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TRW Supplier Improvement Strategies
Quality Basics
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Quick Response Process Layered Process Audits Control of Non-Conforming Product Problem Solving Process / Tools RPN Risk Reduction (P-FMEA) Error-Proofing Devices and Verification Workplace Organization / Visual Management Verification Stations / Station Alarm Escalation

Process Controls
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Basic Statistics Capability Studies Control Charting (X-bar&R, Pre-Control...) Measurement System Analysis Set-Up Approval / Daily First Piece Special Process Assessments Practical Problem Solving for the Shopfloor Standard Operation and Job Elements

TRW Supplier Improvement Strategies
Program Management
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Progam Management Office Program Manager Roles & Responsibilities Cross-Functional Teams Project Milestone Reviews Phase-Gated Process Linked to APQP Phases Executive Gate Reviews Triple Constraint Management Escalation / Change Management Process

Continuous Improvement
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Value Stream Mapping Standardized Work Continuous One-Piece Flow Andon and Jidoka Basic Total Productive Maintenance Lessons Learned / Read-Across Process Bottleneck / Constraint Management Sub-Supplier Management

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TRW Supplier Improvement Strategies
Workplace Organizati on / Visual Manageme nt Quick Response Process

Control of NonConformi ng Product

Problem Solving Process / Tools

Layered Process Audits

Verificatio n Stations / Station Alarm Escalation

QUALITY BASICS ErrorProofing Devices / Verificati on

RPN Risk Reducti on (PFMEA)

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Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

问 题
Problem
什么是“问题” 什么是“问题”?
WHAT IS A PROBLEM? 所谓问题,就是当前状态和客户满意之间的差距
A Problem is the GAP between the current situation and customer satisfaction.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

问 题 解 决
Problem Solving
问题是持续改善的种子! 问题是持续改善的种子! The problem is the seed of continuous improvement 问题是积极的机会! 问题是积极的机会! The problem is positive opportunity! 没有任何问题则意味着有些错误已经发生! 没有任何问题则意味着有些错误已经发生! No problem mean that some mistakes have happened

成长
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

找到什么是问题
妨碍找到问题的主要障碍 妨碍发现问题的主要原因:
Main factor that hinder to find out the problem - 以自我为中心的思考方法
Egotism thinking method

- 守旧的态度,不愿意去改进。
Fogeyish attitude, not willing to improve.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

找到什么是问题
妨碍找到问题的主要障碍
10个妨碍找到问题的因素:10 factors that hinder to find out the problem: 1. 执着地相信自己的工作场地运作良好。 Believe tenaciously that the work site is well 2. 不认为一个人的故障可以影响到其他人。 Don’t think that a person’s problem shall influence others 3. 当出现问题时,责怪其他人或其他的工序。 Blame other people or other process when something go wrong 4. 认为现在状态是理所当然的-发生的问题是由于历史原因造成的 Think that the condition now is merited-the problem is due to the history. 5. 当遇到困难时,为不能解决问题找籍口。 Make an excuse for the problem, when meet difficult

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

找到什么是问题
妨碍找到问题的主要障碍
10个妨碍找到问题的因素:10 factors that hinder to find out the problem: 6. 让过程按本身的程序进行,不相信过程数据。 Let the process proceed by itself, don’t believe the data 7. 收集数据,但并不分析、考查数据 Collect the data, but don’t analysis and test 8. 依赖他人,相信不用任何原因就有人会去解决紧急的问题 Rely on other person, think that the problem will be solved without any reason by someone 9. 轻易地放弃 Give up easily 10. 凭感觉工作 Working by feeling
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

问题解决
定 义:Definition:
– 一个系统化的用来识别、分析和消除现状与现行标准或期望之间的差距, 并预防根本原因再次发生的过程。 A process that is used to identify, analyze and eliminate the GAP between the current situation and the current standards or expectations, and prevent the root cause occur again.
散弹枪
Shotgun

狙击枪
Bull’s-eye

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
问题解决的基本原则 Principle of Problem Solving
抛开先入为主的想法。 抛开先入为主的想法。Despite the idea of first impressions 避免对没有数据支持的问题做出反应。 避免对没有数据支持的问题做出反应。Avoid the problem which is not supported by data 直接观察问题的发生现象和原因点,而不是通过二手信息。Observe the symptom and point
of cause by yourself ,not by secondhand information.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
问题解决的基本原则 Principle of Problem Solving
标准是什么?与应该发生的情况相比,实际究竟发生了什么? 标准是什么?与应该发生的情况相比,实际究竟发生了什么?
What is the standard? Compared with the thing which shall happen, what happened actually?

