当前位置:首页 >> 英语学习 >>


Unit 1 Time-Conscious Americans Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. "We are slaves to nothing but the clock," it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. It is a precious resource. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. Once the sands have run out of a person's hourglass, they cannot be replaced. We want every minute to count. A foreigner's first impression of the US is likely to be that everyone is in a rush—often under pressure. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country. Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting for you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. You also find drivers will be abrupt and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. Don't take it personally. This is because people value time highly, and they resent someone else "wasting" it beyond a certain appropriate point. Many new arrivals in the States will miss the opening exchanges of a business call, for example. They will miss the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee that may be a convention in their own country. They may miss leisurely business chats in a restaurant or coffee house. Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner, or around on the golf course while they develop a sense of trust. Since we generally assess and probe professionally rather than socially, we start talking business very quickly. Time is, therefore, always ticking in our inner ear. Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; we communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer—especially given our traffic-filled streets. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings. To us the impersonality of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. In America, too, a final agreement will normally be signed in person. However, people are meeting increasingly on television screens, conducting "teleconferences" to settle problems not only in this country but also—by satellite—internationally. The US is definitely a telephone country. Almost everyone uses the telephone to conduct business, to chat with friends, to make or break social appointments, to say "Thank you", to shop and to obtain all kinds of information. Telephones save the feet and endless amounts of time. This is due partly to the fact that the telephone service is superb here, whereas the postal service is less efficient. Some new arrivals will come from cultures where it is considered impolite to work too quickly. Unless a certain amount of time is allowed to elapse, it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. Assignments are, consequently, given added weight by the passage of time. In the US, however, it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem, or fulfill a job successfully, with speed. Usually, the more important a task is, the more capital, energy, and attention will be poured into it in order to "get it moving".

美国人认为没有人能停止不前。如果你不求进取,你就会落伍。这种态度造就了一个投身于研究、 实验和探索的民族。时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一要素是劳力。

人们一直说: “只有时间才能支配我们。 ”人们似乎把时间当作一个差不多是实实在在的东西来对待。 我们安排时间、节约时间、浪费时间、挤抢时间、消磨时间、缩减时间、对时间的利用作出解释;我们 还要因付出时间而收取费用。时间是一种宝贵的资源,许多人都深感人生的短暂。时光一去不复返。我 们应当让每一分钟都过得有意义。 外国人对美国的第一印象很可能是:每个人都匆匆忙忙──常常处于压力之下。城里人看上去总是 在匆匆地赶往他们要去的地方,在商店里他们焦躁不安地指望店员能马上来为他们服务,或者为了赶快 买完东西,用肘来推搡他人。白天吃饭时人们也都匆匆忙忙,这部分地反映出这个国家的生活节奏。人 们认为工作时间是宝贵的。在公共用餐场所,人们都等着别人尽快吃完,以便他们也能及时用餐,你还 会发现司机开车很鲁莽,人们推搡着在你身边过去。你会怀念微笑、简短的交谈以及与陌生人的随意闲 聊。不要觉得这是针对你个人的,这是因为人们都非常珍惜时间,而且也不喜欢他人“浪费”时间到不 恰当的地步。 许多刚到美国的人会怀念诸如商务拜访等场合开始时的寒暄。他们也会怀念那种一边喝茶或喝咖啡 一边进行的礼节性交流,这也许是他们自己国家的一种习俗。他们也许还会怀念在饭店或咖啡馆里谈生 意时的那种轻松悠闲的交谈。一般说来,美国人是不会在如此轻松的环境里通过长时间的闲聊来评价他 们的客人的,更不用说会在增进相互间信任的过程中带他们出去吃饭,或带他们去打高尔夫球。既然我 们通常是通过工作而不是社交来评估和了解他人,我们就开门见山地谈正事。因此,时间老是在我们心 中滴滴答答地响着。 因此,我们千方百计地节约时间。我们发明了一系列节省劳力的装置;我们通过发传真、打电话或 发电子邮件与他人迅速地进行交流,而不是通过直接接触。虽然面对面接触令人愉快,但却要花更多的 时间,尤其是在马路上交通拥挤的时候。因此,我们把大多数个人拜访安排在下班以后的时间里或周末 的社交聚会上。 就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系。在有 些国家,如果没有目光接触,就做不成大生意,这需要面对面的交谈。在美国,最后协议通常也需要本 人签字。然而现在人们越来越多地在电视屏幕上见面,开远程会议不仅能解决本国的问题,而且还能通 过卫星解决国际问题。 美国无疑是一个电话王国。几乎每个人都在用电话做生意、与朋友聊天、安排或取消社交约会、表 达谢意、购物和获得各种信息。电话不但能免去走路之劳,而且还能节约大量时间。其部分原因在于这 样一个事实:美国的电话服务是一流的,而邮政服务的效率则差一些。 有些初来美国的人来自文化背景不同的其他国家,在他们的国家,人们认为工作太快是一种失礼。 在他们看来,如果不花一定时间来处理某件事的话,那么这件事就好像是无足轻重的,不值得给予适当 的重视。 因此,人们觉得用的时间长会增加所做事情的重要性。但在美国,能迅速而又成功地解决问题 或完成工作则被视为是有水平、有能力的标志。通常情况下,工作越重要,投入的资金、精力和注意力 就越多,其目的是“使工作开展起来” 。 Culture Shock Do you think studying in a different country is something that sounds very exciting? Are you like many young people who leave home to study in another country thinking you will have lots of fun? Certainly, it is a new experience, which brings the opportunity to discover fascinating things and a feeling of freedom. In spite of these advantages, however, there are also some challenges you will encounter. Because your views may clash with the different beliefs, norms, values and traditions that exist in different countries, you may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to you. This is called "culture shock". At least four essential stages of adjustment occur during culture shock. The first stage is called "the honeymoon". In this stage, you are excited about living in a different place, and everything seems to be marvelous. You like everything, and everybody seems to be so nice to you. Also, the amusement of life in a new culture seems to have no ending. Eventually, however, the second stage of culture shock appears. This is "the hostility stage". You begin to

notice that not everything is as good as you had originally thought it was. You become tired of many things about the new culture. Moreover, people don't treat you like a guest anymore. Everything that seemed to be so wonderful at first is now awful, and everything makes you feel distressed and tired. Usually at this point in your adjustment to a new culture, you devise some defense mechanisms to help you cope and to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock. One type of coping mechanism is called "repression". This happens when you pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers you. Another type of defense mechanism is called "regression". This occurs when you start to act as if you are younger than you actually are; you act like a child. You forget everything, and sometimes you become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called "isolation". You would rather be home alone, and you don't want to communicate with anybody. With isolation, you try to avoid the effects of culture shock, or at least that's what you think. Isolation is one of the worst coping mechanisms you can use because it separates you from those things that could really help you. The last type of defense mechanism is called "rejection". With this coping mechanism, you think you don't need anybody. You feel you are coping fine alone, so you don't try to ask for help. The defense mechanisms you utilize in the hostility stage are not helpful. If you only occasionally use one of these coping mechanisms to help yourself survive, that is acceptable. You must be cautious, however. These mechanisms can really hurt you because they prevent you from making necessary adjustments to the new culture. After you deal with your hostile feelings, recognition of the temporary nature of culture shock begins. Then you come to the third stage called "recovery". In this stage, you start feeling more positive, and you try to develop comprehension of everything you don't understand. The whole situation starts to become more favorable; you recover from the symptoms of the first two stages, and you adjust yourself to the new norms, values, and even beliefs and traditions of the new country. You begin to see that even though the distinction of the culture is different from your own, it has elements that you can learn to appreciate. The last stage of culture shock is called "adjustment". In this stage, you have reached a point where you actually feel good because you have learned enough to understand the new culture. The things that initially made you feel uncomfortable or strange are now things that you understand. This acquisition of understanding alleviates much of the stress. Now you feel comfortable; you have adjusted to the new culture. Culture shock is not something you can avoid when living in a foreign country. It does not seem like a very helpful experience when you are going through its four stages. However, when you have completely adjusted to a new culture you can more fully enjoy it. You learn how to interact with other people, and you learn a considerable amount about life in a culture that is not your own. Furthermore, learning about other cultures and how to adjust to the shock of living in them helps you learn more about yourself.

你认为在异国留学是一件听上去非常令人兴奋的事情吗? 你会像许多离家去另一个国家学习的年 轻人一样感觉很有趣吗? 这当然是一种崭新的经历,它会给你带来机会,让你发现许多迷人的东西,获 得一种自由感。然而,尽管有这些好处,你也会遇到挑战。因为你的观点可能会与存在于不同国家的不 同信念、准则、价值观念和传统发生冲突。你也许会感到很难去适应一种新的文化以及该文化中你不熟 悉的那些部分。这就是“文化冲击” 。人们经历文化冲击的过程至少包括四个主要阶段。 第一阶段叫做“蜜月期” 。在这一阶段,你会感到生活在一个不同国度里很兴奋,而且每一样东西看 上去都妙不可言。你什么都喜欢,而且好像每个人都对你很好。另外,新的文化中的生活乐趣好像是无 穷无尽的。 然而,文化冲击的第二阶段终究会出现,这就是“敌对期” 。你开始注意到并不是每样东西都像你原 先认为的那样好。你会对新的文化里的许多东西感到厌倦。此外,人们也不再把你当作一个客人来对待 了。所有最初看上去非常美好的东西现在变得让人讨厌了,而且每一样东西都使你感到苦恼和厌倦。 通常,在你适应一种新文化的这一阶段中,你会想出一些防卫性的办法来帮助你应付难关,保护自 己免受文化冲击的影响。其中一种办法叫做“压抑法” 。当你假装所有的东西都可以接受,没有什么东西

令你感到烦恼的时候,你就是在运用压抑法。另一种防卫性办法称做“倒退法” 。当你的行为举止开始显 得比你实际年龄要小的时候,你就是在运用这种办法。这时,你的行为举止像一个小孩。你把什么都忘 掉了,而且有时你会变得粗心大意,不负责任。第三种防卫性办法叫做“孤立法” 。你宁可一个人呆在家 里,不想和任何人交流。你想把自己封闭起来以避免文化冲击的影响,至少你是这样认为的。孤立法也 许是人们用来对付文化冲击的最糟糕的办法之一,因为你把那些能真正帮助你的东西和你隔离开来了。 最后一种防卫性办法叫做“排斥法” 。这一办法让你觉得自己不需要任何人帮助。你觉得你可以独自把事 情处理好,所以你就不想求助于人。 你在敌意阶段使用的这些办法并不能解决问题。如果你仅仅是偶尔运用一下其中一个应付办法来帮 助你生存下去,这也无妨。但是你必须谨慎。这些办法可能会真的使你受到伤害,因为它们会阻碍你对 新的文化作出必要的调整。 在克服了自己的敌对情绪后,你就会开始认识到文化冲击的短暂性。然后你就会步入被称为“恢复 期”的第三阶段。在这个阶段,你开始变得积极起来,而且你会努力去理解所有你不理解的东西。整个 形势开始变得对你有利了,你会从前面两个阶段出现的症状中恢复过来。而且你开始使自己适应新的准 则、新的价值观念,乃至这个新的国家的各种信念和传统。你开始明白,虽然这种新的文化的特点和你 自己国家的文化特点有所不同,但其中也必定有值得你学习和欣赏的东西。 文化冲击的最后一个阶段被称为“适应期” 。在这个阶段,你真正达到了感觉良好的境界,因为你已 经学到了很多东西,已经能理解这种新的文化了。最初使你感到不舒服或陌生的东西,现在已成了你能 理解的东西。这种理解会减轻你的许多压力。现在你感到自在了,你已经适应了新的文化。 文化冲击是生活在异国他乡的人无法避免的东西。当你在经历文化冲击的这四个阶段时,它似乎并 不是一件有益的事。然而,当你完全适应了某一种新的文化时,你会更加充分地喜爱这种文化的。你学 会了如何和他人交流,而且还了解了不同文化背景下人们的大量生活情况。此外,了解其他各种文化, 以及懂得当你身处其中时如何去适应所受到的冲击,可以帮助你更好地了解自己。 Unit 2 Learning the Olympic Standard for Love Nikolai Petrovich Anikin was not half as intimidating as I had imagined he would be. No, this surely was not the ex-Soviet coach my father had shipped me out to meet. But Nikolai he was, Petrovich and all. He invited me inside and sat down on the couch, patting the blanket next to him to get me to sit next to him. I was so nervous in his presence. "You are young," he began in his Russian-style English. "If you like to try for Olympic Games, I guess you will be able to do this. Nagano Olympics too soon for you, but for 2002 in Salt Lake City, you could be ready." "Yes, why not?" he replied to the shocked look on my face. I was a promising amateur skier, but by no means the top skier in the country. "Of course, there will be many hard training sessions, and you will cry, but you will improve." To be sure, there were countless training sessions full of pain and more than a few tears, but in the five years that followed I could always count on being encouraged by Nikolai's amusing stories and sense of humor. "My friends, they go in the movies, they go in the dance, they go out with girls," he would start. "But I," he would continue, lowering his voice, "I am practice, practice, practice in the stadium. And by the next year, I had cut 1-1/2 minutes off my time in the 15-kilometer race! "My friends asked me, 'Nikolai, how did you do it?' And I replied, 'You go in the movies, you go in the dance, you go out with girls, but I am practice, practice, practice.' Here the story usually ended, but on one occasion, which we later learned was his 25th wedding anniversary, he stood proudly in a worn woolen sweater and smiled and whispered, "And I tell you, I am 26 years old before I ever kiss a girl! She was the woman I later marry." Romantic and otherwise, Nikolai knew love. His consistent good humor, quiet gratitude, perceptivity, and sincerity set an Olympic standard for love that I continue to reach for, even though my skiing days are over.

Still, he never babied me. One February day I had a massive headache and felt quite fatigued. I came upon him in a clearing, and after approximately 15 minutes of striding into the cold breeze over the white powder to catch him, I fussed, "Oh, Nikolai, I feel like I am going to die." "When you are a hundred years old, everybody dies," he said, indifferent to my pain. "But now," he continued firmly. "Now must be ski, ski, ski." And, on skis, I did what he said. On other matters, though, I was rebellious. Once, he packed 10 of us into a Finnish bachelor's tiny home for a low-budget ski camp. We awoke the first morning to find Nikolai making breakfast and then made quick work with our spoons while sitting on makeshift chairs around a tiny card table. When we were finished, Nikolai stacked the sticky bowls in front of my sole female teammate and me, asserting, "Now, girls do dishes!" I threw my napkin on the floor and swore at him, "Ask the damn boys! This is unfair." He never asked this of me again, nor did he take much notice of my outburst. He saved his passion for skiing. When coaching, he would sing out his instructions keeping rhythm with our stride: "Yes, yes, one-two-three, one-two-three." A dear lady friend of my grandfather, after viewing a copy of a video of me training with Nikolai, asked, "Does he also teach dance?" In training, I worked without rest to correct mistakes that Nikolai pointed out and I asked after each pass if it was better. "Yes, it's OK. But the faster knee down, the better." "But is it fast enough?" I'd persist. Finally he would frown and say, "Billion times you make motion—then be perfect," reminding me in an I've-told-you-a-billion-times tone, "You must be patient." Nikolai's patience and my hard work earned me a fourth-place national ranking heading into the pre-Olympic season, but then I missed the cut for the 2002 Olympics. Last summer, I returned to visit Nikolai. He made me tea... and did the dishes! We talked while sitting on his couch. Missing the Olympic Team the previous year had made me pause and reflect on what I had gained—not the least of which was a quiet, indissoluble bond with a short man in a tropical shirt. Nikolai taught me to have the courage, heart, and discipline to persist, even if it takes a billion tries. He taught me to be thankful in advance for a century of life on earth, and to remind myself every day that despite the challenges at hand, "Now must be love, love, love."

尼克莱?彼得罗维奇?安尼金一点都不像我想象的那么吓人。不,他不可能是我父亲特地送我来见的 那位前苏联教练。 可他的确是尼克莱?彼得罗维奇?安尼金本人。他请我进门,在沙发上坐下,又拍了拍身边的垫子, 让我坐在他旁边。在他面前,我真的很紧张。 “你还年轻, ”他的英语带着俄语口音: “如果你愿意试着向奥林匹克运动会进军,我想你能行。长 野奥运会来不及参加了,但你可以准备参加 2002 年盐湖城奥运会。 ” “完全可以,不是吗?”看到我脸上惊愕的表情,他又说道。我那时是一个很有前途的业余滑雪运 动员,但在国内决不是顶尖选手。 “当然,你需要进行很多艰苦的训练,你会哭鼻子,但你一定会进步的。 ” 的确,后来我经历了无数痛苦的训练,还为此流了不少眼泪。但在后来的五年里,我总能从尼克莱 讲的有趣故事和他的幽默感中得到鼓励。 他开始总是说: “我的朋友们常去看电影, 去跳舞, 去和女孩子约会, 然后他会压低嗓门接着说: ” “我 就在运动场上训练、训练、再训练。第二年,我的 15 公里滑雪比赛成绩缩短了 1.5 分钟。 ” “朋友们问我: ‘尼克莱,你怎么做到的呢?’我回答: ‘你们去看电影、跳舞、和女孩子约会,而 我一直在训练、训练、再训练。” ’ 故事通常到这儿就结束了。但有一次──后来我们知道那天是他结婚 25 周年纪念日──他穿着一件

