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北师大版 高考第一轮复习12unit12 Culture shock


核心单词

根据提示写出英语单词或汉语意思。

1._________ adj. 给消费 tipping 2. _________ adj. 短暂的 brief

3. _________ vt. 道歉 apologize 4. __________ vt. 吸收 absorb
5. ___________

___ n. 期待的事情, 预期 expectation 6. ______________ n. 腌猪肉, 熏猪肉 bacon 7. _________ adj. 美味的 tasty 8. __________ vt. 兑换, 交换 exchange 9. _________ n. 支票 cheque

10. __________ adj. 多雾的 foggy 11. __________ adj. 合理的, 正当的 reasonable
12. __________ n. 烤面包;祝酒,干杯 toast 13. __________ n. (餐厅)服务员 waiter 14. __________ n. (餐厅)女服务员 waitress

15. __________ (vi.) 漫游,闲逛 wander 16. ___________ vt..预约, 预订 book 17. __________ n.大半, 大多数 majority
18. __________ vt. 欠(债) owe

肉排,鱼排 19. steak ___________________ 20. roast ___________________ 烤,烘 (英式)足球 21. soccer __________________ 22. laughter ________________ 笑,笑声 东北,东北方 23. northeast _______________ 内科医生 24. physician _______________ 谦虚的,适度的 25. modest _________________ 指示,表示 26. indicate _________________ 好奇地 27. curiously ________________ 出生地 28. birthplace________________ 29. attach____________________ 系,固定

小心翼翼的, 谨慎的 30. cautious_________________

31. whisper__________________ 低语,耳语
美味的 32. yummy___________________

33. detective__________________ 侦探
教育者 34. educator__________________

35. erupt_____________________ 爆发,喷发

36. minority___________________ 少数,少数民族
37. outdoors___________________ 在户外,在野外 38. literature__________________ 文学
蒜,大蒜 39. garlic______________________

40.scissors______________________ 剪刀

词类转换

按要求写出下列单词的适当形式。

1.arrive (vi.) _________ (n..) 到达 类似: arrival approve (n.)__________ (adj.) 赞成 approval 2. wait (vj.) _________ (n.) 服务员 类似: waiter edit (v.)______________ (n.)多雾的 editor 3. harm (vt.) _________ (adj.) 伤害 类似: harmful care (v.)___________ (adj.) 小心的 careful 4. erupt (vi.) __________ (n.) 爆发,喷发 类似: eruption indicate (v.)____________ (n.)指示,表明 indication 5. educate ( vt.)____________ (n.)教育 类似: education administrate (v.) _______________ (n.) 管理 administration

6. taste (vt.)_________ (adj.) 道歉 tasty

类似:

rainy rain (v.) ____________ (adj.) 多雨的
7. encourage (vt.)________________ (n.) 教育 类似: encouragement move (v.)_________________ (n.)移动;运动,活动 movement

8. minority (n) ________(adj.)少数的 minor
majority (n)___________ (adj.)多数的 major

类似:
类似: 类似:

attachment 9. attach (v.)______________ (n.) 附属
agree (v.)____________ (n.)同意 agreement

physics 10. physician (n.)__________ (n.)物理
politician (n.)__________ (n.)政治 politics

重要词组

get used to 1. ______________习惯于 give … a lift 2. ______________给??搭车, 搭便车 see…off 3. ______________给(某人)送行 forgive sb. for sth 4. ______________原谅某人某事 be busy doing 5. ______________忙于 be amazed to do 6. ______________做??感到吃惊 avoid doing 7. ______________避免; 避开; 逃避 8. have some difficulty in doing sth ______________________做某事有困难 notice sb. doing sth. 9. ________________注意某人在做某事 sound like 10. _______________听起来象?? invite sb. to sp. 11. _______________邀请某人去某地

12. __________________某事对某人很熟悉 Sth.be similar to sb

13. __________________坚持主张干某事 insist on doing sth.
14. __________________ 大量的 a large number of

15. __________________ 属于 belong to

be attached to 16. __________________与??有联系/有关系
17. __________________ 首先 first of all

be absorbed in 18. __________________专心于??
19. __________________ 归功于; 由于 owe…to 20. __________________ 交换 in exchange for

21. look out ______________________ 当心,小心
以??为自豪 22. be pound of ____________________ 23. have a conversation with sb. _____________ 与?? 交谈 经过 24. pass by _______________________ 25. hang on a second _______________ 稍等片刻 26. catch up with __________________ 赶上 27. laugh at ______________________ 嘲笑

