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1.American Geography


American Geography
美国地理

General ABCs

Physical Geography

Geography
Cultural Geography

General ABCs of USA Requirements: 1. You are able

to acquire the basic general information of America. 2. You are able to have a basic picture about United States when needed.

Its official name: The United States of America 美利坚合众国 *Abbreviated forms: The United States; The U.S.A; The U.S.; America; The States *Nickname: Uncle Sam; Yankee; Brother Jonathan; Columbia

The General ABCs of the UK
John Bull
Vs.

Uncle Sam

The Location
*The United States is situated in the central part of North America with its two youngest states – Alaska in the northwestern part of North America and Hawaii in the
central Pacific.

The location
*The country is bounded by Canada on the north and by Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico on the south with the
Atlantic Ocean on the east and Pacific Ocean on the west.

*It provide an ideal location for trade-- Its Atlantic coast and the developed industrial countries of the Western Europe stand far apart facing each other, and its Pacific coast and Hawaii give the United States an access to the Far East and Australia.

Country 1. Russia 2. Canada 3. China 4. United States 5. Brazil 6. Australia 7. India 8. Argentina 9. Kazakhstan 10. Sudan

Size of Area

Area(km? ) 17,098,242 9,984,670 9,640,821 9,363,123 8,514,877 7,692,024 3,287,263 2,780,400 2,724,900 2,505,813

Country

1 China 1,335,962,132 2 India 1,144,350,000 3 United States 305,794,000 4 Indonesia 229,373,990 5 Brazil 190,694,000 6 Pakistan 165,611,000 7 Bangladesh 158,665,000 8 Nigeria 148,093,000 9 Russia 141,862,032 10 Japan 127,704,000

Population

population

% of world population

19.84% 16.94% 4.53% 3.41% 2.8% 2.46% 2.36% 2.2% 2.11% 1.9%

Population fabric … A nation of immigrants

Every American who ever lived … was either an immigrant himself or a descendant of immigrants. -- President John F. Kennedy

Official language: English ? Although the country is so big and its people have so many different ethnic backgrounds—however, one can often recognize Negro, Indian, Korean, Russian, etc. accents or people who come from Maryland, the English language is virtually universal in its American form. ? Different from the evident distinct accent in the British Isles, regional variations of accent are slight in the USA. The lack of real regional or class variety in speech or usage is one of the characteristics that tend to make the whole country very obviously one.

What is the DIFFERENCE between British and American English? pronunciation, spelling, usage, slang, form… …

Capital city: Washington, D. C *Formally the District of Columbia; or Washington, "the District", or simply D.C.-which is the seat of the Federal Government. *On July 16, 1790, the Residence Act approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River泼托马克河 on the country's East Coast. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district.

Top left: Healy Hall at Georgetown University; top right: U.S. Capitol; middle: Washington Monument; bottom left: Frederick Douglass National Historic Site; bottom right: African American Civil War Memorial

U.S. Capitol

National flag: ---The Stars and Stripes ---also known as ―Old Glory‖ (adopted by congress 1777) ♂HOW MANY STARS AND STRIPES ??? ♂WHY?

National anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner (passed by congress 1931) 星条旗永不落 Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thru the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? 啊!在晨曦初现时,你可看见 是甚么让我们如此骄傲? 在黎明的最后一道曙光中欢呼, 是谁的旗帜在激战中始终高扬! 烈火熊熊,炮声隆隆, 我们看到要塞上那面英勇的旗帜 在黑夜过后依然耸立! 啊!你说那星条旗是否会静止, 在自由的土地上飘舞, 在勇者的家园上飞扬

National emblem: 美国国徽
In 1782, Congress selected the bald eagle as the emblem of the newly formed United States, because it symbolized courage and might, and because it was indigenous only to the U.S. and to Canada. *Ribbon---―合众为一”

(E Pluribus Unum—Latin: Out of Many, One )
*Olive and Arrow

National Motto:
*In God We Trust 我们信仰上帝(official) *E Pluribus Unum (Latin: Out of Many, One)合众为一 (traditional)
(official)

National Flower: Rose

Currency: US$/US dollar Symbol: $ Code: USD
Paper Money Coins

Coins: 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 cent(s)/penny(ies) obverse-head; reverse-tail 1 cent 5 cents—a nickel镍 币 10—one dime/two bits 25—a quarter 50—half dollar/four bits

Paper money/greenback: 11 kinds 1 dollar—George Washington; 2—Thomas Jefferson 5—Abraham Lincoln 10—Alexander Hamilton 20—Andrew Jackson 50—Ulysses Grant 100-Benjamin Franklin 500—William Mckinley 1000—Grover Cleveland 5000—James Madison 10,000—Salmon Chase

三潭印月橄榄绿

泰山紫色

长江三峡蓝黑色

桂林山水棕色

布达拉宫绿色

人民大会堂红色

States: 50州
*The whole country includes 50 states and a federal district—the District of Columbia (Washington, DC). *Two states are not on the mainland. ---Alaska and Hawaii. In 1959 Alaska and Hawaii became the 49th and the 50th.