旧的毛衣,很自豪地站着,微笑着轻声说道: “告诉你们,我可是在 26 岁那年才第一次亲吻女孩子。她 后来就和我结了婚。 ” 不管他是不是懂得浪漫,尼克莱知道什么是爱。他以一贯的幽默、默默的感恩、敏锐的感觉和真诚 的态度为爱设立了奥林匹克般的标准。即使在我结束了滑雪生涯之后,我仍一直努力去达到那个标准。 但他又从不娇惯我。二月里的一天,我头很疼,感到十分疲倦。我在一片空地上遇见了他,在寒风 中的雪地里滑了大概十五分钟后,我赶上了他,有点小题大做地说: “嘿,尼克莱,我感觉我要死了。 ” “如果活到一百岁,人人都会死的, ”他对我的痛苦无动于衷,态度坚决地接着说: “但你现在必须 滑、滑、再滑。 ” 在滑雪板上,我照他说的去做。但在其他事情上我会反抗他。在一次经费并不宽裕的滑雪露营活动 中,他让我们十个人挤在一个单身汉住的芬兰式屋子里。第一天我们醒来时发现尼克莱正在做早餐。然 后我们坐在临时拼凑起来的椅子上,围着张小小的牌桌,用勺子很快地吃完早饭。吃完后,尼克莱把摞 起来的油腻腻的碗向我和我唯一的另一个女队友前一推,武断地说: “女孩子们,现在去洗碗吧! ” 我把餐巾往地上一扔,向他骂道: “让该死的男孩子们去洗吧!这不公平! ”他没再让我去洗碗,也 没对我的大发脾气显得太在意。他只在滑雪时才显露出强烈的情感。 训练的时候,他会岁着我们迈步的节奏大声发出指令: “对,就这样,一二三,一二三。 ”我祖父的 一个好朋友──一位上了年纪的女士──看了尼克莱带我训练的录像带后问道: “他也教舞蹈吗?” 在训练时,我一刻不停地纠正着尼克莱指出的错误。每完成一个动作,我都会问他自己是否有了进 步。 “是的,还行。但如果膝盖能屈得更快些就更好了。 ” “可我滑得够快了吗?”我坚持问他。 最后他会皱起眉头说: “你得无数次地重复,动作才能达到完美。 ”他提醒我“必须有耐心” ,言语之 间流露出“我已经告诉过你无数次了”的意思。 尼克莱的耐心和我的勤奋使我赢得了全国第四名的好成绩,并开始为奥运会季前赛做准备。但后来 我没能被选拔去参加 2002 年奥运会。 去年夏天,我回去拜访尼克莱。他给我沏了茶......还自己洗了碗!我们坐在沙发上聊天。怀念起前一 年的奥林匹克队,我一时沉默,回想起自己曾经获得的一切──很重要的一点就是我和这个穿着颇具热 带风情衬衫、个子不高的男人之间形成了并不张扬但又牢不可摧的纽带。 尼克莱教会我即使需要无数次的努力,也要凭借勇气、热情和严格的纪律来坚持下去。他还教会我 为了能在这世界上生活一辈子而预先心存感激,并每天提醒自己:即便面临许多挑战, “现在心里有的必 须是爱、爱、爱。 ” The Standard for Olympic Excellence The Olympics remains the most pure example of competition for the sake of competition itself. Athletes sacrifice their careers and bodies risking injury, defeat and complete failure to compete for nothing more than honor for their country and themselves. To achieve such honor, one must both perform at his or her event's highest level and act as a role model on the world's biggest stage. And so, while it must be admitted that performance-enhancing drugs are exploited to offer advantage to some Olympic athletes, those who do so never receive the only true reward the Olympics has to offer: honor. And, they never experience the glory of winning through the virtues of hard work and determination. The greatest track and field Olympian of all time, Carl Lewis, exemplified the Olympic spirit. He did so, not simply through his gold medal performances―Lewis won nine gold medals in four different events and held world records in the 100-meter dash and the long jump―but also through his competitive nature and his ability to win and compete in every Olympics from 1984 to 1996; he would have also competed in 1980 if the United States had not refused to take part. With speed, consistency, integrity and above all desire, Lewis defied not only the stopwatch but also the march of time. He demanded nothing less than the best from himself and achieved the best, not with drugs, but with unmatched discipline and commitment to training.

Surprisingly, young Carl Lewis was encouraged to pursue music lessons rather than track by his parents. But, he would not hear of it, and stuck a strip of tape on the ground to mark the distance for the world record and began to jump toward it with singular determination. His father commented, "Some kids want to be a fireman one day, a movie star the next. Carl set his mind on track and that was it. He said he wanted to be the best, period." His years of practice and quiet self-confidence set the stage for a phenomenal Olympic track and field career. In 1985, however, a cloud appeared on Carl Lewis' horizons: Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who began to beat Lewis consistently in the 100-meter dash. Lewis arrived at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul confident, but even observers who knew very little about the race expected Johnson would win. The world watched and waited anxiously to find out who was "the fastest man on Earth". All of the cameras focused on Lewis and Johnson as the runners took their marks in the final heat. The crack of the starter's pistol sounded and the racers burst from the line. The crowd was used to Lewis trailing for the first half of the race―he just had a different style―and then finishing strong with his long stride to win. So, they held their breath as they watched Johnson build an early lead with his explosive start wondering if Lewis' strong finish would be enough to overcome him. As the runners approached the finish line, Lewis was gaining fast, but alas, his personal best time of 9.92 seconds was not enough to beat Johnson who ran a world record time of 9.79 seconds. Johnson was called "the fastest human being ever", and Lewis, it appeared, would be competing for second place in future races. Two days later, however, Johnson was stripped of his gold medal and sent packing by the International Olympic Committee when his post-race drug test indicated steroid use. The gold medal was given to Lewis instead, yet many did not see his conquest as a real victory, and he became swept up in the apparent blanket condemnation of the sport. Worse, a former opponent charged Lewis with steroid use. Lewis firmly denied the charges and countered by proving before a judge that the magazine that had published the stories did so without foundation to their claims. He also participated in drug test after drug test to prove he was clean. An opponent of steroid use, Lewis was never linked to drug use by anything but rumor. It would take the formula of Lewis' further commitment to the sport and his love for competition to lift some of the suspicion from track events and stop the erosion of support that the Olympics began to suffer after Seoul. With his continued hard work and honest participation in sprinting and the long jump, he proved to the world that the Olympic spirit was not dead. And in 1992, Lewis competed in his third Olympics winning two more gold medals in the long jump and 4×100 meter relay with a reception from the public that was fit for a king. The amazing Carl Lewis had demonstrated that he was unlike any athlete who had ever lived, not by simply winning, but by winning honestly, loving to compete and working the hardest for the longest time. His love for the games truly set a new standard for Olympic excellence.

奥林匹克运动会依然是一个为竞争而竞争的最纯粹的例子。运动员们在事业和身体上作出牺牲,他 们冒着受伤、受挫和彻底失败的危险,仅仅为了国家和自身的荣誉而竞争。为了获得这样的荣誉,运动 员必须发挥在自己的项目上的最佳水平,在世界最大的竞技舞台上发挥模范作用。虽然必须承认,有的 运动员利用兴奋剂来提升自己的表现,从而取得优势,但他们从未获得过奥运会所能给予的唯一真正的 奖赏,那就是荣誉。而且他们也从未体验过通过刻苦训练与决心这些美德而获胜所带来的光荣感。 迄今为止,卡尔?刘易斯是奥运会田径项目最伟大的选手,也是奥运精神的典范。这不仅是因为他屡 屡获得金牌──刘易斯在四个项目的比赛中获得过九枚金牌,在 100 米短跑和跳远比赛中保持世界记录 ──而且是因为他天性中所富有的竞争力和从 1984 年到 1996 年间在每一届奥运会上所表现出的竞争和 获胜的能力。如果不是美国拒绝出席 1980 年奥运会,他也会参加那一年的奥运竞赛。凭着速度、稳定的 发挥、诚实,尤其是获胜的渴望,刘易斯的表现非秒表所能计量,甚至使时间也停滞不前。他要求自己 发挥出最佳水平,而且他取得最好成绩靠的不是服用药物,而是无与伦比的自制力和训练时的完全投入。 令人惊讶的是,卡尔?刘易斯的父母在他年幼时鼓励他去上音乐课,而不是去参加田径训练。但是他

不愿去,而是把一条胶带粘在地上,以此标出跳远世界记录的距离,然后以非凡的决心开始向着目标练 习跳远。他的父亲评价道: “有些孩子今天想着以后当消防员,明天又梦想成为电影明星。卡尔决心练习 田径,后来始终没有改变。他说他想成为最好的,就这些。 ”他多年的训练和从容的自信为他以后卓越的 田径生涯打好了基础。 然而在 1985 年,卡尔?刘易斯的运动生涯蒙上了一片阴影:加拿大短跑运动员本?约翰逊在 100 米短 跑中频频击败刘易斯。虽然 1988 年刘易斯参加汉城(现称首尔)奥运会时满怀信心,但就算对径赛知之 甚少的旁观者们也都认为约翰逊会获胜。全世界都急切地观望着,等待着,想知道谁是“世界上跑得最 快的人” 。当选手们在最后一轮比赛中站在起跑线上时,所有照相机的镜头都对准了刘易斯和约翰逊。发 令枪“啪”地一声响过之后,运动员从起跑线上冲了出去。人们习惯于看到刘易斯在赛程的前一半落在 后面──他就是这种与众不同的风格──最后来个大跨步的奋力冲刺。因此,当他们看到约翰逊凭着起 跑时的爆发力领先时都屏住了呼吸,不知道刘易斯最后的冲刺是否能够击败对手。当他们逼近终点线的 时候,刘易斯奋力加速,但是,可惜的是,刘易斯 9.92 秒的个人最好成绩不敌约翰逊 9.79 秒的世界记录。 约翰逊被称为“历史上跑得最快的人” ,而刘易斯看来在以后的比赛中只能争夺第二名了。但两天以后, 约翰逊因赛后的药检结果显示其服用了类固醇而被取消了金牌,并被国际奥委会遣送回国。金牌被转而 授予刘易斯,可很多人并不认为他获得了真正的胜利,而他也被席卷进对田径赛的一片指责声中。更糟 糕的是,刘易斯以前的一个对手指控他也服用了类固醇。刘易斯对此坚决予以否认,并在法官面前证明 杂志刊登这样的消息是毫无根据的行为,以此作为反击。他一次次地参加药检以证明自身的清白。刘易 斯反对在比赛中服用类固醇。除了在谣言中,他从未和使用药物的丑闻联系在一起过。 凭着对运动的持续奉献和对竞技的热爱,刘易斯消除了人们对径赛项目的一些疑虑,阻止了汉城奥 运会后民众对奥运会支持下降的颓势。他以自己的不断努力和对短跑与跳远的诚实参与向世界证明,奥 林匹克精神并未消亡。 1992 年, 刘易斯第三次参加奥运会, 并在跳远和 4×100 米接力赛中获得两枚金牌。 他在公众中所受到的欢迎不亚于一位国王受到的礼遇。 令人惊叹的卡尔?刘易斯已经证明自己不同于历史上任何一位运动员。这并不是因为他能获胜,而是 因为他能诚实地获胜,他热爱竞争,他能在最长的时间里做出最大的努力。他对体育竞技的热爱真正为 奥林匹克的卓越设立了新的标准。 Unit 3 Marriage Across Nations Gail and I imagined a quiet wedding. During our two years together we had experienced the usual ups and downs of a couple learning to know, understand, and respect each other. But through it all we had honestly confronted the weaknesses and strengths of each other's characters. Our racial and cultural differences enhanced our relationship and taught us a great deal about tolerance, compromise, and being open with each other. Gail sometimes wondered why I and other blacks were so involved with the racial issue, and I was surprised that she seemed to forget the subtler forms of racial hatred in American society. Gail and I had no illusions about what the future held for us as a married, mixed couple in America. The continual source of our strength was our mutual trust and respect. We wanted to avoid the mistake made by many couples of marrying for the wrong reasons, and only finding out ten, twenty, or thirty years later that they were incompatible, that they hardly took the time to know each other, that they overlooked serious personality conflicts in the expectation that marriage was an automatic way to make everything work out right. That point was emphasized by the fact that Gail's parents, after thirty-five years of marriage, were going through a bitter and painful divorce, which had destroyed Gail and for a time had a negative effect on our budding relationship. When Gail spread the news of our wedding plans to her family she met with some resistance. Her mother, Deborah, all along had been supportive of our relationship, and even joked about when we were going to get married so she could have grandchildren. Instead of congratulations upon hearing our news, Deborah counseled

Gail to be really sure she was doing the right thing. "So it was all right for me to date him, but it's wrong for me to marry him. Is his color the problem, Mom?" Gail subsequently told me she had asked her mother. "To start with I must admit that at first I harbored reservations about a mixed marriage, prejudices you might even call them. But when I met Mark I found him a charming and intelligent young guy. Any mother would be proud to have him for a son-in-law. So, color has nothing to do with it. Yes, my friends talk. Some even express shock at what you are doing. But they live in a different world. So you see, Mark's color is not the problem. My biggest worry is that you may be marrying Mark for the same wrong reasons that I married your father. When we met I saw him as my beloved, intelligent, charming, and caring. It was all so new, all so exciting, and we both thought, on the surface at least, that ours was an ideal marriage with every indication that it would last forever. I realized only later that I didn't know my beloved, your father, very well when we married." "But Mark and I have been together more than two years," Gail railed. "We've been through so much together. We've seen each other at our worst many times. I'm sure that time will only confirm what we feel deeply about each other." "You may be right. But I still think that waiting won't hurt. You're only twenty-five." Gail's father, David, whom I had not yet met personally, approached our decision with a father-knows-best attitude. He basically asked the same questions as Gail's mother:"Why the haste? Who is this Mark? What's his citizenship status?" And when he learned of my problems with the citizenship department, he immediately suspected that I was marrying his daughter in order to remain in the United States. "But Dad,that's harsh," Gail said. "Then why the rush?" he asked repeatedly. "Mark has had problems with citizenship before and has always taken care of them himself," Gail defended. "In fact, he made it very clear when we were discussing marriage that if I had any doubts about anything, I should not hesitate to cancel our plans." Her father proceeded to quote statistics showing that mixed couples had higher divorce rates than couples of the same race and gave examples of mixed couples he had counseled who were having marital difficulties. "Have you thought about the hardships your children could go through?" he asked. "Dad, are you a racist?" "No, of course not. But you have to be realistic." "Maybe our children will have some problems, but whose children don't? But one thing they'll always have: our love and devotion." "That's idealistic. People can be very cruel toward children from mixed marriages." "Dad, we'll worry about that when the time comes. If we had to resolve all doubt before we acted, very little would ever get done." "Remember, it's never too late to change your mind."

我和盖尔计划举行一个不事张扬的婚礼。在两年的相处中,我们的关系经历了起伏,这是一对情侣 在学着相互了解、理解和尊重时常常出现的。但在这整整两年间,我们坦诚地面对彼此性格中的弱点和 优点。 我们之间的种族及文化差异不但增强了我们的关系,还教会了我们要彼此宽容、谅解和开诚布公。 盖尔有时不明白为何我和其他黑人如此关注种族问题,而我感到吃惊的是,她好像忘记了美国社会 中种族仇恨种种微妙的表现形式。 对于成为居住在美国、异族通婚的夫妻,我和盖尔对未来没有不切实际的幻想。相互信任和尊重才 是我们俩永不枯竭的力量源泉。 许多夫妻因为错误的理由结了婚,结果在 10 年、20 年或 30 年后才发觉他们原来是合不来的。他们 在婚前几乎没有花时间去互相了解,他们忽视了严重的性格差异,指望婚姻会自然而然地解决各种问题。

我们希望避免重蹈覆辙。事实更说明了这一点:已经结婚 35 年的盖尔的父母正经历着一场充满怨恨、令 人痛苦的婚变,这件事给盖尔带来了很大打击,并一度给我们正处于萌芽状态的关系造成了负面影响。 当盖尔把我们计划举办婚礼的消息告诉家人时,她遇到了一些阻力。她的母亲德博拉过去一直赞成 我们的关系,甚至还开过玩笑,问我们打算何时结婚,这样她就可以抱外孙了。但这次听到我们要结婚 的消息时,她没有向我们表示祝贺,反而劝盖尔想清楚自己的决定是否正确。 “这么说我跟他约会没错,但是如果我跟他结婚,就错了。妈妈,是不是因为他的肤色?”盖尔后 来告诉我她曾这样问她母亲。 “首先我必须承认,刚开始时我对异族通婚是有保留意见的,也许你甚至可以把这称为偏见。但是 当我见到马克时,我发现他是一个既讨人喜欢又聪明的年轻人。任何一个母亲都会因为有这样一个女婿 而感到脸上有光的。所以,这事跟肤色没有关系。是的,我的朋友们会说闲话。有些朋友甚至对你所做 的事表示震惊。但他们的生活与我们的不同。因此你要明白,马克的肤色不是问题。我最大的担心是你 也许跟我当初嫁给你爸爸一样,为了错误的原因而嫁给马克。当年我和你爸爸相遇时,在我眼中,他可 爱、 聪明、富有魅力又善解人意。一切都是那么新鲜、那么令人兴奋。而且我们两人都认为,我们的婚 姻是理想婚姻,至少表面上看是如此,而且一切迹象都表明我们的婚姻会天长地久。直到后来我才明白, 在我们结婚时,我并不十分理解我所爱的人——你的爸爸。 ” “但是我和马克呆在一起已有两年多了, ”盖尔抱怨道。 “我们俩一起经历了许许多多的事情。我们彼此多次看到对方最糟糕的一面。我可以肯定时间只能 证明我们是彼此深情相爱的。 ” “你也许是对的。但我还是认为再等一等没坏处。你才 25 岁。 ” 盖尔的父亲戴维——我还未见过他的面——以知事莫若父的态度对待我们的决定。他问的问题基本 上和盖尔母亲的问题相同: “干吗这么匆忙?这个马克是什么人?他是什么公民身份?” 当他得知我办公民身份遇到了问题时,就怀疑我是因为想留在美国而娶他女儿的。 “不过爸爸,你这话讲得太难听了, ”盖尔说。 “那么干吗要这样着急?”他重复地问。 “马克是有公民身份方面的问题,但他总是在自己处理这些问题, ”盖尔辩解道。 “事实上,当我们 在讨论结婚的时候,他清楚地表明了一点:如果我对任何事情有怀疑,我完全可以取消我们的计划。 ” 她父亲开始引用统计数据说明异族通婚的离婚率比同族结婚的要高,而且还列举了接受过他咨询的、 在婚姻上有麻烦的异族通婚夫妇的例子。 他问道: “你考虑过你将来的孩子可能会遭受的苦难吗?” “爸爸,你是种族主义者吗?” “不,当然不是。但你必须得现实一点。 ” “也许我们的孩子会遇到一些问题。但谁的孩子不会呢?可是有一样东西他们将会永远拥有,那就 是我们的爱。 ” “那是理想主义的想法。人们对异族通婚生下的孩子是会很残酷的。 ” “爸爸,到时候我们自己会操心的。但是假如我们在做什么事之前,就必须把所有的疑难问题全部 解决的话,那么我们几乎什么都干不成了。 ” “记住,你什么时候改变主意都不晚。 ” Rich Meeting His Future Mother-in-law After much thought, I came up with a brilliant plan for Rich to meet my mother and win her over. In fact, I arranged it so my mother would want to cook a meal especially for him. One day, my mother called me, to invite me to a birthday dinner for my father. My brother Vincent was bringing his girlfriend, Lisa Lum. I could bring a friend, too. I knew she would do this, because cooking was how my mother expressed her love, her pride, her power, and her proof that she knew more than anyone else. "Just be sure to tell her later that her cooking was the best you ever tasted," I told Rich. "Believe me."