28. bring an end to________________ 结束
29. as well______________________ 也

30. on the contrary ________________ 相反

核心单词

1. absorb vt. 吸收(take or suck in),全神贯注

◆搭配:指出下列各个词组的汉语意思。
忙于生意 (1)be absorbed in his business______________ 专心看书 (2)be absorbed in a book______________ 吸收一切知识 (3)absorb all the knowledge______________

(4)complete absorption in sport _______________ 完全专注于体育

■运用:用absorb完成下列句子。 (1)吸收墨水的纸称为吸墨纸。 Paper _____________________ is called blotting paper. that absorbs ink (2)他完全专心于他的业务。 He ____________________________ his business. is entirely absorbed in (3)那个聪明的男孩把他的老师们所教的知识全部都吸收 了。 The clever boy_______________________________ that absorbed all the knowledge his teachers could give him.

2. owe vt. 欠 (债),受到??恩惠,应??把归功于
◆搭配:用适当的介词填空。 to (1) owe $50 ____ his tailor=owe his tailor $50 欠他的裁缝50美元 to (2) owe a great deal ______ my parents =owe my parents a great deal 深受我父母之恩 for (3) owe (you)_____ milk欠(你)买牛奶的帐 (4) owing_____(=because of)因为 to ■运用:翻译下列句子。 (1)他还欠我30美元工钱。He still__________________ my work. owes me $30 for (2) 我们深受父母师长之恩。 We _____________________our mother and teachers. owe a great deal to (3) 因为下雨, 我们不能来。 Owing to the rain _________________________, we couldn’t come. (4)我还欠着买汽车的钱。I still ___________my car. owe for (5)我的成功应该归功于我的老师。 I _________________________my teachers. owe my success to

3. exchange vt ,vi. & n. 交换 ◆搭配:用适当的词填空。 in (1) _______exchange for以交换 (2)exchange gifts_______ Peter和彼特交换礼物 with (3)exchange US dollars _______RMB将美元换成人民 for 币 ideas/views/opinions (4)exchange _________________________交换意见 experience (5)exchange ____________交流经验 greetings (6)exchange ____________互相问候 ※注意:exchange后接可数名词时,通常用复数。

■运用:翻译下面的句子或选择正确答案。
(1) 她教他法语以交换英语。 She is teaching him French__________________________. in exchange for English. (2) 玛丽和安交换了坐位。

Mary exchanged seats with Anne ____________________________________.
(3)在会上,我们就此事交换了意见。
We ___________________________________the event at exchanged our opinions about the meeting

4. request n.& vt. 请求 ◆搭配:填入适当的词完成下列短语或句式。 of/from (1) request sth. __________sb. 向某人请求某物 (2) request sb. ______do sth 请求某人做某事 to (3) request ______ sb. should do sth. 要求某人做某事 that (4) make a request to sb. ______ sth. 向某人请求某物 for (5)come ______ sb’s request应某人的请求而来 at ★联想: 完成下列短语或句式。 to do sth. (1) require sb. ____________要求某人做某事 (2) require that sb. _______________要求某人做某事 should do sth. ※提示:request作动词时,其后的宾语从句的谓语,或 者作名词时其后的名词性从句的谓语,通常用“should + 动词原形”。

运用:用适当的词填空或用所给词的适当形式填空。 should help (1)Mr. Paine made a request that I _____________ (help) him. (2)Visitors are requested _____________(not touch) the not to touch

exhibits.
(3)They've made an urgent request ______ for

international aid.
(4) They requested that I _____________ (arrive) at 8 should arrive

to arrive a.m.=They requested us ____________(arrive) at 8 am.
(5) All I request of you is that you __________ (be) should be early.

