? 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式，表示动 作发生的时间和所处的状态。英语时态通 过动词形式的变化来实现。在时间上，英 语的时态分为现在，过去，将来和过去将 来。动作分为一般，进行，完成和完成进 行。将这些时间和动作组合在一起，共构 成16种时态。
r />方式 时间 现在 一般 进行 完成 完成进行
ask asks asked
am/is/ are asking was/ were asking shall/ will be asking should / would be asking
has/have asked had asked
has/have been asking has been asking shall/will have been asking should/ would have been asking
shall/will ask should/woul d ask
shall/ will have asked should/ would have asked
? 一般现在时是以动词原形表示的，当主语为第三 称单数时，需要在谓语动词后面+s或+es ? 1. 表示习惯性，经常性，重复发生的动作，特征 或状态以及客观事实和真理等。 ? 2. 用于时间和条件状语从句中，代替一般将来时。 ? 3.表示预先计划或安排好的将来的行为 ? 4. 询问或引用书籍，通知或新近接到的信件内容。
? ? ? ? ?
How often _____ to the dentist? A. you go to B. do you go C. do you D. you go
? Tom will have done this work before his boss ______ back tomorrow. ? A. will come ? B. shall come ? C. come ? D. comes
? The delegation _______ in Beijing this afternoon. ? A. arrive ? B. arrives ? C. are arriving ? D. will arriving
? 一般过去时表示过去某时间的动作或状态。动词 的过去式有规则动词变化和不规则动词变化。不 规则动词变化有其特殊形式，需要记忆。 ? 1. 表示过去某个特定的时间或某一段时间发生的 动作和情况。 ? 2. 表示过去的习惯。 ? 3. 条件，时间状语从句中表示过去将来的动作。 ? 4. 用于虚拟语气，表示现在或将来的一种愿望， 假设或非真实情况。
Example： 1. I lost my wallet at the theatre. 我在剧院丢了钱包 2. I wouldn’t go with you if it rained tomorrow. 如果明天下雨的话，我就不和你一起去了 ? 3. I wish I were young again ? 但愿我还年轻
? ? ? ?
? 1. When we lived there, we _____ to go that place. ? A. would use ? B. are used ? C. were used ? D. uesd
? 2. He promised that he would bring me an interesting book when he ______ the next time. ? A. came ? B. would come ? C. should come ? D. was going come
? 3. We’d rather you _____ here for another week. A. stay B. stayed C. would stay D. will stay
? 一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或情况。这种时 态，通常与表示将来的时间的状语连用，如 soon, next week, tomorrow等。其形式一般为shall 或 will 加动词原形。（在英国第一人称用shall, 在美 国各种人称均用will） ? 1. 表示将来的动作或状态或将来经常发生的动作。 ? 2. be going to 表示最近打算要做的事情 ? 3. be to do 表示按计划要发生的事情 ? 4. be about to do 表示“即将（正要）做某事” ? 5. go, come, leave, start, arrive, take off 等的现 在进行时表示按计划，安排将要发生的动作。
? I will return you the book as soon as possible. ? 我将尽快地把书还给你。 ? He is to take over my job. ? 他将接管我的工作。 ? Our teacher is coming in a minue. ? 我们老师一会就来。
? There ______ a meeting tomorrow afternoon. ? A. will be going to ? B. will going to be ? C. is going to be ? D. will go to be
? ? ? ? ?
Don’t worry. I _____ be here to help you. A. not B. shall C. willn’t D. don’t
? It ______ a long time before I see another film. ? A. is ? B. has been ? C. will have been ? D. will be
? 过去将来时表示在过去某一时刻之后将要 发生的动作或情况，常用语主句谓语动词 是一般过去时的宾语从句和间接引语中。 其形式油 will 或 shall 的过去式 would或 should 加动词原形构成。 ? 1. 表示从过去某时看来将要发生的动作或 存在的状态。 ? 2. 表示过去的某种习惯性行为。
? Example ? 1. He said he would give his view in broad outline at the meeting. ? 他说他将在会上概括地提出自己的观点。 ? 2. Whenever we had trouble, he would come to help us. ? 每当我们遇到困难时，他总会给予帮助。
? 现在进行时由助动be 的适当形式 （am, is, are） + 现在分词构成。现在分词的构成如下表： 情况 变化 例词 一般情况 -ing
work-working studystudying go-going stay-staying have-having liveliving take-taking argue-arguing cut-cutting stopstopping run-running get-getting forgetforgetting beginbeginning
以重读闭音节结尾， 末尾为一个辅音字母， 它的前面是个单个元 音字母
将词尾的辅音 字母双写，再 加-ing
? 1. 表示说话的时刻或现阶段正在进行的动作或发 生的情况，常与时间状语now, at present, at this moment, these days 等连用。 ? 2. 有时可表示一个按计划即将发生的动作，但仅 适用少数动词，而且常带有一个时间状语。常见 的这类动词有：go, come， leave, arrive 等。 ? 3. 现在进行时有时可与always, constantly, continually 等词连用，带有感情色彩，常常表示 说话人对主语的行为不满情绪或表示某种令人不 悦的情况。 ? 4. “be的进行时态+动词形容词” 有时可表示在某 一特定时刻人们的活动和行为。
? ? ? ? ?
