当前位置:首页 >> >>

课标高考英语科命题思路


新课标高考英语科命题思路 全国各地将继续实行“全国统一考试分省自主命题”的原则,但是它们都将依据教育部 考试中心的“注重基础,强调运用,突出能力”的“命题总体思路”进行命制。结合近 几年全国及各地英语卷特点,高考英语试卷具体有以下七条命题思路: 【命题思路一】语言真实,素材源于生活 全国各地的高考试卷从听力、单项填空、完形填空、阅读理解到短文改错和书面表达各 大题型的内容均与学生的日常生活活动息息相关,具有较强的时代感,并且注重人文关 怀。英语试题会继续体现这样的一个原则:创设真实的语言环境、运用地道的语言、选 用贴进学生生活学习的具有时代感的素材。这要求考生在备考时,要具备相当丰富的生 活文化知识,还要有一定的人文素养。 ? 高考所测试的基础知识,不仅包括基础语音、基础语法和大约 1,200 个基础词汇,而且 还包括“基础话题”,如:个人情况、家庭、朋友、学校生活等等。这类基础话题都是 在初中一、二年级就已经接触过的,而且一直见诸于初高中各个年级的语料之中。 仅就听力理解而言,据不完全统计,经常出现“英语课程标准”所列的“1、个人情况”、 “2、家庭、朋友与周围的人”、“4、日常生活”、“5、学校生活”和“16、旅游和交 通”等多种基础话题,例如全国卷出现的场景有银行场景、购物场景、租房场景、打电 话场景等,湖北卷听力部分的对后一段独白是有关英语在线学习的内容,这都是考生在 日常生活中非常熟悉的。 单选部分的题干设置所涉及的话题也基本来源于生活,考生们都比较熟悉。例如: —Do you think their table tennis team will win the first place at the coming Asian Games? —_________. Ours is much stronger than theirs. A. Of course B. It depends C. Don’t mention it D. By no means 这个小对话的话题是有关大家都很关注的亚运会,“你认为在即将到来的亚运会上他们 的乒乓球队会得第一么?”,结合对方的回答“我们的国家队比他们国家队强多了。” 可以得出答案 D. By no means 绝对不可能。 再比如 More and more high-rise buildings have been built in big cities _______ space. A. in search of B. in place of C. for lack of D. for fear of 这道题涉及到在大城市很常见的高楼大厦。“越来越多的摩天大楼在大城市被建起是由 于缺乏空间。”根据句意还有各个选项的含义:A. 寻找,B. 代替,C. 因缺乏,D. 生 怕、以免可以得出答案 C。 完形填空,阅读理解以及书面表达不仅涵盖这些基础话题,而且增加了诸如:“24、文 学与艺术”、“17、语言学习”、“18、自然”、“20、科普知识与现代技术”等等“ 热 点话题 ”,尤其是,诸如有关“7、个人感情”、“8、人际关系”等“社会话题”的哲 理思辨文章。这在一定程度上丰富了阅读理解能力的测试要求。? 例如完形填空,有文章讲的是医生和一名年老病人之间的事,从医生和病人交流的过程 中来阐释这位年老病人的爱情观和生活观,文章结尾部分升华主题,发人深思。还有的 完型填空的选材是通俗易懂的记述文,通过一个孩子的自述,向读者展示了其继母如何 用热情和鼓励帮助他及其家人如何获得成功故事。还有的记叙文,主要描写自己从最初 接触英英词典的惊异,到习惯使用英英词典以及使用英语词典的好处。这些文章无论是 题材内容还是体裁风格都为考生所熟悉。 近年高考阅读理解文章的选材更趋现代化、生活化,进一步突出实用性和时代性,更广 泛地涉及到社会、自然、科学,人生观等日常生活各个领域。例如有的阅读理解讲述了 美国城市的新变迁;农业在利用淡水资源方面存在的问题;主编的劝说同行要注重手下 记者的职业发展,激发他们的潜能的公开信等。这些文章都取自于日常生活。 写作部分的短文改错基本上都是一篇贴近学生生活的记叙文,有的甚至是学生平时的习 作。 例如陕西卷短文改错是作者姐姐去超市购物买茶杯的经历: My sister saw a lovely cup when we are shopping the other day. She liked it at once. Then she bent down and picked up to look at a price on it. As she did this, lots of tea splashed on her T-shirt! I had to try hardly not to laugh at her shocked