Jerry, I judge person by his shoes
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
问题解决的基本原则 Principle of Problem Solving
建立原因/结果间的关系。 建立原因/结果间的关系。Establish the relation between the reason and the result. 不停地问“为什么?”直到你通过根本原因分析可以预防问题的再次发生时。 不停地问“为什么? 直到你通过根本原因分析可以预防问题的再次发生时。
Asking “why” again and again, until you can prevent the problem by RCA

Why Why Why

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
问题解决的基本原则 Principle of Problem Solving
将问题分解。 将问题分解。Break down problem 适当延迟根本原因验证直至已彻底弄清楚究竟发生了什么。 适当延迟根本原因验证直至已彻底弄清楚究竟发生了什么。
Delay root cause verification until thoroughly clear what really happened.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools 目标分解 Objective Break Down
-每个公司都有很多综合性问题,不可能一下子都解决 Each company have some systematic problem which can not solve at once -我们必须选择重要的问题,那些直接联系到公司目标的问题 We shall choose the important problem which relate to company objective directly. -公司的目标应该被分解到组织的最低层,使每个人的目标方向一致。 The company objective shall be broken down to the lowest level in organization, to make everyone’s objective in same.

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
目标分解Objective Break Down 目标分解
公司 Company
Action Plan Director’s Countermeasure Company Target Cost Reduction $100

工厂 Plant
Action Plan Plant Manager’s Countermeasure A Plant Target $40 Action Plan Plant Manager’s Countermeasure B Plant Target $20 Action Plan Plant Manager’s Countermeasure C Plant Target $40

部 Department
Action Plan General Manager’s Countermeasure A Dept. Target $30 Action Plan General Manager’s Countermeasure B Dept. Target $10

科 Section
Action Plan Section Manager’s Countermeasure A Section Target $15 Action Plan Section Manager’s Countermeasure B Section Target $5 Action Plan Section Manager’s Countermeasure C Section Target $ 10

组 Group
Action Plan Team Leader’s Countermeasure A Team Target $6 Action Plan Team Leader’s Countermeasure B Team Target $4 Action Plan Team Leader’s Countermeasure C Team Target $5
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
跟踪解决问题的 “CAP-Do-S” 过程
Process of Problem Solving and Tracking

CAP-Do-S Check
检查

Action
行动

Plan
计划

Do
实施

Standardize
标准化 工作标准化Work standardize

实施改进措施Implement action 制定改进措施Make improvement action 分析问题并发现根本原因Analysis problem and find out root cause 检查现有状态并识别出问题Check current status and indentify problem

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools 问题解决文化Problem Solving Culture 问题解决文化
把问题当作改进机会。View problems as opportunities 鼓励发现和解决问题。Encourage to find and solve the problem 提供必需的培训和资源。Shall provide necessary train and resource 要有耐心。Shall be patience 培养问题解决能手。Train the problem-solving expert 基于客观事实而不是主观意见来作出决定,实事求是。Make the decision by fact
not subjective opinion

通过团队合作来解决问题。Solving the problem by teamwork

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
实际的问题解决模式 把 握 状 况
找到原因在哪里 问题识别 基本的因 分析

不 调 查 原 因 什 么
根本原因 措施 经
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断 地 问 为


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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

8D 问题解决流程图
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Problem Discovery Information问题发生信息 问题发生信息 Team Formation 建立小组 Problem Definition问题描述 问题描述 Containment 围堵措施 Root Cause Analysis 根本原因分析 Corrective Actions 纠正措施 Corrective Actions Validation纠正措施验证 纠正措施验证 Prevent Recurrence Problem防止问题再发 防止问题再发 Team Recognition 团队庆祝
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

TRW 8D Form D0 D2 D3 D1&8

D5 D4 D6 D7

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D0

Problem Discovery Information问题发生信息 问题发生信息

You shall try to record detail customer’s complain as much as you can. For example: 你要尽可能多地把顾客投诉的内容记录下来,例如: 你要尽可能多地把顾客投诉的内容记录下来,例如:
? What the customer states is wrong with the unit? 顾客描述的是什么缺陷? 顾客描述的是什么缺陷? ? Where is the defect located? 缺陷发生在哪个部位 缺陷发生在哪个部位? ? How severe is the defect? 问题有多严重? 问题有多严重? How many? PPM? 数量 PPM? 数量? ? Build dates and serial numbers of suspected units? 生产日期和序列号? 生产日期和序列号? ? At incoming or production or field failure? 在进货检验, 生产, 或者市场失效? 在进货检验 生产 或者市场失效
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

三 現 主 義
Principle of Reality
Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation 亲自去第一现场看, 亲自去第一现场看,彻底理解状况

