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【人教版选修七】unit 2 被动语态


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人教版选修七 unit2 动词的被动语态
适用学科 适用区域 知识点
高中英语 全国 各个时态的被动语态 主动形式表示被动意义 被动形式表达主动意义

适用年级

高中二年级

课时时长 (分钟) 60

教学目标

知识:1、掌握各个时态的被动语态结构。 2、能准确使用各个时态的被动语态的用法。 方法:1、要总结、熟记重要被动语态的用法;要学会在实际中灵活运用。 能力:1、能正确运用各各个时态的被动语态。 2、 掌握并会运用主动形式表达被动意义和被动形式表示主动意义的 用法。

教学重点

1、各个时态的被动语态结构; 2、主动形式表示被动意义; 3、被动形式表达主动意义。

教学难点

不用被动语态的情况

教学过程
一、复习预习
1、教师出示上节课预留的练习题,根据学生实际情况进行讲解分析; 2、引导学生复习上节内容; 3、并引入本节课程内容。

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二、知识讲解
考点/易错点 1:被动语态的概念和各个时态的被动语态结构 一、被动语态的概念: 动词的语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语之间语法或语义的关系。 英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态用于主动句 ,表示主语是动作的执行者 . 被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者。

二、各个时态的被动语态结构 1、被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由 be+过去分词构成,be 随时态的 变化而变化。以 do 为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为: 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 例 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 例 A new cinema is being built here. 4) was/were done 一般过去时 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 5) had been done 过去完成时 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 例 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7) shall/will be done/ be going to be done/ be about to be done/ be to be to done 一般将来 时 例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8) should/would be done/ was\were going to be done/ was\were about to be done/was\were to be to done 一般将来时 例 The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. 9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

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例 The project will have been completed before July. 10) should/would have been done 过去将来完成时(少用) 例 He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.

2、被动语态的特殊结构形式 1)带情态动词的被动结构。 其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。 例 The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为 主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。 例 His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday. 3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语, 其余不动。 例 Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 4)在使役动词 have, make, get 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面 不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式 to 要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加 to。 例 Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building. 5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于 被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 例 The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

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考点/易错点 2:动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1. 英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write, wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主 语通常是物。 例 This kind of cloth washes well. 注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

2. 表示“发生、 进行”的不及物动词和短语, 如: happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Your reason sounds reasonable. 在 need,want,require, bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于 动词不定式的被动形式。The house needs repairing(to be repaired) .这房子需要修理。

4.形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义, 但不能跟动词不定式; 而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The picture-book is well worth reading. (=The picture-book is very worthy to be read. )

5. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词 或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.(to do 与 things 是动宾关系, 与 I 是主谓关系。 ) 试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被动 语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。)

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6. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词 不定式的逻辑宾语时, 这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。 这些形容词有 nice, easy, fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。 例 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me).

7. 在 too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。 例 This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

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考点/易错点 3:动词的被动形式表示主动意义 1. be seated, be lost, be dressed The girl was dressed in a red short skirt.

2.其他习惯用法: be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be prepared (for), be occupied (in),get married 等。 He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。

3. 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that 从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有: It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。 例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

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考点/易错点 4: 被动语态与系表结构的区别 当“be+过去分词”作被动语态时表示主语承受的动作;作系表结构时表示主语的特点或 所处的状态时,be 后面的过去分词是表语,相当于形容词。其区分办法如下: 1.如果强调动作或句中有介词 by 引导出动作的执行者,该句一般为被动语态,否则为 系表结构。 例 The glass is broken. (系表结构) The glass was broken by the boy. (被动语态) 2.如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动语态。 例 The door is locked. (系表结构) The door has already/just been locked. (被动语态) 3.被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外,还可以用于其他各种时态,而系表结构中 的系动词 be 只有一般时态和完成时态。 例 The machine is being repaired.

