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The period of old English literature extends from

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1.The period of old English literature extends from about the year of 450 to the year of 1066. 1.The significant event which the commencement of medieval period in English literature is Norman Conquest in the year of 1066, and the medieval literature in Britain covers about four centuries. 2.Romance is the most popular literature form in medieval period. 古英语文学1期延伸到1066年,从450年左右。 2,重要的事件,在中世纪时期英国文学开始是在1066年诺曼征服,中世纪英国文学,占地 约四百年。 3.Romance 是在中世纪时期最流行的文学形式。 3.The renaissance marks a transition form the medieval period to the modern world. Generally, it refers to the time between the 14th century and mid-17th century. 4.The cradle of the renaissance in Italy, and the essential characteristics of it are rising of Humanism and the Reformation of Christianity. 5.The Elizabethan drama is the real mainstream of English Renaissance, and its most important representative is William Shakeespeare. 文艺复兴时期(第14 - 17世纪中叶) 1。文艺复兴的摇篮,是意大利,它的本质特征是人文主义与基督教宗教改革上升。 2。 伊丽莎白女王的戏剧是 Engish Renaissane 真正的主流, 和它的最重要的代表是莎士比亚。 6.The Neoclassical Period refers to the one in English literature between the return of the Stuarts to the English throne in 1066 and the full assertion of Romanticism which came with the publication of Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge in 1798. 7.The two dominant political events in the period are the English Bourgeois Revolution and a vast expansion of British colonies. 8.the 18th century England is known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason (启蒙时

候和理性时代) 候和理性时代) 。
新古典主义时期英语文学之间的回报是指一个在1660年的英国王位和浪漫主义的说法, 与华 兹华斯和柯勒律治在1798年出版的抒情歌谣斯图亚特。 2。在此期间的两个主要的政治事件是英国资产阶级革命和广大的英国殖民地的扩张。 3。18世纪的英国被称为启蒙时代的启蒙或理性时代。 9.generally speaking, the mark of the beginning of English Romanticism is in 1798 the publication of Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads.and to have ended in 1832 with Sir Walter Scott's death and the passage of the first reform bill in the Parliament. 10.During the Romantic Period, the most important background revolutions are French Revolution of 1798-1794 and the English Industrial Revolution. 11. Imagination,the major feature of Romanticism,replaced reason, the prevailing ideological tendency in the 18th century neoclassicism. 12.The literary form which is fully developed and the most flourishing during the Romantic Period is poetry.

英语的浪漫主义,在1798年开始出版,华兹华斯和柯勒律治的抒情歌谣。 2。在浪漫主义时期,最重要的背景革命是法国大革命和工业革命。 3。想象,浪漫主义的主要特征,取而代之的原因,当时在18世纪新古典主义的思想倾向。 4。这是全面发展,在浪漫主义时期最繁华的文学形式是诗歌。 14.unlike Romantic Period, the dominent ideological tendency of the Victorian literature is realism or critical realism. 15. Victorian Period witnessed the rising of working class. 16.The poetic form which Browning attached to it maturity and perfection is dramatic monologue. his work my last duchess is just an example. 不同于浪漫主义时期,维多利亚文学占主导地位的思想倾向是现实主义或批判现实主义。 2。维多利亚时代的见证了工人阶级的上升。 布朗宁连接到它的成熟和完善的诗歌形式是戏剧性独白。 他的工作最后公爵夫人米仅仅是一 个例子。

17.in most of Hardy's masterpieces ,trgic sense is the keynote of his novels. trgic 意义上最强壮的杰作,是他的小说的基调 18.The ideological sources of Modernism are skepticism and disillusion of capitalism. 现代主义起源于怀疑论和对资本主义的幻想破灭。 19. Modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theretical base.现代主义以非理性哲学和精神分析原理作为理论基础。 20. The english dramatic revolution in the 1950s developed in two directions: the working-class drama by Angr Young Man and the Theatre of Absurd.

1.Brings little impact on the 20th century literature is Oscar Wildes idea of "Art for Art's Sake" 2.Bernard Shaw is considered to the best know English dramatist since shakespeare, and his representative works are plays inspired by social criticism 3.Down by the Sally Garden by William Butler Yeats.,did you find the allusion to Helen and the Trojan War 4.In "The Lake Isle of Innisfree", William Butler Yeats express his desire to escape from the materialistic society. 5.Whitman's "There was a Child Went Forth" is a poem about a tragic boyhood experience. 6.walt whitman was a pioneering figure of American poetry. His innovation first of all lies in his use of free verse poety. 7.We can perhaps summarize that walt Whitman's poems are characterized by all the following features EXCEPT that they lyrical and well-structured . 8.Most of the poem in Whitman's Leaves of Grass sing of the "en-mass" and the self as well.

9.Generally speaking, all those writers with a naturalistic approach to human reality tend to be pessimists. 10.which of the following is NOT a typical feature of Mark Twain's writing style? Lengthy psychological analysis 11.The raft with which Huck and Jim make their voyage down the Mississippi River way symbolize all the following EXCEPT the American society in the early 19th century. 12.it was every boy's dream to some day grow up to be a a river boat pilot. 13.All his novels reveals that as time went on Mark Twain be came increasingly pessimistic. 14.After the adventures of Tom Sawyer,Twain gives literary independence to Tom's buddy Hack in a book entitled The Adventures of Hackleberry Finn. 15.Mark Twain, one of the great 19th century,American writers is well known for his local color. 16.The raft on which Hack and Jim float along the river in Mark Twain's The Adventures of Hackleberry Finn may symbolized the following EXCEPT a small society where people of different colors can live like brothers.

