? 1 意义及位置 ? 过去分词作状语，修饰谓语动词，进一步 说明谓语动词的动作和状态。表示被动或 完成的动作。多放在句首，也可以放在句 中句末。
2 用法 表示时间，地点，原因，条件，让步，伴随等状语， 可以转化为相应的状语从句。 Eg 1) Seen (=when it is seen ) from the t
op of the hill, the city looks like a big garden. ----时间状从 2） Deeply moved (=Because he was deeply moved) by his words, Tom agreed to go with him.---原因状从 3) Given (=If I were given) more time, I would do the job much better.---条件状从 4）Encouraged (=Although he is encouraged ) by his parents, he still lacks confidence.----让 步状从
5) 表示方式或伴随情况，如果有连词as 或 as if , 转化为as 或 as if 引导的方式状从; Don’t ask why; just do as told (=you are told) 若无连词，则转化为并列句 Hearing the news, he turned away, disappointed.(=and he was disappointed)
3 过去分词与句子主语之间的关系 过去分词作状语，其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语 一致，过去分词与句子主语通常存在逻辑上的动 宾关系 有些过去分词或短语来源于系表结构，作状语时不 表被动而是表示主语的状态。 如 seated, hidden, lost in, dressed in, faced with, absorbed in，exposed to, devoted to, interested in, excited about, disoppinted with, determined to, prepared for, buried in…
4 从属连词+过去分词 过去分词作状语时，可在分词之前加上某些从属连 词，表示强调。常用的有if , unless, when , as if, once, even if , as though . 此结构实际是状语从句的省略。当状从的主语和句 子的主语保持一致，而且状从的谓语动词是被动 时，可以省略从句的主语和动词be. Eg ①Generally speaking, when taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. ②Though warned of the danger, he still went skating on the thin ice. ③ I won’t attend his birthday party unless invited.
? 1 过去分词表示逻辑上的动宾关系， ? 现在分词表示逻辑上的主谓关系。 ? Seen from the tower, our city looks more beautiful. ? Seeing from the top of the tower, we can get a wonderful view of our city.
? 2 过去分词短语作状语，分词的逻辑主语与句子 保持一致。
? Eg Finished their homework, the children went out to play football. × ? 更正 ① Their homework finished, the children went out to play football. ? ②Having finished their homework, the children went out to play football. ? ③ After the children finished their homework, they went out to play football. ? ④ with their homework finished, the children went out to play football.
3 有些含有分词短语的固定插入语，其逻辑主语不要 求与句子主语一致。这类词常见的有: judging from (根据……来判断) generally/frankly/exactly speaking(一般来说， 坦率的说，确切地说)， considering/taking ……into consideration(考 虑到)， including (包括)，provided/providing (如果) Judging from his appearance, he is a wealthy man. 从外表判断他是一位富翁。 Generally speaking, the more you pay, the more you get. 一般来说，付出的越多，得到的就越多。
Translate the sentences using V-ed form. (1) 因为写得匆忙，这篇文章不是很好。 Written in a hurry, this article was not so good! (2) 工作提前完成了，他非常满意。 He was satisfied, with the work finished ahead of time.
(3) 教授走进了教室，学生跟在身后。 The professor came into the classroom, followed by his students. (4) 这样的机会一旦失去了， 恐怕不会再 来了。 Once lost, such a chance might never come again. (5) 他静静地坐在那里，眼睛看着湖面。 He sat there silently, (with) his eyes fixed on the lake.