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句子成分和五种句子类型(改)


BY JEOLLE

音素—词汇—表达法—句子成分—段落—文章
语音中最小的单位。

句子成分的构成
句子的主要成分:

主语、谓语、宾语、表语
句子的次要成分:

定语、状语、补语、同位语、插入语

1.主语(subject)
1. 主语是句子所要说明的动作或状态的主体. ? 2.一般在句首。 ? 3. 一般由名词,代词或相当于名词的词或短语充当。 1. We study in Xinfing Middle School. 代词 2.Our classroom is very clean. 名词 3.To teach you English is my job. 不定式 4.Surfing, diving and swimming are all water sports. 动名词 5.Four plus four is eight. 数词 6.What you said made me sad. 从句 7.The young should respect the old. the+adj. 8.It made me excited that dad bought me a computer. it作形式主语
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2.谓语(verb)
1. 表示主语的动作或状态。 ? 2. 必须由动词充当。 ? 3.一般在主语后面,和主语在人称和数方面必须一致。 ? 谓语有简单谓语、复合谓语之分。 ? (1) 简单谓语: 是由动词或动词词组组成的。 ? She always studies hard. ? He often listens to music. ? (2) 复合谓语:是由“情态动词或助动词 + 动词”构成. ? He can speak English. ? We have finished reading the book. ? I did see her yesterday.
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3.表语(predicative)
?
? ? ? ?

?
? ?

?
? ?

1. 说明主语的身份或特征。 2. 位于在be动词, 系动词后面。 1.You look younger than before. 形容词 2.I am a teacher. 名词 3.Jim is out. 副词 4.Now they are at home. 介词短语 5.I’m not quite myself today.反身代词 6.He got lost in the forest. 过去分词 7.His hobby is swimming. 动名词 8.My job is to teach you English. 不定式 9.The book is what I need. 从句

4.宾语(object)
表示动作的对象或结果。 ? 2.用在及物动词或介词后面. ? She is playing the piano. He often helps me. He is addicted to smoking. We enjoy living in China. 3.宾语包括直接宾语和间接宾语。 ? Please pass me the book. ? = Please pass the book to me. ? He bought her some flowers. ? =He bought some flowers for her.
? 1.

5.宾语补足语(object complement)
放在宾语后面,对宾语进行补充说明,与宾语一起构 成复合宾语。 形容词 ? I made my room beautiful. ? I can see her dancing there. 现在分词 ? He made himself known to them. 过去分词 ? She asked me to lend her my bike.不定式 ? Please make yourself at home. 介词短语 ? Please keep the dog out. 副词 ? We call her Miss Zhang. 名词
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定语(attribute)
用来修饰名词或代词,起类似于形容词的修饰作用. ? 1.You are a clever boy. 形容词 ? 2.I want to tell you something important. 形容词 ? 3.His father works in a shoe factory. 物主代词 名词 ? 4.There are 66 students in our class. 数词 ? 5.Do you know betty’s sister? 名词所有格 ? 6.There is a sleeping baby in bed.现在分词 ? 7.The girl standing under the tree is his daughter. 现在分词短语 ? 8.We have nothing to do. 不定式 ? 9.His spoken English is good. 过去分词 ? 10.The girl in red is his sister. 介词短语 ? 11.Do you know the man who stands there?从句
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状语(adverbial)
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1. 修饰动词,形容词或副词, 起类似于副词的作用 。 ? 2. 一般表示行为发生的时间,地点,目的,原因,方式, 程度,结果,条件,让步和伴随等意义。 ? 1.He did it carefully. ? 2.She is very enthusiastic about it. ? 3.He works extremely hard. ? 4.He comes to see us every day. ? 5.He is at the library looking up some information. ? 6.I’ll be back in a while. ? 7.Without his help, we couldn’t work it out. ? 8.He was late because of the heavy rain. ? 9.Please call me up if it is necessary. ? 10.She was beautiful when she was a girl.

同位语apposition
? 对前面的名词或代词做进一步解释,说明它们

的性质和情况。 名词 ? 1. Tom, our monitor, is a handsome boy. ? 2. I myself will do the experiment. 反身代词 ? 3. She is the oldest among them six. 数词 ? 4. The news that he is ill worries us. 从句

插入语(parentheses)
对一句话进行附加说明或解释,通常由一个词、一个 短语或一个句子构成,常置于句首、句中或句末,一 般用逗号或破折号与句子隔开。 ? 1.Generally speaking, the more hard-working you are, the more likely you will succeed. ? 2.Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. Unfortunately,neither of them could swim. ? 3.Your performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard,in other words, you failed. ? 4.It is so nice to hear from her. Believe it or not , we last met more than thirty years ago. ? 5. Strange to say, he should have done such a thing.
?

I saw my ↓ ↓ ↓ 主 谓定 语 语语

friend Tom standing at the station. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 宾 状 同 宾 语 语 位 语 语 补 足 语

简单句的五种句型
1)SV 主语+谓语 eg. His father might have died. 2) SVP 主语+ 系动词+表语 eg. The plan sounds perfect.
3) SVO 主语+谓语+宾语 eg. My sister enjoyed the play. 4)SVOiOd 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 eg. My father bought me a bicycle. 5) SVOC 主语+谓语+宾语+补语 eg. They called him a fool.

分析下列句子成分
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?
? ?

?
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?
? ? ?

1. Everyone laughed. 2. The books pleased the girl. 3. I am astonished. 4. I heard him shouting. 5. He bought his son some books. 6.The young girl with long black hair is Kate. 7.Stephen apologized at once. 8.I have no idea when they will go. 9. I saw my friend Tom standing at the station. 10. He sold out the book that they doesn't need.


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