The eve of the dinner, I sat in the kitchen watching her cook, waiting for the right moment to tell her about our marriage plans, that we had decided to get married next July, about seven months away. She was cubing garlic and slicing cabbage into small pieces and chatting at the same time about Auntie Suyuan: "She can only cook looking at directions. My instructions are in my fingers. I know what secret ingredients to put in just by using my nose!" And she was slicing so quickly, seemingly not paying attention to her sharp chopping knife, that I was afraid the tips of her fingers would become one of the ingredients of the purple vegetable and pork dish. I was hoping she would say something first concerning Rich. I had seen her expression when she opened the door, her forced smile as she surveyed him from head to toe, checking her judgment of him against that already given to her by Auntie Suyuan. I tried to anticipate what criticisms she would have. Rich was not only not Chinese, he was also my junior, a few years younger than I was. And unfortunately, he looked much younger with his curly red hair, smooth pale skin, and the splash of orange freckles across his nose. He was a bit on the short side, compactly built. In his dark business suits, he looked nice but easily forgettable, like somebody's nephew at a funeral. This was why I didn't notice him the first year we worked together at the firm. But, my mother noticed everything. "So what do you think of Rich?" I finally asked, holding my breath. She tossed the garlic in the hot oil, which bubbled in a loud, angry sound. "So many spots on his face," she said. I could feel the goose bumps rise on my back. "They're freckles. Freckles are good luck, you know," I felt compelled to defend on his behalf, a bit too heatedly as I raised my voice above the noise of the kitchen. "Oh?" She said innocently. "Yes, the more spots the better. Everybody knows that." She considered this a moment and then smiled and spoke in a Chinese dialect: "Maybe this is true. When you were young, you got the chicken pox. So many spots, you had to stay home for ten days. So lucky, you thought." I couldn't save Rich in the kitchen. And I couldn't save him later at the dinner table either. He had brought a bottle of French wine, something he did not know my parents could not appreciate. My parents did not even own appropriate glasses for wine. And then he also made the mistake of drinking not one but two frosted glasses full, while everybody else had a half-inch "just for taste". But the worst happened when Rich criticized my mother's cooking, and he didn't even have a clue about what he had done. As is the Chinese cook's custom, my mother always made negative remarks about her own cooking. That night she chose to direct it toward her famous steamed pork and preserved vegetable dish, which she always served with special pride. "Ai! This dish not salty enough, no flavor," she complained, after tasting a small bite. "It is too bad to eat." This was our family's cue to eat some and proclaim it the best she had ever made. But before we could be so diplomatic, Rich said, "You know, all it needs is a little soy sauce." And he proceeded to pour a riverful of the salty black stuff on the china plate, right before my mother's shocked eyes. And even though I was hopeful throughout the dinner that my mother would somehow see Rich's kindness, his sense of humor and charm, I knew he had failed miserably in her eyes. Rich obviously had had a different opinion on how the evening had gone. When we got home that night, after we put Shoshana to bed, he said modestly, "Well, I think we hit it off A-OK."

经过反复思考,我终于想出了一个绝妙的计划:让里奇与我妈妈见面,并把她争取过来。事实上, 让我妈妈特地为他掌勺烧饭是我做的安排。 一天,妈妈打电话给我,要我参加爸爸的生日宴。我弟弟文森特将带上他的女友莉萨?卢姆。我也可 以带一个朋友去。 我知道妈妈会亲自下厨的,因为烧菜做饭是表达她的爱、她的自豪和她在家中权力的方式,也可用

以证明她比其他任何人都懂得多。 “千万记住在饭后告诉我妈妈,说她做的饭菜是你吃过的饭菜中最可口 的, ”我对里奇说。 “相信我的话。 ” 爸爸生日宴的前夜,我坐在厨房里看着妈妈忙乎,等待合适的时机来告诉她我们的结婚计划。我们 已决定在 7 月结婚,大约还有 7 个月的时间。她正在把大蒜切成小方块,把卷心菜切成小片,同时闲聊 着有关素媛姨妈的事: “她只会看着烹饪指南烧菜,而我对烹饪了如指掌。我只要用鼻子闻闻就知道该放 什么佐料了! ”她切得很快,好像一点也不注意她手中那把锋利的切菜刀,我真害怕她的手指尖也会成为 紫色蔬菜烧猪肉的佐料。 我希望她会先提起里奇。我注意到了她开门时的面部表情,她当时勉强地笑了笑,从头到脚地打量 着里奇,以验证素媛阿姨对里奇的评价。我尽力设想她会有哪些不满意的地方。 里奇不仅不是华人,而且他还比我小几岁。更糟的是,由于他那头红色的卷发、光洁白晰的皮肤以 及鼻子两边一片桔黄色的雀斑,他看上去比我年轻了很多。他稍微矮了一点,长得很结实。他身穿深色 套装,看上去讨人喜欢,但让人过眼就忘,就像追悼会上遇见的某个人的侄子。这就是为什么我们在公 司里一起工作的第一年里我没有注意到他的原因。但是我妈妈却把一切都看在了眼里。 “你认为里奇怎么样?”终于,我屏住呼吸问道。 她把大蒜扔进了烧热的油锅里,发出了刺耳的响声。 “他脸上那么多斑点, ”她说。 我听后感到背上起了鸡皮疙瘩。 “那是雀斑,你知道雀斑象征着好运。 ”我感到我得为他辩解。我提 高嗓门压倒厨房里的噪声,我自己也感到我太激动了点。 “哦,是吗?” 她不经意地说。 “是的,雀斑越多越好。人人都知道这一点。 ” 她想了一会儿,然后笑了,接着用汉语方言说: “也许是这样。你小时候得过水痘。长了许多小痘痘, 你只好在家里呆了 10 天。可真走运啊,你想想! ” 我在厨房里救不了里奇,后来在餐桌上我也救不了他。 他买了瓶法国葡萄酒,并不知道我父母不喜欢这玩意儿,我父母甚至连像样的红酒杯也没有。接着 他又犯了个错误:他喝了不是一杯,而是满满两大毛玻璃杯的葡萄酒,而其他人的杯子里都只有半英寸 高的酒,大家只是“尝尝而已” 。 最糟糕的是他批评了我妈妈的烹饪手艺,而他竟然没意识到自己做了什么。我妈妈总是要对她自己 的烹饪发表一些评论,说一些自己的菜烧得不好之类的话,这是中国厨师的习惯。那晚她原打算说说自 己的拿手菜——梅干菜蒸肉,上这个菜时她总是特别得意。 “唉,这个菜不够咸,没味道, ”尝了一小口后,她抱怨道。 “太难吃了。 ” 这句话在我们家意味着让大家来尝一点,并且还要说这道菜是妈妈做得最好的一次。但是我们还没 能来得及说一些这样圆滑得体的话,里奇就说: “嗯,这菜只需要加一点点酱油。 ”接着他无视我母亲惊 诧的眼光,把许多咸乎乎、黑溜溜的东西倒进了瓷盘里。 虽然吃饭时,我一直希望我妈妈能从某种角度看到里奇的善良、幽默感和魅力,但是我清楚里奇在 她的眼里已经是一败涂地了。 很显然,里奇对那晚有完全不同的看法。那晚我们回到家里,安置肖莎娜上床睡觉后,他谦虚地说: “嗯,我觉得我们相处得很不错。 ” Unit 4 A Test of True Love Six minutes to six, said the digital clock over the information desk in Grand Central Station. John Blandford, a tall young army officer, focused his eyesight on the clock to note the exact time. In six minutes he would see the woman who had filled a special place in his life for the past thirteen months, a woman he had never seen, yet whose written words had been with him and had given him strength without fail. Soon after he volunteered for military service, he had received a book from this woman. A letter, which wished him courage and safety, came with the book. He discovered that many of his friends, also in the army,

had received the identical book from the woman, Hollis Meynell. And while they all got strength from it, and appreciated her support of their cause, John Blandford was the only person to write Ms. Meynell back. On the day of his departure, to a destination overseas where he would fight in the war, he received her reply. Aboard the cargo ship that was taking him into enemy territory, he stood on the deck and read her letter to him again and again. For thirteen months, she had faithfully written to him. When his letters did not arrive, she wrote anyway, without decrease. During the difficult days of war, her letters nourished him and gave him courage. As long as he received letters from her, he felt as though he could survive. After a short time, he believed he loved her, and she loved him. It was as if fate had brought them together. But when he asked her for a photo, she declined his request. She explained her objection: "If your feelings for me have any reality, any honest basis, what I look like won't matter. Suppose I'm beautiful. I'd always be bothered by the feeling that you loved me for my beauty, and that kind of love would disgust me. Suppose I'm plain. Then I'd always fear you were writing to me only because you were lonely and had no one else. Either way, I would forbid myself from loving you. When you come to New York and you see me, then you can make your decision. Remember, both of us are free to stop or to go on after that—if that's what we choose..." One minute to six... Blandford's heart leaped. A young woman was coming toward him, and he felt a connection with her right away. Her figure was long and thin, her spectacular golden hair lay back in curls from her small ears. Her eyes were blue flowers; her lips had a gentle firmness. In her fancy green suit she was like springtime come alive. He started toward her, entirely forgetting to notice that she wasn't wearing a rose, and as he moved, a small, warm smile formed on her lips. "Going my way, soldier?" she asked. Uncontrollably, he made one step closer to her. Then he saw Hollis Meynell. She was standing almost directly behind the girl, a woman well past forty, and a fossil to his young eyes, her hair sporting patches of gray. She was more than fat; her thick legs shook as they moved. But she wore a red rose on her brown coat. The girl in the green suit was walking quickly away and soon vanished into the fog. Blandford felt as though his heart was being compressed into a small cement ball, so strong was his desire to follow the girl, yet so deep was his longing for the woman whose spirit had truly companioned and brought warmth to his own; and there she stood. Her pale, fat face was gentle and intelligent; he could see that now. Her gray eyes had a warm, kindly look. Blandford resisted the urge to follow the younger woman, though it was not easy to do so. His fingers held the book she had sent to him before he went off to the war, which was to identify him to Hollis Meynell. This would not be love. However, it would be something precious, something perhaps even less common than love—a friendship for which he had been, and would always be, thankful. He held the book out toward the woman. "I'm John Blandford, and you—you are Ms. Meynell. I'm so glad you could meet me. May I take you to dinner?" The woman smiled. "I don't know what this is all about, son," she answered. "That young lady in the green suit—the one who just went by—begged me to wear this rose on my coat. And she said that if you asked me to go out with you, I should tell you that she's waiting for you in that big restaurant near the highway. She said it was some kind of a test."

大中央车站问询处桌子上方的数字钟显示:差六分六点。约翰?布兰福德,一个年轻的高个子军官, 眼睛盯着大钟,看确切的时间。六分钟后,他将见到一位在过去 13 个月里在他生命中占有特殊位置的女 人,一位他素未谋面、却通过书信始终给予他力量的女人。 在他自愿参军后不久,他收到了一本这位女子寄来的书。随书而来的还有一封信,祝他勇敢和平安。

他发现自己很多参军的朋友也收到了这位名叫霍利斯?梅内尔的女子寄来的同样的书。他们所有的人都从 中获得了勇气,也感激她对他们为之战斗的事业的支持,但只有他给梅内尔女士回了信。在他启程前往 海外战场战斗的那天,他收到了她的回信。站在即将带他进入敌人领地的货船甲板上,他一遍又一遍地 读着她的来信。 13 个月来,她忠实地给他写信。即使没有他的回信,她仍然一如既往地写信给他,从未减少过。在 那段艰苦战斗的日子里,她的信鼓励着他,给予他力量。收到她的信,他就仿佛感到自己能存活下去。 一段时间后,他相信他们彼此相爱,就像是命运让他们走到了一起。 但当他向她索要照片时,她却婉然拒绝。她解释道: “如果你对我的感情是真实和真诚的,那么我长 什么样又有什么关系呢。假如我很漂亮,我会因为觉得你爱的只是我的美貌而时时困扰,那样的爱会让 我厌恶。假如我相貌平平,那我又会常常害怕你只是出于寂寞和别无他选才给我写信的。不管是哪种情 况,我都会阻止自己去爱你。当你来纽约见我时,你可以做出自己的决定。记住,那时候我们两个人都 可以自由选择停止或继续下去──如果那是我们的选择……” 差一分六点……布兰福德的心怦怦乱跳。 一名年轻女子向他走来,他立刻感到自己与她之间存在着一种联系。她身材修长而苗条,漂亮的金 色长发卷曲在小巧的耳后。她的眼睛如蓝色的花朵,双唇间有着一种温柔的坚毅。她身穿别致的绿色套 装,犹如春天般生气盎然。 他向她迎去,完全忘记了她并没有佩戴玫瑰。看他走来,她的嘴角露出一丝热情的微笑。 “当兵的,跟我同路?”她问道。 他不由自主地向她靠近了一步。然后,他看见了霍利斯?梅内尔。 她就站在那少女的身后,一位四十好几的女人,头发斑斑灰白。在年轻的他的眼里,梅内尔简直就 是一块活脱脱的化石。她不是一般的胖,粗笨的双腿移动时摇摇晃晃。但她棕色的外衣上戴着一朵红色 的玫瑰。 绿衣少女快速地走过,很快消失在了雾中。布兰福德觉得自己的心好像被压缩成一个小水泥球,他 多想跟着那女孩,但又深深地向往那位以心灵真诚地陪伴他、带给他温暖的女人;而她正站在那里。现 在他可以看见,她苍白而肥胖的脸上透着和善与智慧。她灰色的眼中闪烁着温暖和善良。 布兰福德克制住跟随年轻女子而去的冲动,尽管这样做并不容易。他的手抓着那本在他去战场前她 寄给他的书,为的是让霍利斯?梅内尔认出他。这不会成为爱情,但将成为一样珍贵的东西,一样可能比 爱情更不寻常的东西──一份他一直感激、也将继续感激的友情。 他向那个女人举起书。 “我是约翰?布兰福德,你──你就是霍利斯?梅内尔吧。我非常高兴你能来见我。我能请你吃晚餐 么?”那女人微笑着。 “我不知道这到底是怎么回事,孩子, ”她答道: “那位穿绿色套装的年轻女士── 刚走过去的那位──请求我把这朵玫瑰别在衣服上。她说如果你邀请我和你一起出去,我就告诉你她在 公路附近的那家大餐厅等你。她说这是一种考验。 ” Love Under the Nazis It is cold on this winter day in 1942. But it is no different from any other day in this Nazi concentration camp. I am almost dead, surviving from day to day, from hour to hour, ever since I was taken from my home and brought here with tens of thousands of other Jews. We suffer under the whips of the terrible Nazis. Will I still be alive tomorrow? Will I be taken to the gas chamber tonight? Or will a security guard simply shoot me with his rifle? Back and forth I walk next to the wire fence. I am not thinking about my steps; I am moving mechanically across the landscape, kneeling on occasion when I think I see a bit of timber or other item that I can use to start a fire. Suddenly, I notice a young girl walking past on the other side of the wire. She has the light, gravity-free steps of a fairy. She stops and looks at me with sad eyes. The camp has taken its toll on me. I want to look away, as I feel oddly ashamed for this stranger to see me like this, sickly thin and in torn, stained clothing, but I cannot take my eyes from hers.

Then she reaches into her pocket, and pulls out a red apple. Oh, how long has it been since I have seen one! And how this one shines—greater than any crystal! She looks cautiously around, and then quickly throws the apple over the fence. I pick it up and hold it in my frozen fingers. In my world of death, this apple is an expression of life, and her act is the product of love. I glance up in time to see the girl disappearing into the distance. The next day, I am drawn to that spot near the fence, as if pulled by a magnetic force. Am I crazy for hoping she will come again? Of course. But in here, I cling to any tiny trace of hope. Again, she comes. And again, she brings me an apple, flinging it over the fence with greater precision than before so that the apple flies over the fence and drops directly above me. I catch it as it is descending. I hold it up for her to see. Her eyes shine. For seven months, we meet like this, and I am becoming accustomed to this apple diet, but it soon comes to an end. One day I hear frightening news: I am being shipped to another camp. The next day when I greet her, my heart is breaking, and I can hardly speak as I say what must be said: "Do not bring me an apple tomorrow," I tell her. "I am being sent to another camp. We will never see each other again." Turning before I lose all control, I run away from the fence. I cannot bear to look back. If I do, I know she would see the tears streaming down my face. Years pass. It is 1957. I am living in New York City, a far cry from the awful scenery of Nazi Germany. And I have achieved a modest amount of prosperity, having gone into the business of aluminum fence installation and recycling. A friend, who is in the insurance business, convinces me to go on a blind date with a lady friend of his. Reluctantly, I agree. But she is nice, this woman named Roma. And like me, she is a foreigner, so we have at least that in common. "Were you exiled during the war?" Roma asks me gently, in that careful way people with experience ask one another questions about those years. "No. I was in a concentration camp in Germany," I reply. I don't specify which camp, or give any other details right then. Telling the story has become tedious, as I have done it so many times. Roma gets a faraway look in her eyes, as if she is remembering something painful yet sweet. "What is it?" I ask. "You see, when I was a young girl, I lived near a concentration camp. There was a boy there, a prisoner, and for a long while, I used to visit him every day. I remember I used to purchase apples and throw them to him. I would throw the apple over the fence, and he would be so happy." With my heart pounding loudly, I look directly at Roma and ask, "And did that boy say to you one day, 'Do not bring me an apple tomorrow. I am being sent to another camp'?" "Why, yes," Roma says, her voice trembling. "But how on earth could you possibly know that?" I get up from the table, embrace her, and answer, "Because I was that young boy, Roma." 1942 年冬季的一天,寒冷刺骨。但在纳粹集中营中,这与别的日子没有什么差别。自我从家中被人 带走并随着数万犹太人被带到这儿以来,我已濒临死亡,只能活一天算一天,活一小时算一小时。我们 在纳粹可怕的皮鞭下受尽煎熬。明天我还会活着吗?今晚我会不会被带到毒气室去?或是被警卫简简单 单地用来复枪射杀? 我在铁丝网边踱来踱去。 我并没有留意自己的脚步,只是机械地在这块地上移动,在发现可以用来生火的一小块木头或其他 东西时,我偶尔跪下来查看一下。 突然,我看到一个小女孩从铁丝网那边走来。 她的步履轻盈,仿佛不受重力的影响,宛如仙子。她停下来,用忧伤的眼睛看着我。集中营里的生 活已经损害了我的健康。我想把目光挪开,因为我一副病容、枯瘦如柴,又穿着破烂肮脏的衣服,被一 个陌生人这样打量,我感到特别害臊,但我的目光却无法从她的眼睛移开。

