原形 3.were to+动词原形 should/would+ have+过去分词 should/would+动 词原形 should/would+动 词原形 should/would+动 词原形 Should/would+动 词原形

注意:主句中的should通常用于第一人称,would 可用于任何人称,同时也可根据意思用情态动词 could/might 等代替should /would。 (4)有时候,条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动 作,发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发生 的,一个是现在发生的)。这时,动词的形式要 根据它所表示的时间来调整。-(错综时间条件句) -( ) 1.If the weather had been more favourable , the crops would be growing still better. 2.If you were in better health ,we would have allowed you to join them in the work. 3.If we hadn’t got everything ready by now,we should be having a terrible time tomorrow

(5)以上句型可以转换成下列形式:

A.若if从句中有 were/ had/ should ,可把它们倒装放到
主语之前,省略if .句式:

were /had /should +主语 +其它成分 其它成分. 主语 其它成分 Were I in school again ,I would work harder. Had you been here earlier ,you would have seen him. Should there be a meeting tomorrow ,I would come . B.用介词短语代替条件状语从句.例如: Without air ,there would be no living things . I would not have succeeded but for your help.

2.虚拟语气用于宾语从句 (1)“wish + 宾语从句”表示不能实现的愿望, “可惜…/悔不该…/但愿…”从句中谓语动词形式: 与现在事实相反:动词过去式 与过去事实相反: had + done 或 could(would)+have +done 与将来事实相反: could/would + do 例如: .I wish you told me earlier. We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier. I wish we could go to the seaside today/tomorrow

(2)虚拟语气在动词: insist (坚持)/demand/ desire / request / require/ order /propose / command / ask / advise / prefer /suggest(建议)arrange 等后面的宾语从句中, 用 “(should) +动词原形”。如: The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days. They demanded that the black people (should) be treated as well as white people. I insisted that you give me money back. Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything. The girl insisted that she gave me the money the other day.

I suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. Her pale face suggested that she was ill. 3.虚拟语气用于表语从句/同位语从句. 作advice / idea /order /demand /plan /proposal /suggestion /request 等后面的宾语从句和同位语 从句,其谓语动词要用虚拟语气的结构 “( should ) + 动词原形” .例如: We all agreed to his suggestion that we (should) go to Beijing for sightseeing. My idea is that he (should) do exercises first. 4。虚拟语气用于以 as if / as though 引导的表语 从句或状语从句.谓语动词的形式有三种:

as if /as though 引导的表语/ 从句中谓语动词的形式 状语从句 1.从句表示与现在事实相反 谓语动词用一般过去式

2.从句表示与过去事实相反

had + 过去分词

3.从句表示与将来事实相反

would /might /could + 动 词原形

例如: He looked at me as if I were mad. He speaks English so fluently as if he had studied English in England. It looks as if it might rain . 但as if /as though 后的从句也常用陈述语气, 这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发生的或可 能被设想为真实的。例如: It looks as if our side is going to win . 5.虚拟语气用于主语从句。

在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气结构用 “should + 动词原形”的结构,表示惊讶/ 不相 信 /惋惜 /理应如此等。例如: It is necessary ( important /natural /desirable 想要 的/advisable 明智的/合理的/适当的/可行的 /strange ,etc.) that we should clean the room every day . It was a pity (a shame /no wonder ,etc.) that you should be so careless . It will be desired (suggested /decided /ordered /requested / proposed ,etc.) that she should finish her homework this afternoon.