Real Place – Real Parts – Real Data

现场 – 现物 – 现实

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D1

Team Formation 建立小组

Your team should consist of members with the process/product knowledge and skill in the required disciplines to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. 你的团队组成必须有相应过程/产品知识和技能来解决问 你的团队组成必须有相应过程/ 题和实施纠正措施
Champion倡导者 A Champion must be appointed to oversee that the proper information is assembled, distribute the 8D, and periodically update the 8D with current information. This person provide necessary support and leadership for team’s recommendation and actions. 填写、发行和更新。 倡导者必须监查8D 倡导者必须监查 正确填写、发行和更新。这个人对团队的建议和措施提供必要的 支持和指导。 支持和指导。

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D1

Team Formation 建立小组

The Team Leader 组长 - Sets team objects and tasks 设定小组目标和任务 - Summarizes team’s opinions 总结小组的意见 - Directs the use of methodology 指导分析方法的运用 - Focuses on meeting purpose and agenda 安排会议

Team members 小组成员 Team members should consist of Engineering, Production, Quality, Suppliers, and possibly your customer. 小组成员应该有工程, 生产, 质量, 供应商和可能你的顾客组成。 小组成员应该有工程 生产 质量 供应商和可能你的顾客组成。

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D2

Problem Definition问题描述 问题描述

A complete and detailed description of the problem 一个完整和详细的问题描述 Focus of the statement should be on the problem and contain no solutions or conclusions 关注在问题描述上, 关注在问题描述上,并且不包括问题解决和推论 It should be as specific as possible 尽可能特定问题点 It should not contain causes 不应该包括原因

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Is - Is-not Chart
What it is

不是’ 是’ - ’不是 分析 不是

One sheet of brainstormed ideas, divided into two columns: 是一张分成两栏的头脑风暴表格
This “IS” information on the worksheet defines the problem based on the information you have on the hand. 在表格上’是’这栏填你已知 在表格上’ 道的问题的相关信息 This “IS NOT” data helps you narrow your search for the root cause 在‘不是’这栏帮助你缩 不是’ 小寻找根本原因的范围

IS

IS NOT

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Is - Is-not Chart
How to use it

不是’分析 是’-’不是 分析 - 不是

IS

IS NOT

Who is aware of the problem, and who is not but could be

Who

谁发现这个问题,谁也应该发现但是没有发现 谁发现这个问题,
What the problem is, and what it is not but could be

What

Where

发生什么问题, 发生什么问题,什么问题也有可能发生但没有发生
When

Where the problem is, and where it is not but could be

何处发生的问题, 何处发生的问题,在何处也有可能发生的问题但没有发生
When the problem occurs, and when it does not occur but could

How big

何时发生的问题, 何时发生的问题,在何时也有可能发生问题但是没有发生
How big the problem is, and how big it is not but could be

多大的问题, 多大的问题,问题还有可能多大但是没有产生
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Is - Is-not Chart
How to use it

不是’分析 是’-’不是 分析 - 不是

IS

IS NOT

Who

What

Please think why it could happen but not
Where

请思考为什么这些应该会发生, 请思考为什么这些应该会发生,但是却没有发生
When How big

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Is - Is-not Chart
IS 是
Who Who is experiencing the problem

不是’分析 是’ - ’不是 分析 不是
Distinction 区别

Example

IS NOT 不是
Who is not experiencing the problem

Detectable changes

探测变化

谁出现问题? 谁出现问题?
1st shift OP#20 operator

谁没有出现问题
2nd and 3rd shift OP#10, OP#30 to 50 OP20 is using manual wrench

第一班, 作业 第一班,#20作业 员
What specific object has a problem? What

第2,3班 #10作业 , 班 作业 员,#30~50作业员 作业员
What specific object could possibly have the problem, but actually does not have it?

#20作业员使用手动 扳手有变化 作业员使用手动 扳手

chance in wrench

什么部件有什么问 题
Screw not securely tighten at joint #5

什么部件可能有但是 实际上没有问题
Screw at other joints #1 to 4, #6 to #10 Joint#5 has a different shape screw then other Ops Design change to this joint

螺丝没有打紧, 在 螺丝没有打紧 #5连接点 连接点
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在#1~4, 6~10的连 的连 接点的螺丝
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在#5的连接点使用 的连接点使用 的不同形状的螺丝