这时她把手伸进口袋,掏出一个红苹果。噢,我有多久没有看到这样的苹果了!它又是多么地闪闪 发亮——比任何水晶都耀眼!她非常谨慎地左右看看,然后一下子把它抛过铁栅栏。我把它捡起来,用 我冻僵的手捧着它。在这充满死亡的世界中,这苹果无疑代表了生命,而她的举动就是爱的果实。我抬 头瞥见那女孩在远处渐渐消失。 第二天,就像被磁力吸引一样,我又来到了铁丝网边的那块地方。我希望她再次出现。我是不是疯 了?当然是。但在这里,我不放弃任何一丝微小的希望。 她又来了。她又一次给我带来了苹果,比上次更精确地将它抛过了铁丝网。苹果飞过铁丝网,正好 从我的头顶上方落下来。我在空中接住了苹果,高举着让她看。她的眼中闪着光芒。 接下来的七个月我们就这样相会,而我也习惯了这样的苹果餐,但不久一切都结束了。一天,我听 到一个骇人的消息:我将被押往另一个集中营。 第二天,当我再见到她的时候,我的心都碎了,我几乎无法说话,但我必须说明白: “明天别再给我 带苹果了, ”我告诉她说: “我将被押往另一个集中营。我们再也不能见面了。 ”在我完全失去控制前我转 身从铁丝网边跑开了。我实在不忍心再回头看。如果我转身,我知道,她会看见我的脸颊上滑落的眼泪。 岁月流逝。转眼到了 1957 年。我住在纽约,生活状况与纳粹德国期间的情景相差何止天地。我做铝 栅栏安装和回收的生意,并且发了点小财。我一个做保险的朋友劝说我与他的一位女性朋友相亲。我勉 强同意了。她人还不错,叫罗玛,像我一样,她也是移民,因此至少在这一点上我们有共同之处。 “你是在战争期间流亡来到这里的吗?”罗玛用移民相互之间问及那段岁月时所特有的体贴方式柔 声细语地问道。 “不是。那时我在德国的集中营里, ”我答道。我没有说明哪个集中营,也没有说其他任何细节。这 个故事太乏味了,因为我已经重复过许多次了。 罗玛的双眼透出若有所思的神色,好像回忆起了某件痛苦而又甜蜜的事情。 “你怎么了?”我问她。 “是这样,我小时候住在集中营附近。那儿有一个男孩,一个小囚犯,有很长一段时间我每天都去 看他。我记得我常常带苹果去扔给他。我把苹果从铁丝网上扔过去,那时他会非常开心。 ” 我的心猛地一下子剧烈地跳动起来。我凝视着她问: “是不是那个男孩有一天对你说‘明天别给我带 苹果了。我将被押往另外一个集中营’?” “没错,是啊, ”罗玛用颤抖的声音应道。 “但你怎么会知道的?” 我从桌边站起身来,拥抱着她说: “因为我就是那个小男孩,罗玛。 ” Unit 5 Weeping for My Smoking Daughter My daughter smokes. While she is doing her homework, her feet on the bench in front of her and her calculator clicking out answers to her geometry problems, I am looking at the half-empty package of Camels tossed carelessly close at hand. I pick them up, take them into the kitchen, where the light is better, and study them—they're filtered, for which I am grateful. My heart feels terrible. I want to weep. In fact, I do weep a little, standing there by the stove holding one of the instruments, so white, so precisely rolled, that could cause my daughter's death. When she smoked Marlboros and Players I hardened myself against feeling so bad; nobody I knew ever smoked these brands. She doesn't know this, but it was Camels that my father, her grandfather, smoked. But before he smoked cigarettes made by manufacturers—when he was very young and very poor, with glowing eyes—he smoked Prince Albert tobacco in cigarettes he rolled himself. I remember the bright-red tobacco tin, with a picture of Queen Victoria's partner, Prince Albert, dressed in a black dress coat and carrying a cane. By the late forties and early fifties no one rolled his own anymore (and few women smoked) in my hometown of Eatonton, Georgia. The tobacco industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimneys, completely won over people like my father, who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. He never looked as fashionable as Prince Albert, though; he continued to look like a poor,

overweight, hard-working colored man with too large a family, black, with a very white cigarette stuck in his mouth. I do not remember when he started to cough. Perhaps it was unnoticeable at first, a little coughing in the morning as he lit his first cigarette upon getting out of bed. By the time I was sixteen, my daughter's age, his breath was a wheeze, embarrassing to hear; he could not climb stairs without resting every third or fourth step. It was not unusual for him to cough for an hour. My father died from "the poor man's friend", pneumonia, one hard winter when his lung illnesses had left him low. I doubt he had much lung left at all, after coughing for so many years. He had so little breath that, during his last years, he was always leaning on something. I remembered once, at a family reunion, when my daughter was two, that my father picked her up for a minute—long enough for me to photograph them—but the effort was obvious. Near the very end of his life, and largely because he had no more lungs, he quit smoking. He gained a couple of pounds, but by then he was so slim that no one noticed. When I travel to Third World countries I see many people like my father and daughter. There are large advertisement signs directed at them both: the tough, confident or fashionable older man, the beautiful, "worldly" young woman, both dragging away. In these poor countries, as in American inner cities and on reservations, money that should be spent for food goes instead to the tobacco companies; over time, people starve themselves of both food and air, effectively weakening and hooking their children, eventually killing themselves. I read in the newspaper and in my gardening magazine that the ends of cigarettes are so poisonous that if a baby swallows one, it is likely to die, and that the boiled water from a bunch of them makes an effective insecticide. There is a deep hurt that I feel as a mother. Some days it is a feeling of uselessness. I remember how carefully I ate when I was pregnant, how patiently I taught my daughter how to cross a street safely. For what, I sometimes wonder; so that she can struggle to breathe through most of her life feeling half her strength, and then die of self-poisoning, as her grandfather did? There is a quotation from a battered women's shelter that I especially like: "Peace on earth begins at home." I believe everything does. I think of a quotation for people trying to stop smoking: "Every home is a no-smoking zone." Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters those who must sit by, occasionally joke or complain, and helplessly watch. I realize now that as a child I sat by, through the years, and literally watched my father kill himself: Surely one such victory in my family, for the prosperous leaders who own the tobacco companies, is enough.

我女儿抽烟。她做作业时,脚搁在前面的长凳上,计算器嗒嗒地跳出几何题的答案。我看着那包已 抽了一半、她随意扔在手边的“骆驼”牌香烟。我拿起香烟,走到厨房里去仔细察看,那里的光线好一 点──谢天谢地,香烟是有过滤嘴的。我心里十分难过。我想哭。事实上,我确实哭过。我站在炉子旁 边,手里捏着一支雪白的香烟,制作得非常精致,但那可是会致我女儿于死地的东西啊。当她抽“万宝 路”及“普雷厄尔”牌香烟时,我硬起心肠,不让自己感到难过。我认识的人当中没有人抽这两种牌子 的香烟。 她不知道我父亲、也就是她外公生前抽的就是“骆驼”牌香烟。但是在他开始抽机制卷烟之前── 那时他很年轻、也很穷,眼睛炯炯有神──他抽的是用“阿尔伯特亲王牌”烟丝自己手工卷的香烟。我 还记得那鲜红的烟丝盒,上面有一张维多利亚女王丈夫阿尔伯特亲王的照片,他身穿黑色燕尾服,手里 拿着一支手杖。 到 40 年代末、50 年代初,我的家乡佐治亚州的伊腾顿已没有人再自己手工卷烟了(而且几乎没有女 人抽烟) 。烟草业,再加上好莱坞电影──影片中的男女主角都是烟鬼──把像我父亲这样的人完完全全 争取了过去,他们无可救药地抽烟抽上了瘾。然而我父亲从来就没有像阿尔伯特亲王那样时髦过。他还 是一个贫穷、过于肥胖、为养活一大家人而拼命干活的男人。他是黑人,嘴里却总叼着一支雪白的香烟。 我记不清父亲是什么时候开始咳嗽的。也许开始时并不明显,只是早晨一下床点燃第一支香烟时才 有点微咳。到我 16 岁,也就是我女儿现在这般年纪时,他一呼吸就呼哧呼哧的,让人感到不安;他上楼

时每走三、四级楼梯就得停下来休息一会儿,而且,他常常一连咳上一个小时。 肺部的病痛把我父亲折磨得虚弱不堪,一个严冬,他死于被称为“穷人之友” 的疾病──肺炎。他 咳嗽了这么多年,我想他的肺部已没有什么完好的地方了。去世前几年,他的呼吸已经很虚弱了,他总 得倚靠着某个东西。我记得有一次全家聚会,当时我女儿才两岁,他抱了她一会儿,好让我有时间给他 俩拍张照片。但是很明显,他是费了好大劲儿的。生命行将结束前,他才戒了烟,主要是因为他的肺功 能已极度受损。戒烟后他的体重增加了几磅,但当时他太瘦了,所以没人注意到这一点。 我到第三世界国家去旅行时,看到了许多像我父亲和女儿那样的人。到处都有针对他们这两类人的 巨大广告牌:强壮、自信或时髦的成熟男人,以及漂亮、 “世故”的年青女子,都在吞云吐雾。就像在美 国的旧城区和印第安人的居留地上一样,在这些贫困的国家里,那些本应该花在食物上的钱却流进了烟 草公司。久而久之,人们不但缺少食物,而且还缺少空气,这样不但大大地损害了孩子们的体质,还使 他们染上了烟瘾,最终还会致他们于死地。我在报纸还有我订阅的园艺杂志上看到,烟蒂的毒性很强: 一个婴儿如果吞下了一个烟蒂,就很有可能会死去,而沸水加一把烟蒂就成了很有效的杀虫剂。 作为母亲,我深深地感到痛苦。有时我有一种无能为力的感觉。我记得自己怀孕时,吃东西的时候 是多么小心啊!之后在教她如何安全穿过马路时,又是多么耐心啊! 有时我纳闷:自己这样做到底是为 了什么?难道是为了她今后大半辈子有气无力地挣扎着呼吸,然后再像她外公那样自己把自己毒死吗? 我特别喜欢一条写在受虐妇女收容所里的语录: “人间和平,始于家庭。 ”我认为世上所有的东西都 是如此。我还想起了另一条写给那些想戒烟的人们的语录: “每个家庭都应该是禁烟区。 ”抽烟是一种自 我毁灭,而且也毁灭着那些不得不坐在你身边的人。那些人偶尔也会取笑或抱怨你抽烟,可常常只能无 可奈何地坐在一边看。我现在意识到,从我还是个孩子起,这些年来我实际上是一直坐在旁边,看着我 父亲自杀。对那些生意兴隆的烟草公司的巨头们来说,能在我家取得这样一种胜利,肯定是够满意了。 Stop Spoiling Your Children While traveling for various speaking appointments, I frequently stay overnight in the home of a family and am assigned to one of the children's bedrooms. In it, I often find so many toys that there's almost no room—even for my small lavatory or toilet kit. And the closet is usually so tightly packed with clothes that I can barely squeeze in my jacket. I'm not complaining, only making a point. I think the tendency to give children too many toys and clothes is quite common in American families. I think in far too many families not only do children come to take their parents' generosity for granted, but also the effects of this can actually be somewhat harmful to children. Why do parents give their children too much, or give them things they can't afford? I believe there are several reasons. One fairly common reason is that parents spoil their children out of a sense of guilt. Parents who both hold down full-time jobs may feel guilty about the amount of time they spend away from their children and, as accommodation for being away so much, may attempt to compensate by showering them with material possessions. Other parents provide too much because they want their children to have everything they had while growing up, along with those things they pined for but didn't get. Still others are afraid to say no to their children's endless requests for toys for fear that their children will infer they are unloved or will be made fun of if they don't obtain the same toys as their friends have. Spoiling a child also happens when parents are unable to stand up to their children's unreasonable demands. Such parents fluctuate between saying no and giving in—but neither response seems satisfactory to them. If they refuse a request, they immediately feel a wave of regret for having been so strict or ungenerous. If they give in, they feel regret and resentment over having been too easy. This kind of variability not only loosens the parents' ability to set limits, it also sours the parent-child relationship to some degree, robbing parents and their children of some of the happiness and mutual respect that is present in healthy families. But spoiling children with material things does little to reduce parental guilt (since parents never feel

they've given enough), nor does it make children feel more loved (for what children really desire is parents' time and attention). Instead, the effects of providing too much can be harmful. Children may, to some degree, become greedy, selfish, ungrateful and insensitive to the needs and feelings of others, beginning with their parents. When children are given too much, it undermines their respect for their parents. In fact, the children begin to sense that a parent's unlimited generosity is not right. The contradiction as a result may be that these children, conversely, will push further, unconsciously hoping that, if they push too hard, they will force their parents into setting limitations. Also, spoiled children are not as challenged to be more creative in their play as children with fewer toys. They have fewer opportunities to learn the value of money, and have less experience in learning to deal with delay in satisfaction, when every requested object is given on demand. The real purpose of this discussion is not to tell parents how much or how little to give to their children. Rather, my intention is to help those parents who have already sensed that they might be spoiling their children but don't know how to stop. Sometimes you may feel uncertain about whether to give in to many of your children's requests. That doesn't mean you can't change. First, you should try to determine what makes you submit or feel guilty. Then, even if you haven't uncovered the reason, you should begin to make firm decisions and practice responding to your children's requests in a prompt, definite manner. Once you turn over a new leaf, you can't expect to change completely right away. You are bound to fluctuate at times. The key is to be satisfied with gradual improvement, expecting and accepting the occasional slips that come with any change. And even after you are handling these decisions in a firmer and more confident manner, you can't expect your children to respond immediately. For a while they'll keep on applying the old pressures that used to work so well. But they'll eventually come to respect your decisions once they learn that nagging and arguing no longer work. In the end, both you and your children will be happier for it.

我四处奔波,应约作各种演讲,常在别人家里过夜,也常被安排在孩子的卧室里。我发现孩子房间 里的玩具实在太多,甚至连我小小的梳妆盒也无处可放。壁橱通常也是塞满了衣服,我几乎无法把夹克 衫塞进去。 我不是在抱怨,只是在表明一种观点。我发现父母给孩子们买的玩具和衣服越来越多,这种倾向在 美国家庭已是司空见惯。我认为在很多家庭中,孩子们都把家长的慷慨大方视作理所当然的事情,而且 这种做法的后果实际上对孩子们来说也是有害的。 家长为什么要给孩子们那么多的东西,或者要给孩子们他们买不起的东西呢?我认为有几方面的原 因。 一个颇为常见的原因就是父母亲们出于内疚而溺爱孩子。两人都是全职工作者的父母也许会因为不 能常常和孩子在一起而感到内疚。他们可能想通过给孩子们大量物质的东西作为对他们的补偿。 还有一些父母给孩子买这买那,是因为他们想让孩子拥有他们自己童年时所拥有的每一样东西,以 及那些他们过去想得到而未能得到的东西。还有一些家长不愿拒绝孩子们永无休止的买玩具的要求,是 因为他们害怕孩子会认为父母不爱他们,或者害怕如果他们得不到和小伙伴们相同的玩具会被人取笑。 当家长无法应付孩子的无理要求时,也会发生溺爱孩子的现象。这样的父母会在拒绝和让步之间动 摇不定──但是好像哪种办法都不能使他们满意。如果他们拒绝孩子的请求,他们会因为对孩子太严格 或太不慷慨而立即感到后悔。如果他们让步了,也会因为太容易让步而感到懊悔和自责。这样的摇摆不 定不但削弱了父母管教孩子的能力,同时也在某种程度上使父母与子女之间的关系变味,从而使家长和 子女间失去了存在于健康家庭中的某些幸福和相互尊重。 但是,用物质的东西来溺爱孩子并不能减轻父母的内疚感(因为父母从不会感到他们已经付出了足 够多) ,也不会使孩子们觉得自己得到了更多的爱(因为孩子真正想要的是父母的时间和对他们的注意) 。 相反,给孩子们太多的东西可能是有害的。在一定程度上,孩子们可能会变得贪婪、自私、忘恩负 义,对他人的需要和感情变得麻木不仁,而且首先从对自己父母的态度开始。给孩子们的东西太多会逐

渐削弱他们对父母的尊敬。事实上,孩子们已经开始感到父母的无限制的慷慨大方是不对的。这种矛盾 的结果可能是这些孩子会反过来提出更高的要求,并下意识地希望,如果他们逼得更紧一些,他们就能 迫使父母对自己设立些限制。 另外,被宠坏的孩子也并不比那些没什么玩具的孩子在做游戏时被激发出更大的创造性。由于有求 必应,他们了解金钱价值的机会就比别人少,而且当他们的要求无法即刻得到满足时,他们也不知如何 去应付。 我讨论这个问题的真正目的不是要告诉家长们应该给孩子们多少物质的东西才适当。确切地讲,我 的目的是帮助那些已经意识到自己也许是在宠坏孩子、但又不知道如何纠正这一做法的家长们。 有时你也许会对自己是否要对孩子提出的许多要求作出让步感到没有把握。这并不意味着你不能改 变。首先,你应该设法弄清楚是什么东西使你让步,或者让你感到内疚。然后,即使没能找出原因,你 也应该开始作出果断的决定,试着对孩子的要求作出迅速明确的反应。 一旦你改变了以往的做法,你也不能指望马上有效果。有时你肯定会摇摆不定。关键是你要对逐渐 的进步感到满足,要预见到并接受可能伴随这种改变而来的偶尔失误。还有,即使你以更坚定、更自信 的方式实施着你的决定,也不能指望你的孩子会马上作出反应。在一段时间内,他们会继续对你施加曾 经很有效的、老一套的压力。但一旦他们知道不停的抱怨和争论再也不起作用时,他们最终会尊重你的 决定。这样做的结果是:你和你的孩子都会感到比以前更加开心。 Unit 6 As His Name Is, So Is He! For her first twenty-four years, she'd been known as Debbie—a name that didn't suit her good looks and elegant manner. "My name has always made me think I should be a cook," she complained. "I just don't feel like a Debbie." One day, while filling out an application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. "That was the smartest thing I ever did," she says now. "As soon as I stopped calling myself Debbie, I felt more comfortable with myself... and other people started to take me more seriously." Two years after her successful job interview, the former waitress is now a successful magazine editor. Friends and associates call her Lynne. Naturally, the name change didn't cause Debbie/Lynne's professional achievement—but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. Social scientists say that what you're called can affect your life. Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. "As his name is, so is he." says the Bible, and Webster's Dictionary includes the following definition of name: "a word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, often expressing approval or disapproval". Note well "approval or disapproval". For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you. Names become attached to specific images, as anyone who's been called "a plain Jane" or "just an average Joe" can show. The latter name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic. Yet, despite this disadvantage, I did manage to become an art critic for a time. Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print "Joe" in my by-line, using my first initials, J. S., instead. I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete. Of course, names with a positive sense can work for you and even encourage new acquaintances. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women believed Richard and David were the most attractive for men. One woman I know turned down a blind date with a man named Harry because "he sounded dull". Several evenings later, she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man; they'd been exchanging glances all evening. "Oh," I said. "You mean

