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大学英语4 the acy defender 课文翻译


They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, th at nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wron g.

人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战无不 胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。

The Icy Defender

Nila B. Smith

1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army in to Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defendi ng their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Mo scow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.

冰雪卫士

奈拉·B·史密斯

1812 年,法国皇帝拿破仑·波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖 国而奋勇抵抗。 他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。 但他 没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。

2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against th e Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. H is war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a

short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Ru ssian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

1941 年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒的军事实 力堪称无敌。他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。希特勒希望速战速决,但是, 就像在他之前的拿破仑一样, 他得到的是痛苦的教训。 仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一 臂之力。

Napoleon's Campaign

3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousan d men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks.

拿破仑发起的战役

1812 年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵 60 万。这些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,装备 精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在 5 个星期内攻下俄国。

4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. T he quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines.

不久,拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发生。令 他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大军紧追 不舍,但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。

5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到了 8 月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在 自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继 续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天?

6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Bor odino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and fort y-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在 448 公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812 年 9 月 7 日,法俄两 军在莫斯科以西 112 公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3 万名法国士兵以及 4.4 万名俄 国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战场上。

7 Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fle d their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of t he city. Napoleon offered a truce to Alexander I, but the Russian czar knew he co uld bide his time: "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us."

俄国军队再次撤往安全之处。拿破仑顺利进入莫斯科,然而,对该市的占领成为毫无意 义的胜利。俄国人弃城而走。法国人进城不久,一场熊熊大火烧毁了整个城市的三分之二。 拿破仑向亚历山大一世提出停战,但沙皇深知他可以等待时机:“且让俄罗斯的严冬为我们 战斗吧。”

8 Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in M oscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat fr om Moscow.

拿破仑很快意识到, 他无法在冬天向远在莫斯科的军队供应粮草、 提供御寒衣物和宿营 之地。1812 年 10 月,他命令大军撤出莫斯科。

9 The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launch ed hit-and-run attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus 4 degrees Celsius. On November 3, the winter's first snow cam e. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon became stuck in the snow. Equipme nt had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dra gged on, leaving the dead along every mile.

法军的撤离成为一场噩梦。俄国人出没于田野与森林,采用打了就跑的战术,向法国人 发起攻击。刚出莫斯科城,气温就降到摄氏零下 4 度。11 月 3 日降下初雪。困乏的马匹倒 地而死。大炮陷入雪中。装备只得被用作燃料焚烧。士兵们染病冻死。法国士兵拖着脚步行 进,一路上留下无数死尸。

10 As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating Fren ch by burning the bridges over the swollen river. But Napoleon, by a stroke of luck, was

able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered survivors limped toward Vilna.

正当俄罗斯军队集聚兵力之时,法国人却不得不逃离俄国,以避免注定的失败。在别列 兹那河,俄国人焚烧了涨水的河道上的桥梁,差点将后撤的法军困于河边。侥幸的是,拿破 仑居然突击造起两座桥。 成千上万法国士兵得以逃脱, 但却损失了 5 万人。 渡过别列兹拿河, 溃不成军的幸存者一瘸一拐地向维尔纽行进。

11 Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance and attacked these stragglers. In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated and wen t into exile, his empire at an end.

拿破仑发兵 60 万进入俄国, 只有不到 10 万士兵返回。 元气大伤的法国军队在欧洲继续 西撤。不久,英国、奥地利、俄国以及普鲁士组成强大的联盟,攻击这些散兵游勇。1814 年 3 月,巴黎被攻占。拿破仑退位去过流放生活,他缔造的帝国随之灭亡。

Hitler's Invasion

12 By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 194 1, without a declaration of war, Hitler began an invasion of the Soviet Union that was th e largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected t he campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg, or "lig htning war," tactics that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thr usts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine.

希特勒的入侵

到 1941 年初,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒已经控制了欧洲大部分地区。希特勒的德意 志帝国的东部与苏联毗邻。1941 年 6 月 22 日,希特勒不宣而战,入侵苏联,发动了历史上 规模最大的一场陆地战役。希特勒自信能速战速决,预计这一战役不会超过 3 个月。他计划 采用征服了欧洲其余地区的闪电式战略。 入侵计划包含三大目标: 向列宁格勒与莫斯科进攻, 并横扫乌克兰。

13 Caught off guard by the invasion, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin instructed the Russi an people to "scorch the earth" in front of the German invaders. Farms and factories were burned, destroyed, or rendered useless. During the first ten weeks of the invasion, the Ge rmans pushed the front eastward, and the Russians suffered more than a million casualties.

苏联领导人约瑟夫·斯大林被打了个措手不及,他指示全国人民在德国入侵者到来之前 实行“焦土”政策。农场和工厂被焚烧毁坏,或被弄得无法运转。在入侵的最初 10 个星期内, 德国人一路东进,俄国人伤亡人数多达一百多万。

14 In the north, the Germans closed in on Leningrad. Despite great suffering, howeve r, the people of Leningrad refused to surrender. As the battle of Leningrad dragged on int o winter, the city's situation became desperate. As food ran out, people died from hunger and disease. By the middle of the winter of 1941-1942, nearly four thousand people starv ed to death every day. Close to one million people died as a result of the siege.