5. conduct n. vt. & vi. 表现,经营,实施,引导

◆理解:指出下列各句中conduct的词性和意思。
(1)Your children conduct themselves well. 动词 表现 (2) My aunt conducts her business very successfully. 动词 经营

(3) The guide conducted us around the whole city.
动词 带领 (4)I cannot allow such conduct. 名词 行为 (5)He conducted the members of the audience to their 引导 seats. 动词

★拓展: 写出适当的词或根据提示填空。 (1)______________n.售票员 conductor (2)______________n.传导 conduction good conduct (3)_______________优良的品行 conduct (4)_______________ one’s private affair处理好私事 ■运用:翻译下列句子。 (1)他言行不一。 His conduct disagrees with his words. _____________________________________ (2) 他的行为使我们失望。 His conduct disappointed us. ___________________________________

6. injure vt. 伤害,,使受伤,损害 ◆理解:理解下列各例句的意思。 (1)Three people were killed and five injured in the crash. 撞车事故中三人死亡, 五人受伤。 (2)He injured his knee yesterday. 他昨天伤了膝盖 (3)I hope I didn't injure her feelings. 我希望我没有伤害她的感情。 (4)Dishonest injures a business. 欺骗有害生意。 ◆拓展:用injure的适当形式填空。 injurious (1)___________ adj. 有害的(=harmful) (2)___________n.伤害,损害 injury injuries (3) He suffered serious___________ to the arms and legs. injurious (4) Smoking is_____________ to health.

★辨析:injure, wound, hurt

(1) injure常指身体上或精神上的伤害,指在意外事故
中受伤。 (3) hurt没有injure正式,可以指身体上的疼痛,也可 指精神上的痛苦或感情上的伤害。Hurt的伤害可与 injure同样严重,也可指较轻的疼痛。

(2)wound主要指用刀枪等武器打伤、切伤等,多指在
战争中或战斗中受伤,有时也用于精神上的伤害,但远 不及前两者常见。

■运用:用injure, hurt或wound的适当形式填空,或者 用所给词的适当形式填空。 (1) In that war he was seriously ______________ by an wounded enemy bullet. (2) You'll ________________her feelings if you forget her injured/hurt birthday injured /hurt (3)No one was seriously ________________in the traffic accident hurt (4)The tight shoe __________my foot. (5) The ______________________(伤者) were rushed to injured/wounded hospital.

7. export vt. vi. & n. 出口,输出,排出,出口货, 输出量
◆联想:[反义词]import 进口 ■运用:根据中文提示填空。 is exported (1) Fruit _____________(出口) from this country. are exported (2) Many new materials_______________ (输出) to foreign countries. (3)我们出口稻米,但进口小麦。 export rice but import wheat We_____________________________. (4)非洲向欧洲出口牛肉。 exporting beef to Africa is _______________________Europe (5)你们国家有哪些主要的出口物品? exports of What are the chief ______________your country?

8. forgive (forgave, forgiven) vt. 宽恕
★用法:表示“原谅某人某事”可接双宾语,如,forgive his mistakes/ rudeness/ crimes原谅他的错误/无礼/罪行);若表示“原谅 某人做了某事”接for doing sth或for what clause.有时可用作为及物 动词。 ■运用:根据中文提示翻译或完成英文句子。 (1)请宽恕我吧。_____________________ Please forgive me. (2)我们原谅了他的无礼。 ________________________________________________ We forgave him his rudeness. (3)原谅我来得这么晚。 ________________________________________________ Forgive me for coming so late. (4)他原谅她对他说过的那些话。 He forgave her for ________________________ what she had said to him (5)我的意见是最好宽大为怀,不念旧恶。 it’s best to forgive My advice is that ____________________ and forget.

9. afford vt. 负担得起(??的费用);抽得出(时间) ※用法:多与can, could和be able to连用,后面接名 词、代词或不定式。 ◇I can’t afford the expense. 我负担不了这笔费用。 ◇The final exams are coming up. We cannot afford to waste even a minute. 快要期终考试了,我们现在一分 钟也不能浪费。 ■运用:翻译下列句子。 (1)我们终于买得起房子了。 At last, we can afford (to buy) a house. ____________________________________ (2)你能抽得出时间度假吗? afford the time for a holiday Are you able to__________________________?

10. majority n. 多数,大部分 ※用法:比most正式,常与of连用,主要指人,谓语动 词用复数。单独使用时,后面的谓语动词用单数或复数均 可。 ◇The majority of people seem to prefer TV to radio. 多 数人喜欢电视胜过广播。 ◇The majority were/ was against the plan. 多数人不赞 成这个计划。 ※注意:(1)可以说a majority,但majority一般没有复数 形式。 (2)可以作定语。