He ____ in a middle school at present. A. teach B. is teach C. is teaching D. taught
? _____ a party next weekend. We’ve sent out the invitations. ? A. We had ? B. We have ? C. We’ll had ? D. We’re having
? ? ? ? ?
Where’s Robert? ______ a shower? A. Does he have B. Has he C. Has he got D. Is he having
? 过去进行时表示过去某一时刻正在进行的 动作，由 was (were)+动词现在分词构成。 ? 1. 表示过去某一时间内正在进行的动作 ? 2. 表示说话人对主语所做的行为不满情绪， 在此情况下，必须用副词always等。 ? E.g. The noise outside was always making me sleepless. ? 3. 过去进行时还常常用于故事中情节的描 述。
? ? ? ? ?
I ____ supper at 7:00 yesterday morning. A. have B. am having C. was having D. were having
? When I looked round the door, the baby ____ quietly. ? A. is sleeping ? B. slept ? C. was sleeping ? D. were sleeping
? 将来进行时由 shall 或 will +be +现在分词 构成，表示将来某一时刻或某一段时间正 在进行的动作。 ? E.g. ? We will be having a meeting from 3 to 4 this afternoon. ? I will be seeing a friend of this afternoon. ? They won’t be wanting this. ? Will you be coming to the dancing party?
? The car ____ at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 10’clock tonight. ? A. would go ? B. went ? C. will be going ? D. goes
? If you don’t come, they _____ what has happened to you. ? A. wonder ? B. are wondering ? C. will be wondering ? D. wondered
? ______ you ______your car tomorrow? If not, can I borrow it? ? A. Do … use ? B. Will … be using ? C. Are… USING ? D. Did… use
? 现在完成时由have (has) + 过去分词构成。 主要表示说话前某一时刻发生的动作以及 结果对现在的影响。
? 1. 表示动作或状态发生在过去，但对现在有影响。 ? 2. 表示动作或状态从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在（可 能还要继续下去）。 ? 3. 在as soon as, after, before, till/until, when, if 等引出的 状语从句中，常用现在完成时表示将来完成的动作。 ? 4. 句中有so far, up to now, up to present, these days 等 表示到现在为止这段时间的状语，需要现在完成时 ? 5. 在It is the first/second/third/…time that 结构，It is (has been) …since…that 结构中，从句中的谓语动词需要用现 在完成时。
? Robert _____ ill for three weeks. He’s still in hospital. ? A. had been ? B. has been ? C. is ? D. was
? Never before ______ so many people in our country been interested in sports. ? A. has ? B. had ? C. have ? D. are
? If it _____ in the morning, we’ll go to the park. ? A. has stopped snowing ? B. stopped snowing ? C. will stop snowing ? D. would stop snowing
? 过去完成时由had+过去分词构成，主要用 来表示在过去某一段时间或动作以前已经 完成的动作。
? 1. 过去完成时表示过去某时刻以前发生和完成的动作或存 在的状态，这个过去的时间可以用by, before等介词短语 或时间状语从句来表示，或表示一个动作在另一个动作之 前已经完成。 ? E.g.: John had learned some Chinese before came to China. ? 2. 过去完成时也常用在no sooner…than, 和 hardly/scarcely…when(before)等句型中。 ? 3. 过去完成时表示过去的将来。 ? 4. 用于虚拟语气条件句中表示与过去事实相反。 ? 5.动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan等用过去完成时表示未完成的愿望，打算和意图。 ? E.g.: I had though that you could come and visit us.
? By 2008, we ____ our 10-year plan of production. ? A. completed ? B. have completed ? C. had completed ? D. would complete
? He said he would come as soon as he ____ his work. ? A. has finished ? B. had finished ? C. was finishing ? D. would finish
? No sooner _____ home than it began to rain. ? A. we reached ? B. has we reached ? C. had we reahaed ? D. we were reaching
? 现在完成进行由 have (has) + been+ 现在 分词构成，强调动作延续的长久。 ? 1. 现在完成进行时表示动作从过去某一时 刻开始，一直延续到现在，并且可能还要 继续下去，通常与表示一段时间的状语连 用，如for hours, since this morning等 ? 2. 表示动作刚刚停止 ? 3. 表示某种感情色彩 ? 4. 表示某种企图或尝试
? Example： ? 1. He has been working on this essay since this morning. ? 2. My clothes are wet. I’ ve been walking in the rain. ? 3. You have been giving me everything.
? 1. The company _____ a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened yet. ? A. promises ? B. is promising ? C. promised ? D. has been promising
? My arms are aching now because _____ since two o’ clock. ? A. I’ m swimming ? B. I swam ? C. I swim ? D. I’ve been swimming
? ? ? ? ? ?
--- Hi, Tracy, you look tried --- I tired. I ____ the living room all day A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted
? 过去完成进行时是由 had +been+现在分词 构成 ? 过去完成进行时表示在过去某一时刻之前 开始的动作或状态一直延续到过去某一时 刻。 ? She asked me what I had been doing these years. ? They were sweating all over because they had been playing basketball.
? He said he felt bad because he ____ late the night before. ? A. has been sitting up ? B. had been sitting up ? C. sat up ? D. was sitting up
? After driving for thirty miles, she suddenly realized that she _____ in the wrong direction. ? A. was driving ? B. has been driving ? C. had been driving ? D. drove
? It ____ cats and dogs for over a week and downpour had caused landslides in many places. ? A. has rained ? B. was raining ? C. has been raining ? D. had been raining