Harry." She was ill at ease. Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we're all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. Confess: Wouldn't you be surprised to meet a carpenter named Nigel? A physicist named Bertha? A Pope Mel? Often, we project name-based stereotypes on people, as one woman friend discovered while taking charge of a nursery school's group of four-year-olds. "There I was, trying to get a little active boy named Julian to sit quietly and read a book—and pushing a thoughtful creature named Rory to play ball. I had their personalities confused because of their names!" Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well. In a study conducted by Herbert Harari of San Diego State University, and John McDavid of Georgia State University, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writers' names were given as Michael and David. However, teacher prejudice isn't the only source of classroom difference. Dr. Thomas V. Busse and Louisa Seraydarian of Temple University found those girls with names such as Linda, Diane, Barbara, Carol, and Cindy performed better on objectively graded IQ and achievement tests than did girls with less appealing names. (A companion study showed girls' popularity with their peers was also related to the popularity of their names―although the connection was less clear for boys.) Though your parents probably meant your name to last a lifetime, remember that when they picked it they'd hardly met you, and the hopes and dreams they valued when they chose it may not match yours. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don't despair; you aren't stuck with the label. Movie stars regularly change their names, and with some determination, you can, too. 在她人生最初的 24 年里, 人们一直叫她戴比──一个和她的漂亮容貌和优雅举止不相配的名字。 “我 的名字总是使我觉得自己应该是一个厨子, ”她抱怨道, “我真的不想要戴比这个名字。 ” 一天,在填写一份出版工作职位的申请表时,这位小姐一时冲动,用她的中名林恩替换了她的名字 戴比。 “这是我一生中干得最漂亮的一件事, ”现在她对人这样说, “一旦我不再称自己为戴比,我就感到 好多了…… 而且其他人也开始更认真地对待我了。 ”顺利地通过那次工作面试两年后,这位昔日的女服 务员现在成了一位成功的杂志编辑。朋友和同事们都叫她林恩。 当然,戴比(或林恩)的职业成就并不是改名带来的,但是这肯定给她带来了好处,虽说改名仅使 她对自己的才能增加了一点点自信。社会科学家认为你叫什么名字会影响你的生活。从古至今,名字不 仅被用来识别人,而且也被用来描述人。 《圣经》上说:人如其名。此外, 《韦伯斯特大词典》也对名字 作了如下的定义:表达某种特点的一个或几个字,这种特点被认为反映了某人或某事的本质,或描述了 某人某事,常表示嘉许或不赞成的意思。请好好注意这几个词: “嘉许或不赞成” 。不管是好是坏,诸如 友好或拘谨、相貌平平或漂亮妩媚等特征已经在你的名字中有所暗示,甚至他人在见到你本人之前就已 经知道你的这些特征了。 名字是与特定形象相关联的,任何一个被称为“相貌平常的简”或“普普通通的乔”的人都能证明 这一点。后面的那个名字特别使我烦恼,因为我也叫乔。有些人认为这个名字使我更适合于做一名棒球 运动员而不是别的什么职业,比如说艺术评论家。然而,尽管有此局限,我确实曾一度设法成为了一名 艺术评论家。即便如此,一家著名杂志一直拒绝把“乔”作为我的文章署名,而是用我名字的首字母 J. S. 来代替。我怀疑,假如我的名字是比较文雅的阿瑟或艾德里安的话,我的名字早已完整地出现在杂志上 了。 当然,有积极含义的名字对你是有好处的,甚至能促进你结交新朋友。最新调查表明:美国男士认 为苏珊是最有吸引力的女性名字,而女士则认为理查德和戴维是最有吸引力的男性名字。我认识一位女 士,她就拒绝了一次与一位叫哈里的男人见面,因为“这人的名字听上去没劲” 。可就在几天后的一个晚 间聚会上,她走到我身边,催我把她介绍给一位气度不凡的男人;他们俩人整个晚上都在互送秋波。 “哦, ”我说: “你指的是哈里呀。 ”她听了后感到很尴尬。 虽然我们中大多数人会认为自己没有这样的偏见,但在某种程度上,我们都多多少少对名字产生过 成见。说实话,你碰到一个名叫奈杰尔的木匠会不会感到惊讶呢?或是一个叫伯莎的物理学家?抑或是

一个叫梅尔的教皇?正如我的一位女性朋友在照看托儿所里四岁的儿童时所发现的那样,我们常常把由 名字引起的固有想法加到他人身上。 “在托儿所里,有一次我想让一个很活跃的名叫朱利安的小男孩静静 地坐下来看书,而把一个喜欢沉思、名叫罗里的孩子推出去打球。因为他们的名字,我把他们的性格给 搞混了! ” 很明显,这样的偏见也会影响课堂成绩。在一项由圣迭戈州立大学的赫伯特?哈拉里及乔治亚州立大 学的约翰?麦克戴维主持的研究中发现,教师总是给署名为埃尔默和休伯特的作文打较低的分数,但当把 这两篇作文的署名改为迈克尔和戴维时,老师给的分数就要高些。但是教师的偏见不是造成课堂成绩差 别的唯一原因。坦普尔大学的托马斯?V?布塞博士和路易莎?瑟拉里达里安发现:那些名叫琳达、黛安、 芭芭拉、卡罗尔及辛迪之类的女孩们在评分较客观的智力测验和学业成绩测验中的表现比那些名字不太 有吸引力的女孩要好。 (一个与之相关的研究表明:女孩受同伴欢迎的程度也与她们的名字受欢迎的程度 有关系,虽然对男孩来说这种关系不太明显。 ) 虽然你父母很可能想让你的名字伴随你一辈子,但记住,他们选这个名字的时候几乎还没有见到你 呢。而且,他们在选名字时所看重的希望和梦想也许并不符合你的希望和梦想。如果你的名字看上去已 不再适合你,不要苦恼;你不必一辈子用这个名字。影星们就经常改名,下点决心,你也可以这样做。 Judge by Appearances A standard criticism of sociological research is that it goes to great lengths to prove what most people with common sense already know. Without exactly taking sides for or against that criticism, I want to describe a sociological exercise that might seem to validate it—except that, for me and a classmate (and maybe for some who read this account), the experience made a common claim come alive. During spring break from a local college, my friend and I went downtown to shop. First, however, we made ourselves virtually unrecognizable to our friends and even to our families. We wore clothing slightly inappropriate for the weather, clean but not ironed, clearly not the styles worn by most visitors to the area. We carried plastic bags of nameless possessions. Both of us were slightly untidy. My friend wore a faded cotton shirt over a T-shirt and a wrinkled skirt over sweat pants. I wore a wool hat that concealed my hair and an unfashionable coat and glasses with sunshades that clipped on. The aim was to look like street people and to observe what difference that made in the way other people responded to us—whether the appearance of poverty would invite prejudice on us. We were also prepared to act out some mildly unusual behaviors that might speak of some emotional problems, without appearing seriously disturbed or dangerous. As it turned out, there was no need for dramatics; people turned us off or tuned us out on the basis of appearance alone. Our first stop (after parking our cars near the railroad tracks) was in the bargain store of a local charity, where we politely asked access to a bathroom and were refused. Next we entered the lobby of a large hotel, where we asked for a coffee shop and a bathroom. The doorman said, "You must go to the twentieth floor." We weren't up to trying our act at an exclusive restaurant, so we wandered around the first floor and left. From there we went to a second-hand shop, where we more or less blended with the customers, and then on to the upper-scale stores and coffee shops during the lunch hour. It was prejudice time. Some of the children we encountered stared, pointed, and laughed; adults gave us long, doubting looks. Clerks in stores followed our track to watch our every move. In a lunchroom a second assistant hurried to the side of the cashier, where they took my $2 check without asking for ID; it seemed worth that price to have us out the door. At one doorway a clerk physically blocked the entrance apparently to discourage our entry. We had money to cover small purchases, and, apart from wearing down-scale clothing, we did nothing in any of these settings to draw attention to ourselves; we merely shopped quietly in our accustomed manner. At one establishment we did blow our cover when we ordered French rolls with two special coffees; that may have been too far out of character for "bag ladies". Elsewhere we encountered ribbing, imitating, lack of trust, and

rude stares. So what did we learn? Mostly what we expected, what everybody knows: People judge by appearances. Just looking poor brings with it prejudice, accompanied by removal of much of the social grace most of us take for granted. Lacking the culturally acceptable symbols of belonging in this setting, we became, to a degree, objects, with less inherent dignity as persons. There was, however, one surprise—more accurately, a shock. It became clear most strongly at the shop I mentioned earlier, the one where a clerk conspicuously positioned herself in the entrance on seeing us. I had just noticed the place and had turned to my companion, saying, "I've never seen this store. Let's go in." She looked at me with alarm: "You're not really going there, are you?" I knew what she meant and shared her feeling. The place felt out of bounds for us. In a very few hours, we found ourselves accepting and internalizing the superficial and prejudiced judgments of ourselves that prevailed among the people we met; we catalogued ourselves. Undoubtedly, it's a good lesson to learn, maybe especially for sociologists.

人们通常批评说:社会学研究不遗余力去证明的只是一些大多数有常识的人都已经知道的东西。我 并不想明确表示支持或反对此类批评,只是想描述一次社会学考察活动,这次活动似乎也证明了人们的 上述说法──但对于我和我的一位同学(也许还有那些看到这篇报道的人)而言,这次活动使一个人人 皆知的观点变得真真切切了。 在本地一所大学放春假期间,我和朋友到市中心去购物。但是我们首先把自己打扮得几乎连朋友甚 至家人都认不出来。我们穿上了与天气稍稍不配的衣服,虽很干净但没有熨过。很明显,大多数到这个 地区来的游客都不会穿这种式样的衣服。我们提着塑料袋,里面装着杂七杂八的物品。我俩都有点衣冠 不整。我的朋友在 T 恤衫外面套了一件褪了色的全棉衬衣,还在运动裤外面套了一条皱巴巴的裙子。我 戴着一顶羊毛帽子把头发掩盖住,穿着一件老式的外套,并戴一副夹着遮阳镜片的眼镜。 我们的目的是为了让自己看上去像漂泊街头的人,以观察别人对我们会有何不同反应——贫穷的外 表是否会招致别人对我们的歧视。我们也准备做出一些稍微有点不正常的行为,以表明我们精神上有点 问题,但看上去又不是神经很不正常或对他人具有危险性。结果证明:我们无须夸张做作,人们单凭我 们的穿着就叫我们离开或不理睬我们。 我们 (把汽车停在铁路附近以后) 的第一个停留地点是由一家本地慈善团体经营的廉价商店。 在店里 我们彬彬有礼地请求使用洗手间,但却被拒绝了。接着我们走进了一家大旅馆的大堂,打听咖啡厅和洗 手间在哪里。门卫说: “你们得上 20 楼。 ”我们的演技还达不到上高档餐厅一试身手的水平,所以我们在 底楼兜了一圈就走了。离开那里后,我们就去了一家旧货商店,在那里我们多多少少和顾客融为一体了。 然后我们又到了几家高档商店,吃午饭的时候又去了几家咖啡馆。 这一段时间我们饱受歧视。我们遇到了一些孩子,他们盯着我们看,对我们指指点点,而且还放声 大笑;成年人用充满怀疑的目光看着我们。商店营业员紧紧地跟着我们,监视我们的一举一动。在一家 快餐店,一个帮工赶紧走到收银员的身边。他们收下了我两美元的支票,连身份证也没看。好像用这个 代价把我们赶出门是很合算的。在一个入口处,一名营业员用身体挡住了大门,显然是想打消我们进去 的念头。 我们身上有些钱,可买些小东西,而且除了穿低档衣服外,我们没有在上述任何情况下做过任何吸 引他人注意力的事:我们仅仅是以我们习惯的方式静静地购物。在一个饭店里,我们点了法式小面包, 另加两杯特制咖啡,这确实暴露了我们的身份:这也许与女流浪者的身份太不相称。在所有其他地方, 我们受到嘲弄、被人模仿、遭遇怀疑及无礼的目光。 我们了解到什么呢? 在很大程度上是我们所预料到的、人所共知的东西:人们以貌取人。仅仅是外 表寒酸就会招来歧视,同时在很多场合,我们大多数人视为理所当然的社交礼仪也不复存在了。因为我 们缺少在文化上可被认同的属于这个环境的标志,在某种程度上,我们就成了物品,缺少了做人所固有 的尊严。 然而,还有一件让人感到吃惊的事──更准确地讲,是让人感到震惊的事。在我先前提到过的那家

商店门口,就是有位营业员──见到我们就明显地堵住大门的那家商店,这种令人震惊的事表现得最为 突出。那时我刚注意到这个地方,转向我的同伴,对她说: “我从未见过这家商店。咱们进去吧。 ”她居 然惊慌地看着我说: “你不是真地想进去吧?” 我知道她的意思,我也理解她的感受。这不是我们该去的地方。没过几小时, 我们发觉自己正在接 受并适应着那些我们遇到的人所普遍持有的肤浅看法和偏见;我们也对自己进行了归类。毫无疑问,这 是值得学习的一课,对社会学家来说也许更是如此。 Unit 7 Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting your heart. If you don't want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can—and recognize there are many things beyond your control. So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska. Eliot says there are people in this world that he calls "hot reactors". For these people, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure. Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things. "We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. When that happens it happens very quickly, within five minutes. It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythms. The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. And when that happens, we can't live." Eliot, 64, suffered a heart attack at age 44. He attributes some of the cause to stress. For years he was a "hot reactor". On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected, but on the interior, stress was killing him. He's now doing very well. The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors—fear, uncertainty and doubt— together with perceived lack of control, he says. For many people, the root of their stress is anger, and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from. "Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?" Eliot asks. "That's very common in professional women. They feel they have to be all things to all people and do it all perfectly. They think, 'I should, I must, I have to.' Good enough is never good enough. Perfectionists cannot delegate. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they blow their tops. Then they feel guilty and they start the whole cycle over again." "Others are angry because they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a family argument," he says. "If you are angry for more than five minutes—if you stir the anger within you and let it build with no safety outlet—you have to find out where it's coming from." "What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they are to blow apart with some heart problem." One step to calming down is to recognize you have this tendency. Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking. Eliot recommends taking charge of your life. "If there is one word that should be substituted for stress, it's control. Instead of the FUD factors, what you want is the NICE factors—new, interesting, challenging experiences." "You have to decide what parts of your life you can control," he says. "Stop where you are on your trail and say, 'I'm going to get my compass out and find out what I need to do.' " He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things

they'd like to achieve. Ben Franklin did it at age 32. "He wrote down things like being a better father, being a better husband, being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered—he wasn't good at that." Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. "Don't give yourself impossible things, but things that will affect your identity, control and self-worth." "Put them on a note card and take it with you and look at it when you need to. Since we can't create a 26-hour day we have to decide what things we're going to do." Keep in mind that over time these priorities are going to change. "The kids grow up, the dog dies and you change your priorities." From Eliot's viewpoint, the other key to controlling stress is to "realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control—like the economy and politicians". You have to realize that sometimes with things like traffic jams, deadlines and unpleasant bosses, "You can't fight. You can't flee. You have to learn how to flow."

如果你常常生气、身心疲乏,好像你生活中的压力正在快速地积聚,将要失去控制,那么你可能是 在损害你的心脏了。 假如你不想损害自己的心脏,你就需要努力学会在力所能及的范围内控制自己的生活──并且承认 有许多东西你是无法控制的。 这是罗伯特?S. 埃利奥特博士的观点。他是内布拉斯加大学的临床医学教授,新书《从压力到力量: 怎样减轻你的负担,拯救你的生命》的作者。 埃利奥特说在这个世界上有一类他称之为“热核反应堆式的人” (即易怒的人) 。对这些人来说,紧 张会导致他们血压大幅度迅速上升。 埃利奥特说,研究人员已经发现,有压力的人除了其他症状外,胆固醇的含量也较高。 “我们已经做 了多年研究,证明过分忧虑或紧张所产生的化学物质的确会损伤心肌纤维。这种情况发生时往往很快, 不到 5 分钟。它会造成许多短路,而且这种短路会引起严重的心律不齐。心脏跳起来不像一个泵,而像 一只装着蠕虫的袋子(杂乱而又绵软无力) 。当这种情况发生时,我们就活不成了。 ” 现年 64 岁的埃利奥特,在 44 岁时曾有过一次心脏病发作,他把那次心脏病发作的部分原因归于压 力。多年来,他一直是一个“热核反应堆式的人” 。表面上,他显得沉着、冷静、泰然自若,但他内心深 处的压力使他筋疲力尽。他现在身体状况很好。 他说,压力破坏性程度的主要预测指标是 FUD 因素──FUD 指的是恐惧、犹豫和怀疑──再加上可 察觉到的缺乏控制力。 对许多人来说,压力的根源是愤怒,而对付愤怒的诀窍是找出怒从何来。埃利奥特问道: “这种愤怒 是否来自这么一种感觉:希望一切事物都必须完美无缺?” “这在职业女性中是很常见的原因。她们觉得要让人人感到她们无所不能,而且要把样样事情都做 得完美无缺。她们认为, ‘我应该这样,我必须这样,我不得不这样。 ’追求完美永无止境。完美主义者 事必躬亲。他们生气是因为他们不得不把什么事情都扛在自己肩上,还为之发脾气。随后他们就感到内 疚,接着他们就再把整个过程重复一遍。 ” “还有的人生气是因为他们的生活没有方向。他们把交通阻塞看得和家庭纠纷一样重, 他说: ” “如 果你生气超过 5 分钟──如果你生闷气,没有安全的发泄渠道的话──你就必须弄清你为何生气。 ” “此时就会发生这种情况──人们由于心理压力在生理上变得越发激动,他们的身体就越可能因为 某种心脏病而崩溃。 ” 让自己平静下来的做法就是承认你存在这种倾向。通过改变你的某些看法和消极思想,学会对事物 不再抱有那么强烈的敌视态度。 埃利奥特建议人们控制自己的生活。 “如果有什么能取代压力,那就是控制。你所需要的不是 FUD 因素而是 NICE 因素──NICE 是指新的、使人感兴趣的、有挑战性的经历。 ” “你必须确定你能控制自己生活中的哪些部分, ”他说: “停下你的脚步,对自己说, ‘我要把指南针