Alaska: A state of the United States in extreme northwest
North America, separated from the other mainland states. It was admitted as the 49th state in 1959 and is the largest state of the Union. Juneau is the capital and Anchorage the largest city.

Hawaii: A state of the United States in the central Pacific
Ocean comprising the Hawaiian Islands. The islands became a U.S. territory in 1900, which was admitted as the 50th state in 1959. Honolulu, on Oahu, is the capital and the largest city. Population, 1,115,274.

*Which state is the largest and which one is the smallest? ---Alaska, the largest in area ---Rhode Island, the smallest. ---On the mainland, Texas is the largest. (Texas=France, Alaska twice Texas) *Which state is the most populous? Which the least? ---the largest in terms of population is California. ---Wyoming, the least population.

American states and capitals

? ?

50 states and their capitals
亚拉巴马 Alabama -- AL 蒙哥马利 Montgomery 阿拉斯加 Alaska -- AK 朱诺 Juneau 亚利桑那 Arizona --AZ 菲尼克斯 Phoenix 阿肯色 Arkansas -- AR 小石城 Little rock 加利福尼亚 California -- CA 萨克拉门托 Sacramento 科罗拉多 Colorado -- CO 丹佛 Denver 康涅狄格 Connecticut -- CT 哈特福德 Hartford 特拉华 Delaware -- DE 多佛 Dover 佛罗里达 Florida -- FL 塔拉哈西 Tallahassee 佐治亚 Georgia -- GA 亚特兰大 Atlanta 夏威夷 Hawaii -- HI 檀香山 Honolulu 爱达荷 Idaho -- ID 博伊西 Boise 伊利诺伊 Illinois -- IL 斯普林菲尔德 Springfield 印第安纳 Indiana -- IN 印第安纳波利斯 Indianapolis 艾奥瓦 Iowa --IA 得梅因 Des Moines 堪萨斯 Kansas -- KS 托皮卡 Topeka 肯塔基 Kentucky -- KY 法兰克福 Frankfort 路易斯安那 Louisiana -- LA 巴吞鲁日 Baton Rouge 缅因 Maine -- ME 奥古斯塔 Augusta 马里兰 Maryland -- MD 安纳波利斯 Annapolis 马萨诸塞 Massachusetts -- MA 波士顿 Boston 密歇根 Michigan -- MI 兰辛 Lansing 明尼苏达 Minnesota -- MN 圣保罗 St. Paul

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?

states

capitals

?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

密西西比 Mississippi -- MS 杰克逊 Jackson 密苏里 Missouri -- MO 杰斐逊城 Jefferson City 蒙大拿 Montana -- MT 海伦娜 Helena 内布拉斯加 Nebraska -- NE 林肯 Lincoln 内华达 Nevada -- NV 卡森城 Carson City 新罕布什尔 New hampshire -- NH 康科德 Concord 新泽西 New jersey -- NJ 特伦顿 Trenton 新墨西哥 New mexico -- NM 圣菲 Santa Fe 纽约 New york -- NY奥尔巴尼Albany (New York ,the largest city in USA, is located ) 北卡罗来 North carolina -- NC 纳罗利 Raleigh 北达科他 North dakota -- ND 俾斯麦 Bismarck 俄亥俄 Ohio -- OH 哥伦布 Columbus 俄克拉何马 Oklahoma -- OK 俄克拉何马城 Oklahoma City 俄勒冈 Oregon -- OR 塞勒姆 Salem 宾夕法尼亚 Pennsylvania -- PA 哈里斯堡 Harrisburg 罗得岛 Rhode island -- RL 普罗维登斯 Providence 南卡罗来纳 South carolina -- SC 哥伦比亚 Columbia 南达科他 South dakota -- SD 皮尔 Pierre 田纳西 Tennessee -- TN 纳什维尔 Nashville 得克萨斯 Texas -- TX 奥斯汀 Austin 犹他 Utah -- UT 盐湖城 Salt Lake City 佛蒙特 Vermont -- VT 蒙彼利埃 Montpelier 弗吉尼亚 Virginia -- VA 里士满 Richmond 华盛顿 Washington -- WA 奥林匹亚 Olympia 西弗吉尼亚 West virginia -- WV 查尔斯顿 Charleston 威斯康星 Wisconsin -- WI 麦迪逊 Madison 怀俄明 Wyoming -- WY 夏延 Cheyenne

Geography

23省、5自治区、4直辖市和2特别行政区共计34省级行政区

American Geography ? Physical Geography *Mountains *Rivers and Lakes *Climate *Geographical Features Cultural Geography ①The Northeast ②The Midwest ③The West ④The South

?