在上述三种主语从句中,should 意为“应该/竟然”, 可以省去,但不可换用 would 。主句所用动词的时态 不限。 注意: 这种从句表示的事实。如果说话人对这种事实 表示惊奇,就用虚拟语气。反之,如果不表示惊奇, that 从句也可用陈述语气。例如: It is strange that he did not come yesterday . It is a pity that you can’t swim . 6.虚拟语气用于定语从句. 这种从句常用 “It is (high ) time (that ) …”在句型中, 定语从句的谓语动词用过去式,或 should+动词原形 (should不能省略,be 用were来)表示,意为“(现在) 该…”

例如: It is time that I went and picked up my little girl from school. It is high time we were going. 7.虚拟语气用于if only 引导的感叹句: If only I had taken his advice . If only I were a bird . 8.虚拟语气用于If it were not for ….此结构意为 “如果没有…”,表示与现在事实相反的假设. If it had not been for …“如果当时没有…”,表示 与过去事实相反的假设.

例如: If it were not for the rain ,the crops should /would die . If it had not been for your timely help ,I would have failed. 9.虚拟语气在would rather 后面的从句中: A.从句用过去时指现在。 B.从句用过去时指将来。 C.从句用过去完成时指过去。例如 : I would rather you paid me now. I would rather they came tomorrow. I’d rather she hadn’t done that.

10.虚拟语气用于简单句。 A .表示说话人谦虚/客气/有礼貌,是语气委婉, 常出现在日常会话中。例如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. Would you be kind enough to open the door ? B.用于一些习惯表达法中。例如: Would you like a cup of tea ? You had better go now. C.用 “may + 动词原形”,表示“祝愿/但愿”。 May 须置于句首。例如: May you be happy ! May you succeed !

11.含蓄条件句. 在某些虚拟语气结构中没有 if 条件句,虚拟条 件是用其它形式表现出来,这种现象在语法上 称为“含蓄条件句”.具体分为一下几种情况: 1)通过动词不式短语表示条件.例如: You would be a fool to refuse his offer.(=If you should refuse his offer ,you would be a fool .) 2) 通过介词短语表达条件.例如: But for the storm I would have arrived much earlier.(=If it had not been the storm…) 3)通过连词otherwise / or /but /that /though /once 等表达条件.例如:

She came to town yesterday ,otherwise /or I would not have met her .(=if she had not come ) I would have attended the meeting ,but I have been too busy . (= …if I had not been too busy ) 4)通过 Were it not for … 或 Had it not been for …等句式表达条件.例如: Were it not for(=If it were not for ) the leadership of the Party ,we could not live a happy life. Had it not been for (=If it had not been for ) the leadership of the Party ,we should have failed. 5)通过分词短语表达条件.例如:

Given more attention ,the crops could have grown better.(=If they had been given more …) 6)无词句暗示条件.例如: Such mistakes could have been avoided .这种错 误本来可以避免的. (暗含条件从句 if we had been more careful.) It was so quiet ,you could have heard a pin drop . 是那样的安静,掉根针你都听得见. (暗含条件从句 if it had dropped to the ground.)

注意: 1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表 示将来,该用shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it. 2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词 形式。

典型例题
1. The volleyball match will be put off

if it ___. A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained 注意: 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律 用"were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。 If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

2. _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三 个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条 件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不 能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

判断改错: (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill. (对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill. (错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong. (对) I insisted that you were wrong. 3. There was plenty of time. She ___. A. mustn‘t have hurried B. couldn’t have hurried C. must not hurry D. needn't have hurried

4. But for the leadership of our Party, we _______. A. could not have succeeded B. should not have succeeded 5.What do you think of his proposal that improvements ______ in the old type of vacuum cleaner? a. be made b. will be made c. would be made d. will have to be made

6.___your help, we couldn’t have done our job so successfully. A. without B. But C. if it were not for D. with 7.——it rain tomorrow,we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. A. were B.should C. would D. will 8.-----Look! It looks as if it _going to rain.We must hurry . -----OK. A. is B. were C. was D. are

9.______, the experiment should have been successful. A. Given more time B.If they are given more time 10.____the flood, the ship would have reached its destination on time. A. In case of B. But for 11.Who would you rather___with you ,he ro she? A. went B. go

12.--Why were you late for the lecture yesterday? ---Because my car _______down on the way. Otherwise I _______earlier. A. had broken, would arrive B. broke, would have arrived


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