◇He was elected by a thin majority. 他以微弱多数
而当选。

◇a majority decision根据多数人意见作出的决定
★拓展:majority的反义词是minority(少数),作

主语时,谓语动词可用单数或复数,一般不用复

数,当我们说minorities时,指的是“少数民族”。

11. familiar adj. 熟悉的,常见到的,常听说的 ◇He looks so familiar but I can't remember his name. 他 看上去非常面熟,但我想不起他的名字来了。 ◇The name seems familiar to me.这个名字我似乎很熟 悉。 ◇She is familiar with modern jazz. 她熟悉现代爵士乐。 ◆搭配:sth. be familiar to sb. 某物对某人来说是熟悉的 sb. be familiar with sth. 某人对某物熟悉 ■运用:写出下句的同义句。 他的名字我耳熟。 am familiar with his name. His name is familiar to me. = I_______________________

12. attach vt. 贴上,系上;使依附,使附属 ◆搭配:attach A to B把A附/贴在B上 be attached to依恋 ◇He attached a label to his baggage. 他往行李上贴了 一个标签。 ◇This hospital is attached to our medical department. 这所医院附属于我们医学系。 ★派生:attached adj. 依恋的 attachment n. 依恋;附件

13. contrary adj. 相反的,截然不同的(常接to) n. 相反的事实/事情/情况(前加the) ◆搭配:on the contrary 恰恰相反,与此相反 to the contrary相反的,相反地,不同地 (be) contrary to…违反,与??相反 ◇Contrary to popular belief, many cats dislike milk. 与 普通的看法相反,许多猫并不喜欢牛奶。 ◇My idea is contrary to his.我的想法和他的相反。

▲辨析:on the contrary和to the contrary (1)on the contrary 常常放在句首,有时也可放在句中,

用作修饰句子的状语,表示对刚说的话表示反对。
(2)to the contrary不是修饰整个句子的状语。它可以充 当定语、状语或表语。 ■运用:用to或on填空。 (1)It doesn't seem ugly to me, _______ the contrary, I on

think it's rather beautiful.
(2)I know nothing _______ the contrary. to

14. lively adj.有生气的,活泼的,热闹的

◇He is lively as well as healthy.他既健康又活泼。
▲辨析:lively, alive, living & live (1)alive活着的,在世的 (只能作表语,补语,后置定语) (2)living活着的,有生命的 (作前置定语和表语) (3)live活的(只能在动物前面作定语);现场直播(adj. &

adv.)
(4)the living 活着的人(与the dead相对)

■运用:用上述几个词填空。

(1)She is a _______child and popular with everyone. lively
(2)Mr Wang was still _______________ after the powerful alive /living earthquake. (3)More than 10,000 people were buried __________ alive during the earthquake.

(4)He is the best __________ pianist. living
(5)There is no __________________ fish in this pool. live /living

重要词组 1. see…off (去车站、机场或码头等)给(某人)送行,赶走 meet ★联想:_______(去车站、机场或码头等)迎接(某人) ■运用:翻译下列句子。 (1)我的朋友昨天到机场为我送行。 My friend went to the airport to see me off _______________________________________

yesterday. .
(2)她的狗把那两个贼赶走了。 _______________________________________ Her dog saw off the two thieves. (3)我们要不要为她开个送别晚宴呢? _______________________________________ Shall we have a see-off party for her? (4)下周的星期三我要去北京机场接我对儿子。 I am to meet my son at Beijing _______________________________________

Airport next Wednesday.

2. insist on (doing )sth. 坚持主张做某事 ◇I insist on seeing it.我一定要见到它。

★拓展: insist that 坚持要做某事(接从句用虚拟语气)
insist that 坚持一种事实(接从句用真实语气) stick to坚持,信守,忠于(原则、决定、计划、 诺言、意见),通常接名词或代词。

◆辨析:persist in坚持行动,常指固执己见或继续坚持。

■运用:翻译下列句子或用所给词的适当形式填空。 (1)He insisted that he was a Party member and __________(send) the front. be sent (2) We all insist that we ____________________ (not rest) (should) not rest until we finish the work. (3)他坚持要我跟他一起去。 He insisted on my going with him ______________________________________ (4)如果你再继续违法的话,你会坐牢的。 If ________________________the law you will go to prison you persist in breaking (5)我已作出了决定,而且我会坚守这一立场。 I have made my decision and I’m going to_____________. stick to it

3. first of all 首先 First of all, we should make a list of shopping. 首先, 我应当列出买东西的单子。 Happiness lies first of all in heath.幸福首先在于健 康。 ★拓展: 用适当的介词填空。 (1) ______all毕竟,终于(让步) after (2) ______all总共 in (3) ______all 全然,究竟 at (4) ______all 最重要的是,尤其是(强调) above (5)not ______all 一点也不 at (6)all ______all一般说来,总之 in

■运用:补全下列句子。 (1) As a matter of fact, I didn't know him___________. at all (2) I know he hasn’t finished the work, but___________, after all he’s done his best. (3) I would like to buy a house—modern, comfortable, above all and ___________in a quiet place. (4)There are thirty___________ in the party who will in all travel to Lanzhou. (5)“___________, it’s a map; second, it’s a piece of art.” First of all Niehues says.