face! My sister wanted get out of the shop as fast as she could when a shop assistant came over to us. It was turned out to be her own cup, that she’d left on the shelf by mistake. The assistant was clearly as embarrassing as my sister, for I just thought it was funny! 书面表达的取材也多是和学生生活密切相关的,让学生做到有话可说。例如要学生就 “please、 thank you、sorry”等礼貌用语的魔力写一篇半开放作文;要求学生在电视、 手机和网络三者中放弃其中一个并陈述理由。 如果考生平时知识面较广,对这些内容的背景知识有一定程度的了解,不仅会从平时的 阅读中获得一些益处,在考试时也能游刃有余,这样的选材会对学生的全面发展起到良 好的促进作用。 【命题思路二】尽量保持英语原材料语言的真实性 学生在学习语言时,接触的都是一些情景真实、语言地道的语言材料,因为这样才能够 真正体会到该语言所承载的文化,学习到不同情景下所使用的实实在在的语言。语言学 习是这样,语言测试也应该是这样,本着这一原则,2012 年试题会尽力保持所选材料的 原始风格,但是结合学生的实际水平,按照高考对学生的能力要求简单的进行了一些修 改,主要是在词汇方面。 比如听力部分一段材料是一份学校对于新生的欢迎词: Welcome to Montfort School, thank you for choosing our school and for joining the happy Montfort family, which has been educating boys since 1916. We are so happy that you have taken time off to be with us today. It is with great pleasure that we have prepared some events that we hope will please you. At 9:00 am, our headmaster will give a welcome speech; this will be in the school hall. Please be sited by 8:45 am. Following the speech, it’s the guide tour of the exhibition at 9:30, here you can see the proud history of our school and our achievements in the field of education. The exhibition is laid out in the classrooms on the 2nd floor. Then the guide tour of science labs at 10:20 am, here you can see the subjects that new students will be studying. You will also notice that our labs have excellent equipment. At 11:00 am, you will be guided to the tool to practical areas. This covers our technical workshops, music, and other areas of our school life. At Montfort, we believe in all around development of our students. Lunch will be at 12:00. It has been specially prepared for our guests. All our teachers and student leaders will be present to answer any questions that you have in your minds. We are so happy that you could be with us today. 像这样的内容在国外学 校中非常常见,命题人把里面的词汇和内容稍作改变,使得中国的学生能更容易理解和 接受。 阅读理解中也经常出现一些国外的广告,国外报纸的新闻报道和科普杂志节选的短文等 内容,例如关于莎士比亚故居和展览的广告;关于温莎城堡的旅游广告;有关法国游客 有救落水儿童感动纽约的新闻报道;关于飞机飞行和地球引力的科技短文等。 这些材料都是取材于国外的报刊杂志等,情景真实,语言准确地道。通过做这些题,学 生不仅可以对国外的生活、时事、科技动态有所了解,最重要的是能熟悉说英语国家的 一些用语习惯,感受地道英语,这对于学生学习英语有着很大的帮助。 【命途思路三】着重考查考生对基础知识的综合运用能力 学习语言特别是学习外语,不掌握一定的基础知识是谈不上对语言的实际应用的。高考 卷对考生基础知识的综合应用能力有一定的要求。在语法、词汇考查方面,试卷对中国 学生学习英语感到最难掌握的动词时态、语态以及复杂的非谓语动词形式进行了重点考 查。对动词的喜好表现的更是明显,而在考查动词的题目中,时态语态题又在各地的高 考卷中都占有很大比例。 例如: (湖南卷) I walked slowly through the market, where people all kinds of fruits and vegetables. I studied the prices carefully and bought what I needed. A. sell B. were selling C. had sold D. have sold 这道题根据选项可以得知考察动词的时态和语态,根据题干中“I studied the prices

carefully and bought what I needed”的提示可判断此处表示“人们当时正在出售各 种水果和蔬菜”,即表示过去某时正在发生的动作,故选 B 项。 (全国卷 I)The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune ______. A. is made B. would make C. was to be made D. had made 该题句意为:在澳洲金矿的发现使千百人相信将会发财。根据选项此题考察时态和语态。 make fortune 译为发财,make 在句中需要使用被动形式,因此排除 B 和 D,题干中 led 提示时间为过去,因此选择 C。be to do 译为“将会、将要”,was to be made 表示过 去将来。 除了动词的时态语态,动词和动词短语词义辨析以及非谓语动词也都是考察热点。 例如: (山东卷) Sam _____ some knowledge of the computer just by watching others working on it. A. brought up B. looked up C. picked up D. set up 该句句意应为“山姆只是凭借看别人操作电脑就学到了一些电脑知识。”表示“学会” 用 pick up。 pick up 另外还有“捡起; 顺车接送,搭载;收拾,整理;重新开始;获得” 等义; bring up 表示“抚养,教育;提出;呕吐”;look up 表示“向上看;(形势)好转, 改善; 查阅”;set up 表示“建立,设置;造成,产生”,故答案选 C。 (湖北卷) Had he _________ her promise, she would have made it to Yale University. A. looked up to B. lived up to C. kept up with D. come up with 该题的难点不仅仅在于这四个词组的辨析,更主要的是考生要读得懂这个句子的意思。 该句是典型的虚拟语气, “if” 引导的非真实条件句的倒装句,描述的事于过去事实 是相反的。“如果她当年履行了自己的诺言,她就会进入耶鲁大学了。”look up to 译 为“抬头看,尊重”;keep up with 译为“跟上,追上”;come up with 译为“追赶上; 想出;提出”;只有 live up to“履行,实行”符合题意。 (北京卷)25. I'm calling to enquire about the position _________ in yesterday's China Daily. A. advertised B. to be advertised C. advertising D. having advertised 本题考查非谓语动词。该句的句意为:我打电话来咨询下昨天中国日报上刊登职位的信 息。 the position 肯定是被广告的,此处的过去分词可以理解为一个定语从句 which was advertised,故答案选 A。 除了动词外,考查从句的题目在历年高考题中也占有不小比例。在各地试卷中,考察状 语从句、定语从句、名词性从句的题目每年都会出现 2~3 题。 例如: (江西卷) The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ______ she would stay for an hour. A where B who C which D what 此题考察定语从句。定语从句的先行词为 centre 而不是 her sister,如果先行词找不对 容易误选 B。定语从句 she would stay for an hour 不缺宾语或主语, 故要填状语, 表 地点用关系副词 where。股答案选 A (浙江卷) It is uncertain ________ side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. A.that B.what C.how D.whether 本题考查主语从句的引导词。根据句意:尽管大约有两千名病人服用过这种药物,但是, 它会带来什么样的副作用还不确定。side effect 意思是“副作用”,还原主语从句中的 主干是 the medicine will bring about ______ side effect。故选择 what,起修饰作 用,译为“什么样的”。 (上海卷) __________ you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge.

