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7-Steps Problem Solving Tools


7-Steps Problem Solving Tools 问题解决工具

Problem Solving-7 Steps
? Incoming issue (PUR) Quality Issue ? In process issue (FIRG,MQV,PQA,EQA) ? Customer complains (BIS,ELF,PIR) S2 Determine Possible Causes & Rank their importance Temporary S3 Countermeasure

S1 Identify the Problem

? 5W1H ? Picture/ Sketch ? Check sheet ? PFD

– Open ? Brainstormi ng ? Fishbone

Sho rt Ter m Act – At ion? supplier
Y

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S4 Gather Data & Design Tests

? Histogram

– On way material – At plant ? WIP ? Inventory ? Test samples ? Scrap

? Run Chart
? Check Sheet ? Control Chart ? Pareto Charts ? Capability

S5 Conduct Tests Analyze Data Identify Root Cause(s) ? Select Histogra Solution m ?
Brainstorming

S6 Plan and Implement Permanent Solution

? SPC

? Histogra ms
? Pareto Diagram

? Check sheet
? Pictograms

? Decisio n Tree / analysis

? FTA
? Flow

? Engineeri ng change ? Control plan ? DFMEA ? PFMEA ? Job instructio n ? Lesson learnt ?

S7 Measure and Evaluate for Continuo us Improve ? ment Pareto & Diagram Recogniz ? Run Chart e the ? SPC Team
? Key team achievement

问题解决-7步法
? 来料问题 (PUR) 质量事故 ? 过程问题 (FIRG,MQV,PQA,EQA) ? 客户抱怨 (BIS,ELF,PIR) 临时措施 Y S1 鉴别问题 S2 确定可能的原 因& 排列它们重 要性 S3 短期 措施 S4 收集数据 & 为原因制 定试验计划 S5 实施试 验/分析数 据,验证根 本原因,选 择解决方案

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S6 计划和 执行永久 改善方案

S7 测量和评 估持续改进, 认可团队

? 5W1H ? 照片/草 图 ? 检查表 ? 过程流 程图

– Open ? 头脑风暴 ? 鱼骨图 ? 检查表 ? 图示效果 图 ? FTA故障 树分析

– 在供应 商处 – 在途原 材料 – 在工厂 内 ? 正在工 作中的 WIP ? 库存 ? 测试样 件

? 直方图 ? 运行图 ? 检查表 ? 控制图 ? 排列图 ? 能力分 析 ? 试验设 计 DOE ? 集中图

? 直方 图

? 头脑 风暴
? 过程 能力分 析 ? 决定 树/分析

? 直方图
? 排列图 ? 客户的 意见VOC ? 控制图

? 作业流程 图
? FMEA

? 工程变 更 ? 控制计 划 ? 设计 FMEA ? 过程 FMEA ? 操作指 导书 ? 经验教 训 ? 分层审 核

? 排列图 ? 运行图 ? 过程能 力分析 ? 关键小 组成就

Problem Solving-7 Steps
STEP 1.
IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM

STEP 7.
MEASURE & EVALUATE (PREVENT RECURRENCE) RECOGNIZE THE TEAM

STEP 2.
DETERMINE POSSIBLE CAUSES & RANK THEIR IMPORTANCE

STEP 6.
PLAN & IMPLEMENT

STEP 3.
TAKE SHORT TERM ACTION

PERMANENT SOLUTION

STEP 5.
CONDUCT TEST/ ANALYZE DATA/IDENTIFY ROOT CAUSE(S) SELECT SOLUTIONS

STEP 4.
GATHER DATA/ DESIGN TESTS OF CAUSES

PIC/PPIC/PQC Project Presentation PIC/PQC项目介绍QC Project Presentation PIC/PQC项目介绍

Plant-Function工厂: Presenter介绍人: Date日期:
厂: Presenter介绍人: Date日期:

Problem Statement : One or two clear and concise sentences that summarize the issue and what your project is targeting. Doesn?t change very often through the life of the project. 问题描述:用一或两个清晰简单的句子概括问题及你的项目 目标。在项目进行中要坚持如一。
Project Leader Leader Name 项目负责人: 负责人姓名 Project ID 项目编号: AMDE-6UAQK4
Current Step目前状态 : (1-7) Proposed Step提议状态 : (1-7)

Step 3 (T3) Est. 第三步完成日期 : 1/01/07 Step 6 (T6) Est. 第六步完成日期 : 1/01/07 Days Open项目日期 : 123 (Today – T2)

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: CUSTOMER SYMPTOM 客户处现象 Brief description of customer symptom. Can include part / defect information if known but should focus on the problem that the customer experiences as a result of the issue. 简要描述客户的症状。如果知道,可以描述零件 和失效的信息,但必须集中在客户的体验上,作 为问题造成的结果。 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACTION紧急反应活动 Description描述: Brief description of ERA (if any). If no ERA then “Not applicable” with justification. 简要描述ERA(如果有)。如果没有,则认为“不适用” Verification details验证细节: Details of test to ensure ERA will protect customer & not cause other concerns 进行详尽的试验确保ERA可以保护客户并不引起其它 失效 7 Step Number 7步法编号: :

CONCERN IDENTIFICATION关注点识别 ? Warranty Stack chart (R/100) or ? Paynter chart extract or ? NVQS report or ? Internal indicator内部指示 (To display magnitude of issue / key events展示问 题的大小/关键事件).May want to display as separate charts when first presenting
ERA – VALIDATION 紧急反应活动 - 验证 ? Paynter chart extract to show effect of introducing ERA – does the customer agree that the issue is contained?