连接点设计变 更
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
Differences and Changes 差异和变化点
Problem Scope 问题的范围 – When did problem Start /When did it Stop 问题什么时候开始/结束 问题什么时候开始/ – Includes / Excludes 包括 / 不包括 History / Trend 历史 / 趋势 – Type of Change: Abrupt – Gradual - Never Been There变更类型: 突发 – 变更类型: 变更类型 逐步 – 从未 – What is the recent trend? 最近的趋势如何? 最近的趋势如何? ? Defect rate at Station, SPC, Sampling Plan, etc. 例如, 检查工位不良率, 例如, 检查工位不良率, SPC, 抽样结果 – Has problem been seen before? 问题以前是否发生过 ? DV, PV, Pre-Production, Launch, EOLT 试验阶段, 试生产, 终检 试验阶段, 试生产, ? If yes, verify previous ICA / PCA in place and working 如果发生过, 验证之 如果发生过, 前的措施是否在执行和有效 ? If not seen during these periods, why not? 如果以前没有发生过,为什么? 如果以前没有发生过,为什么? Change Points 变化点 – Any recent changes? Supplier, Process, Design, System 最近任何变更? 供 最近任何变更? 应商, 过程, 设计, 体系 应商, 过程, 设计,
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D3

Containment 围堵措施

Actions taken to stop further defects/escapes to the customer 采取措施阻止不合格品流出到顾客 Containment must be addressed immediately! 围堵措施必须立即执行! 围堵措施必须立即执行 What action have taken place to ensure the customer will not see this problem Including: 要采取以下措施以确保顾客不会收到不合格品 Sort at the customer 在顾客筛选 Sort at your warehouse 在你的仓库筛选 Sort in Production 在生产线筛选 Sort in Incoming QA 在进货检验筛选 Sort at the supplier of a component or part. 在零件供应商筛选
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D3

Containment 围堵措施

These are usually immediate temporary actions taken before permanent corrective actions: 以下是常用的, 以下是常用的,在永久措施之前采取的措施

- Additional inspection 增加的检查 - Quarantine lots and/or hold shipment 隔离批次或暂停出货 - Purge finished goods store and rescreen 清理完成品库存并筛选 - Stop build 停止生产

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D3

Containment 围堵措施

Dates and quantities must be included in all steps of containment. 要记录各级围堵措施的日期和数量,筛选结果。 要记录各级围堵措施的日期和数量,筛选结果。 Verify the effectiveness of the containment action. Ensure action will not damage product. 验证围堵措施的有效性。 验证围堵措施的有效性。确保操作不会损伤产品 Make work instruction for sorting method. 做成筛选的作业指导书 Contained stock should be identified with some type of marking in order for the customer to distinguish between good and NG stock. (Should be noted on the 8D) 筛选过的产品必须做标示,以便顾客区分合格和不合格品 要记在 要记在8D)上 筛选过的产品必须做标示,以便顾客区分合格和不合格品(要记在 上
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D4

Root Cause Analysis 根本原因分析

Definition of root cause: the single thing that causes some thing else to happen. 根本原因的定义: 引起问题产生的独立事件 根本原因的定义: To find root cause, the team must ask WHY, until WHY cannot be asked anymore. 要找到根本原因,小组必须不断地问“为什么”,直到问不了“为什 要找到根本原因,小组必须不断地问“为什么” 直到问不了“ 么” Some methods to find root cause include: Is/Is Not Chart, QC 7 Tools, Flow Chart. 找到根本原因的一些方法包括: 是/不是分析,质量7种工具,流程 找到根本原因的一些方法包括: 不是分析,质量7种工具, 图。 Investigate all potential reasons to determine the root cause.调查所有的潜 调查所有的潜 在原因来确定根本原因

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
Good vs. Bad Part Comparison 好vs坏的零件比较 vs坏的零件比较
This Tool or Discipline is an analysis and verification method 这是一种分析和验证的方法 Example - feature comparison study to compare similar features of suspect parts with known good parts 例如, 例如,比较可疑部件和好的部件相似的特征 – “Out of tolerance” does not always = identified root cause – “规格超差” 并不总是=发现根本原因 规格超差” 并不总是= Example - A-B-A swap - change sub assemblies, components, or process parameters with a know good part until the failure mode “switches” 例如, 例如,A-B-A交换。用已知好的零件替换子零件, 过程参数等直至失效模式“切换” 交换。用已知好的零件替换子零件, 过程参数等直至失效模式“切换” Corrective Action verification 纠正措施验证 – Verify corrective actions by swapping the corrected feature into the failures – do they ‘trade places’ and function properly? – 通过把纠正后的特征组装在不合格品上 – 是否能恢复正常
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools What's the difference between the two scenes? 两张图片有什么不同? 两张图片有什么不同?