A. However a serious problem B. What a serious problem C. However serious a problem D. What serious a problem 该题考查让步状语从句,根据句意“无论你有多么严重的问题,你都应该鼓起勇气面对 挑战”排除 B、D, however 做连接副词,相当于 no matter how,后接形容词或副词, 意为“无论、 不管”, 引导让步状语从句, 其序为“however+形容词、 副词+主语+谓语”。 就总体而言各地高考卷单项选择题重视基础,强调语境,注重运用。知识点覆盖面广, 动词所占的比例大,考点相对集中,题目整体难度不大,无偏题、怪题,强调在语境中 运用英语。虽然历年有些常见考点并没有涉及,但备战 2012 年高考的考生对于这些语法 点还是不能小视,一定要彻底理解,毕竟高考英语是综合语法点的考核。 高考对基础知识的综合运用能力的要求在完形填空题部分的体现是对考生在正确理解上 下文内容、理顺上下文逻辑和情节的基础上对基础词汇、语法知识的掌握情况进行考查。 例如湖北卷完形填空: The passengers on the bus watched with sympathy as Susan made her way carefully up the steps. She paid the driver and then, using her hands to 31 the seats, settled in one of them. It had been a year since Susan became blind. As the result of an accident she was suddenly thrown into a world of 32 . Susan’s husband Mark watched her 33 into hopelessness and he was 34 to use every possible means to help his wife. Finally, Susan felt ready to 35 to her job, but how would she get there? She used to take the bus, but she was now too 36 to get around the city by herself. Mark 37 to ride the bus with Susan each morning and evening 38 she could manage it by herself. For two weeks, Mark 39 Susan to and from work each day. He taught her how to rely on her other 40 , specifically her hearing, to determine where she was and how to adapt to her new 41 . At last, Susan decided that she was ready to try the trip 42 . Monday morning arrived. Before she left, she hugged her husband 43 , her eyes filled with tears of gratitude(感激). She said good-bye and, for the first time, they went their 44 ways. Each day went perfectly, and a wild excitement 45 Susan. She was doing it! On Friday morning, Susan took the bus to work 46 . As she was getting off the bus, the driver said, “Miss, I sure 47 you.” Curious, Susan asked the driver 48 . “You know, every morning for the 49 week, a fine-looking gentleman in a military uniform has been standing across the corner watching you until you enter your office building safely,” the bus driver said. Tears of happiness poured down Susan’s cheeks. She was so lucky for he had given her a gift more powerful than 50 , that is the gift of love that can bring light where there is darkness. 31. A. touch B. grab C. count D. feel 32. A. weakness B. sickness C. darkness D. sadness 33. A. run B. sink C. jump D. step 34. A. inspired B. determined C. honored D. pleased 35. A. return B. adjust C. contribute D. stick 36. A. tired B. astonished C. depressed D. frightened 37. A. volunteered B. attempted C. continued D. struggled 38. A. when B. as C.

until D. after 39. A. drove B. directed C. accompanied D. sent 40. A. feeling B. organs C. skills D. senses 41. A. position B. environment C. status D. role 42. A. on her own B. in person C. to her benefit D. on foot 43. A. politely B. calmly C. briefly D. tightly 44. A. opposite B. separate C. fixed D. lonely 45. A. took charge of B. took place of C. took advantage of D. took hold of 46. A. as usual B. as a rule C. as well D. as a consequence 47. A. respect B. envy C. know D. support 48. A. what B. how C. why D. who 49. A. past B. same C. first D. next 50. A. courage B. will C. sight D. wisdom 这篇完形填空的文章原型来源于一片叫作“The Blind Bus Passenger”的文章。讲的是 一个盲人乘客的故事。20 道题的设置基本考察了学生对于文章的理解能力,和根据上下 文理解单句的能力,同时也考查了不少基本语法问题,比如从句,被动语态,固定搭配 以及动词短语的选择。比如考查动词辨析的有 31、33、35、37、39、47 题,考查名词辨 析的有 32、40 41、50 题,考查形容词副词辨析的有 34、36、43 题,下面我们来具体分析一下。 31. D 考生要知道盲人是看不见的,所有的动作都是靠摸索的,其实这是常识问题,据此 可知应该选择“feel”(摸索,感知), 而不应该是“有目的”地去“touch”(触碰). 32. C 盲人陷入到黑暗的世界,这种表达在中文里面我们也使用,所以明显应该是“a world of darkness”; 33. B 单纯考查词汇,sink into hopeless, 描述人陷入到绝望之中,“sink”表示下 沉,和人陷入绝望的状态是符合的。 34. B be determined to do sth. 下决心做某事,当然也可以用 make up one’s mind to do sth. 35. A 人残志不残,她想回到工作之中去,作返回来讲 return 是一个不及物动词,因为 选 D。 36. D 考查形容词。frightened 表示恐惧。 37. A 该题考查动词辨析,volunteer 表示志愿去帮助 Susan。 38. C Until 在这里是连词,引导时间状语从句。状语从句的引导词也是个考查重点。 39. C accompany 表示“陪伴”,既然 Mark 是来帮助 Susan 的,显然就来陪伴她的。 40. D 盲人失去的是 “sight”实力,其它的 sense(感觉)还是存在的。 41. B 简单的词汇辨析题,盲人需要适应的是新的 environment“环境”,而不是新的 position“位置”等。 42. A on one’s own 表示“靠某人自己”本文一直都是在表扬这位盲人的毅力和坚持, 希望能够靠自己来维持自己的正常生活。 43. D 拥抱自己的丈夫,而且是在分别的时候,感慨万千的时候,应该有的动作当然是 tightly 紧紧的,而不是其它的类似于 politely 礼貌的。 44. B 在接受了别人的帮助后,Susan 终于要独自一人登上旅程了。他们各自走各自的路, “separate”表示“分别的”,其实她的背后有很多默默支持她的人,显然不是 “lonely”“孤独的”这样的词。