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

? Failure Mode 失效模式: ? Fail Codes/ LOP 失效代码/LOP: ? Predicted RPH (C/1000) 预测RPH(C/1000): ? CPE (EPUS)每台发动机的金额: ? Total Cost 金额总计:

? Additional Trends 其它趋势:
(application应用, build month生产月份, mileage行驶里程, etc等 等。)

? Additional Key Step 1 information其它主要第一步信息:

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

MAB (MOP/MIS) Chart
? Chart should be for component or system level depending on the scope of the project.
基于项目的范围确定图表是零件级或系统级。

? Clearly identify dates previous improvement, production changes, etc.
清楚地识别前期改进日期,生产变更日期等。

? Identify area of concern project is addressing and % of failure rate project will address.
所关注项目的识别区域被确定 并且项目失效百分比将被确定。

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: PROBLEM DESCRIPTION 问题描述 5W1H, DRAWINGS, PICTURES, DATA, SAMPLES. 5W1H, 图纸, 图片, 数据, 样品 1. Does the problem statement tell what, when where and the magnitude of the issue? 问题描述是否告知了时间,地点,发生了什么事, 问题的影响有多大? 2 .Does the problem statement avoid predicting cause? 问题描述是否已避免直接写出原因? 3. Problem includes customer and Cummins Part Number? (where applicable) 问题中是否包含了顾客和公司的零件号?(如适 用 4. Are there pictures/sample parts etc? 有图片/样件吗? 5. Are Paretos approached from multiple angles? 是否从多个角度应用了排列图的方法? PARETO OF FAILURE MODES失效模式排列图 Pareto chart showing results of analysis of returned parts (teardown). Can substitute warranty verbatim pareto as an initial analysis. 排列图展示了退回件的分析结果(拆卸)。初始分 析,可以逐步地替换售后零件。 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

FAILURE REPLICATION失效再现 Need to be able to reproduce the failure. Provide details of test used to reproduce failure and results of testing. 需要能够再现失效。提供详细的试验用于再现失 效和试验结果。 RECURRENCE 是否重复发生 Yes No

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

7 STEP TEAM DETAILS 7步法团队 Customer客户:
Name姓名 Position职位
Contact number联系电话

Name姓名

Position职位

Contact numbe联系电话

Plant 工厂:
Name姓名 Position职位
Service服务
Product Engineering产品工程 Account Manager财务经理

Contact number联系电话

Name姓 名

Position职位
Supplier Quality供方质量
Plant Materials/Quality工厂原料/质量

Contact numbe联系电话

Aftermarket Parts Manager售 后市场零件经理 Account Manager财务经理

Manufacturing制造

Note: 8D team need include hourly/production employees? (where applicable)小组成员是需包括临时工/生产工人?(如适用)

Meeting schedule (or see next slide) 会议时间表(或见下页): Daily / weekly, location, day, time 日常/每周,本地,日期,时间

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:
Planned Activity Completed Activity Late Activity - Recovery Plan Late Activity - No Recovery Plan

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Status Date: Problem Recognition, T0: PDF Complete, T1: Routed to Project Leader: Resp Planned 01-Feb-08 06-Feb-08 06-Feb-08 06-Feb-08 06-Feb-08 11-Feb-08 11-Feb-08

18-Mar-08 01-Jan-08 15-Jan-08 20-Jan-08 Actual 01-Feb-08 01-Feb-08 01-Feb-08 01-Feb-08 01-Feb-08 05-Feb-08 05-Feb-08

Project Tracker项目跟踪
10-Feb 11-Feb 12-Feb 13-Feb 14-Feb 15-Feb 16-Feb 17-Feb 18-Feb 19-Feb 20-Feb 21-Feb 22-Feb 23-Feb 24-Feb 25-Feb 26-Feb 27-Feb 28-Feb 29-Feb 10-Mar 11-Mar 12-Mar 13-Mar 14-Mar 15-Mar 16-Mar 17-Mar 18-Mar 19-Mar 20-Mar 21-Mar 1-Feb 2-Feb 3-Feb 4-Feb 5-Feb 6-Feb 7-Feb 8-Feb 9-Feb 1-Mar 2-Mar 3-Mar 4-Mar 5-Mar 6-Mar 7-Mar 8-Mar 9-Mar

(Enter RPS Project Number)
Step 2 1 Project Launched 2 Kick-off Meeting 3 Preliminary Project Schedule 4 Databases Query 5 Initial Brainstorming Session 6 Initial FTA 7 Possible Root Causes Identified 10 Step 3 1 Brainstorming Complete 2 FTA Action Items Assigned 3 Short Term Fix Identified 4 Short Term Fix Implemented 5 30-Day PQC Review 6 Step 4 1 FTA Action Plan 2 Test Plan 3 Testing 4 Failure Mode Recreated 5 Root Cause Identified 6 Project Schedule Finalized

Fill in the cells as appropriate for your project. Timeline should be in days when possible.