7 5 8 4 9 10 3 6

1

2

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
A-B-A Test – Y = Torque 扭矩 – X1 = Rotor 转子 – X2 = Housing 壳体 A matrix is a simple way to record the Good vs. Bad.矩阵图记录好 坏 矩阵图记录好vs.坏 矩阵图记录好 List the component, or process parameters. 记录零件,过程参数 记录零件, List the performance measurement. 记录测量的性能 Does it ‘swap’? 是否‘交换’ 是否‘交换’ Does it ‘swap back’?是否‘交换回 是否‘ 是否 来’ The housing in this example is the ‘swap’ component. 这个例子中壳体 交换’ 是‘交换’部件
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Good Assembly Component Rotor Cav 1 = 2.2 in oz torque Cav 2 = 2.3 in oz torque Cav 1 = 2.2 in oz torque Cav 1 = 2.2 in oz torque Cav 2 = 3.6 in oz torque Cav 1 = 2.2 in oz torque

Bad Assembly Cav 2 = 3.5 in oz torque Cav 1 = 3.3 in oz torque Cav 2 = 3.5 in oz torque Cav 2 = 3.5 in oz torque Cav 1 = 2.3 in oz torque Cav 2 = 3.5 in oz torque

Swap

Swap Back

Component Housing

Swap

Swap Back

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Flow Chart Analysis 流程图分析
√ √
Shows who is the next customer Identify potential trouble spots 识别潜在有问题的工位

X X √ √
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显示哪个工位是下一个工位


Show defect passed which inspection station 显示不合格品通过了哪个检验工位

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Flow Chart Analysis 流程图分析

Go to production line to find Cause

去现场找到问题点

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

7 Quality Tools 质量7大工具: 质量7大工具:
1. Stratification Diagram 分层法 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Check Sheet 检查表 Pareto Diagram 柏拉图 Cause and Effect Diagram 因果图 Histogram 直方图 Control Chart 控制图 Scatter Diagram 散布图

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

分 层 法

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检 查 表

检查表通过核算缺陷的数量来得出缺陷总体状态
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

排 列 图( 柏 拉 图)

排列图帮助识别那些发生频率最高或发生数量最多的缺陷。 排列图帮助识别那些发生频率最高或发生数量最多的缺陷。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

因 果 分 析 图

因果分析图分析原因和结果之间的关系。 因果分析图分析原因和结果之间的关系。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

直 方 图

直方图在分析变差的分布时,应用最多。 直方图在分析变差的分布时,应用最多。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

控 制 图

控制图常用于了解过程的随时间变化的质量状态。 控制图常用于了解过程的随时间变化的质量状态。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

散 布 图

分布图用于分析数据间的关系。 分布图用于分析数据间的关系。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

FTA = Factor Tree Analysis

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

The problem is defined, what are the influencing factors (elements, characteristics, parameter…) ? 定义问题,什么是产生影响的因素(元素,特征,参数)? 定义问题,什么是产生影响的因素(元素,特征,参数)? Factors因素 因素? 因素 Based on experience and observation, define most obvious factors that could potentially generate the problem. Ask operators and experts. 基于经验和观察,定义大部分潜在产生问题的因素。 基于经验和观察,定义大部分潜在产生问题的因素。咨询操作员和专 家

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

What is the applicable standard? 什么是适宜的标准? 什么是适宜的标准? Standard标准 标准? 标准 What is the applicable standard 什么是适宜的标准? 什么是适宜的标准?
Answer with specific values when the factor is measurable (nominal and tolerances) 对可以测量的因素,回答具体的值(基准和公差) 对可以测量的因素,回答具体的值(基准和公差)

Check if standard is clear and updated. 检查标准是否清楚和更新

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Where and how the factor is measured or checked 因素在哪里和怎样被测量或检验? 因素在哪里和怎样被测量或检验? Control point控制点 控制点? 控制点 Identifying the control point allows us to quickly find standard values and history/traceability on the factor. It is also a way to see if a measurement method for the factor exists. 识别控制点允许我们快速找到因素的标准值 和历史/追溯性。这也是了解因素的测量方法是否存在的办法。 和历史/追溯性。这也是了解因素的测量方法是否存在的办法。 In case there is no control point, indicate the method to be used to measure the factor如果没有控制点,指示一种测量因素的方法 如果没有控制点, 如果没有控制点 The control point can be everywhere in the process : at the supplier, at incoming inspection, in process control stations or the final test. It can be 100% test, sampling or done at initial sample and then periodically.控制 控制 点可以是过程中的任何地方: 在供应商,在进料检验, 点可以是过程中的任何地方: 在供应商,在进料检验,在过程控制工位 或终检。这可以是100%测试, 100%测试 或终检。这可以是100%测试,抽样或者首件检验和定期检验
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

For the selected factors, record the real data on conformed / non conformed product / process 对选定的因素,记录真实数据 对选定的因素, Real data真实数据 真实数据? 真实数据 Allows comparison between reality versus standard: bad versus good parts 比较实际值和标准值: 坏的和好的零件比较 比较实际值和标准值: Real data coming directly from measurement of BAD and GOOD parts or process. 真实值直接从测量坏的和好的零件或过程得到

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Judgment 判断 判断?