拿出来,弄明白自己需要什么。” ’ 他建议人们写下他们觉得自己生活中最重要的、最想做成的 6 件事。本?富兰克林在 32 岁时就是这 样做的。 “他写下了他想要做的事情,诸如要做一个更慈爱的父亲、更体贴的丈夫、经济上独立、思维上 活跃,而且还要保持性情平和──这一点他也做得不好。 ” 埃利奥特说,你可以先列出 12 件事,然后压缩到 6 件,要确定轻重缓急。 “别让自己去做不可能做 到的事。要做那些会影响你的个性、控制能力和自我价值的事情。 ” “把它们记在一张可以随身携带的卡片上,需要的时候看看。既然我们无法让一天有 26 个小时,我 们就得确定先做哪些事情。 ” 请记住:随着时间的推移,优先要做的事会有所改变。 “孩子会长大,狗会死去,你所优先考虑做的 事也会改变。 ” 根据埃利奥特的观点,控制压力的另一关键因素是“要承认你生活中还有一些棘手的、你几乎无法 或完全无法控制的东西──比如经济以及政客们。 ” 你必须认识到,有时候像交通阻塞、最后期限及讨厌的老板这类事情, “你无法抗争,也无法逃避。 你必须学会如何与之相容。 ” Are You a Workaholic? There's a big distinction between working hard and being a workaholic. Working hard involves being organized, focused, getting a lot of work done, knowing when to stop, and having a life other than work. Workaholics, on the other hand, are often disorganized, always find reasons for working more, feel lost without work to do, hide from problems through work, don't know how or when to relax, bring work home from the office, can't communicate well with fellow workers and family members, and have unbalanced, one-dimensional lives. Workaholics, like those who are constantly drunk, suffer from a controlling habit, usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences. They are sometimes pushed into their habit by their work beliefs, by workaholic role models, and by a work system that automatically sanctions workaholism. Despite lip service to the contrary ("a balanced employee is a productive employee"), most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours, rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits. In many companies, workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk. Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours. Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode driven by merchants, which leads them to rack up their expectations. According to some psychology counselors, workaholism can be both good and bad for us. It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. And we get paid for it and praised for it, which produces good feelings we may not necessarily be able to attain in other parts of our lives. Workaholism is a problem that has been evident since the Stone Age—whenever people have sought to escape other parts of their lives through work. Our parents and grandparents worked very hard, but theirs was more of physical work. Ours has more stress in it, especially in these days of rising competition and shrinking companies. The companies are getting smaller and smaller because of bleak economic conditions and employees fear for their jobs—so they work longer hours. We seem to be more in the fast lane than ever before. Psychology counselors have noticed three types of workaholics: People with high energy that needs discharging. Very competitive people who have a strong need to prove themselves and tie their self-worth to their work. People who use work to escape from something, such as grief, frustration or guilt. They keep themselves so busy that they have no time or energy to deal with their real problems. These three types generally have the same traits. They can't stand not being active. They find it hard to go on vacation. They're more comfortable being with fellow workers than with family and friends. They equate self-worth and success with hard work. They'd rather be at work than elsewhere or doing anything else.

Workaholics presumably view their work habits through denial and rationalization. They deny the excessive time they're devoting to work, and they rationalize that their schedule is for the family and essential to being promoted. They also tend to view themselves and their work as indispensable and their working long hours as commitment to the company. Of course there is nothing wrong with their commitment, ambition and durable energy. But what is wrong is that these things often come in at a high price to their health and the welfare of their families. As workaholics tend to put all their eggs in one basket, their job, spreading these eggs into several baskets can help them. Psychology counselors, for example, often help these people by asking about the hobbies they enjoyed in the past and don't have anymore. That kind of question can often get them started toward regaining more of a balance in their lives. To be a healthy person physically and psychologically, one should lead a balanced life, some psychology experts summarize. Those little things—reading mystery novels, playing volleyball, spending time with family and friends, playing with the dog, going fishing—may seem relatively insignificant means to a healthy end. But, they can be at least as rewarding as work.

努力工作和工作狂之间有很大的区别。 努力工作是指工作有条有理、精力集中,完成许多工作,知道何时歇手,知道除了工作还有生活。 而工作狂常常是缺乏条理,总在寻找理由想做得更多些,没有工作可做时就感到不知所措,想通过 工作来躲避问题。他们不知道怎样或何时放松一下,经常把办公室里的活儿带回家里去做,不善于和同 事及家人交流沟通,生活作息不平衡,单调乏味。 工作狂,就像那些老是醉醺醺的人一样,有一种无法摆脱的习惯,这种习惯通常被定义为不顾消极 后果的强迫性行为。他们有时是被自己的工作信念、工作狂的行为模范以及一种自动认可工作狂的工作 方式所逼而养成了这种习惯的。大多数雇主尽管口头上说得很漂亮( “生活作息保持平衡的雇员是效率高 的雇员”,可他们需要的是忠心耿耿的、愿意加班的雇员,并用高薪和更多的福利来奖励他们。在许多 ) 公司里,不愿意开夜车的职工处境岌岌可危。他们只在正常时间内工作就肯定是在拿自己的饭碗冒险。 美国人往往会陷入一种由商人们所推动的工作然后花钱消费的模式之中,这种模式引诱他们抬高自 己的期望值。 根据某些心理顾问的观点,迷恋工作对我们来说既是好事,又是坏事。它可以激发一种自我价值和 成就感,而且我们还能因此得到报酬和表扬,这会给我们带来我们不一定能从生活的其他方面获得的良 好感觉。 工作狂自石器时代起就成了一个很明显的问题了──每当有人试图通过工作来逃避他们生活中的某 些方面时,这个问题就出现了。我们的父母和祖辈们工作都很努力,但是他们的劳动基本上是体力劳动。 而我们的工作则压力更大,尤其是在当今竞争日趋激烈、公司规模日趋缩小的时代。由于经济形势暗淡, 公司不断裁员,雇员担心失去工作,因此他们工作时间更长。与过去相比,我们更经常地行驶在快车道 上。 心理咨询顾问已经注意到了三种类型的工作狂: 精力充沛、需要释放的人。 竞争心很强、急需证明自己、并把自我价值和工作联系起来的人。 想通过工作来逃避诸如悲伤、沮丧和内疚之类东西的人。他们让自己处于极度忙碌的状态,这样他 们就没有时间或精力去对付他们的现实问题了。 这三类人通常有同样的特点:他们忍受不了懒懒散散,他们发觉很难抽出时间去度假,与跟家人和 朋友们在一起相比,他们觉得和同事们在一起更舒服自在。他们把自我价值和成功与拼命工作等同起来。 他们宁可干活,而不愿到别的地方去或做其他事情。 工作狂可能会通过否认和辩护来解释自己的工作习惯。他们否认自己在工作上花了太多的时间,他 们自我辩解说他们的工作是为了家庭,同时对升职也至关重要。他们也往往认为他们本人及他们的工作 对公司来说是不可或缺的,他们超时工作是对公司的一种奉献。当然他们的奉献、抱负和持久的精力均

无可指责,错的是这些东西是以牺牲他们的健康和他们家庭幸福的高昂代价才得以实现的。 因为工作狂把一切希望都寄托在一件事上──他们的工作,因此帮助他们的办法是把他们的希望分 散到几件事上去。例如,心理顾问常常可以通过询问他们过去喜欢的、而现在却丢得一干二净的业余爱 好来帮助他们。此类问题往往能促使他们开始更多地恢复他们生活的平衡。 一些心理学专家概括说,为了做一个生理和心理上都健康的人,我们必须过一种平衡的生活。那些 小事情──如阅读推理小说、打排球、花时间和家人及朋友在一起、跟狗一起玩耍、去钓鱼──对实现 健康的目的而言,似乎是一些不太起眼的方法,但它们至少可以和工作一样对你有益。 Unit 8 There's a Lot More to Life than a Job It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young. Reading a survey report on first-year college students, I recalled the regret, "If only I knew then what I know now." The survey revealed what I had already suspected from informal polls of students both in Macon and at the Robins Resident Center: If it (whatever it may be) won't compute and you can't drink it, smoke it or spend it, then "it" holds little value. According to the survey based on responses from over 188,000 students, today's college beginners are "more consumeristic and less idealistic" than at any time in the 17 years of the poll. Not surprising in these hard times, the students' major objective "is to be financially well off". Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life. Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting. Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women's studies. On the other hand, enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up. That's no surprise either. A friend of mine (a sales representative for a chemical company) was making twice the salary of college instructors during her first year on the job—even before she completed her two-year associate degree. "I'll tell them what they can do with their music, history, literature, etc.," she was fond of saying. And that was four years ago; I tremble to think what she's earning now. Frankly, I'm proud of the young lady (not her attitude but her success). But why can't we have it both ways? Can't we educate people for life as well as for a career? I believe we can. If we cannot, then that is a conviction against our educational system—kindergarten, elementary, secondary and higher. In a time of increasing specialization, more than ever, we need to know what is truly important in life. This is where age and maturity enter. Most people, somewhere between the ages of 30 and 50, finally arrive at the inevitable conclusion that they were meant to do more than serve a corporation, a government agency, or whatever. Most of us finally have the insight that quality of life is not entirely determined by a balance sheet. Sure, everyone wants to be financially comfortable, but we also want to feel we have a perspective on the world beyond the confines of our occupation; we want to be able to render service to our fellow men and to our God. If it is a fact that the meaning of life does not dawn until middle age, is it then not the duty of educational institutions to prepare the way for that revelation? Most people, in their youth, resent the Social Security deductions from their pay, yet a seemingly few short years later find themselves standing anxiously by the mailbox. While it's true all of us need a career, preferably a prosperous one, it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own. And we are better for our understanding of these other contributions—be they scientific or artistic. It is equally true that, in studying the

diverse wisdom of others, we learn how to think. More importantly, perhaps, education teaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see beyond our immediate needs. Weekly we read of unions that went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer out of business. No company, no job. How short-sighted in the long run. But the most important argument for a broad education is that in studying the accumulated wisdom of the ages, we improve our moral sense. I saw a cartoon recently which depicts a group of businessmen looking puzzled as they sit around a conference table; one of them is talking on the intercom: "Miss Baxter," he says, "could you please send in someone who can distinguish right from wrong?" In the long run that's what education really ought to be about. I think it can be. My college roommate, now head of a large shipping company in New York, not surprisingly was a business major. But he also hosted a classical music show on the college's FM station and listened to Wagner as he studied his accounting. That's the way it should be. Oscar Wilde had it right when he said we ought to give our ability to our work but our genius to our lives. Let's hope our educators answer students' cries for career education, but at the same time let's ensure that students are prepared for the day when they realize their short-sightedness. There's a lot more to life than a job.

人们常常说:对于青春来说,最令人悲伤的事情莫过于青春在年轻时被浪费掉了。 在读一份对大学一年级新生作的调查报告时,我又想起了这种惋惜之情: “要是当初我就懂得了现在 我领悟到的东西该有多好! ” 这份调查报告印证了我以前根据在梅肯和罗宾斯住宿中心对学生进行的非正式民意调查所作的推 断:学生们认为如果某种东西(不管它是何物)没有实际意义,不能把它当酒喝、当烟抽、当钱花,那 么“它”就基本毫无价值。 基于对 188,000 多名学生答卷的调查表明,当今的大学新生比这项民意测验开始 17 年以来的任何 时候的大学新生都“更主张消费主义,同时也少了些理想主义” 。 在这个经济不景气的时代,学生们的主要目标是追求“经济上的富裕” 。与过去任何时候相比,树立 有意义的人生哲学已不那么重要了。这一情况并不让人感到惊奇。因此,如今最受欢迎的课程不是文学 或历史,而是会计学。 如今人们对当教师、社会服务和人文学科、还有种族和妇女研究的兴趣都处于低潮。而另一方面, 攻读商科、工程学及计算机科学的学生人数却在迅速增加。 还有一件事也不令人意外。我的一个朋友(一个化工公司的销售代理)在干这份工作的第一年所挣 的钱就已是大学教师薪水的两倍了──这甚至还是在她修完两年制的准学士学位课程之前的事。 她喜欢说这样一句话: “我会对他们讲,他们学习音乐、历史、文学等等有什么用! ”那还是四年以 前呢,我都不敢想象她现在赚多少钱。 坦率地说,我为这位小姐感到骄傲(不是为她的态度,而是为她的成功) 。但是我们为什么不能两全 其美呢?我们就不能教会人们既懂得谋生,又懂得人生么?我相信我们能够做到。 如果我们做不到这一点,那就是对我们从幼儿园、小学、中学直到大学的整个教育制度的否定。在 一个日益专业化的时代,我们比过去任何时候都更需要了解什么是生活中真正重要的东西。 这就是年龄和成熟所能带给人们的启示。大多数年龄约在 30 至 50 岁之间的人都会最终得出一个必 然的结论,即他们不应该仅仅是为某个公司、某个政府机构或任何其他单位服务。 我们大多数人最终会认识到,生活质量并不完全是由资产负债表来决定的。诚然,每个人都想在经 济上富裕点。但是我们还希望对自己职业范围以外的世界有所了解;我们希望能为我们的同胞和上帝效 劳。 如果说人要到步入中年才能对人生的含义有所领悟的话,那么为这种领悟扫清障碍不正是教育机构 的责任吗?大多数人在年轻的时候怨恨从他们工资中扣钱交社会保险金,然而好像只是短短几年后,他 们就发现自己正焦急地站在信箱旁边(等待养老金支票)了。 虽然我们所有人都确实需要一份工作,最好是一份薪水丰厚的工作。但同样不容争议的事实是,我

们的文明已经在我们各自的领域之外积累了巨大的知识财富。而且正因为我们理解了这些在其他领域的 贡献――不管是科学方面的,还是艺术方面的――我们的人生才更完善。同样地,我们在了解他人的智慧 的同时,自己也学会了如何去思考。也许更重要的是,教育使我们的视野超越了眼前的需求,并使我们 看到了事物间的联系。 我们每周都在报纸上读到这样的消息:工会在为要求更高的工资而罢工,结果却只是使他们的老板 破了产。没有了公司,也就没有了工作岗位。从长远来看,他们的目光是何等地短浅! 但是赞成全面教育的最重要的理由是,在学习世世代代积累起来的知识的同时,我们也提高了自己 的道德感。最近我看了一幅漫画,描述了几个商人坐在会议桌周围,看上去困惑不解的样子。其中的一 个正通过内部通话设备讲话: “巴克斯特小姐, ”他说, “是否可以请您叫一个能明辨是非的人来?” 从长远观点来看,这确确实实是教育应该做的事。我认为教育完全能够做到这一点。我的一位大学 室友──现在是纽约一家大型航运公司的总裁──过去曾主修过商科,这一点并不出人意料。但是他也 曾在大学调频电台上主持过一档古典音乐节目,并且在学习会计学的时候还在欣赏瓦格纳的音乐作品。 这就是教育之道。奥斯卡?王尔德说得好:我们应该把我们的才能用于工作,而把我们的天赋投入到 生活中去。 我们希望我们的教育工作者能满足学生对职业教育的渴求,但与此同时,我们也要确保学生能为他 们认识到自己目光短浅的那一天做好准备。人生的意义远远不止是工作。 What Youngsters Expect in Life Back in the good old days of stable economic expansion—the 1950s and 1960s—a person could choose to do something new, exciting, and creative in life but could also choose to say, "That's not for me: I am going to play it safe in life. I am going to stay in my home town and have a nice comfortable career in a salaried job." That second choice no longer exists for the vast majority of Americans. All of us are going to be creators and pioneers over the next 10 years whether we like it or not, and many of us don't like it. Just look at what the attitude surveys tell us. In the United States, three-quarters of the adults surveyed by the Harris Poll and two-thirds of all high-school seniors surveyed by Scholastic magazine say they believe that the United States will be a worse place 10 years from now than it is today. No wonder young people are disaffected. No wonder they are not motivated to learn. They think the world in which they are going to spend their lives won't be a very satisfactory place. Young men, in particular, are not happy with their prospects for the future. When surveyors ask US female high-school students what they are going to do when they graduate, they list all kinds of roles they want to fill, like doctors, lawyers, engineers, accountants, civil servants, police and firemen, and fighter pilots. In short, they want to do all the things that men have always done. Moreover, less than 10% of female high-school seniors expect to spend their adult lives solely as mothers and domestic managers, while nearly 90% are committed to having both a career and a marriage based on equality. By comparison, nearly half of male high-school students express their preference for a traditional, male-headed, one provider, nuclear family, where the wife stays home as mother and housewife. And when male high-school students are asked what kinds of careers they would like to have, the only two job fields that consistently receive large numbers of responses in open surveys are "professional athlete" and "media personality". A large proportion of America's young men—one third or more—simply say they don't know what they're going to do as adults. If these people do not acquire some constructive vision of purpose for themselves, they are likely to be very destructive forces of resistance in society throughout their lives. We already see that. One recent estimate is that one-sixth of all 14- to 24-year-olds in America—mostly males—are currently "disaffected and disconnected". They are not associated with any formal role in society, nor are they in any formal relationship with another person. These are the folks who are joining the gangs in inner cities and swelling the ranks of the rural military gangs. They see no roles for themselves in an Information Age society, and they are angry about their empty