Mountains: The Rockies & Appalachian

Mountains: The Rockies & Appalachians
☆The Rocky Mountains/the Rockies 落基山脉 ⊕ on the west; within the American Cordillera 科迪勒拉山系 ⊕more than 3,000 miles (4,830 km) long ⊕stretch from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. ⊕the highest; the ―backbone‖

☆ The Appalachian Mountains 阿巴拉契亚山脉 ⊕on the east; stretch almost unbroken from Alabama (Georgia) to the Canadian border and beyond. ⊕agricultural and industrial centers

Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri & Ohio
※Three main river systems: The Mississippi 密西西比河: line between "east" and "west―; ―Father of Waters‖ 百川之父. The Missouri 密苏里河: from Rocky to the Mississippi The Ohio 俄亥俄河: the most important industrial region

Lakes: The Great Lakes五大湖 Superior苏必利尔湖: the largest fresh water lake Michigan密歇根湖: the only one entirely in the USA Huron休伦湖, Erie伊利湖, Ontario安大略湖

Great lakes:
Lakes Superior苏必利尔湖 Michigan密歇根湖 Huron休伦湖 Niagara Falls 尼亚加拉大瀑布 Ontario [?n't??ri?u] 安大略湖 Erie ['i?ri] 伊利湖

Niagara Falls尼亚加拉大瀑布

Climate
The United States is mainly situated in the northern temperate zone. But, owing to its large size and varied landforms, it has different types of climates in different regions. 1)Summer is exceedingly hot, and particularly near the eastern seaboard. 2)Winter is very cold, particularly away from the coast. 3)On the west coast the climate is much more equable温和的. Natural disasters:

Hurricane; tornado; flood.

Hurricane Sandy
When Hurricane hit the region, … … ? ……

Geographical Features/Divisions
(1) The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain (2)The Appalachians and their foothills (3)The Interior Lowlands (4)The Cordillera (科迪勒拉山系)

The Contour of the US

The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
? The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains reach north along the east coast of the United States as far as the southern margins of New England. ? The original 13 colonies were all located in this narrow belt. ? American settlers began to move westward across the Appalachians into the interior lowlands after the American Revolution (1775-1781).

The Northeast
*The 13 colonies were: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island.

The Appalachians and their foothills The Appalachians on the east stretch almost unbroken from Alabama (Georgia) to the Canadian border and beyond. They are much-eroded old mountains and are set back from the Atlantic by a broad belt of coastal lowland.

The Interior Lowlands

? This great lowland rises toward the north, where it thrusts sharply against the wilderness bulwark of the Canadian Shield. ? To the south, the lowland opens almost imperceptibly to a broad coastal plain that fringes the Gulf of Mexico. ? To the east and west, the land rises gradually and then abruptly to mountain ranges that flank the lowland to either side and separate it from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

The Cordillera (科迪勒拉山系) --Complicated and Varied
? The American Cordillera is a cordillera山脉, the mighty

system of mountains that Spanish explorers named, that
consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America,

Central America, South America and Antarctica.
? In the United States, the Cordillera branches to include the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, and the Cascades

and Coast ranges of Washington, Oregon, and California.
? It includes both main mountain ranges and a variety of intermontane valleys, basins, and plateaus.

The Grand Canyon

Mohave Desert –莫哈维沙漠

Death Valley, CA

3.3 million acres. 95% wilderness.

Great Salt Lake

Yellowstone National Park --Wyoming

Mammoth Hot Springs 猛犸温泉

A boiling hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

Old Faithful

Cultural Geography
*In fact, there is more than one meaningful division of the US territory according to the Cultural Geography. Herein, we use a more common division: ①The Northeast ②The South ③The Midwest ④The West

The Northeast
The region comprises nine states: (1)The New England states新英格兰6州:
Northern New E: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont Southern New E: Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut

(2)the Mid-Atlantic states: New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania

The Northeast --Its historical background
*This region also covers most of the original 13 colonies under British Empire. *Many of the nation’s core values can be traced there. --For example: individualism, thrifty lifestyles, hard work, optimistic, etc. --All these values are said to have derived from the early settlers of New England in this region.

The Northeast
* As Economic and cultural centre The Northeast is the wealthiest region of the United States; Maryland, New Jersey and Connecticut have the highest median incomes in the country while Massachusetts is ranked fifth. It also accounts for approximately 25% of U.S. gross domestic product as of 2007. * The place for metropolitan and dense population. Only New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts rank in the top 15 states in terms of population. *This region is also home to all eight Ivy League schools常春藤联盟(大学). They generate income by knowledge industries.