STANDARD OK 标准OK? 标准 - Is standard at last revision?标准是最新的吗 标准是最新的吗? 标准是最新的吗 - Is standard clear, comprehensible 标准清楚,易于理解吗 标准清楚,易于理解吗? Judgment can be判断可以是 判断可以是: 判断可以是 YES the standard answers to all theses questions是,标准回答所有问题 是 NO the standard doesn’t answer to all theses questions不,标准没有回答所有 不 问题

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Judgment 判断 判断?

GOOD PART / BAD PART MEET STD 好的零件/坏的零件符合标准 ? 好的零件 坏的零件符合标准 Do real data for good parts respect std 好的零件的真实数据符合标准吗 好的零件的真实数据符合标准吗? Do real data for bad parts respect std 坏的零件的真实数据符合标准吗 坏的零件的真实数据符合标准吗? Judgment can be 判断可以是 判断可以是: YES NO 是 不是

DOUBT We have a doubt 有疑问

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Summary 备注 备注?

These are the conclusions that may come out from Observation and comparison of Real Data versus Standard 通过观察和比较真实值和标 准可以得到一些推论 Also indicate how you have reproduced the issue. 并且指示你怎么再 现问题

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3 Legged 5 WHY Root Cause Analysis

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
A welding robot stops in the middle of its operation. 一个焊接机停止工作
T KOU LO C S E RUL

Example

对策 Countermeasure 1. Why did the robot stop?为什么机器停止工作了? 为什么机器停止工作了? 为什么机器停止工作了 A fuse in the robot has blown.机器的一个保险丝烧了 机器的一个保险丝烧了

更换保险丝 ×
Change fuse blown×

2. Why is the fuse blown?为什么保险丝烧了? 为什么保险丝烧了? 为什么保险丝烧了 The circuit is overloaded.电路过载。 电路过载。 电路过载 对策 3. Why is the circuit overloaded?为什么电路过载? 为什么电路过载? 为什么电路过载 The bearings have damaged one another and locked up.轴承损坏并抱死。 轴承损坏并抱死。 轴承损坏并抱死
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Countermeasure

更换轴承 ×
Change bearing×
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
A welding robot stops in the middle of its operation. 一个焊接机停止工作
T KOU LO C S E RUL

Example

4. Why have the bearings damaged one another?为什 为什 么轴承损坏? 么轴承损坏 There was insufficient lubrication on the bearings. 轴承的润滑油不足。 轴承的润滑油不足。 对策
Countermeasure

5. Why was there insufficient lubrication on the bearings?为什么轴承润滑油不足 为什么轴承润滑油不足? 为什么轴承润滑油不足 The oil pump on the robot is not circulating sufficient oil.机器的机油泵没有提供足够的机油。 机器的机油泵没有提供足够的机油。 机器的机油泵没有提供足够的机油

增加润滑油供给× 增加润滑油供给×
Add lubrication supply×

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
A welding robot stops in the middle of its operation. 一个焊接机停止工作
T KOU LO C S E RUL

Example

6. Why is the pump not circulating sufficient oil?为什么 为什么 油泵不能提供足够的机油? 油泵不能提供足够的机油 The pump intake is clogged with metal shavings.油 油 泵进口被金属屑堵住。 泵进口被金属屑堵住。 对策
Countermeasure

7. Why is the intake clogged with metal shavings?为 为 什么油泵进口被金属屑堵住? 什么油泵进口被金属屑堵住 There is no filter on pump intake (as designed).油 油 泵的设计没有过滤器

设计过滤器防止油泵堵住√ 设计过滤器防止油泵堵住
Design filter preventing pump clogged√

System Root Cause!
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Principle of ‘5 Why’ ‘5个为什么’ ‘5个为什么’的原则 个为什么
?A ‘cause’ chain is a natural logical progression for thinking through a problem‘原因’链是分析问题时自然逻辑推导过程 ‘原因’

?Generally it takes 5 ‘whys’ to get to the logical end of a ‘cause’ chain一般要问5个‘为什么’来达到‘原因’链的末端 一般要问5 为什么’来达到‘原因’ 一般要问

?Not all causes will be complete in 5 ‘whys’ -some will take 7 or more and others will reach their end in 3 不是所有的原因都要完成5个 不是所有的原因都要完成5 为什么’ 有些要问7个或更多,有的只要3 为什么’ ‘为什么’- 有些要问7个或更多,有的只要3个‘为什么’