future. So this is a very pregnant moment, not only for the future of America, but also for all of the mature industrial economies and, ultimately, for the world at large. It is an uncertain moment, a scary moment. It is the kind of moment in history when, to summarize in the words of Alfred North Whitehead, familiar patterns fade, familiar solutions fail, and familiar options disappear. Of course, the books and periodicals that are warning society about the removal of jobs, "the end of work", and wage decreases only serve to increase public anxiety― a slow-motion variation of shouting "Fire!" in a crowded theater. These alarming forecasts are largely simple projections of the past two or three decades of workplace trends. However, in the absence of plausible alternative explanations for the gloomy economic news of the past 15 to 20 years and the gloomier prospects implicit in the projections of those trends, industrial societies—fearful for the future—might very well take backward steps. These steps will principally serve the interests of the economically dominant groups who want to protect their assets and resources from the forces of change. Nations that take such steps will lose balance. Social and economic progress will grind to a halt and the negative side of this transformation will eliminate more and more jobs. The anger and frustration displayed by people who do not understand what is happening to them will be a terrible and dangerous force in all the major industrial economies. 在过去经济平稳发展的美好时光──20 世纪 50 年代和 60 年代──人们可以选择某种既新鲜刺激, 又有创意的事干,但也可能会说: “那不是我要做的工作,我打算在生活中稳扎稳打。我打算留在家乡, 找一个舒适的、拿薪水的好工作。 ”现在对绝大多数美国人来说,上述第二种选择已不复存在。不管我们 喜欢与否,在以后的 10 年里我们都得创造和开拓,当然我们当中有许多人并不喜欢这样。 看一看民意调查告诉我们些什么吧!在美国,哈里斯民意测验所调查的四分之三成年人、 《学人》杂 志所调查的三分之二的高中生都说,他们认为 10 年以后美国将变成一个比现在更糟糕的地方。难怪年轻 人会感到不满意,也难怪他们没有学习动力。他们认为自己将在其中度过一生的这个世界不会是一个令 人感到满意的地方。 特别是年轻小伙子对他们未来的前景感到不满。当调查人员询问美国女中学生们毕业后打算做什么 时,她们列出了各种各样她们所喜欢做的工作,如医生、律师、工程师、会计、公务员、警察、消防员 以及战斗机驾驶员。总之,她们喜欢做所有一直由男人们在做的事情。此外,只有不到 10%的女高中生 期望成年后做专职母亲或家庭主妇,而近 90%的女生则决心既要有一份职业,又要有一个男女平等的婚 姻。 与此相比,几乎有一半男中学生表达了他们对传统的、男人主宰的、只有一个人挣钱养家的核心家 庭的偏爱,在这种家庭里妻子作为母亲和家庭主妇呆在家里。还有,当问到他们想从事什么样的职业时, 在公开调查中仅有两类行业尤其受欢迎,那就是“职业运动员”和“媒体名人” 。大多美国男青年──三 分之一或更多──干脆说他们不知道成年以后要做什么。 如果这些人不为自己设立某种有建设性的人生目标,他们就很有可能一辈子都是社会上极具破坏性 的反抗力量。我们已经看到了这一点。最新的一项估计表明,美国所有 14 至 24 岁的人当中有六分之一 ──大多数为男性──现在已“心存不满,与社会格格不入” 。他们不担当任何社会角色,和其他人也没 有正常的关系。这些人正是那些参加老城区流氓帮派以及使乡村武装匪帮队伍扩大起来的人。他们看不 到在信息时代的社会里自己该担当什么角色,因而对前途茫茫而感到愤愤不已。 因此这是个至关重要的时刻,这不仅仅对美国的未来、而且对所有成熟的工业化国家,并且最终对 整个世界来说都是至关重要的时刻。这是个变幻莫测的时刻,一个引起恐慌的时刻。我们不妨用阿尔弗 雷德?诺思?怀特海德的话来加以归纳:在历史上的这种时刻,熟悉的模式在消失,熟悉的解决办法在失 效,熟悉的选择也在消失。当然,那些向社会警告工作岗位消失、 “工作完蛋了”和工资减少的书刊杂志 只不过是起到了增加公众焦虑的作用──这就好像是在播放有人在拥挤的戏院里大叫“着火啦”那种景 象的慢镜头。 这些吓人的预测大体上是在过去 20 或 30 年的职场趋势的基础上对未来所作的简单推断。然而,由

于对过去 15 至 20 年里令人沮丧的经济信息及暗含在那些趋势预测中的更为令人沮丧的前景没有其他合 理的解释,工业社会──出于对未来的恐惧──很可能会采取倒退措施。这些措施主要是为那些经济上 处于支配地位的群体服务,这些群体希望保护他们的资产和资源不因变革而遭受损失。采取这类措施的 国家会失去平衡。社会和经济上的进步会慢慢停滞下来,而且越来越多的工作岗位会因为这种改革的负 面作用而消失。那些不理解正发生在自己身上的事的人所表现出来的愤怒和失望将成为所有主要工业国 家中的一股可怕和危险的力量。 Unit 9 Never Be a Quitter in Face of Life "Get yourself up and make something of yourself, buddy!" Though she has passed away, my mother's words are as clear in my head today as when I was a boy. She may have had my interests at heart, but from my standpoint at the time, her less than tender approach to parenting was the equivalent of bamboo torture treatment. "Christ!" I utter, "I have made something of myself. I am entitled to sleep late." "If there's one thing I can't stand, it's a quitter." Her voice in my head is more powerful than my will to refuse, so I pull myself from bed. My father died after five years of marriage. My mother didn't have any money after he died. She had three babies to care for and lots of bills to pay. She had just started college, but she had to quit to look for work. When we lost our house a couple of months later, she was left with nothing but scattered pieces of a life to pick up. My insane grandmother who was dying had to be institutionalized and we all had to take shelter with her brother Allen. She eventually found work as a grocer at a supermarket at ten dollars a week. Mother, although hopeful that I would make millions, never deceived herself about my abilities to do so, and so she pushed me toward working with words from an early age. Words ran in her family. The most spectacular proof was my mother's first cousin Edwin. He was managing editor of The New York Times and had gained a name for himself while covering the Cuban Missile Crisis. She often used Edwin as an example of how far an ambitious man could get without much talent. "Edwin James was no smarter than anybody else, though a little faster as a typist, and look where he is today," my mother said, and said, and said again. Her early identification of my own gift for words gave her purpose and from then on, her whole life started to revolve around helping me to develop my talents. Though very poor, she signed us up for a set of books for intermediate and advanced readers. One book arrived by mail each month for just 39 cents. What I read with joy, though, were newspapers. I lapped up every word about monstrous crimes, awful accidents and terrible acts committed against people in faraway wars and the refugees who had to escape from their home countries. Accounts of police corruption and murderers dying in the electric chair fascinated me. In 1947 I graduated from Johns Hopkins and applied for a job with the Baltimore Sun as a police reporter. Why they picked me was a mystery. It paid $30 a week. When I complained the wage was humiliating for a learned man, mother refused to sympathize. "If you work hard at this job," she said, "maybe you can make something of it." After a while, I was given an assignment to cover diplomats at various African embassies. Then, seven years after I started, I was assigned by the Sun to cover the White House. Reporting from the Oval Office was as close to heaven as a journalist could get. I looked forward to seeing the delight on my mother's face when I told her. Considering the onward and upward course she had set for me, I should have known better. "Well, Russ," she said, "if you work hard at this White House job, you might be able to make something of yourself." Her weak praise didn't correspond to my achievement. No matter what I did, any accomplishment of mine only seemed marginal in her eyes. This would often make me crazy. She would never congratulate me or make

any concession that I was doing great things. There was always something negative to be said, even when I succeeded. "Even if you get to the top, you have to watch out." She was always keen to point out, "The bigger they come, the harder they fall." Uncle Edwin's success was a sincere nuisance during my early years as a reporter. What a thrill, I thought, if I were to be hired by The Times thus proving my worth to my mother once and for all. Then, out of my wildest childhood fantasy, The Times came knocking. It was sad that Uncle Edwin had departed by this time. Eventually, I would be offered one of the most prized assignments for which a reporter could possibly hope: a regular opinion piece in The New York Times. It was proof that my mother's scheme to push me toward literature from an early age had been absolutely right. In 1979 I reached the summit of my professional career winning a major award, namely the Pulitzer Prize. Unfortunately, my mother's brain and overall health collapsed the year before leaving her in a nursing home, out of touch with life forevermore. She never knew of my Pulitzer. I can probably guess how she'd have responded. "That's nice, buddy. It shows if you work hard, you'll be able to make something of yourself one of these days."

“孩子,起来,做个有出息的人! ” 虽然母亲已经过世,但她的话依然清晰地在我脑海中回响,就如我在孩提时代听到的一样。 她心里也许是为我好,但那时依我看来,她那毫不温柔的为母之道就如同用竹条鞭笞一般严厉。 “天哪! ”我叫道: “我已经是个有出息的人了。我有权晚点起床了。 ” “要是有什么我不能忍受的东西,那就是逃兵。 ” 她的声音在我脑海中回响,让我无法拒绝,于是我从床上爬了起来。 我的父亲在婚后 5 年就过世了。他死后,我母亲没有钱。她要抚养三个孩子,还有一身的债务。 当时母亲刚上大学,却不得不辍学去找工作。几个月后,我们失去了房子,母亲一无所有,只有支 离破碎的生活残局等着她去收拾。我那奄奄一息的精神失常的祖母不得不被送往疯人院,而我们也只能 寄居于她弟弟艾伦的家中。最终,母亲找到了一份超市售货员的工作,每周工资 10 美元。 虽然母亲期望我能成为百万富翁,但她很清楚我的能力,在这一点上,她从不欺骗自己。因此,从 我很小的时候起,她就鼓励我向文字工作的方向发展。 母亲的家庭与文字素有渊源。最显著的证据就是我母亲最年长的堂兄埃德温。他是《纽约时报》的 执行编辑,因报道古巴导弹危机而声名大噪。她常用埃德温的例子来告诉我一个有雄心的人能走多远, 即使他没什么天赋。 “埃德温?詹姆士虽然打字速度比较快,但他并不比其他人聪明,你看,他现在多么功成名就, ”我 母亲总是一遍又一遍地说。 她早就认定我有文字天赋,从那时起,她就有了目标,她的整个生命便开始围绕着帮助我开发天赋 而运转。虽然很穷,她还是为我们订了一套适合中高级水平读者阅读的读物。每个月都会有一本书邮寄 过来,价值 39 美分。 然而,我感兴趣的却是报纸。我贪婪地汲取每一条消息:骇人听闻的罪行、可怕的事故、在遥远地 区发生的战争对人们犯下的令人发指的罪行,以及不得不背井离乡的难民的消息。警察贪污以及凶手死 于电椅的报道令我着迷。 1947 年,我从约翰斯?霍普金斯大学毕业,向《巴尔的摩太阳报》应聘警事记者一职。他们为何选择 了我是个谜。工资是一周 30 美元。我抱怨薪水太低,这对一个有学问的人来说是侮辱,但母亲却不认同。 “如果你努力做好这份工作, ”她说, “说不定能够做出些名堂来。 ” 不久,我被委派去采访非洲各国驻美大使馆的外交官。工作七年后, 《太阳报》派我去白宫采访。对 于一个记者来说,能够从椭圆型办公室发回报道已经是达到职业的顶峰了。当我把这个消息告诉母亲时, 我期待着从她的脸上看到喜悦。但要是我能够考虑到她为我设定的不断向前迈进、向上攀升的人生路线,

我就不该有这种期待了。 “好,拉斯, 她说: ” “要是你努力做好这份白宫的工作,你有可能会有所成就。 ” 母亲并没有对我取得的成就予以充分肯定。无论我做什么,我取得的成就在她看来都是微不足道的。 这往往会让我心烦。她从不向我道贺,从不承认我做得很棒。即使在我成功的时候,她也是说一些 否定的话。 “即使你到达了巅峰,你还得留神。 ”她总是尖刻地指出, “成就越大,摔下来也越重。 ” 在我刚刚成为记者的几年中,舅舅埃德温的成就常常萦绕在我脑中,挥之不去。我常想,要是《纽 约时报》雇用我,该是件多么令人兴奋的事情啊,那样我就可以向母亲一劳永逸地证明我的价值了。 后来,连孩提时代也没想过的是, 《纽约时报》竟然自己来敲门了。可惜的是,当我去《纽约时报》 工作时埃德温舅舅已经离开了那里。最后,我终于被委任了一个记者能够梦想得到的最具荣誉性的工作: 《纽约时报》的一个固定专栏的评论员。 这证明了我母亲在我小时候制定的、鼓励我从事笔墨生涯的计划是完全正确的。 1979 年,我达到了事业的顶峰,获得了一个重大奖项──普利策奖。不幸的是,在这前一年,我母 亲的神志和健康状况都完全崩溃了,她住进了疗养院,从此与世隔绝。她从来不知道我的普利策奖。 我大概可以猜到她会做出怎样的反应。 “不错,孩子。看来,要是你努力工作,总有一天你会成为一 个出色的人。 ” From Hardship Comes Success "I prefer action to words," says John TC Yeh, the award-winning businessman. Over the past four decades, John, who has been deaf since birth, has proven his abilities time and time again—as a young immigrant, a college student, a clever business leader, an employer of persons who are disabled, an advocate, and a loving husband and father of three. A native of Taiwan, John came to the United States with his family in 1962 so that he and his sister, who is also deaf, could receive the best education possible. John graduated from the Kendall School for the Deaf and then went on to Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C., where he earned a bachelor's degree in mathematics. He wanted to become a mathematics teacher, but encountered many difficulties along the way, most importantly that employers would not hire him because he was deaf. John reflects that his first job was cleaning up at a restaurant. "I supervised myself, so my lack of hearing didn't affect my job," he recalls. He went on to receive his master's degree in computer science, but after applying for hundreds of jobs, he once again found that employers were unwilling to hire him, evidently because he was disabled. In the late 1970s, John decided that the only way a deaf person could succeed in business was to take ownership of the problem and develop his or her own business. Frustrated by the lack of employment opportunities for deaf individuals, he and his brothers took out a huge loan and founded a software company in the Silicon Valley, Integrated Microcomputer Systems, Inc. (IMS). Their gamble paid off, making millions and providing jobs for both the hearing and the deaf. In the meantime, IMS and John were recognized with numerous awards for honorable services to the community, creative business practices and technical excellence. In 1994, 16 years after establishing IMS, John and his brothers sold the company and became "semi-retired". After less than two years, John undertook sponsoring the development of technology to offer affordable, real-time text services to deaf students. John has rarely taken a rest since starting his first company. Over the years, in addition to proving his skill for business, John has demonstrated his abilities as a leader advocating for the deaf by serving on the boards of a broad scope of non-profit and educational institutions. In a recent interview, John was asked questions regarding the employment of persons with disabilities, including Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with disabilities. Some of the interview is presented below.

Q: What unique difficulties with employment do Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) who are disabled face today? A: I wouldn't characterize the bulk of the barriers I've faced as being cultural. With reference to difficulties due to being deaf, they've mostly been related to communication and language. The bottom line is there has to be very clear communication to work together effectively. Q: What can AAPIs who are disabled do to increase their opportunities for meaningful, competitive employment? A: No matter how bright or well-educated you are, the thing that I look at most as an employer is attitude and how it relates to productivity. As an employer, I see a large quantity of applicants who are very competent and technically skilled, but have bad attitudes. Employers are not obliged to hire you unless a good attitude is part of the equation. Q: Has your company actively looked for employees who are disabled? A: I wouldn't simplify this question too much. It is not abnormal to hire people you know and trust, and for me many of those people happen to have disabilities. But, I can't guarantee someone a job just because he or she has a disability. They have to have the relevant skills, the capabilities, and the right attitude. There is no margin for workers who simply fill up space; he or she must have value. Q: What benefits might employers reap from hiring persons who are disabled, including AAPIs who are disabled? A: My experience is that people who are disabled are motivated, care about their work, and show that they want to work. They also tend to stay at their job longer. In addition, for many AAPIs, family and culture are important. They understand what work means, how a good job leads to a good life for their family. I believe that there is an abundant supply of disabled workers who are not being utilized. My companies have benefited from that supply. Q: What else should employers know when hiring persons who are disabled? A: Employers need to better understand people who are disabled. Most of us take offense at the assumption that collecting Social Security Income can provide us everything we need. Unemployment is humiliating and awfully boring, and there's no meaning there. Excluding someone because he or she has a disability that does not affect performance is equivalent to wrongs such as hiring based on race. Everyone deserves to have the opportunity to do a good job, and as a result have a sense of pride in being a part of society. “百说不如一练, ”获奖的实业家约翰?TC?叶这样说道。在过去的 40 年中,虽然患有先天性耳聋, 约翰却一次又一次地证明了他的实力──作为年轻的移民、大学生、睿智的企业领导、残疾人的雇主和 维护者、有爱心的丈夫以及三个孩子的父亲。 约翰出生在台湾,1962 年,他和家人一同移民到美国,以便于他和同样耳聋的姐姐能获得最好的教 育。约翰毕业于肯德尔聋人学校,然后进入位于首都华盛顿的加劳德特大学学习。在那里,他获得了数 学学士学位,想成为一名数学老师,但是在这个过程中碰到了许多困难,最大的困难是,雇主因为他耳 聋而不愿雇用他。 约翰回忆说,他的第一份工作是在一家餐厅里打扫卫生。 “我监督自己工作,因此我的耳聋并不影响 我的工作。 他回忆道。他继续攻读,获得计算机科学硕士学位,但是在数百次的工作应聘后,他再次 ” 发现雇主们不愿意雇用他,显然因为他是个残疾人。 20 世纪 70 年代后期,约翰断定,作为一个聋人,只有自己解决问题,开创自己的生意,才能在事业 上获得成功。由于对聋人缺乏工作机会而感到灰心,他和他的兄弟们贷了一大笔款,在硅谷成立了一家 软件公司:集成微机系统有限公司 (IMS)。他们的孤注一掷有了回报,赚了大钱,不仅为正常人也为聋 人提供了工作。 同时,因为其对社会杰出的服务、创新性的商业实践和卓越的技术,IMS 和约翰也被授予了无数的 奖项。