4. get/be used to (doing) sth. 习惯于(做)某事 ※用法:用get往往含有由不习惯“变得”习惯之意,表 示已经习惯的状态用be。注意to是介词, 其后接名词、代 词或动词的-ing形式。 ■运用1:翻译下列句子。 (1)你很快就会习惯住在这里的。 Soon you will get used to living here. __________________________________________ (2)你不久就会习惯这里的气候。 You'll soon get used to the climate here. ___________________________________________ (3)生活是不公平的, 去适应它吧。 ___________________________________________ Life is not fair; get used to it.

◆联想: 翻译下列词组。 (1) sb. used to do sth. 某人过去常做某事 (2) sth. be used to do sth. 某物被用来做某事 (3)get accustomed to (doing) sth. 变得习惯于 (4)be accustomed to (doing) sth. 习惯于 运用2:翻译下列句子。 1. 他过去和我们一起住。 He used to live with my family. _______________________________________ 2. 她习惯于饭后散步。 ________________________________________________ She is used (=accustomed) to taking a walk after dinner. 3. 木头常常被用来制作桌椅。 Wood is often used to make desks and chairs. ________________________________________________

1. I don’t know what your expectations are of London, but knowing that you’ve never traveled outside of Asia, though I’d tell you a bit about what you can expect to find. 结构分析: 本句是一个比较复杂的主从复合句。主句是I don’t know…;第一个what引导的名词性从句,作know的宾语; but是介词,意为“除……外”介词短语中也有一个由that引导 的名词性从句,作knowing 的宾语;though引导一个让步状语 从句,在让步状语从句中由what 引导的名词性从句,作介词 about 的宾语。 学以致用:用what 和though翻译下列句子。 尽管我不太理解实际情况如何,我相信很显然他所做的是正 确当。. Though I haven’t really understand the real situation, ____________________________________________________ I believe it is obvious that what he has done is correct. _____________________________________________________ _

高级句型子

2. To avoid getting confused about the British tipping system, you need to check your bill to see if a tip is included or not. 为了避免对英语消费制度的困惑,你 要查看帐单上是不是包括小费。 结构分析: 本句是个简单句,不过它包含一个不定式 短语(To avoid getting confused about…)作目的状语。 学以致用:用avoid getting confused about翻译下列 句子。 如果你们两人在同一个办公室做事,你几乎免不掉 要见到她的。 ______________________________________________ You can hardly avoid meeting her if you ______________________________________________ both work in the same office.

3. When I first arrived in San Francisco, I had a difficult time understanding certain aspects of the American way of doing things.我最一次来到旧金山时, 有段时间我感到很难 理解某些美国人的处理方式。 结构分析: 该句是一个主从复合句。when 引导一个时间 状语从句,主句中含有一个重要句型“have a difficult time (in) doing sth.(在做某有困难)。 学以致用:请用when 从句和have a difficult time (in) doing sth.翻译下列句子。 在我高三的时候, 我真的有一段时间学习有些吃力。 When I was in Grade Three of high school, ________________________________________________

I really had a difficult time catching up with __________________________________________________ my classmates.

六、基础写作 假如你是李明,大学毕业后出英国深造已有两年, 你母亲李云(48岁)想申请出国游并看望你。由于你母亲 第一次出国,对国外的情况不了解,所以你写信要告 诉她国外的一些情况和注意的事项。请根据上面的提 示,写一封信。 [写作要求] 1. 只能使用5个句子介绍全部内容; 2. 尽可能用本单元的单词、词组和句型,如visit, have a similar experience as, insisted on, different from, delicious, be worth doing, the way of doing sth, invite sb. to sp., invite sb. to do sth.等。 3. 提示词:集邮 stamp-collection, 电子技术 electrical technology


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