16-Feb-08 16-Feb-08 21-Feb-08 02-Mar-08 02-Mar-08

10-Feb-08 10-Feb-08 15-Feb-08 20-Feb-08 26-Feb-08

? ? ? ?

25-Feb-08 01-Mar-08 15-Mar-08 15-Mar-08 20-Mar-08 01-Apr-08

22-Feb-08 03-Mar-08

First 30 days planned/ target dates auto-populate based on launch date

基于运行日期,前 30天的计划 /目标日期会自动生成 Track first 30 in days, and weekly or as needed after 每日/每周 /更长时间 30 天 last update (1 month) Include section of tracker跟踪前 relevant since
Identify gaps and recovery plan.识别不足并完善计划。

从上次更新以后(1个月),跟踪包含相关的部分。

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Step 1 Identify The Problem 第一步 问题描述
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

1. This process has been in for a long time. Why has this not been a problem in the past? The customer application is new with higher vibration.
2. What is the failure mode of this apparent defect? The potential failure mode of this defect is a safety issue. “If the AFC (air fuel control) hose cuts through the steel fuel supply line, fuel will leak and could cause a fire.”

3. Will the steel fuel tube rub through the flexible AFC hose?
Do we have any field failure data to substantiate this? Do we have any product test data to substantiate this? No field or test data to support, but PDE confirms it is possible.

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: Process/Part Check (similar to “7 Diamond Process” )过程/产品检查(类似7钻石法): 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

NO 1 2 3
Is the SOS/WI being followed? 是否遵循SOS/WI? Is correct tool being used? 使用了正确的工装? Is correct part being used? 使用了正确的零件?

Y

N

NO 4 5 6
Has the operator been trained ? 操作者是否得到培训 Do the parts support quality ? 零件的质量?

Y

N

Diagnostic sheet available诊断表存在: Check to see if there are any Diagnostic Sheets available to support solving this problem. 检查是否有可利用的诊断表来帮助解决此问题。 Yes是: No否: ______

If Yes, which one? 如果是,是哪个?

Used是否使用? _____

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Is/Isnot 是与不是:
IS
DESCRIBE THE SYMPTOMS 症状描述 WHERE - The physical location of the symptom. Where it occurs 地点 -症状的实际发生位置,在哪里发生 WHEN - The hour, time of day, day of w eek, month, time of year of the symptom 时间 -症状发生的年,月,日,小时。



IS NOT

不是

Where, When, to w hat extent does this sym ptom occur ? 地点,时间,症状发生的范围

Where, When, to w hat extent does this sym ptom NOT occur, though it m ight have ? 地点,时间,症状不可能发生的范围,尽管可

HOW MUCH - The extent, degree, dimension or duration of the occurance. 数量 -发生的范围,程度,尺度或持续时间。 WHO - To w hom, by w hom, near w hom, does this occur ? 谁-影响到谁,被谁发现,靠近谁,都发生 了吗?

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:
DATA DRIVEN TOOL ANALYSIS数据驱动分析 Data driven tool used to sort through potential causes while focusing on finding the root cause. Eliminates the need to bra instorm many other causes that have been ruled as “not” causing the problem. 数据驱动分析用来分类潜在原因而聚焦在根本原因上。排除头脑风暴中那些被裁定为不会引起问题的其它原因。

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Data Driven Path数据驱动路径
Failure Mode A Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Root Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause

Problem Statement

Failure Mode B Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause

Failure Mode C Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause Potential Cause

Potential Cause Potential Cause

= Data Driven 数据驱动
(Work Not Required)不必要的工作

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

FISHBONE DIAGRAM ANALYSIS因果分析 Show completed Fishbone (cause & effect diagram) to demonstrate how root cause theories were derived. 展示完成的鱼骨图(原因&效果图表)来证明怎样得到根本原因推测。 Note: 1) Indicate possible direct causes on diagram. 2) Circle most likely direct causes. : 1) 2) 注意 在图表上简要的说明可能的直接原因。 标出非常可能的直接原因。

MATERIAL 材料

MACHINE 设备

MA N人

EFFE CT 效果

METHOD 方法

MEASUREMEN T测量

ENVIRONME NT环境

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

FTA失效树分析:

? Completed X of Y branches 完成Y对应的X ? Discuss and summarize top branches identified Failure Mode 讨论
概括前几项识别的失效模式。

? Failure Mode Recreated?失效模式再现? ? DOE, testing completed, and tools used to identify key root causes
DOE,试验完成和工装用来鉴别主要根本原因。

? List top possible root causes from initial FTA
从初始失效树分析中列出最高的可能的根本原因。

Problem Solving问题解决-5WHY
5个为什么分析
Problem问题
Cookies taste really bad 甜点口味不好

Cookies are undercooked
甜点没做好 Ingredients are wrong 成分不对 Used goose eggs rather than chicken eggs 使用鹅蛋而不是鸡蛋 Recipe did not specify bird type 食譜没有指定类型