45. D 考察动词短语辨析。take hold of“吸引”; take place of“代替”;take charge of“掌管”;take advantage of“利用”。 46. A as usual 像往常一样,表示经常发生的动作再次发生。 47. B envy 嫉妒,羡慕,仔细阅读下面的文章,不难发现,司机是准备告诉 Susan 一个 秘密。也就是要告诉她有很多人在默默地支持和关怀她。所以,根据上下文的理解,可 以知道此刻司机是要表达一种羡慕嫉妒之情,也是对 Susan 的一种宽慰。 48. C 几个疑问词的选择,根据句意即可得出。 49. A 在过于的几个星期中,英文应该是 “for the past week” “next”表示的是下 周,还没发生的事情是不可能用完成时的,而且 “for”+一段时间,是现在完成时的时 间状语标志。 50. C sight 表示“视力”。文中指的是,Susan 虽然失去了视力,但是获得了更多宝贵 的东西。 通过对不同地区高考卷单选和完形填空的分析,我们不难发现高考卷对考生基础知识的 综合应用能力有较高的要求。学生在平时复习当中应重视语法、词汇这些基础知识的综 合运用。 【命题思路四】选材体裁丰富、题材广泛 包括完形填空在内的阅读理解文章,体裁丰富,有记叙文、议论文、告示类文体、广告 文体、说明文等,而文章的题材更是广泛。多角度的选材和多层面的反映人们的现代社 会生活是高考中阅读文章的特点。从整体上看,2011 年各地高考英语试卷的阅读材料都 呈现出新的面貌,即命题重视新材料的运用,所选材料贴近考生生活,有着较强的时代 感,语言地道。 例如文章的体裁各不相同:有介绍旅游景点的应用文;介绍学校教育的新闻报道;介绍 一种鸟类的说明文;讨论宠物对人类生活影响的议论文;讲述去马来西亚的火车之旅的 记叙文;回忆自己宠物狗的记叙文;介绍了一种新的职业----旅游评论家;报道北京首 都的庆祝新年的活动----滑雪;摘自旅游手册的应用文;阐述文字的起源和运用的说明 文等。 高考试题中阅读文章体裁丰富,这就要求考生具备阅读不同类型文章的综合能力和科学 方法。应用文和新闻报道类文章是日常生活中最常见的两种文体,题目难度不大,属于 送分题。在高考阅读理解中出现这两种文体,其一是要控制难度,其二也是希望通过阅 读理解部分,考查学生将英语当作一种工具来使用并解决实际问题的能力。说明文、议 论文和记叙文也属于常见文章体裁。在说明文中命题人会使用多种说明方法,例如:举 例子、列数字、作比较等等。议论文的逻辑结构严密,论点论据明显,考生只要能够读 懂论点句(Topic Sentences),就不难把握文章的主旨大意。记叙文一定要注意故事情 节和文章的感情色彩。通常这些文章虽然体裁和题材各异,但都具有一定的知识性和趣 味性。 【命题思路五】突出对考生实际语言运用能力的考查 听、说、读、写是语言运用中不可或缺的四项技能或称四种表现形式,英语语言基础知 识(语法和词汇等)是外语学习者必须掌握的基本内容,而因考务实施方面的原因,“说 (口头表达能力)”技能在高考中暂时难以进行考查。由此高考主要通过听、读、写这 三种形式来对考生进行实际语言运用能力的考查。这种考查主要体现在听力、阅读理解 和写作三部分中,在全卷占有很大的权重。 1. 听力部分 学习语言主要是为了应用,只掌握这门语言的词汇和语法知识已经远远无法满足现代英 语应用要求。作为语言“输入”途径之一的听力现在也越来越受到高考命题人的重视。 高考听力部分考查的是考生对真实的口头语言材料的理解情况。因此,语言材料一般均 来源于实际生活,且一般是围绕一个有关日常生活的话题展开,同时会有一些相关细节 的支持。材料可以是一篇独白,也可以是一段对话,对话一般仅在两个人之间进行,发 生在宾馆、、办公室、影剧院、车站等不同的地点,可能是在电话中,也可能是面对面。 考试大纲就听力部分对考生的要求为:理解听力材料的主旨和要义;获取事实性的具本 信息;对所听内容做出简单推断并理解说话者的意图、观点和态度。 例如北京卷听力部分第一题,考生会听到这样一段对话: W: Congratulations! I hear you are going to join the army. M: Thanks. But actually, it’s my twin brother who’s going to join the army.