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Defined Problem 问题定义 Root Causes 根本原因 Corrective Actions 纠正措施 Timing 时间

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Why?为什么 Therefore因此
Statement must makes sense both ways 描述必须两个方向都合理

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61

TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools Who Impacts Each Leg 谁影响各个‘腿’ 谁影响各个‘
Floor level People 基层人员
-Production生产 -Skilled trades工艺 -Material Control材料管理 -1st Line Supervision一线监查

Direct Root Cause 根本产生原因
How did you create the problem
你怎么产生问题

Detection Root Cause 根本流出原因
How did you let it escape
你怎么让不合格品流出

People doing the work 作业人员

Support People 支持人员
-management管理 -Purchasing采购 -Engineering工程 -Policies法务 -Procedures规定

Systemic Root Cause 系统根本原因
Why weren’t our Production and Quality systems robust enough to adequately protect the customer?
为什么我们的生产和质量系统不能保护顾客

People who setup the process 建立过程的人员

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools Specific Root Cause 发生的根本原因
Specific Detect Specific Detection Systemic Systemic How did the problem occur? 问题是怎么发生的 问题是怎么发生的? Why did this specific situation happen? 为什么出现了这种特定的情况 为什么出现了这种特定的情况? How was the defect produced? 不合格品是怎么被生产的 不合格品是怎么被生产的? – – – – – Start with the actual problem 从实际问题出发 实际问题出发 Keep the focus simple 关注点单一 关注点单一 Discuss the assumptions 讨论各种假设 Summarize with the facts 总结事实 Verify with ‘Therefore’ 通过倒推‘因此 来验证 通过倒推‘因此’来验证

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools Detection Root Cause流出的根本原因 流出的根本原因
Specific Detect Specific Detection Systemic Systemic How did the problem escape?问题怎么流出的 问题怎么流出的? 问题怎么流出的 Why was the situation overlooked? 为什么特定的情况被忽略 为什么特定的情况被忽略? How did the controls fail? 管控怎么失效了 管控怎么失效了? How did we miss it? 我们为什么遗漏 我们为什么遗漏? – – – – – Focus on the inspection system 关注在检验系统 Keep the focus simple 关注点单一 关注点单一 Discuss the assumptions 讨论各种假设 Summarize with the facts 总结事实 Verify with ‘Therefore’通过倒推‘因此’来验证 通过倒推‘因此 来验证 通过倒推

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools Systemic Root Cause系统的根本原因 系统的根本原因
Specific Detect Specific Detection Systemic Systemic Why didn’t our systems protect the customer? 为什么我们的系统没有 保护顾客? 保护顾客 Why did the possibility exist for this situation to occur? 为什么存在可 能性会产生这种特定的情况? 能性会产生这种特定的情况 How did our management system fail?为什么我们的管理体系失效 为什么我们的管理体系失效? 为什么我们的管理体系失效 – – – – – – Look at the bigger picture of the problem 关注问题的大的方面 Consider starting with the Specific Root Cause从发生原因开始 从发生原因开始 Keep the focus simple 关注点单一 关注点单一 Discuss the assumptions 讨论各种假设 Summarize with the facts 总结事实 Verify with ‘Therefore’通过倒推‘因此 来验证 通过倒推‘ 通过倒推 因此’来验证
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

?These are NOT root causes:

这些不是根本原因 这些不是根本原因 不是
×Operator error 操作员失误 ×Test or inspection escape 没测试或者检查出 ×Machine or tool breakdown 设备停机
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Operator error is … 操作员失误是… 操作员失误是…
Reality= inadequate training or inadequate fail-safe system 实际 = 不适当的培训和不适当的防错系统 Example: Missing arrays in one pack of boards在1个包装内缺料 在 × Operator error in counting 操作员数错了 √ No mistake-proofing method in preventing counting mistakes 没有防错的方法来防止数错

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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Test or inspection escape is… 没测试或者检查出是… 没测试或者检查出是…
Reality = test or inspection process/system is not robust 测试或者检查过程/ 实际 = 测试或者检查过程/系统不健全

Example : Electrical open 电路开路 × Electrical test escape 电气测试没检查出 √ Incomplete electrical verification system 电气验证系统没完成

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Machine or tool break down… 设备停机… 设备停机…
Reality = preventive maintenance is inadequate 实际 = 预防性维护不适当

Example : Dry film under strip 干膜剥离 × Spray nozzles choked 喷嘴堵住了 √ Preventive maintenance is not adequate预防性维护不适当 预防性维护不适当