Root Cause 根本原因

Problem Solving-5WHY
Problem问题
The problem is stated through the eyes of the customer客户 发现的问题 The first why is the main cause 第一个为什么是主要原因 The second why is what causes the main cause第二个为什么是 什么造成主要原因

Etc.等 Etc.等

Root Cause原因

You can demonstrate论证: ? cause on, problem on 原因存在,问题存在 ? cause off, problem off 原因消失,问题解决

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 5 WHY ANALYSIS 5个为什么分析
If you found more than one Possible or Direct Cause, please utilize additional sheets for each Direct Cause

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

如果你发现了不只一个可能或直接的原因,请对每一个直接原因利用另外的表 1). Why did the manufacturing process not prevent this failure mode?为什么制造过程没有预防这种失效?

Prevent
Manuf act uring process prevent ion & st andardized work

Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?

预防:制 造过程-预 Root Cause根本原因: 防& 标准 2). Why did the quality process not protect customer from this failure mode?为什么质量过程没有保护客户远离这次失效? Why? 操作
Why?

Protect
Quality process detection & containment

Why? Why? Why? Root Cause根本原因:

保护:质 量过程-探 测&围堵

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: 7 Step Number 7步法编号: Issue Title问题名称: 5 WHY ANALYSIS 5个为什么分析 If you found more than one Possible or Direct Cause, please utilize additional sheets for each Direct Cause 3).Why did the planning process not predict this failure mode?为什么计划过程没有预见此次失效? Why? Why?

Predict
Planning process informational content in FMEAs and CPs

Why?

Why?
Why?

预见:计 划过程Root Cause根本原因: FEMA和控 制计划 中 的信息内 容

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Step 2: Determine Possible Causes and Rank Their Importance 第二步:确定可能的原因& 排列它们重要性 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

1. Part not assembled per Process Documentation by a new operator or an operator who was not trained. 2. Part / parts incorrect to spec. 3. Process Documentation incorrect. 4. AFC hose was assembled correctly, but moved after assembly at test or by the customer. 5. Process Documentation changed to correct other problems.

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Step 3: Take Short Term Action Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

第三步:采取短期行动

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PURPOSE:

? TO DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT TEMPORARY FIX(ES). ? TO TAKE IMMEDIATE ACTION TO PROTECT THE CUSTOMER FROM FURTHER ? ? ? ?
DISRUPTION. TO ENSURES THAT THE PROBLEM IS CONTAINED, AND THAT THE CUSTOMER IS NOT AFFECTED AGAIN. TO MAINTAIN GOOD CUSTOMER RELATIONS. TO PROTECT THE SAFETY OF EMPLOYEES OR CUSTOMERS. ENSURE THAT THE DATE, DATE CODE, SERIAL NUMBER ETC., CORRESPONDING TO IMPLEMENTATION OF EACH SHORT TERM ACTION IS DOCUMENTED FOR TRACEABILITY.

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Step 3: Take Short Term Action Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

第三步:采取短期行动

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

TYPICAL SHORT TERM ACTIONS: ? INCREASE INSPECTION FREQUENCY (OFTEN TO 100%) ? INCREASE FUNCTIONAL TEST FREQUENCY ? CHANGE OR ADD NEW FUNCTIONAL TESTS TO DETECT THE SUSPECTED FAILURE ? IMPROVE PROCESS DOCUMENTATION, WORK INSTRUCTIONS ? SORT/RE-INSPECT ALL STOCK - INCLUDING STOCK HELD AT THE CUSTOMER/IN-TRANSIT ETC. ? COMMUNICATION TO EMPLOYEES, OTHER PLANTS, DEPARTMENTS OR FUNCTIONS AS APPROPRIATE ? VERIFY COMPETENCY

SOME OF THESE ACTIVITIES MAY ALREADY HAVE BEEN INITIATED PRIOR TO THE START OF FORMAL PROBLEM SOLVING

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Step 3: Take Short Term Action Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

第三步:采取短期行动

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

? List details of step 3 fix implemented
列出详细的第三步确定执行的内容

? Record date, date codes, ESNs, etc corresponding to
each short term action
记录日期,日期代码,ESNs等其它符合短期措施的行动。

? If no Step 3 fix implemented, explain why and/or
recovery plan.
如果第三步没有确定的执行内容,则需要说明为什么或是覆盖计划。

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Step 3: Take Short Term Action Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

第三步:采取短期行动

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Take short action (s) -Interim Containment临时措施
Avoid Suspect Finish Goods to be Shipped to Customer 防止可疑产品交付顾客
Qty数量
Date Code 批号

Action行动

Resp责任人

due date完成 日期

Status状 态

Raw material at supplier供方处的原料
Raw material stock at plant工厂库存原料 Test samples at plant工厂试验样件
Rework or Scrap parts at plant工厂返工或报废零件

Work in Process at plant工厂生产中 Raw material stock at plant工厂库存原料 Finish goods stock at plant工厂完成品库存 Finish goods stock at Customer客户处库存 Service parts售后零件 Others其它

Verification details验证: Is there documented verification that containment actions are effective? 是否有文件证明临时遏止措施是有效的?