New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. ※Five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Richmond, Queen’s ※What a picture? Wall Street; Fifth Avenue; Broadway; the Empire State Building; Rockefeller Center; the United Nations Building; Central Park; the Negro quarter of Harlem(slum);

New York, New York!
Brooklyn Bridge

Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States

Viewing southward from Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan at dusk.

The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street

The Empire State Building and Chrysler Building

The Manhattan Chinatown

the Statue of Liberty

the South Tower of the former World Trade Center on September 11, 2001

New York Harbor's Statue of Liberty National Monument, with the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center

North-South Divide: Ohio River and The Mason-Dixon Line
南北的分界线:俄亥俄河和梅森——狄克逊线.

Charles Mason & Jeremiah Dixon: 1763-1767

The South
*Traditionally, the Southern region refers to the eleven states that left the Union to form the Confederacy during the Civil War period. *As defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U.S. residents, lived in the South, the nation's most populous region. The Census Bureau defined three smaller units, or divisions:

The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy and the CSA) was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by a number of Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas,Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina

The South
1. The South Atlantic States: Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Delaware 2. The East South Central States: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi and Tennessee 3. The West South Central States: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas

The South
Featured as: *Its distinct culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles and varied cuisines that have helped distinguish it from the rest of the United States. *The Southerns are of a variety of sources --Native Americans --Early European settlements of Spanish, English, German, French, Scotch-Irish, and Scottish --Importation of hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans--historic dependence on slave labor *Famous for its ―Plantation system‖ as well as ―Slavery‖ esp. historically.

American Plantation system

A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. Prominent plantation crops included cotton, rubber, sugar cane, tobacco, figs, rice, etc.

? The first colonists were almost entirely English, who came (the South) for economic rather than religious or political reasons. They did not find gold or silver, but they did find the climate and soil suitable for the production of such cash crops as tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton. To meet the need for field workers, plantation owners first imported indentured servants form England for the most part and, then, slaves from Africa. From then on, the South was firmly structured on the basis of a plantation system. ? Therefore, the “Slavery” came into being. ? Ref. 11 Confederate States of America.

The South
Featured as: *The legacy of a rigid social structure --The colonists taking the model of the British which is different from the Puritans in the North. --A time-honored nations as the caste system and a hierarchical social structure are still hard to completely remove from the minds of the Southerners. Even now, the legacy of a rigid social structure can still be strongly felt in the South. Southern whites, relatively speaking, are more conservative than white people in other regions. *Since 1976, most presidents of the United States were from the South.

The Midwest
The region consists
of 13 states in the

north-central and
north-eastern

United States. The
Midwest is

sometimes divided
into two regions:

1. the Great Lakes

States: Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Minnesota, and Wisconsin

2. the Great Plains States: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,

North Dakota, Nebraska,
and South Dakota.

Viewing the Midwest: *known as ”Industrial Midwest & Agricultural Midwest”— owing to the favorable natural conditions: the Great Lakes and plenty of plains. --Industrial: Mainly in Chicago, Illinois which is the most populous of the states. Chicago is the largest city in the American Midwest and the third largest in the entire country. --Agriculture is one of the biggest drivers of local economies in the Midwest, accounting for billions of dollars worth of exports and thousands of jobs. The area has some of the richest farming land in the world and is known for its corn and cattle. The extended area also includes soybean and wheat fields, particularly west of the Missouri River.

The Midwest

The Midwest
*Its central location making it a transportation crossroads for river boats, railroads, autos and trucks, trucking and air travel. *Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections. *the ―Old West‖

Chicago Skyline

The West
? The Western United States, or "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. ? The western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

The West
*The West can be divided into: --the Pacific States; Alaska, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington, and California, with the term West Coast usually restricted to just California, Oregon, and Washington, --the Mountain States, always Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.
* Alaska and Hawaii, being detached from the other western states, have few similarities with them, but are usually also classified as part of the West

The Pacific Coast
? The pacific Coast grew as a populated area in the wake of the 1849 Gold Rush, when many people were attracted there by the discovery of gold.

California

San Francisco旧金山

Los Angeles洛杉矶 The City of Angels?

Hollywood: City of Lost Dreams

The Mountain States
? The terrain of the Mountain West is more diverse than any other region in the United States. Its physical geography ranges from some of the highest mountain peaks in the continental United States, to large desert lands, and flat rolling plains in the eastern portion of the region. ? Ref. The Cordillera科迪勒拉山系

Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada

Assignment:
1.Remember the name, size, population, location, major states/capitals, of the fifty states. 2.Describing the Cultural Geography of America. 3.Check out the background information of the animals in USA in pictures. 4. To google the Geographic features/divisions of China and to compare it with that of America.

Buffalo

Reindeer 驼鹿


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