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Verification of Root Cause and Escape Point 发生原因和流出原因验证
Why to verify Root Cause:为什么要验证根本原因 为什么要验证根本原因 ? To ensure that the proper root cause is identified 确保识别了正确的根本原因 ? To ensure that the proper escape point has been identified 确保识别了正确的流出点 Two steps: 2个步骤 ? Passive – done by observation – look for presence of the root cause without changing anything 被动地-通过观察被动地-通过观察-不改变任何状况来寻找根本原因 ? Active – done by trial to turn problem ON and OFF 主动地-尝试打开/关闭问题(再现试验) 主动地-尝试打开/关闭问题(再现试验)
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D5

Corrective Actions 纠正措施

Create a clear action plan to solve the problem by stating WHO will do WHAT by WHEN. 建立一个清晰的改进计划来解决问题。确定谁来做,什么时候做。 建立一个清晰的改进计划来解决问题。确定谁来做,什么时候做。 This can be design changes, process changes, and even training of associates. 纠正措施可能是设计更改,过程更改, 纠正措施可能是设计更改,过程更改,甚至相关的培训 Clearly state a date in which the corrective action was implemented. 清楚地记录各个纠正措施开始实施的日期

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? Corrective action is NOT containment: 纠正措施不是围堵措施
× Additional inspection is NOT corrective action
增加检验不是纠正措施 增加检验不是纠正措施 不是

× Operator re-training is NOT corrective action
作业员重新培训不是纠正措施

× Sorting/screening parts is NOT corrective action
筛选不是纠正措施
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

Recommend corrective action can target the prevention of mistakes 推荐纠正措施的目标是预防差错 It is called mistake-proofing or Poka Yoke 称之为防错或者Poka Yoke防呆 称之为防错或者 防错或者 防呆

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D6

Corrective Actions Validation 纠正措施验证

Once a countermeasure has been identified, data is to be gathered to ensure that the countermeasure was effective. 一旦识别了对策,就要收集数据来确保对策是有效。 一旦识别了对策,就要收集数据来确保对策是有效 Typically, following 30 days worth of production verification data can be taken. 一般可以跟踪30天生产来验证数据 一般可以跟踪 天生产来验证数据 Example: 4,750 units produced with 0 failures. 例如,生产了4750个产品,没有不合格品 个产品, 例如,生产了 个产品 Verification data must be taken in order to close the 8D. 必须有验证数据才能关闭8D。 必须有验证数据才能关闭 。 If a failure reoccurs, the 8-D must be reopened since the countermeasure was not effective. 如果有不合格品再次发生,必须重开8D,因为对策无效。 如果有不合格品再次发生,必须重开 ,因为对策无效。
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TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools
Collecting quantitative data to demonstrate effectiveness 收集量化的数据来说明有效性,例如 收集量化的数据来说明有效性,例如:

- Statistical analyses 统计分析 - ANOVA 方差分析 - Cp/Cpk, Pareto chart etc. 过程能力 排列图 过程能力, - Statistical Process Control charts 统计过程控制图 - Final Inspection Data 终检数据 - Electrical Test data 电气测试数据 - Customer Feedback 顾客反馈

Copyright ? 2011 TRW Automotive ? TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. 2009

Inc. All Rights Reserved.

75

TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D7

Prevent Recurrence Problem防止问题再发生 防止问题再发生

This step ensures this failure mode will not be repeated in future designs. 这一步确保这个失效模式不会在将来的设计中再发生。 这一步确保这个失效模式不会在将来的设计中再发生。 If possible, list what products currently in design stage could be related to this failure mode. 列出现在在设计阶段, 列出现在在设计阶段,会与这个失效模式相关的产品 State whether this failure will be added to PFMEA, DFMEA, Lessons Learned or Control Plan with the corresponding date. 记录这个失效模式是否会加入PFMEA, DFMEA, 经验教训或者 经验教训或者Control 记录这个失效模式是否会加入 Plan等,并记录相应的日期 等

Copyright ? 2011 TRW Automotive ? TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. 2009

Inc. All Rights Reserved.

76

TSIS : Problem Solving Process & Tools

D8

Team Recognition 团队庆祝

Here is where you thank the members of the team.
这里你感谢整个小组成员

Included in this are suppliers who assisted in finding Root Cause, or customers that assisted with containment.
包括帮助寻找根本原因的供应商, 包括帮助寻找根本原因的供应商,或者帮助围堵措施的顾客

Record individuals' attendance of follow up meeting.
记录每次讨论会的出席人员

Record each submission date.
记录每次提交报告的日期
Copyright ? 2011 TRW Automotive ? TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. 2009 Inc. All Rights Reserved. 77

End 结束
Copyright ? 2011 TRW Automotive ? TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. 2009 Inc. All Rights Reserved. 78


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