How to define the term Renaissance? The Renaissance marks a transition from the medieval to the modern world. Generally, it refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th centuries.It first started in Italy,with the flowering of painting, sculpture and literature.the Renaissance, therefore, in essence, is a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts to get rid of those old feudalist ideas in medieval Europe, to introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of the rising bourgeoisie and to recover the purity of the early church from the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church.文艺复兴标志着一个从中世纪到现代世界的过渡。一般来说,它指之间的第14和中期17
世纪期间。它首先开始在意大利,与绘画,雕塑和文学的繁荣。文艺复兴时期,因此,在本质上是一个历 史时期中,欧洲的人文主义思想家和学者尝试摆脱这些旧的封建主义思想在中世纪的欧洲,引进新思路, 对新兴的资产阶级的利益和恢复从早期罗马天主教会的腐败教堂的纯度。

What is the main idea of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe? Robinson Crusoe narrates how Robinson goes to sea, gets ship wrecked and marooned on a lonely island, struggles to live for twenty-four years there and finally gets relieved and returns to England. The story starts with Robinson's running away from home being an inexperienced teenager and a young man full of bright fancies about the future, he chooses going to sea.After many setbacks and adventures on the sea, he settles down in Brazil,but the call of the sea is so strong that he soon embarks on some other voyages.During his travels, he had to overcome innumerable obstacles and often exposed his life to danger.But to the very end he remained courageous persevering and cheerful.鲁宾逊漂流记“讲述了如何罗宾逊出海,获取船舶失事,被困在一
个孤岛,斗争到那里生活了二十四年,终于得到缓解,并返回英格兰。罗宾逊的离家出走是一个没有经验 的少年和一名年轻男子充满明亮的故事开始对未来的幻想,他选择出海。经过了许多挫折和海上冒险,他 在巴西落户,但海的呼唤是如此强烈,他很快就开始其他一些航行。在他的游记中,他克服无数的障碍, 往往暴露了他的生命危险。但到最后,他仍然勇敢,坚忍和开朗。

What is the significance of Robinson Crusoe? How to understand the main character Robinson? The supreme quality in Robinson Crusoe is its sense of reality. Its life likeness. Defoe take pains to convince his readers that what he is writing about is "real life".The book expresses the epic theme of the power of the average man to preserve life and to organize economy in the face of the most unpromising evnironment.Throughout the 18th century, it was used as the basis for lectures in political economy. Robinson is a new man--a mart sure of himself and sure of being able to establish himself anywhere in the world. He is man of new age in which doubt and uncertainty are replaced by hope and confidence.He is the 18th century individual ---the joint product of the new forces of th e dissolution of feudal form of society and of the new forces of production which had develop since 16th century. Robinson is the enterpriser of his age. He is ready to command nature,his enemy,and found his colony beyond the seas.He is a merchant--adventurer interested in material profits.He is the colonist, the empire builder.Robinson Crusoe is an embodiment of the spirit of individual enterprise and colonial expansion of the rising bourgeoisie.
他正在写的是“现实生活”,这本书表达了一般人的权力,以保护生命和组织面对的最没出息的环境经济的 史诗主题。整个18世纪,它被用来作为在政治经济讲座的基础上。 他是新时代的人在怀疑和不确定性的希 望和信心所取代 他是一个商人 -在材料的利润感兴趣的冒险家。他是殖民者,帝国的建设者。鲁宾逊漂流 记“是个别企业和新兴的资产阶级的殖民扩张的精神的体现。

What is the Enlightment Movement? The Enlightenment Movement was a progressive intellectual movement which flourished in France and swept through the whole Western Europe at the time.The movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas. the enlighteners celebrated reason or rationality,equality and science.启蒙运动是一个渐进的智力运动在法国蓬勃发展,并通过当时席卷整
个西欧。运动是第十五和十六世纪的文艺复兴时期的推进。其目的是要晓之以整个世界的现代哲学和艺术 思想。enlighteners 庆祝的理由或合理性,平等和科学。

Humanism: Humanism is a system of beliefs upheld by writers and artists of the Renaissance period in their fighting against medieval asceticism. It states that man is godly, that man is able to find truth, goodness and beauty, and that man is control of the present life rather than being controlled by God-briefly. Humanism puts man at the center of their beliefs and takes man to be the measure of every thing while the former asceticism puts God at the center of their beliefs and takes personal salvation to be the most important thing on the earth for man.人文主义是在反对中世
纪的禁欲主义的战斗文艺复兴时期的作家和艺术家所坚持的信念系统。它指出,人是虔诚的,人是能够找 到真,善,美,人是现在的生活,而不是被神简要控制的控制。人文精神使他们的信仰中心的人,需要男 人要衡量每一件事情,而前者禁欲主义把上帝在他们的信仰中心,并采取个人拯救地球上最重要的是男人 的事。

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