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Step 3: Take Short Term Action Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

第三步:采取短期行动

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Actual Short Term Solutions : 1. Stock checked: both in house and in transit. 2. Engineering confirm 3 other assemblies have the same configuration - apply fix to these also. 3. Communicate problem to operators - Alert added to process doc. . 4. Communicate problem to assembly auditors. 5. Auditors to check for this interference. 6. Piece parts checked to prints - all to specification 7. The short term solution is to use a ?wire tie? process to position the hose so that it does not touch either the block or the fuel tube. This process was used until the long-term solution was implemented 8. Service Engineer visited customer to apply ?wire tie? fix to the 5 engines All the above solutions were implemented on the same day as

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Step 4: Gather Data & Design Test 第四步:收集数据& 为原因制定试验计划 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PURPOSE目的: ? TO IDENTIFY, WITH DATA, THE PROBABLE PROBLEM CAUSE(S) AND TO DESIGN THE TESTS REQUIRED TO VERIFY AND REPLICATE THE CAUSES. 数据说话,识别非常可能的问题原因, 并且设计需要的实验去验证和再现原因。 ? TO DEVELOP A DATA GATHERING PLAN TO CONFIRM THE POSSIBLE CAUSES IDENTIFIED IN STEP 2, 制定数据收集计划去确认第二步识别的可能原因。 ? E.G. REVIEW HISTORICAL RECORDS, MEASURE PARTS ETC.如审阅历史数据, 测量零件等 ? TO RUN THE ACTUAL PROCESS - OBSERVE, MEASURE, CHART/SPC ETC.运行实际流程-观察, 测量,图示/SPC等 ? ALWAYS INVOLVE THE PEOPLE CLOSEST TO THE PROCESS
总是让人们靠近过程。
– Take care to explain ‘what’ and ‘why’ when attempting to collect 在设法收集数据时要关注”什么”,”为什么”.

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Step 4: Gather Data & Design Test 第四步:收集数据& 为原因制定试验计划 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

?DESIGN TEST TO DETERMINE CONTRIBUTING AND NON-CONTRIBUTING CAUSES 设计实验确定涉及和不涉及的原因

TIPS FOR DESIGNING TESTS设计试验
DEFINE TEST OBJECTIVES 设计试验的目标 CHOOSE WHAT TO MEASURE 选择如何衡量
WHAT QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC ARE YOU GOING TO MEASURE ? 你要测量什么质量特性?

DESIGN THE EXPERIMENT, IF NECESSARY 如必要, 设计实验
WHAT FACTORS ARE LIKELY TO AFFECT THE RESPONSES YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED ?什么因数影响你已 识别响应 WHAT ARE EFFICIENT WAYS TO TEST VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF THESE FACTORS ?有何有效方法测试因 数间的不同组合?

PREPARE 准备
IS TRAINING NEEDED ? 需要培训吗? WHAT CAN GO WRONG ? 什么能变差

BE PRECISE 准确 WHAT QUESTIONS ARE YOU TRYING TO ANSWER ? 你要设法回答什么问题? HOW GENERAL DO YOU WANT THE RESULT TO BE ? 你期望的结果如何?

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Step 4: Gather Data & Design Test 第四步:收集数据& 为原因制定试验计划 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

QUALITY TOOLS质量工具
HISTOGRAMS RUN CHARTS 柱状图 趋势图 CONTROL CHARTS PARETO CHARTS 控制图表 排列图 CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM DOE 集中图 实验设计 REGRESSION ANALYSIS, ANOVA 回归分析 方差分析 CHECK SHEETS 检查单 CAPABILITY INDEX 能力指标

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Step 4: Gather Data & Design Test 第四步:收集数据& 为原因制定试验计划 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

1. Were the parts assembled per Process Documentation ? The hoses were assembled per the Proc-Doc which illustrated that the AFC line must be routed around the fuel supply line. 2. Was the process documentation sufficiently clear? Although the proc – doc showed clearance between the hose and the tube, it was not obvious that ?clearance? was a mandatory requirement. 3. Could the parts have been assembled correctly, but moved after assembly? No possibility of movement after assembly?

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Step 5: Conduct Tests/Analyze Data/Identify Root Cause(s) Select Solution 第五步:实施试验/分析数据,识别根本原因,选择解决方案
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

? Discuss if ESW Owner involved/ notified
如果ESW工程师邀请/通知则进行讨论 ? DVP&R details 详细的设计验证计划和报告 ? Discuss VPCR and release activities if applicable. 讨论VPCR,发布可适用的行动 ? Date approved 批准日期 ? Service parts leader contacted and service parts plan inprocess 备件负责人联系和备件计划进行中。