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三、例题精析
【例题 1】

In some parts of the world, tea ___ with milk and sugar.
A. is serving C. serves B. is served D. served

【答案】B 【解析】因为 serve 是及物动词,其动作承受者 tea 作主语,表示经常发生的情况,故用一 般现在时的被动语态。

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【例题 2】 ---- Have you moved into the new house? ---- Not yet, the rooms _____. A. are being painted C. are painted B. are painting D. are being painting

【答案】A 【解析】“house”和“paint”应该是被动的关系,排除 B,D。后者未搬进新居的原因是房子正 在油漆,所以要用现在进行时的被动语态。不能用一般现在时表示习惯性动作,排除 C。

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【例题 3】 The manager entered the office and was happy to learn that four-fifths of the tickets ___. A. was booked C. were booked B. had been booked D. have been booked

【答案】B 【解析】句中 tickets 是 book(订票)的承受者,主谓为被动关系,又因票已被订出应发生在 entered the office 这个过去动作之前,所以要用过去完成时的被动语态。

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四、课堂运用
【基础】 1. The president _____ a cool reception when he visited London. A. gave C. had given B. was given D. had been given

2. A red sky in the morning _____ to be a sign of bad weather. A. says C. has said B. is saying D. is said

3. If you go there alone after dark you might get _____. A. attacked and robbed C. to attack and rob B. attacking and robbing D. to be attacked and robbed

4. What I wanted to know was when and where the meeting ______. A. was holding B. had held C. was to hold D. was to be held

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【巩固】 5. New medicines and instruments ______ every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed

6. I’ll come after the meeting if time ______. A. permits B. is permitting C. is permitted D. has permitted

7. The students _____ £50 a year to cover the cost of books and stationery. A. give B. are given C. have given D. to give

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【拔高】 8. With the development of science, more new technology ______ to the fields of IT. A. has introduced B. is being introduced 9. ---. “How about the dishes, Dear?” ---“The beef didn’t taste very good. It ______ too long.” A. cooked B. had been cooked C. was cooked D. had cooked C. is introduced D. was introduced

10. He kept a little notebook, in which ______ the names and addresses of his friends. A. wrote B. was writing D. were written

C. was written

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答案及解析: 1. B.一方面语意要求要被动语态,另一方面从句时态暗示主句应用一般过去时。 2. D.此句也可说成 It is said that a red sky in the morning is a sign of bad weather. 3. D. A,“get + 过去分词”表被动。 4. D,从逻辑上说,“会议”应是被开,故用被动式。 5. B.从语境上看,develop 不仅要用被动语态,而且要用进行时态。 6. A, 该用法中的 permit 为不及物动词, 不用被动语态。 其中 if time permits 也可换成 time permitting. 7. B.谓语为 give sb sth 结构的被动语态形式。 8. B.技术应该是“被”引进,故用被动语态;根据语境句子应用现在进行时。 9.B.从句意上看,“牛肉”应该是“被”煮,故句子要用被动语态;从时间上看,由于句中有 didn’t taste very good,所以“煮得太久”应该在这一过去时间之前,故用过去完成时。 10. D. in which were written the names and addresses…为倒装句式,其正常表达为 the names and addresses of his friends were written in the notebook.

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课程小结
本节课主要讲解的知识点为动词的被动语态。 主要内容为: 1、各个时态的被动语态; 2、主动形式表示被动意义; 3、被动形式表达主动意义。

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课后作业
【基础】 1. .I need one more stamp before my collection______. (NMET) A. has completed B. completes D. is completed

C. has been completed

2.——Do you like the material? ——Yes, it______ very soft. (NMET) A. is feeling C. feels B. felt D. is felt

3.Great changes ______ in the city, and a lot of factories______. (NMET) A. have been taken place…have been set up B. have taken place…have been set up C. have taken place…have set up D. were taken place…were set up 4. Most of the artists ______ to the party were from South Africa. (NMET) A. invited B. to invite D. had been invited

C. being invited

5. I don?t know the restaurant, but it’s ______to be quite a good one.(NMET) A. said C. spoken B. told D. talked

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【巩固】 6. The police found that the house ______ and a lot of things______. (NMET) A. has broken into…has been stolen C. has been broken into…stolen B. has broken into…had been stolen D. had been broken into…stolen