在北方,德国人包围了列宁格勒。尽管忍受着极大困苦,列宁格勒的人民绝不投降。列 宁格勒保卫战一直持续到冬季,此时该市的处境变得危急。由于食品匮乏,人们死于饥饿与 疾病。到了 1941 年和 1942 年之间的寒冬,几乎每天有 4 千人死于饥饿。列宁格勒之围造成 近百万人死亡。

15 In the center of Russia, Hitler's goal was the capture of Moscow. Because the Ge rmans had anticipated a quick victory, they had made no plans for winter supplies. Octob er arrived with heavy rains. "General Mud" slowed down the movement of the Germans' l ightning attack.

在俄国中部,希特勒的目标是占领莫斯科。由于德国人指望速战速决,他们没有准备过 冬的补给。10 月来临,大雨不停。“泥泞将军”拖延了德国人闪电式进攻的行动。

16 As Hitler's armies drew closer and closer to Moscow, an early, severe winter settl ed over the Soviet Union, the harshest in years. Temperatures dropped to minus 48 degree s Celsius. Heavy snows fell. The German soldiers, completely unprepared for the Russian winter, froze in their light summer uniforms. The German tanks lay buried in the heavy s nowbanks. The Russian winter brought the German offensive to a halt.

正当希特勒的军队逼近莫斯科时,寒冷的冬季早早地降临苏联,那是多年不遇的严寒。 气温降到摄氏零下 48 度。大雪纷飞。对俄国的严寒冬季毫无思想准备的德国士兵身着单薄 的夏装,一个个被冻伤。德国人的坦克掩埋在深深的雪堆中。俄罗斯的冬季阻止了德国人的 攻势。

17 By the summer of 1942, Hitler had launched two new offensives. In the south, the Ge rmans captured Sevastopol. Hitler then pushed east to Stalingrad, a great industrial city tha t stretched for 48 kilometers along the Volga River. Despite great suffering, Soviet defend ers refused to give up Stalingrad.

到 1942 夏天,希特勒又发起两场新的攻势。在南方,德国人占领了塞瓦斯托波尔。希 特勒随后向东推进到斯大林格勒,那是沿伏尔加河绵延 48 公里的一座大工业城市。尽管艰 苦卓绝,苏联抵抗者拒绝放弃斯大林格勒。

18 In November 1942, the Russians launched a counterattack. With little or no shelte r from the winter cold in and around Stalingrad, German troops were further weakened by a lack of food and supplies. Not until January 1943 did the Germans give up their siege. Of the three hundred thousand Germans attacking Stalingrad, only ninety thousand starvin g soldiers were left. The loss of the battle for Stalingrad finally turned the tide against Hi tler. The German victories were over, thanks in part to the Russian winter.

1942 年 11 月,俄国人发起了一场反攻。德国军队在斯大林格勒城内外几乎没有挡风避 寒的地方,食品和补给的匮乏更使其元气大伤。直到 1943 年 1 月德国人才放弃围城。进攻 斯大林格勒的 30 万德国人只剩下 9 万忍饥挨饿的士兵。斯大林格勒一战的失利最终使希特 勒时乖运蹇。部分地由于俄罗斯的冬季,德国人走向失败。

19 During 1943 and 1944, the Soviet armies pushed the German front back toward t he west. In the north, the Red Army broke the three-year siege of Leningrad with a surpr ise attack on January 15, 1944. Within two weeks, the heroic survivors of Leningrad saw their invaders depart. By March 1944, the Ukraine farming region was again in Soviet h ands. On May 9, 1944, Sevastopol was liberated from the Germans. The Russians were n ow heading for Berlin.

在 1943 年与 1944 年期间, 苏联军队将德军阵线往西逼退。 在北方, 1944 年 1 月 15 日, 红军发起突然袭击, 解除了列宁格勒长达 3 年之久的围困。 列宁格勒那些英勇无畏的幸存者 看着入侵者在两个星期内全部撤离。 到了 1944 年 3 月, 乌克兰的农村又回到了苏维埃手中。 1944 年 5 月 9 日,塞瓦斯托波尔从德国人手中被解放出来。至此,俄国人向柏林进发。

20 For Hitler, the invasion of the Soviet Union had turned into a military disaster. F or the Russian people, it brought unspeakable suffering. The total Soviet dead in World War II reached almost 23 million.

就希特勒而言,对苏联的入侵成为一场军事灾难。对俄罗斯人民来说,这场入侵带来了 无法形容的苦难。苏维埃在第二次世界大战中死亡的人数几乎达到 2300 万。

Russia's Icy Defender

21 The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign. Napoleo n and Hitler both underestimated the severity of the Russian winter. Snow, ice, and freezi ng temperatures took their toll on both invading armies. For the Russian people, the winte r was an icy defender.

俄罗斯的冰雪卫士

任何军事行动都必须考虑到自然的因素。拿破仑和希特勒都低估了俄罗斯冬季的严酷。 冰雪和极低的气温使两支侵略军付出惨重的代价。 对俄罗斯人民而言, 严冬是他们的冰雪卫 士


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