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Step 5: Conduct Tests/Analyze Data/Identify Root Cause(s) Select Solution 第五步:实施试验/分析数据,识别根本原因,选择解决方案
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PURPOSE 目的: ? TO CONDUCT TESTS IDENTIFIED IN STEP 4 执行在第4步制定的测试. ? TO CONFIRM THE TRUE ROOT CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM, 确定问题的真正原因 ? CAN YOU TURN THE PROBLEM (EFFECT) ON AND OFF BY MANIPULATING THE CAUSE? DOES THE SOLUTION WORK? 通过操控原因你能使问题发生或不发生吗? ? TO IDENTIFY AND SELECT EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS TO ELIMINATE THE CAUSES.识别和选择有 效的解决方法根除原因。 ? ANALYZE THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS TO ENSURE THE SOLUTION WILL NOT CAUSE OTHER PROBLEMS分析测试结果确保解决方案不会产生其它问题。 ? IDENTIFY MEASURES FOR A SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION 设别成功设施的测量指标。 ? TO SELECT THE MOST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION(S) 选择最有效的解决方案。
– Beware of the ‘single solution’ fix 谨防单一的纠正解决方案 – Look for fail-safes/design changes 寻找防错/设计变更 – Consider training & documentation needs 考虑需要的培训及文件

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Step 5: Conduct Tests/Analyze Data/Identify Root Cause(s) Select Solution 第五步:实施试验/分析数据,识别根本原因,选择解决方案
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

ROOT CAUSE 根本原因 Description描述: What was the cause of the defect? If more than one list out. 缺陷的原因是什么?如果不只一个,全部列出。

ROOT CAUSE VERIFICATION根本原因确认 Show results of turning root cause variable on and off with test results. 根据试验结果打开/关闭根本原因变数并展示结果。

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Step 5: Conduct Tests/Analyze Data/Identify Root Cause(s) Select Solution 第五步:实施试验/分析数据,识别根本原因,选择解决方案
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Test测试: 1. Operators questioned as to interpretation of existing process documentation. One experienced assembler knew to avoid touching the block and the pipe. Newer assemblers were not aware of the need to avoid the pipe.

2. Observed experienced assembler - he actually deviated from process documentation to ensure a safer assembly and minimize the foul condition. It appears that this alternate path could put extra strain on the AFC joints and is not the ideal solution.
3. Had configuration added to engine test to observe for potential failure mode. Nothing ruptured over 5,000 equivalent miles but abrasion of the pipe was noted.

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Step 5: Conduct Tests/Analyze Data/Identify Root Cause(s) Select Solution 第五步:实施试验/分析数据,识别根本原因,选择解决方案
Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Possible solutions 可能的解决方案:
1. Alter the fuel tubing by adding a 45 deg fitting to position the tubing away from AFC hose. The steel tubing cannot be changed as it is used in other fuel tubing options per Paul Paciorkowski. Completely re-route the AFC hose so it can not touch either the block or the steel fuel tube. Are there any potential problems at the OEM if this is done ? This configuration will take a lot of adjustments to AFC hose fittings and fuel pump positioning. Install a clip to separate the AFC hose and fuel tubing (short term solution). This process involves the “wire tie” and will add $ 0.43 cost to the engine:

2.

3.

4.

Increase the length of AFC hose by 1.5 inches. This solution was validated in an engineering test cell. This adds $ 0.05 cost to the

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PURPOSE目的: ? TO IMPLEMENT THE PERMENANT SOLUTIONS AND VERIFY THEIR EFFECTIVENESS 实施永久措施并验证有效性 ? TO PLAN ACTIONS NECESSERY TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT THE SOLUTIONS DEFINED IN STEP 5 采取必要的计划有效实施第5步制定的解决方案 ? TO ENSURE SOLUTIONS ARE FAILSAFED WHEREVER POSSIBLE 确保解决方案防错
– solutions that rely on human intervention (e.g. inspection) are not guaranteed to be permanent, effective, efficient or reliable

? TO ENSURE RESPONSIBILITY AND OWNERSHIP IS IDENTIFIED AND ACCEPTED
确保设别责任人和拥有者,并使之接受。 NOTE: IMPLEMENTING AN IMPROVEMENT/FIX/FAILSAFE IS IN ITSELF A CHANGE, AND IF NOT MANAGED WELL CAN CAUSE ITS OWN PROBLEMS 注: 实施一项改进/更正/防错本身是一项变更,如果管理不好能产生问题。

Fail-Safe Where Possible 尽可能采用防错

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

CONSIDER SMALL SCALE IMPLEMENTATION 考虑小范围实施 WOULD FAILURE HAVE A 失效会产生 CATASTROPHIC IMPACT? 灾难性后果吗?

IS NEW TECHNOLOGY BEING TRIED? 使用新的技术? ARE DETAILED STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES REQUIRED? 需要详细的标准的操作流程吗?