7. I promise that the matter will______. (NMET) A. be taken care C. take care B. be taken care of D. take care of

8. If city noises ______ from increasing, people ____ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. (NMET) A. are not kept…will have to C. do not keep…will have to B. are not kept…have to D. do not keep…have to

9. The Olympic Games, ____ in 776 BC, did not include women players until 1912.(NMET) A. first playing C. first played B. to be first played D. to be first playing

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【拔高】 10. This sentence needs______. A. a improvement C. improving B. improve D. improved

11. I should very much like to have gone to the party, but I______ invited. A. am not C. was not B. haven’t been D. will not be

12.——______the note ______to Mr. Smith? ——No, It is still in my pocket. A. Is…being given C. Has…been given B. Was…given D. Hasn’t…been given

13. We heard it ______ that he had gone to New York. A. say B. said C. to say D. be said

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答案及解析: 1、 D. complete 是及物动词, “邮集”是被人完成的, 须从表被动意的 C、 D 中选择。 又因 before 等引导的时间状语从句中谓语要用一般现在时表将来,所以此题答案为 D。 2、 C. 观察题干,空白线后无宾语,可知 feel 是不及物动词,表“(某物)摸起来…”意思, 是连系动词,不能用于被动式,也不用进行时。根据此题对话情景,是指某种材料的常 规特性,要用一般现在时,不能用过去时,故答案为 C。feel 作“感觉”、“认为”、“摸” 等意时是及物动词,可带宾语,有时态,语态等变化。 3、 B. take place (发生) 是不及物动词, 不可用于被动语态, 于是可排除 A、 D, 又因 set up(建 造)是及物动词,在此题中应该用被动式,故排除 C,答案为 B。 4、 A. 首先可排除 B。因为它不表示“被邀请”。又因 D 项少引导词 who,也应排除。A 项 =who were invited, C 项=who were being invited,由象 invite 这类短暂动词的现在分词被 动式不可作后置定语,故也应排除。因而可定答案为 A。 5、 A. 根据“某人/某物据说…”英文句式为“sb/sth.is said…”可定答案为 A。 又如: He is said to be a clever boy.据说他是一个聪明的男孩。 6、 D. “房屋被人闯入”,“东西被偷”都是被动语态,故可排除 A、B。因 C 项中的 has been broken into 不能置于 found 之后,则答案只能是 D。 7、 B. take care of…是固定短语,若无 of 则不可带宾语,只能跟 that 从句。所以答案为 B。 8、 A. 观察题干,第一处必须用被动式,答案只能在 A、B 中选一。条件句用一般现在时, 主句应为一般将来时,故答案为 A。 9、 C. 要表达“被举行”,只能在 B、C 中选。B 意“将要首次举行”。显然不合 in 776 BC 这 一过去时间,只有 C,first played(=which was first played)才合用。故答案为 C。 10、 C. 初看此题似手 A、C 皆可,但 improvement 是元音开头词,其前要用 an,故排除。

need 作实义动词,和 require, want 一样,后面可跟 doing 或 to be done 表“需要被…”意。 如:The door needs/wants/requires painting/to be painted.(这扇门需要漆一下。) 11、 C. should/would like to have done sth.意“本想做某事”, 例如: I should like to have seen

the film, but it wasn’t possible.由于这种句式表示“过去想”, 所以 but 后的句子也应该是过 去时态与之相配合,故此题答案是 C。 12、 C. 根据问句与答句,问话人显然是注重结果,故要用现在完成时。似乎 D 作为反

诘句“难道条还没给史密斯先生吗?”也成立, 但若是这种口气发问, 答话人就应答“Sorry. It is still in my pocket.”,所以此题答案应为 C。

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13、

B. It was said that…可以改为 We heard it said that…(都表示“据说…”之意)。前一种

说法中 It 是形式主语,后一种说法中 it 是形式宾语。故此题答案为 B。


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