I am going to university. I wish to be a lawyer in the future. 然后回答 1. What does the man want to be in the future? A. A soldier. B. A lawyer. C. A teacher. 题干中的词汇都非常简单, 但是如果考生不能理解听力材料的含义, 一听到前半段的 join the army 就立即选择 A 肯定错误,听过整个对话就能明白参军的是他的双胞胎兄弟,他 的志向是上大学后当律师,因此答案选 B。But actually 是做题关键。 再比如安徽卷听力部分第 6 段材料,考生会听到以下对话: M: Hello, Nora, I heard about a flat that might interest you girls. It’s near the central bus station on the main road, and about 75 pounds a week, quite reasonable. The problem is, it’s only got two bedrooms, but I expect two of you could share. W: Well, as long as it’s to me, I’ve got to have my own room, because I’ve been working at home most of the time, any other information? M: Yes, it’s got a very big and well equipped kitchen, and I know you like cooking. So that’s another point in its favor, but there is a small sitting room, and not much furniture yet. So let me know quickly if you want it or it will be taken. 然后回答 6、7 小题 6. What do we know about Nora? A. She prefers a room of her own. B. She likes to work with other girls. C. She lives near the city center. 7.What is good about the flat? A. It has a large sitting room. B. It has good furniture C. It has a big kitchen 考生在阅读题目后会猜测到这个对话是关 Nora 和公寓的, 要做对题目, 学生必须了解 Nora 和公寓中 sitting room、furniture 和 kitchen 的信息,其余信息都可以忽略。整篇对 话难度不大,只有 it’s to me 可能考生比较陌生,但是根据上下文可以得出是“适合 我”的意思。根据对话中女子所说的 I’ve got to have my own room 可以得出第 6 题 答案 A,根据男子所说的 it’s got a very big and well equipped kitchen 以及 a small sitting room, and not much furniture 可得出第 7 题答案 C。 由此可见学生不仅要具备一定的词汇和语法知识,更要具有语音语调知识,了解说英语 国家人们的用语习惯,这样才能做到理解无误。 2. 阅读部分 语言“输入”的另外一个重要的途径就是阅读,读是我国学生接触外语的主要 途径。阅读各类英语读物可以帮助扩大词汇量,加深对英语的认识,了解英语国家的文 化,可以在很大程度上影响听、说、写水平的提高。所以,阅读理解长期以来一直出现 在高考英语试卷中,且被赋予了较高的内容和分值比例。 阅读部分考查考生的阅读理解能力,而所谓阅读理解能力即是指对文章的整体和局部信 息的理解和掌握情况,突出了对考生实际语言运用能力的考查。整体提的是文章的主旨 要义、作者的态度、意较、上下文的逻辑关系等;局部则是指分散于文中的特定信息。 学生如果只知道文章中单词和句子的意思,但是不能对文章的主旨、作者的态度、上下 文的逻辑关系、文中的特定信息等做出正确的理解和判断的话,在阅读部分是得不到高 分的。考试大纲关于阅读方面对于考生作出了以下要求:理解主旨和要义;理解文中具 体信息;根据上下文推断生词的词义;作出简单判断和推理;理解文章的基本结构;理 解作者的意图、观点和态度。 例如北京卷阅读理解 A 篇: A Goldie's Secret She turned up at the doorstep of my house in Cornwall. No way could I have sent her away. No way, not me anyway. Maybe someone had kicked her out of their car the night before. "We're moving house.'; "No space for her any more with the baby coming." "We never really wanted her, but what could we have done? She was a present." People find all sorts of excuses for abandoning an animal. And she was one of the most beautiful dogs I had ever seen.

I called her Goldie. If I had known what was going to happen I would have given her a more creative name. She was so unsettled during those first few days. She hardly ate anything and had such an air of sadness about her. There was nothing I could do to make her happy, it seemed. Heaven knows what had happened to her at her previous owner's. But eventually at the end of the first week she calmed down. Always by my side, whether we were out on one of our long walks or sitting by the fire. That's why it was such a shock when she pulled away from me one day when we were out for a walk. We were a long way from home, when she started barking and getting very restless. Eventually I couldn't hold her any longer and she raced off down the road towards a farmhouse in the distance as fast as she could. By the time I reached the farm I was very tired and upset with Goldie. But when I saw her licking (舔) the four puppies (幼犬) I started to feel sympathy towards them. "We didn't know what had happened to her," said the woman at the door. "I took her for a walk one day, soon after the puppies were born, and she just disappeared." "She must have tried to come back to them and got lost," added a boy from behind her. ' I must admit I do miss Goldie, but I've got Nugget now, and she looks just like her mother. And I've learnt a good lesson: not to judge people. 这篇文章夹叙夹议,考生在阅读此类文章时要注意阅读技巧:叙为议服务,议 为叙指导。本篇题目由 3 个细节题和一道文章结构题组成,难度都不大。细节题要求学 生把握文章中的原文,做合理推断和转述。比如 57 题,将 unsettled 理解成 worried。 文章结构题基本属于送分题,要求学生作答,此篇记叙文按照时间顺序发展。 56. How did the author feel about Goldie when Goldie came to the house? A. Shocked. B. Sympathetic. C. Annoyed. D. Upset. 56.B 该题要求做出情绪推断,是一道较难题。此推断题的难点在于,原文没有直接的形 容词表述,要求学生通过具体的描述总结。原文第 2 段 She hardly ate anything and had such an air of sadness about her. There was nothing I could do to make her happy, it seemed. Heaven knows what had happened to her at her previous owner's.划线 句子表明作者同情被遗弃的小狗,希望帮助它高兴起来。 57. In her first few days at the author's house, Goldie . A.felt worried B. was angry C. ate a little D. sat by the fire 57.A 该题是细节题,较难。要做对此题主要要排除 C 项的干扰,原文第 2 段 She hardly ate anything and had such an air of sadness about her. hardly ate anything 的 表述与 ate little 是不一样的。前者是几乎什么都不吃,后者是吃得少。 58. Goldie rushed off to a farmhouse one day because she . A. saw her puppies B. heard familiar barking C. wanted to leave the author D. found her way to her old home 58.D 该题是原因推断题,通过原文第 4 段的描写可得正确答案。 59. The passage is organized in order of . A. time B. effectiveness C. importance D. complexity 59.A 考察文章的行文结构,通读全文可知此篇记叙文按照时间顺序发展。 3. 写作部分 1> 写作中短文改错是高考英语中一个分值较多、难度较大的题型。该题涉及 的知识层次多,覆盖面广,主要考查学生从语篇的角度识别错误并改正错误的能力。既 考查考生运用所学语言知识进行阅读短文的能力,又考查考生利用所学知识发现、判断 和改正错误的能力。要求考生具备扎实的英语基础知识,包括词汇、短语、语法知识; 具备较强的语用能力,包括句子、语篇的逻辑分析能力以及词汇运用能力;具备快速发 现、判断、纠正错误的能力。