1994 年,在 IMS 成立 16 年后,约翰和他的兄弟们卖掉了公司,进入“半退休”状态。不到两年, 约翰开始资助开发为聋人学生提供负担得起的、实时文本服务的技术。 自从第一家公司开张以来,约翰很少有休息的时间。多年以来,在证明其商业技能的同时,约翰也 在许多领域的非营业机构和教育机构的董事会任职,也证明了他作为维护聋人利益的领导者的能力。 在最近一次采访中,约翰接受了有关雇用残疾人,包括美籍亚裔和太平洋岛国的残疾人的提问。以 下摘录了部分采访内容。 问:如今美籍亚裔和太平洋岛国的残疾人在就业问题上面临哪些特别的困难? 答:我不会将我所面临的一大堆障碍归结于文化差异。由于耳聋而产生的难题,主要与语言交流有 关。至少要能够清晰无误地交流,才能一起有效地进行工作。 问:美籍亚裔和太平洋岛国的残疾人应该怎样做,才能增加他们从事有意义、有竞争力的工作的机 会? 答:不管你有多聪明、学历有多高,作为雇主,我最看重的是员工的态度和它与生产效率的关系。 作为一个雇主,我见过许多很能干、很有技术的应聘者,但是工作态度却不好。雇主没有义务一定 要雇用你,良好的态度也是一个影响因素。 问:你们公司有没有主动地去寻找残疾人雇员? 答:我不能将这个问题过于简单化。雇用你了解、信任的人很正常,而对于我来说,那些人大多数 恰好都是残疾人。当然,我不能单单因为他(她)是残疾人就保证雇用他(她) 。他们必须有相关的技术、 能力以及恰当的态度。我没有多余的钱来雇佣那些仅能填补空缺的人员;他(她)必须有价值。 问:雇主雇用残疾人,包括美籍亚裔和太平洋岛国的残疾人,有什么益处? 答:我的经验是,残疾人往往比较积极,更加在意他们的工作,也表现出他们想工作。而且他们在 工作职位上呆的时间更长 (即他们跳槽的频率比较低) 。此外, 对于许多美籍亚裔和太平洋岛国的残疾人, 家庭和文化很重要。他们懂得工作的意义,知道一份好的工作会给他们的家庭带来好的生活。我相信还 有大量的残疾人未被雇用。我的公司已从这一劳动力资源中获益了。 问:雇主在雇用残疾人时还应该了解什么? 答:雇主需要更好地理解残疾人。有人认为领取社会福利金可以满足所有需求,我们大多数人对于 这种想法很反感。失业令人羞耻也十分乏味,而且人生也变得毫无意义。仅仅因为他(她)存在某些并 不影响工作的缺陷就将其拒之门外,就好比招聘过程中的种族歧视一样不道德不合法。每个人都应该拥 有获得好工作的机会,这样才能为自己是社会的一部分而感到骄傲。 Unit 10 Reports on Britain Under the Bombs Night after night, in the hot summer and early fall of 1940, a deep, steady voice came over the Atlantic Ocean from England to America, telling of England's battle for survival under the waves of German bombers. This strong and steady voice, an American voice with a slight accent of North Carolina, belonged to Edward R. Murrow, head of the European staff of the Columbia Broadcasting System. "This is London," said Murrow, while the bombs fell and flames spread on the streets of the city. His voice had a tone of sorrow for the suffering of that ancient city, and a tone of confidence, too—a feeling of belief that London would be there, no matter what it had to endure. It could not be destroyed. The heavy raids began in the middle of August, and Nazi bombs started to fall along England's Channel Coast. The German bombers cast dark shadows over the white cliffs of Dover, and England's Home Guard prepared to fight on the beaches, on the cliffs, and in the hills, until the last Englishman died or the invaders were driven off. Air Marshal Goering's bomber pilots were sure of their ultimate triumph over England. Hitler and Goering believed that when London became a burned city like Warsaw or Rotterdam, England would surrender. But the English were more fortunate than the Poles in Warsaw and the Dutch in Rotterdam. They had the English Channel as a barrier against the Nazi ground forces, and they had the Royal Air Force (RAF) to battle the

Nazis in the sky. The hardships of London really started in the first week of September, when Hitler was at last convinced that the English did not intend to give in. On September 7, 1940, nearly four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs in broad daylight. Goering boasted, "This is the historic hour when our air force for the first time delivered its bombs right into the enemy's heart." Fires burned, houses fell, gas pipes burst, and dark smoke rose from the streets. Men, women, and children felt the effect of the bombs. Radar sirens wailed, ambulances rushed from one place of agony to another, and firefighters faced the flames hour after hour. It seemed impossible for any city to take so much punishment and continue to endure. It seemed impossible for people of the city to do their daily jobs, to work and eat and sleep and carry on the business of life, with the crash of bombs all around them and planes spitting fire in the skies above. But the city endured. Trains brought commuters in from the suburbs. Buses bumped along the streets. The fires were brought under control. Bottles of dairy milk arrived in doorways, and women took them in, as though the war were a thousand miles away. Newspapers appeared and people bought them, hurrying to work and reading reports of the battle raging over London. And Edward R. Murrow went on the air, saying in his deep, steady voice, "This is London." He spoke as though nothing could ever keep him from saying those words. He did not speak them with any attempt to sound heroic. He simply voiced the quiet truth of the city's existence. Murrow knew that Britain's fate depended upon the resolution of the people in the shops and streets, the men in the pubs, the housewives, those watching for fire on the roofs, the people who had a thousand difficult and painful things to do. Much depended upon the handful of pilots who rose day after day and night after night to meet the flocks of Nazi bombers. The pilots in the RAF reached the limits of exhaustion and then went beyond those limits, still fighting. And the people of London were also in the front lines, but they did not have the satisfaction of being able to fight back. They couldn't reach up and smash the enemy planes. They had to dig quickly in cellars to rescue their friends who had been buried underneath the wreckage. They had to put out endless fires. They had to stand firm and take whatever the enemy threw at them. In a broadcast on October 1, 1940, Murrow declared: "Mark it down that these people are both brave and patient, that all are equal under the bomb, that this is a war of speed and organization, and that whichever political system best provides for the defense and decency of the little man will win." Murrow's projection of eventual victory for the ordinary people proved to be accurate. The Nazi powers were finally defeated by the Allied nations. 1940 年的炎夏和早秋,夜复一夜,一个深沉而平稳的声音飞越大西洋,从英国传到美国,讲述着英 国在德国轰炸机轮番进攻下为生存而进行的战斗。这个有力而平稳的声音,带一点北卡罗来纳口音的美 国音,出自爱德华?R.默罗之口, 他是哥伦比亚广播公司驻欧人员的负责人。 当炸弹纷纷落下、火焰在全城街道四处蔓延的时候,默罗在播音: “这里是伦敦。 ”他的声音里表达 了一种为这个古老城市遭受的苦难而感到的悲痛,同时还传递着一种信心──无论要忍受怎样的苦难, 伦敦将巍然屹立的信念。伦敦是摧不垮的。 猛烈的空袭是在 8 月中旬开始的,纳粹的炸弹开始落在英吉利海峡的海岸线上。德国轰炸机在多佛 尔海峡的白色峭壁上投下了黑色的阴影,英国的民防军准备在海滩、悬崖和山区战斗,直到最后一个英 国人战死,或者侵略者被赶走为止。 空军元帅戈林手下的轰炸机飞行员们深信,他们会最终战胜英国。希特勒和戈林相信,当伦敦像华 沙或鹿特丹一样被烧成一片焦土的时候,英国就会投降。 但是英国人要比华沙的波兰人和鹿特丹的荷兰人幸运。他们有英吉利海峡这道抵挡纳粹地面部队的

天然屏障,还有皇家空军在空中与纳粹作战。 伦敦的苦难实际上开始于 9 月的第一个星期,那时希特勒最终确信英国人不打算投降。1940 年 9 月 7 日,近 400 架德国轰炸机在大白天用炸弹猛烈轰炸了这座城市。戈林曾吹嘘说: “这是我们空军第一次 把炸弹直接投入敌人心脏的历史性时刻。 ” 大火熊熊燃烧,房屋倒塌,煤气管道爆裂,街道上升起浓浓黑烟。男人、女人和孩子都感到了炸弹 的威力。雷达警报器在尖叫,救护车从一个充满痛苦的地方向另一个充满痛苦的地方飞速行驶,而消防 队员则每时每刻都在面对熊熊火焰。 在遭受如此重创后仍能继续坚持战斗,这对任何城市来说都似乎是不可能的。炸弹在四周爆炸,飞 机从空中向下扫射,市民们似乎不可能照常工作、上班、吃饭、睡觉、处理日常事务。 但是这座城市挺住了。火车把上班的人们从郊区送到城内。公共汽车在街上颠簸前进。大火已被控 制住。一瓶瓶牛奶被送到家门口,妇女们把它们取回家,好像战争发生在千里之外似的。报纸一出来, 人们就去购买,一边匆匆忙忙地赶去上班,一边阅读伦敦战况的报道。 爱德华?R.默罗用低沉而平稳的声音开始广播: “这里是伦敦。 ”他播音时的语气,好像没有任何东西 可以阻止他说出这几个字。他说这几个字的时候,并不刻意显示出一种英雄气概。他只是沉着地告诉人 们一个事实:这个城市依然存在。 默罗知道英国的命运取决于这些人的决心:商店里和马路上的人们,酒店里喝酒的男人们,家庭妇 女们,那些在屋顶上监视火情的人们,那些面临无数困难和痛苦的人们。 英国的命运在很大程度上还取决于那为数不多的日日夜夜驾机升空、迎击一群群纳粹轰炸机的飞行 员们。这些皇家空军的飞行员已经到了疲劳的极限,却还在超越自身的极限,继续战斗。 伦敦人民也站到了战斗前线,但是他们无法得到直接反击敌人的满足感。他们无法飞上天空去击毁 敌机。他们必须在地下室里飞快地挖掘,以营救埋在残垣断壁下的朋友们;他们必须扑灭没完没了的大 火;他们必须坚强起来,去承受敌人带给他们的任何灾难。 在 1940 年 10 月 1 日的广播中,默罗宣布: “请记住:这些人既勇敢又有耐心;在炸弹轰炸下人人平 等;这场战争是速度和组织性的较量;能最好地保护平民百姓并保持其尊严的政治体制将赢得胜利。 ” 事实证明,默罗关于普通人民会取得最后胜利的预言是正确的。那些纳粹强国最终还是被同盟国打 败了。 Forty-Three Seconds over Hiroshima On a brilliant summer's morning in 1945, Kaz Tanaka looked up into the sky over Hiroshima and saw the beginning of the end of her world. She was 18. A white dot appeared in the sky, as small and innocent-looking as a slip of paper. It was falling away from the plane, drifting down toward them. The journey took a mere 43 seconds. The air exploded in blinding lightning and color, the rays shooting outward as in a child's drawing of the sun, and Kaz was flung to the ground so violently that her two front teeth broke off; she had sunk into unconsciousness. Kaz's father had been out back weeding the vegetables in his underclothes. When he came staggering out of the garden, blood was running from his nose and mouth. By the next day the exposed parts of his body had turned a chocolate brown. What had been a luxury home in that sector of the city came thundering down. That life had been a comfortable one, wanting in nothing—at least, not until the war. Kaz's father had been born to a family of some wealth and social position in Hiroshima, and had emigrated to America in the early 1920s in the spirit of adventure, not of need or flight; he never intended to stay. He moved back to Hiroshima at 40; it was expected of him as the sole male heir to their name. But he brought his American baby girl with him, and a lifestyle flavored with American ways. The house he built was a roomy one. There was a courtyard in front of the place and two gardens in back, one to provide vegetables, one to delight the eye in the formal Japanese layout. One of the two living rooms was American, with easy chairs instead of mats or tatami, and so were the kitchen and bathroom. Dinner was

Japanese, with the family sitting on the floor in the traditional way. Breakfast was American, pancakes or bacon or ham and eggs, taken at the kitchen table. What remained of the life he had made was blown to bits, though his home was more than a mile from ground zero. He was working on the side facing zero, and had the front of his body and limbs burned. His flesh, when Kaz touched him, had the soft feel of a boiled tomato. Kaz was anxiously waiting for the return of another member of her family when a tall chap appeared where the gate had been. "He's back!" she shouted; her brother, at six feet tall, towered over most Japanese men, and she knew at a glimpse that it was him. But when she drew closer, she could barely recognize him through his wounds. His school had fallen down around him. He had struggled to a medical station. They had splashed some medicine on the wounds, tied them with a bandage and sent him on his way. For a moment, he stood swaying at the ruins of the gate. Kaz stared at him. Later, when night fell, Kaz and her brother made for the mountains; a friend from Kaz's factory lived in a village on the slope of a hill behind the city and had offered to take them in. It was midnight by the time they found her place. Kaz looked back. The city was on fire. She felt uneasy, seized with fear, not for herself, but for her parents. She left her brother behind, and dashed down the slope of the hill toward the flames. The streets were filled with the dead and barely living. She kept on running, knowing only that she had to be home. Kaz's family had been luckier than most. Her father with his burns had to lie outdoors on a tatami, but her brother's wounds refused to heal. As the others were recovering, Kaz fell ill with all the symptoms of radiation sickness. The disease was a frightening result of the atomic bomb. Scientists in Los Alamos were surprised by its extent; they thought the blast would do most of the killing. Kaz felt as if she were dying. She ran a fever. She felt sick and dizzy, almost drunk. Her gums and her bowels were bleeding. She looked like a ghost. "I'm next," she thought realistically; she was an eighteen-year-old girl waiting her turn to die. No medicine worked, since the only known treatment for radiation sickness was rest. As winter gave way to spring and spring to summer, Kaz began to heal. The illness had not really left her; it had gone into hiding, instead, and the physical and mental after-effects of that historical August 6, 1945, would trouble Kaz all the rest of her life. 1945 年夏天,一个阳光灿烂的早晨,田中和子抬头向广岛上空望去,看见了预示她的世界快要结束 的前兆。当年她才 18 岁。 天空中出现了一个白点,像一张纸一样大小、一样地洁白无害。小白点从飞机上落下来,朝着她们 飘去。整个过程只用了 43 秒钟。 天空中爆发出眩目的闪电和色彩,喷射出的一道道光就像孩子画笔下的一道道阳光。和子被重重地 摔在了地上,磕掉了两颗门牙。她陷入了昏迷。和子的父亲穿着内衣裤在屋外后院的菜地里除草。当他 摇摇晃晃走出菜园时,鼻子和嘴里都流着血。第二天,他身上裸露的部位变成了巧克力一样的棕色。这 幢曾经是城里这个地区的豪宅,如今已轰然倒塌。 他们的生活曾经是很舒适的,什么都不缺──至少在战争爆发前是如此。和子的父亲出生在广岛一 个殷实、有一定社会地位的家庭,20 世纪 20 年代初移居美国,不是因为贫穷或者逃亡,而是冒险精神使 然。但他从来没打算留在那里。40 岁时他又把家搬回了广岛。他作为这个姓氏的唯一男性继承人,家人 都盼望他回到广岛。但是他把在美国出生、尚在襁褓中的女儿及带有美国情调的生活方式也一起带了回 来。 他的房子很宽敞。屋前有个院子,屋后有两个花园──一个用来种菜,另一个设计得合乎日本传统, 供观赏用。两个起居室里有一间是美式摆设,摆放着沙发,而不是垫子或榻榻米。厨房和浴室也是美国 风格。正餐是日式的,全家人按照传统方式坐在地板上用餐。早餐则是美式的,煎饼或熏猪肉或火腿加 鸡蛋,坐在餐桌旁吃。 尽管他家与原子弹爆炸中心相距 1 英里多,但是他所营造的生活中的一切还是被炸成了碎片。他干 活时正面对着爆炸中心,因此他的前胸和四肢都被灼伤。和子触摸他时, 他身上的肉就像煮过的西红柿一

样,软绵绵的。 当和子焦急地等待着家里另一个成员回来时,一个高大的小伙子出现在曾经是大门的地方。她大声 叫着: “他回来啦!”她的弟弟身高 6 英尺,比大多数日本男子都高,她一眼望去就知道是他。但当她走近 他时,由于他伤痕累累,她简直认不出他了。他的学校在他周围倒塌了。他挣扎着走到一个医疗站。他 们在他的伤口上涂了些药,给伤口扎上绷带,然后就送他上路。他摇摇晃晃地站在已成为一片瓦砾的门 口。和子目不转睛地看着他。 接着,夜幕降临了,和子和她弟弟往山里走;和子厂里的一个朋友住在市区后面一个小山坡上的村 子里,表示愿意收留他们。他们找到朋友的住处时已是半夜了。和子往身后望去,只见整个城市都在燃 烧。她感到心神不宁,内心充满恐惧,不是为了自己,而是为了父母。她留下弟弟,冲下了山坡,往熊 熊火焰奔去。街上到处都是死人和奄奄一息的人,她不停地跑着,只知道自己必须回家。 和子家比起大多数其他家庭来还算要幸运些。但她父亲因为身上的灼伤而不得不躺在户外的榻榻米 上,她弟弟的伤口也不肯愈合。当家里其他人都在康复时,和子却病倒了,辐射病的症状出现了。这种 病是原子弹爆炸后引起的可怕后果之一。洛斯阿拉莫斯实验室的科学家们对原子弹造成的伤害程度感到 吃惊。他们原以为爆炸主要是致人死亡而已。和子感到自己好像马上要死了。她发着烧,感到恶心、头 昏,就像喝醉了酒似的。她的牙龈和肠子在出血,看上去就像个鬼似的。 “接下来就轮到我死了, ”她想 得很现实。她是一个年仅 18 岁的姑娘,却在等候死亡。这病无药可治,因为治疗辐射病的唯一办法就是 休息。冬去春来,春去夏至,和子的病开始好转起来。 但是她的病没法真正除根,只不过是潜伏起来了而已。历史上这个让人难忘的 1945 年 8 月 6 日给和 子的肉体和精神所带来的后遗症将在她的余生一直折磨她。

新视野大学英语读写教程第二版第二册课文翻译【1-10单元全】_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。Unit 1 Section A 时间观念强的美国人 美国人认为没有人能停止不前...
新版新视野读写教程第二版第二册课文翻译(1~10单元 SEC...
我从桌边站起身来, 拥抱着她说:“因为我就是那个小男孩, 罗玛。 ” 新版新视野读写教程第二版第二册 新版新视野读写教程第二版第二册 unit5 课文翻译 ...
新视野大学英语读写教程第二版第二册课文翻译【1-7单元全】_其它语言学习_外语学习_教育专区。新视野大学英语读写教程第二版第二册课文翻译 ...
新视野大学英语第三版第二读写课文所有翻译_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。新视野大学英语第三版第二读写课文所有翻译 新视野大学英语第三版第二读写课文所有...
新视野大学英语读写教程(第二版)第三册课文及翻译_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。新视野大学英语 3 U1 Love without limitations My brother, Jimmy, did not get...
搜试试 7 帮助 全部 DOC PPT TXT PDF XLS 百度文库 教育专区 外语学习 英语...新视野大学英语读写教程第二版第二册课文及翻译_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。...
新视野大学英语读写教程第二版2课文翻译_法语学习_外语学习_教育专区。新视野大学英语读写教程第二版2课文翻译 UNIT1 1. 美国人认为没有人能停止不...
新视野大学英语(第二版)读写教程第四册课文翻译(最新完整版) 新视野大学英语(第二版)读写教程第四册课文翻译(最新完整版) Unit 1 section A 名气之尾艺术家...
新视野大学英语读写教程(第二版)第二册课文翻译 (1)
新视野大学英语读写教程(第二版)第二册课文翻译 (1)_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。大学u英语 新视野大学英语读写教程(第二版)第二册课文翻译 Unit 1 Section ...
新视野大学英语读写教程第二课文翻译_PPT制作技巧_实用文档。新视野大学英语读写教程第二课文翻译 新视野大学英语读写教程第二课文翻译.txt 老子忽悠孩子叫教育...