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时态


时态(Tenses)

Summary
? 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动 作发生的时间和所处的状态。英语时态通 过动词形式的变化来实现。在时间上,英 语的时态分为现在,过去,将来和过去将 来。动作分为一般,进行,完成和完成进 行。将这些时间和动作组合在一起,共构 成16种时态。

以ask为例,英语的16种不同时态

r />方式 时间 现在 一般 进行 完成 完成进行

ask asks asked

am/is/ are asking was/ were asking shall/ will be asking should / would be asking

has/have asked had asked

has/have been asking has been asking shall/will have been asking should/ would have been asking

过去

将来

shall/will ask should/woul d ask

shall/ will have asked should/ would have asked

将来过去

一般现在时
? 一般现在时是以动词原形表示的,当主语为第三 称单数时,需要在谓语动词后面+s或+es ? 1. 表示习惯性,经常性,重复发生的动作,特征 或状态以及客观事实和真理等。 ? 2. 用于时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时。 ? 3.表示预先计划或安排好的将来的行为 ? 4. 询问或引用书籍,通知或新近接到的信件内容。

? ? ? ? ?

How often _____ to the dentist? A. you go to B. do you go C. do you D. you go

? Tom will have done this work before his boss ______ back tomorrow. ? A. will come ? B. shall come ? C. come ? D. comes

? The delegation _______ in Beijing this afternoon. ? A. arrive ? B. arrives ? C. are arriving ? D. will arriving

一般过去时
? 一般过去时表示过去某时间的动作或状态。动词 的过去式有规则动词变化和不规则动词变化。不 规则动词变化有其特殊形式,需要记忆。 ? 1. 表示过去某个特定的时间或某一段时间发生的 动作和情况。 ? 2. 表示过去的习惯。 ? 3. 条件,时间状语从句中表示过去将来的动作。 ? 4. 用于虚拟语气,表示现在或将来的一种愿望, 假设或非真实情况。

Example: 1. I lost my wallet at the theatre. 我在剧院丢了钱包 2. I wouldn’t go with you if it rained tomorrow. 如果明天下雨的话,我就不和你一起去了 ? 3. I wish I were young again ? 但愿我还年轻

? ? ? ?

? 1. When we lived there, we _____ to go that place. ? A. would use ? B. are used ? C. were used ? D. uesd

? 2. He promised that he would bring me an interesting book when he ______ the next time. ? A. came ? B. would come ? C. should come ? D. was going come

? 3. We’d rather you _____ here for another week. A. stay B. stayed C. would stay D. will stay

一般将来时
? 一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或情况。这种时 态,通常与表示将来的时间的状语连用,如 soon, next week, tomorrow等。其形式一般为shall 或 will 加动词原形。(在英国第一人称用shall, 在美 国各种人称均用will) ? 1. 表示将来的动作或状态或将来经常发生的动作。 ? 2. be going to 表示最近打算要做的事情 ? 3. be to do 表示按计划要发生的事情 ? 4. be about to do 表示“即将(正要)做某事” ? 5. go, come, leave, start, arrive, take off 等的现 在进行时表示按计划,安排将要发生的动作。

? I will return you the book as soon as possible. ? 我将尽快地把书还给你。 ? He is to take over my job. ? 他将接管我的工作。 ? Our teacher is coming in a minue. ? 我们老师一会就来。

? There ______ a meeting tomorrow afternoon. ? A. will be going to ? B. will going to be ? C. is going to be ? D. will go to be

? ? ? ? ?

Don’t worry. I _____ be here to help you. A. not B. shall C. willn’t D. don’t

? It ______ a long time before I see another film. ? A. is ? B. has been ? C. will have been ? D. will be

过去将来时
? 过去将来时表示在过去某一时刻之后将要 发生的动作或情况,常用语主句谓语动词 是一般过去时的宾语从句和间接引语中。 其形式油 will 或 shall 的过去式 would或 should 加动词原形构成。 ? 1. 表示从过去某时看来将要发生的动作或 存在的状态。 ? 2. 表示过去的某种习惯性行为。

? Example ? 1. He said he would give his view in broad outline at the meeting. ? 他说他将在会上概括地提出自己的观点。 ? 2. Whenever we had trouble, he would come to help us. ? 每当我们遇到困难时,他总会给予帮助。

现在进行时
? 现在进行时由助动be 的适当形式 (am, is, are) + 现在分词构成。现在分词的构成如下表: 情况 变化 例词 一般情况 -ing
work-working studystudying go-going stay-staying have-having liveliving take-taking argue-arguing cut-cutting stopstopping run-running get-getting forgetforgetting beginbeginning

以不发音的-e 结尾
以重读闭音节结尾, 末尾为一个辅音字母, 它的前面是个单个元 音字母

去e再加ing

将词尾的辅音 字母双写,再 加-ing

? 1. 表示说话的时刻或现阶段正在进行的动作或发 生的情况,常与时间状语now, at present, at this moment, these days 等连用。 ? 2. 有时可表示一个按计划即将发生的动作,但仅 适用少数动词,而且常带有一个时间状语。常见 的这类动词有:go, come, leave, arrive 等。 ? 3. 现在进行时有时可与always, constantly, continually 等词连用,带有感情色彩,常常表示 说话人对主语的行为不满情绪或表示某种令人不 悦的情况。 ? 4. “be的进行时态+动词形容词” 有时可表示在某 一特定时刻人们的活动和行为。

? ? ? ? ?