例如全国卷的短文改错: It was a chance of a lifetime to win the first 76___________ prize on the Story Writing Show. All I had to do 77___________ was to write a story or present it. My teachers 78___________ have been telling me how great my writing was. 79___________ So if they had said was true, I would have a chance 80___________ of winning the prize . What were better , I had useful 81___________ help . There was Uncle Chen , gentleman living 82___________ near my house , who was a very much famous writer 83___________ He agreed to reading my story and give me some 84___________ advices on how to write like a real writer. 85___________ 短文改错是一篇贴近学生生活的记叙文。76 全对,77 把 on 改为 in,78 把 or 改为 and, 79 把 have 改为 had, 80 在 if 后加 what, 81 把 were 改为 was, 82 在 gentleman 前加 a,83 把 much 删去,84 把 reading 改为 read,85 把 advices 改为 advice。改错所 呈现的比例为错词:缺词:多词:正确= 6:2:1:1。考生在做题时不能以行为单位, 而是应该以整句话甚至是结合上下文来做出判断。 有几道题值得特别关注。如第 79 题中出现了一个现在完成进行时,这一时态并不是历年 高考重点考查的时态,而且改正后的时态也更为复杂:过去完成进行时。这对于不熟悉 这一时态的同学可能稍有难度,但是只要从全文着眼审视时态,就很容易发现,在整个 过去时的大环境下,出现一个表示现在的时态是相当突兀的,考生只要把助动词 have 改 成过去式 had 即可。再如第 81 题这个涉及主谓一致的题目也相对较难,因为句中出现了 一个插入成分:what were better (更好的是),对此,考生可以效仿另外一个他们熟悉 的插入成分来进行类比以便判断,那就是表示“此外;另外”含义的 what is more。可见, 这里的 be 用的是单数形式,而非复数,因为这种插入成分所指的都是后面的一个句子, 所以形式上应为单数。回到该题,鉴于全文都是一般过去时,所以考生应该把 were 改为 was。 例如辽宁卷短文改错: Christine was just a girl in one of my class. I never knew much about her except for that she was strange. she didn’t talk many .her hair was black and purple, and she worn black sports shoes and a black sweater ,although in the summer. she was ,in fact, rather attractively, and she never seemed ^care what the rest if us thought about her like the rest of my classmate ,I didn’t really want to get closest to her . it was only when we did their chemistry project together that I begin to understand why Christine dressed the way she did . 解析:1. 将 except 后的 for 删去,因为 except that 中不能再用 for。 2. 把 many 改为 much 因为修饰动词 talk 应该用 much,此处是副词,many 没有此用法。 3.把 worn 改为 wore 因为谓语动词用过去式,不能用过去分词。 4. 把 although 改为 even 因为 although 是连词,不能修饰介词短语,even 可以。 5. 把 attractively 改为 attractive 因为此处做表语,要用形容词。 6. 在 seemed 后加 to 因为 seem 后用带 to 的不定式。 7. 把 classmate 后加 s 因为可数名词需用复数。 8. 把 closest 变为 close 因为 get 是连系动词,后跟形容词。 9. 把 their 改为 our 因为人称要和前面一致。 10. 把 begin 改为 began 因为要保持时态前后一致。 2> 写作中书面表达部分旨在测试考生的英语书面表达能力,看其是否能够运 用学过的英语知识和掌握的技能进行思想交流,要求学生准确使用语法、词汇、拼写、 标点,并能使用一定的句型、词汇,清楚、连贯的表达自己的思想,这对于学生来说绝 对是综合能力的测试的体现。 各地高考英语试卷的写作部分已基本实现真正意义上的写作。大多数地区的试卷的写作 部分都是大学四级式的提纲式或要点式的写作题型,需考生适当发挥,写作内容多数仍 停留在衣食住行、学习生活等考生熟悉的领域。

