? 非谓语动词：不定式，动名词，分词 非谓语动词使用条件：一个句子里，已经有谓语 V，无连词，别的动词出现。 She got off the bus, leaving her bag on her seat. She got off the bus, but left her bag on her seat.
词：现在分词doing/having done，过去分词 done/having been done 区别：语态上，现在分词表主动，过去分词表被动 Do you know the woman talking to Tom? The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor. Having finished homework, I went home. Having been praised, he smiled happily. 时态上，现在分词表进行，过去分词表完成 developing country developed country boliling water boiled water
用doing/done/having done/ having been done填空 1._____(see ) those picture, he couldn’t help thinking of those days in Yan’an. 2._____( turn ) round, Fanny found a bus driving up. 3._____( water ) the vegetables, they began to pick up the apples. 4._____( finish ) the work, he went back home on foot. 5._____( inspire ) by Dr. Chen’s speech, they decided to study maths harder. 6._____( persuade) by my mother, she gladly went there alone.
? 作定语（前置定语，后置定语） There is a sleeping child. We only sell used books. The bridge built last month needs repairing. 后置定语相当于一个定语从句 The man,who had been disturbed was angry. =The man, having been disturbed was angry.
? Those who wish to join the club will come here. =Those wishing to join the club will come here.
? the question discussed yesterday 昨天讨论的问题（既被 动也完成） the fallen leaves 落下的叶子（只完成 ，不被动）
be +形容词ed + to do be lost in be faced with be dressed in be located in/at/on be determined to do be worn out be absorbed in be seated in/at/on be worried about be buried in be exposed to be compared with Judging from
? Dressed in red, she looks more beautiful. ? Lost in deep thought, he can’t hear anything. ? I found she seated at her seat, listening to music. ? I am excited to hear the news.
? 动词see，wathch,hear, set,keep, find,have,get等 ? I saw him walking in the street. ? I have my room cleaned.
? 现在分词和过去分词作状语的区别 现在分词表主动/进行 过去分词表被动/完成 （Seeing/seen）from the top of the tower, we can see the whole city. (Seeing/seen) from the top of the tower, the city looks beautiful.
1.(Hearing/heard) the bad new, they couldn't help crying. 2. (Giving/given) more time, we could finish it. 3.I stood by the door, not(daring/dared) to move.
? Hearing the bad news, they couldn't help crying. ? 当他们听到这个坏消息的时候，他们情不 自禁地哭了。 Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果树被给以更多注意，它们本可以长 得更好。
? Being so angry, he couldn't go to sleep. ? Because he was moved by the hero, she decided to study harder. ? When he found the door locked, he went home. ? Because I don‘t know her address, I can’t write to her.
? 世纪金榜 P 5 P6 P16-18 P28-30
? 一般来说，分词或分词短语作状语，其逻 辑主语要和句子的主语一致 ? Given more time, we could finish it. ? 但是有时候，分词的动作不是由句子的主 语发出，它有自己的逻辑主语 ? We arriving there, the sun is rising in the east.
? 独立主格有两部分，前部分是名词或代词，后一部分 是非谓语动词/adj/adv/介词短语。前后两部分有逻辑 主谓关系。独立主格在句中作状语，本身不是句子， 表时间，原因，条件，伴随，目的等
? 1. 名词/代词+-ing分词及其短语 ? The moon appearing, they decided to go home. ? The students are walking slowly, their teacher following. 2. 名词/代词+-ed分词及其短语 Good-bye said, we went home. All things considered, it is a good plan.
? 3. 名词/代词+adj及其短语 The weather (being) hot, we all went swimming. Dinner ready, the hostess asked her guests to be seated. 4. 名词/代词+不定式及其短语 The money to be paid by the driver, the police went away.
? 5. 名词/代词+adv 及其短语 ? She stood there, book in hand. ? Everybody at home, we sat down to dinner.
? With the old man leading, they started toward the mountains. ? Don't speak with your mouth full.
7.There being/there having been结构，多表原 因
? There being a lot of books to read, he often studied till midnight. ? There having been no rain for a long time, the ground is dry.
? 世纪金榜 P39