Fail-Safe Where Possible 尽可能采用防错

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

FAILSAFING 防错

? A TOOL THAT HELPS TO ELIMINATE UNCONSCIOUS ERROR
一种避免意料之外错误的工具 ? IS VERY HELPFUL IN HIGHLY REPETITIVE SITUATIONS, E.G: 是非常有用的,可反复的解决方案。 如:
– – – – – Go/No-Go Fixtures 通/止工装 Limit Switches 限位开关 Visual and Audio warnings – Lights & Buzzers 目视/声音警示 – 灯或蜂鸣报警 Automated In-Process Inspection – Gauges, Vision Systems, Lasers, Sensors etc. 自动化检验 By Design 设计

NOTE: Understand the effectiveness of the failsafe e.g. a Go/No-Go fixture will usually prevent the failure happening again, but a warning light may still depend on a human being taking action whenever the light appears

Fail-Safe Where Possible 尽可能采用防错

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

DETERMINE APPROPRIATE QUALITY TOOLS TO MONITOR THE NEW PROCESS. (Consider using the same quality tools and measures used to identify the problem and verify causes) - CONTROL PLANS 决定采用适当的质量工具监督新过程。 - 控制计划

DETERMINE WHO WILL MONITOR THE PROCESS 决定谁监督该过程

DETERMINE WHO SHOULD TAKE ACTION IF CONDITIONS ARE OUT-OF-CONTROL 决定如果条件失控,谁应改采取措施

Fail-Safe Where Possible 尽可能采用防错

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

CONTROL PLANS 控制计划 ? ENSURE CONTROL PLANS ARE UPDATED 确保控制计划更新 ? ENSURE CONTROL PLAN INFORMATION IS CONSISTENT WITH THE FMEA 确保控制计 划信息与FMEA一致 ? ENSURE THE CHANGE IS COMMUNICATED AND CORRECTLY DEPLOYED 确保变更传达 到位并正确落实 MEASURES OF SUCCESS 成功的测量 ? IS THE SYMPTOM IDENTIFIED IN STEP 1 ELIMINATED? 在第一步设别的症状被根除? ? WILL THE ‘QUALITY’ OF WORK INCREASE?工作质量提高? ? WILL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INCREASE? 客户满意度提高? ? IS THERE STATISTICAL EVIDENCE OF AN IMPROVEMENT IN THE PROCESS? 有在过程中 改进的统计证据吗?

Fail-Safe Where Possible 尽可能采用防错

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Production Plan生产计划:
? Long term fix and production plan details长期措施及详细的生产计划 ? Date fix implemented in production, ESNF实施生产的日期,ESNF
Service Parts Plan备件计划:

? Service parts details备件的详细资料 ? Part numbers, date available and in use at PDCs, and use-up status.零件号,适用日期和PDC使
用,以及用完状态。 Service Information Available有用的维修信息:

? Service information details维修信息的详细资料 ? Date publications released and PITS complete公布发表日期和完成PITS

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS 永久纠正措施 Describe PCA options, what action was selected & why. Could use decision making & risk assessment worksheets描述 PCA选项,选择了什么行动&为什么?可以用判定&风险评估工作表。
Ref. 1 2 3 4 5 Root cause根本原因 Corrective Action纠正措施 Resp.责任人 due date完成日期

PCA VERIFICATION验证永久纠正措施 DVP&R details详细的设计验证计划和报告

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: 7 Step Number 7步法编号: Issue Title问题名称: PREVENT RECURENCE预防再发生 Update related documentation, similar products / processes affected, and policies / systems that allowed defect to occur 更新相关文件,类似产品/影响工序, 和发生不合格的政策/系统 Similar products/process affected类似产品/影响工序:
Yes/No 文件类型Type Engineering change工程变更 DFMEA设计-FMEA Drawing图纸 责任人 Resp. 计划Planned 实际Actual

PFMEA过程-FMEA
PFD(工艺流程图) PCP(Control Plan)过程控制计划

WI
PM(设备维护标准计划) Poka-yake list 防错清单 Packing Standard包装标准 Lessons learned list经验教训 TS system Procedure质量体系程序 Others其它

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Step 6: Plan and Implement Permanent Solution 第六步:计划和执行永久改善方案 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

? A design change was made to the AFC flexible hose.
JEP PDE proposed that the AFC hose be lengthened by 1.5 inch to allow an alternate route further from the fuel tube and the engine block. The next picture shows the revised AFC hose routing.
– A PCR was submitted. – Photographs were taken to document the change.

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PURPOSE 目的: ? TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS, THROUGH QUANTIFIABLE MEANS, OF ROOT CAUSE ELIMINATION, AND VERIFICATION THAT APPROPRIATE CONTROLS ARE IN PLACE TO PREVENT RECURRANCE e.g.: 评估有效性, 通过量化的均值,根本原因的根除,评估适当的控制预防再发生
– A planned review, e.g. 3 months after implementation, that the problem has not recurred. Use customer feedback and controls established at Step 6 – Has all appropriate documentation been updated, e.g. FMEA’s, Process Documentation, Engineering Documentation, Training Material

? TO EVALUATE FOR FURTHER OPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT
评估进一步改进的可能
– Is the problem part of a wider systemic issue – is there opportunity for a Six Sigma project

? TO RECOGNIZE THE EFFORTS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THOSE PARTICIPATING IN THE
PROBLEM SOLVING INITIATIVE 表彰在问题解决过程中相关人员的努力与成就 ? TO RETURN TO STEP 2 SHOULD THE CORRECTIVE ACTION BE LESS THAN 100% EFFECTIVE 返回 到第二步, 纠正措施有效性低于100%?

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

HAVE YOU ELIMINATED THE SYMPTOMS IDENTIFIED IN STEP 1? 你是否根除在第1步识别的症状 HAVE YOU INCREASED THE QUALITY OF WORK? 你是否提升工作质量 HAVE YOU INCREASED CUSTOMER SATISFACTION? 客户满意度是否提高? IS THERE STATISTICAL EVIDENCE OF AN IMPROVEMENT IN THE PROCESS? 是否有过程改进的统计证据?

Customer contacted and confirms receipt of new assemblies with no evidence or risk of foul condition.

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 第七步:测量和评估持续改进,认可团队 Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: 7 Step Number 7步法编号:

? Fix Effectiveness纠正有效性:
– Project effectiveness – how effective was your fix in containing the failure mode. (Ex: lip seal fix is 95% effective in containing leaks)
项目效力-你的定论对容纳失效模式有怎样的影响?(例:漏油事故有95%都是受油封唇的影响)

– Fail code effectiveness – how effective was your project in addressing the fail code/ LOP for the affected engines. (Ex: lip seal fix addresses 45% of all fuel pump failures)
失效模式效力-在受到影响的发动机中,你的项目对寻址失效模式/LOP有怎样的影响?(例:确认 油封唇占燃油泵失效的45%)

? Annual Project Savings每年项目的节省费用:
– Project Savings ($)项目节省费用 – Impact on RPH (C/1000) and CPE (EPUS)对RPH和CPE的影响 – Summary of calculations计算摘要

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称:

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: PCA IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATION 永久措施实施及验证

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

Link corrective actions to product development and to current program continuous improvement (Use capability study and Pareto diagram etc to verify PCA). 把纠正措施与产品开发及现有项目的持续改进工作联系起来 (运用能力研究/柏拉图等来验证)
Ref. 1 2 Corrective Action纠正措施 Validation验证说明 Censor检查人 Status状态

3
4 5

FIELD FIX / FIELD ACTION 售后现场措施 What is the field action / field fix plan?

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: DFMEA设计失效模式影响分析 Show evidence of updated DFMEA 展示DFMEA更新的证据 Is the Fishbone Diagram complete and link to the FMEA?鱼骨图是已完成,并与FMEA 衔接?

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

PFMEA过程失效模式影响分析 Show evidence of updated PFMEA 展示PFMEA更新的证据 Is the Fishbone Diagram complete and link to the FMEA? 鱼骨图是已完成,并与FMEA 衔接?

Drawing图纸 Show evidence of updated drawing
展示图纸更新的证据

ECN 工程变更通知 Show evidence of ECN
展示工程变更通知的证据

PCP过程控制计划 Show evidence of updated assembly procedures & control plans 展示总装程序&控制计划更新的证据

Errorproofing防错验证 Show evidence of Error proofing 展示防错验证的证据

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Step 7: Measure and Evaluate for Continuous Improvement & Recognize the Team 量和评估持续改进,认可团队

第七步:测

Part /Process Number产品/过程编号: Issue Title问题名称: KEY TEAM ACHIEVEMENTS核心小组成就 List out key team achievements team have made. 列出核心小组贡献的成就

7 Step Number 7步法编号:

LESSONS LEARNT经验教训 Summarise lessons learnt 概括经验教训

POTENTIAL COST REDUCTION-TVM 潜在降低成本-TVM Evaluate potential cost reduction to calculate TVM 估计潜在降低的成本,计算TVM

Acronyms of General Abbreviate Words List 常用词汇缩写清单
NO 序号
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Acronyms 缩写
PFD VOC MSA PPM FTA FMEA PFMEA DFMEA WIP Anova DOE SPC PUR FIRG MQV PQA EQA BIS ELF PIR PIC PQC ESN RPH CPE MOP MIS ECN PCA

English Explanation 英文说明
Process Flow Diagram. Voice Of The Customer. Measurement Systems Analysis. Problems per Million. Failure Tree Analysis Failure Mode& Effect Analysis Process Failure Mode& Effect Analysis Design Failure Mode& Effect Analysis Work In Progress. ANalysis Of VAriance. Design of Experiments. Statistical Process Control Purchasing Failure Incident Review Group Manufacturing Quality Verification Part Quality Audit Engine Quality Assurance Before in Service Early Life Failures Product Incident Report Product Improvement Council Product Quality Committee Engine Serial Number

Chinese Explanation 中文说明
过程流程图 客户声音 测量系统分析 每百万中发生的问题数 故障树分析 失效模式与效果分析 过程失效模式与效果分析 设计失效模式与效果分析 在制品 方差分析 实验设计 统计过程控制 采购 失效事故审核组 制造质量验证 零件质量审核 发动机质量担保 售前服务 产品早期失效 产品问题报告 产品质量改进执行委员会 产品质量决策委员会 发动机系列号

Repairs Per Hundred=#Claims/Build volume*100 每百台发动机维修数 Cost Per Engine=Claims$/Build Volume Make Or Purchased Manufacturing Information System Engineering Change Notice Permanent Correcttive Actions 单台发动机金额 制造或是采购 制造信息系统 工程变更通知 永久纠正措施

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