例一全国卷作文:假设你是李华,你的美国笔友 Peter 曾表示希望来中国教书。你校现 需招聘外教,请给他写封信,告知招聘信息。内容主要包括: 1. 教授课程:英语口语、英语写作、今日美国、今日英国等 2. 授课对象:高中生(至少三年英语基础) 3. 工作量:——每周 12 学时,任先三门课 ——担任学生英语俱乐部或英语校报顾问(advisor) 注意: a) 词数 100 左右;b) 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; c) 开关语已为你写好,请将完整的回信书写在答题卡上。 根据试题所设定的要求,我们可以看出,本信涉及的生僻词不多,根据线索和 信函要求,学生容易组织材料。适当的延展个别细节再加上所给的提示,考生注意写清 楚以下几点:1.招聘之事,2. 教授课程,3. 授课对象,4. 工作量,5. 恰当的结尾。 这篇文章要求词数 100 左右, 但是 “可以适当增减细节”使得写作的开放程度高了一些。 One possible version: Dear Peter, I remember you told me you were interested in teaching in China. Our school now is looking for a native-speaker to teach some courses to senior high students. If you come, you can choose three of the following four courses: Speaking, Writing, Britain Today and America Today, and teach 12 hours a week. The students who are going to take these courses have at least three years of English learning experiences. Besides teaching, you will also work as an advisor to our students’ English club or our school’s English newspaper. Please let me know if you are interested and if you have any other questions. I’d be more than happy to help. Best, Li Hua 例二湖北卷的作文:请你根据以下提示,结合生活中的一个事例,用英语写一篇短文, 谈谈微笑的作用。 The best example of universally understood body language may be the smile. A smile can help us get through difficult situation and find friends in a world of strangers. A smile can open doors and tear down walls. 注意:①无须写标题;②内容只需涉及一个方面;③词数为 100 左右。 这篇文章要求学生先读懂所给材料的内容及含义,无形中增添了题目的难度。其次学生 所写内容必须和文章中给出的提示相关,不是所有和微笑相关的内容都可以,因此这篇 文章对学生的综合运用语言的能力还是有着较高的要求。 One possible version: No body language can be more attractive/ fascinating than smiling. Not only can a beautiful smile make ourselves happy, but also it enables others to feel delighted. Sometimes a smile is so powerful that it gives people great courage after suffering from disasters. A little boy named Lang Zheng, for instance, impressed and encouraged a great many people when a serious earthquake happened in Wen Chuan. Right after he was rescued by the soldiers from the ruins, he saluted and smiled to them. His smile was like sunshine which warmed people who were in sadness. It is safe to say that without smile our life would be colorless and difficult. It is suggested that we smile as much as possible. 【命题思路六】不注释汉语,不影响对考试内容理解的生词率会有所增加 1.试卷中出现生词是正常现象。? 在阅读语言材料时,不可避免地会遇到一些“拦路虎”——生词,这是正常现象。即使 在阅读或聆听母语语料,都不可避免地会遇到生词,更何况考生只“见过”2,000-3,000 多个英语单词,阅读来自原文原著的材料时如果没有发现生词反而会令人感到奇怪并怀 疑这份考题是不是如考试中心所说的“真实、可信、原汁原味”的语篇。遇到生词考生 应该冷静头脑,保持正常的心态,千万不要因为不认识的单词而影响阅读速度和对文章 内容的正确理解。考试大纲要求高考卷中不影响对考试内容(人物传记、故事、记叙文、

科普小品、和有关的社会文化、文史知识等不同题材的材料)理解的生词率不会超过 3%。 ? 2.要学会依据上下文,猜测生词的意义。 例如:This has led to the growth of a leisure industry in the capital’s suburbs(郊 区). 划线部分中有个词 leisure 是个生词,而且要求依据这句话,回答第 52 小题:? 52. The underlined words” leisure industry” in Paragraph 3 refer to A.transport to ski resorts B.production of family cars C.business of providing spare time enjoyments D.part-time work for people living in the suburbs 只要是阅读了文章的第一、二两段 Thousands of people living in the Chinese capital will celebrate the start of the Chinese New Year by heading for the ski resorts(滑 雪场).Never mind that Beijing’s dry weather seldom produces snow. It is cold enough in winter for snow-making machines to make a covering for the hills north to the capital. And the rapid growth of a pleasure-seeking middle class has formed the basis for this New craze(热潮). Since Beijing’s first ski resort was opened ten years ago, the sport has enjoyed an astonishing increase. There are now more than a dozen resorts. Clothes markets in the city have added bright colored ski suits to their winter collections. Mr.Wei, a manager of a newly-opened ski resort in Beijing, sees the growth of an industry that could soon lead Chinese to head for the ski resorts of Europe. In recent years ski resorts offering natural snow have opened in China. But many are in faraway areas of the country and can’t really match the equipment and services of some ski resorts in Europe. 根据“the rapid growth of a pleasure-seeking middle class?”;和 “the sport has enjoyed an astonishing increase”这两句话可知答 案选 C。 3. 试卷中大量出现的“熟词新义”,仍然要依据上下文,猜测词义。? 例如辽宁卷阅读理解 B 篇,开头前几句话似乎没有任何陌生的单词:I hated dinner parties. But I decided to give them another shot because I'm in London. And my friend Mallery invited me. And because dinner parties in London are very different from those back in New York.但是读完文章后,你会发现第 60 小题要求你猜测 shot 在文章中的意思: 60. What does the word "shot" in Paragraph 1 probably mean? A. Choice. B. Try C. Style. D. Goal 从第一句的 hate,到 but 意义上的转折,说明尽管不喜欢,还是要“尝试一下”,所以 try 的意思更接近 shot。 4. 必须在阅读实践中学会运用构词法。? 任何正式和非正式语体语篇中都存在大量由派生、合成和转换方式构成的单词;这些词 汇都不被视为“生词”,必须依据构词法的使用经验,依据词根、前缀、后缀以及一些 简单的词形变化,猜测词义,尤其是必须依据上下文,乃至“通篇理解”,才能正确无 误地判断这些词汇的层层含义。 此类词汇, 如 highly-praised、 birthplace、 wheelchair、 timecard、 paychecks、 product-related、 guidelines、 underside、 striking、 loneliness、 all-round、baseline、diet-and-exercise 等等。 【命题思路七】阅读部分仍保持较大的阅读量 1、阅读词汇量有增加。? 高考英语阅读理解一直是整套试卷的重中之重,该大题的词汇总量占整套试卷词汇总量 的最大份额,新课改后高考要求考生掌握 3500 单词,而 2009 年高考要求词汇是 2900, 这主要是在阅读部分体现出来。以 2010 年高考全国卷 I 为例,阅读理解部分总体阅读量 为 1921 词(见表 1),换算成阅读速度大约为 80 词/分钟。比较近五年的数据,全国卷 I 阅读理解部分的总体阅读量维持在 2000 词左右,虽呈逐年下降的趋势(2006 年阅读总 量为 2032 词,2007 年为 2215 词,2008 年为 2225 词,2009 年为 2149 词),但是依然保 持了较大的阅读量。 新课改后高考要求考生掌握 3500 单词,这主要是在阅读部分体现出来。2011 年试卷文章