He ____ in a middle school at present. A. teach B. is teach C. is teaching D. taught

? _____ a party next weekend. We’ve sent out the invitations. ? A. We had ? B. We have ? C. We’ll had ? D. We’re having

? ? ? ? ?

Where’s Robert? ______ a shower? A. Does he have B. Has he C. Has he got D. Is he having

过去进行时
? 过去进行时表示过去某一时刻正在进行的 动作,由 was (were)+动词现在分词构成。 ? 1. 表示过去某一时间内正在进行的动作 ? 2. 表示说话人对主语所做的行为不满情绪, 在此情况下,必须用副词always等。 ? E.g. The noise outside was always making me sleepless. ? 3. 过去进行时还常常用于故事中情节的描 述。

? ? ? ? ?

I ____ supper at 7:00 yesterday morning. A. have B. am having C. was having D. were having

? When I looked round the door, the baby ____ quietly. ? A. is sleeping ? B. slept ? C. was sleeping ? D. were sleeping

将来进行时
? 将来进行时由 shall 或 will +be +现在分词 构成,表示将来某一时刻或某一段时间正 在进行的动作。 ? E.g. ? We will be having a meeting from 3 to 4 this afternoon. ? I will be seeing a friend of this afternoon. ? They won’t be wanting this. ? Will you be coming to the dancing party?

? The car ____ at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 10’clock tonight. ? A. would go ? B. went ? C. will be going ? D. goes

? If you don’t come, they _____ what has happened to you. ? A. wonder ? B. are wondering ? C. will be wondering ? D. wondered

? ______ you ______your car tomorrow? If not, can I borrow it? ? A. Do … use ? B. Will … be using ? C. Are… USING ? D. Did… use

现在完成时
? 现在完成时由have (has) + 过去分词构成。 主要表示说话前某一时刻发生的动作以及 结果对现在的影响。

? 1. 表示动作或状态发生在过去,但对现在有影响。 ? 2. 表示动作或状态从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在(可 能还要继续下去)。 ? 3. 在as soon as, after, before, till/until, when, if 等引出的 状语从句中,常用现在完成时表示将来完成的动作。 ? 4. 句中有so far, up to now, up to present, these days 等 表示到现在为止这段时间的状语,需要现在完成时 ? 5. 在It is the first/second/third/…time that 结构,It is (has been) …since…that 结构中,从句中的谓语动词需要用现 在完成时。

? Robert _____ ill for three weeks. He’s still in hospital. ? A. had been ? B. has been ? C. is ? D. was

? Never before ______ so many people in our country been interested in sports. ? A. has ? B. had ? C. have ? D. are

? If it _____ in the morning, we’ll go to the park. ? A. has stopped snowing ? B. stopped snowing ? C. will stop snowing ? D. would stop snowing

过去完成时
? 过去完成时由had+过去分词构成,主要用 来表示在过去某一段时间或动作以前已经 完成的动作。

? 1. 过去完成时表示过去某时刻以前发生和完成的动作或存 在的状态,这个过去的时间可以用by, before等介词短语 或时间状语从句来表示,或表示一个动作在另一个动作之 前已经完成。 ? E.g.: John had learned some Chinese before came to China. ? 2. 过去完成时也常用在no sooner…than, 和 hardly/scarcely…when(before)等句型中。 ? 3. 过去完成时表示过去的将来。 ? 4. 用于虚拟语气条件句中表示与过去事实相反。 ? 5.动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan等用过去完成时表示未完成的愿望,打算和意图。 ? E.g.: I had though that you could come and visit us.

? By 2008, we ____ our 10-year plan of production. ? A. completed ? B. have completed ? C. had completed ? D. would complete

? He said he would come as soon as he ____ his work. ? A. has finished ? B. had finished ? C. was finishing ? D. would finish

? No sooner _____ home than it began to rain. ? A. we reached ? B. has we reached ? C. had we reahaed ? D. we were reaching

现在完成进行时
? 现在完成进行由 have (has) + been+ 现在 分词构成,强调动作延续的长久。 ? 1. 现在完成进行时表示动作从过去某一时 刻开始,一直延续到现在,并且可能还要 继续下去,通常与表示一段时间的状语连 用,如for hours, since this morning等 ? 2. 表示动作刚刚停止 ? 3. 表示某种感情色彩 ? 4. 表示某种企图或尝试

? Example: ? 1. He has been working on this essay since this morning. ? 2. My clothes are wet. I’ ve been walking in the rain. ? 3. You have been giving me everything.

? 1. The company _____ a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened yet. ? A. promises ? B. is promising ? C. promised ? D. has been promising

? My arms are aching now because _____ since two o’ clock. ? A. I’ m swimming ? B. I swam ? C. I swim ? D. I’ve been swimming

? ? ? ? ? ?

--- Hi, Tracy, you look tried --- I tired. I ____ the living room all day A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted

过去完成进行时
? 过去完成进行时是由 had +been+现在分词 构成 ? 过去完成进行时表示在过去某一时刻之前 开始的动作或状态一直延续到过去某一时 刻。 ? She asked me what I had been doing these years. ? They were sweating all over because they had been playing basketball.

? He said he felt bad because he ____ late the night before. ? A. has been sitting up ? B. had been sitting up ? C. sat up ? D. was sitting up

? After driving for thirty miles, she suddenly realized that she _____ in the wrong direction. ? A. was driving ? B. has been driving ? C. had been driving ? D. drove

? It ____ cats and dogs for over a week and downpour had caused landslides in many places. ? A. has rained ? B. was raining ? C. has been raining ? D. had been raining


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