本身和所附问题总单词量约为 2005 词,比 2010 年 1921 词的单词量略有增加,但是与过 去几年相比基本持平(2006 年阅读总量为 2032 词,2007 年为 2215 词,2008 年为 2225 词,2009 年为 2149 词)。 表1 2011 年高考英语全国卷 I 阅读理解字数分布 总字 数 481 419 387 390 328 2005

文章序 号 A B C D 7选5 合计

文章字数 题目字数 319 255 292 257 248 1371 162 164 95 133 80 634

2、阅读理解能力是完成整个高考试卷各个大题的基础。 首先,听力理解能力的基础是阅读理解能力。历年高考大纲对于听力理解的各项要求都 囊括于阅读理解的基本要求之中。 其次,单项填空中的各种复合句、两句话以上的小对话或小语篇都是从某个文章摘录的, 都需要文章的通篇理解,即使个别简单句,也都暗含一些其他句子或信息。 第三,历年高考试卷完形填空中,正确率 41%以下的“难题”相对集中,这说明对于上下 文的理解判断,乃至通篇理解正是完成完形填空的先决条件。? 最后,写作部分对于阅读能力的要求更高,如果不能读懂材料所给内容,并对写作要求 参悟不透,抓不住写作重点,那么书面表达想要取得理想成绩无异于纸上谈兵。


赞助商链接
相关文章:
2014高考英语阅读7选5命题思路
命题 形式深受英语四六级和考研阅读多项选择题的影响,体现了《新课标》―用...其他科目的上市,2013 年吴军高考 英语将释放其 70%的功力,2013 年高考英语提...
2017高考英语阅读7选5命题思路
2017高考英语阅读7选5命题思路_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2017 高考英语七选五阅读...其命题 形式深受英语四六级和考研阅读多项选择题的影响,体现了《新课标》“用...
英语高考阅读七选五的命题思路及对策
英语高考阅读七选五的命题思路及对策_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高考英语七选五解题...其命题 形式深受英语四六级和考研阅读多项选择题的影响,体现了《新课标》“用...
2018年高考英语考前阅读、完型与写作(命题揭秘)之语法...
2018年高考英语考前阅读、完型与写作(命题揭秘)之语法填空:思路点拨 word版含解析 - 通过对近两年以来高考英语全国新课标卷和广东卷语法填空题的研究和梳理, 并 ...
高考英语短文改错命题特点与解题的思路分析
高考英语短文改错命题特点与解题的思路分析 - 龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 高考英语短文改错命题特点与解题的思路分 析 作者:谭玲 来源:《校园英语· ...
高考完形填空题的设计思路和命题特点
2012大纲全国卷高考数学(文... 2012年高考课标理科...高考完形填空题的设计思路命题特点了解高考完形填空...现行的《全国统一考试英语科说明》对做完形填空题的...
高考英语时态命题思路透析
高考英语时态命题思路透析_从业资格考试_资格考试/认证_教育专区。高考英语时态命题思路透析 时态是高考单项填空必考的语法项目。今年全国有很多省份单独命题,笔者从这些...
高考英语中单选易错题原因分析及纠错练习
2012年高考课标理科数学... 2012年高考全国卷(新课标版...1...walking A. walked 【命题意图】 【解题思路英语固定句型的用法 正确答案为...
2013年高考《考试大纲》调研卷 英语 答案与解析
(五) 【考纲梳理与考向预测】 2013 年新课标高考英语科《考试大纲》体现出...《考试大纲》为准绳,延续 2012 年的命题思路,强调语言知识的实际运用,有利于...
英语高考阅读七选五的命题思路及答题策略
2015 年高考英语七选五专项复习训练第一部分:英语高考阅读七选五的命题思路及答题...5. (2011 年全国新课标卷) Money Matters Parents should help their children...
更多相关标签: