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新世纪大学英语综合教程第四册unit1课件


About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

A prominent scientist, a well-known Soviet philosopher and psychologist. One of the authors of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. A corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Director of the Department of General Problems Alexander Spirkin of Dialectical Materialism at the Academy Institute of Philosophy. Used to be the first director of a secret laboratory of clairvoyants in the USSR. Prof. Spirkin’s recollections of his experience of working in the secret laboratory:

About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

I still know nothing about the results of those scientific works with remote viewers even so many years after. Soviet military officials were interested in our work, too. They listened to my lectures with great interest. On many occasions I was taken to secret military headquarters, the whereabouts of which I didn’t know either — they were taking me there in cars with curtains on the windows. In the end I had to leave the laboratory. New technologies and devices started to appear but I could hardly understand anything about them. A special committee came to check our equipment, and they were shocked to see how outdated it was. The laboratory was not closed. A younger scientist took my place in the lab, but I know nothing about its current activities.

About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

Directions: One of the most famous books written by Alexander Spirkin is Dialectical Materialism,where the text comes from. Listen to a brief introduction to the book and try to catch the missing words or phrases for the blanks in the passage. Dialectical Materialism, written by Professor Alexander Spirkin, was published in 1983 by Progress Publishers , Moscow. ________________ consideration This book is a ___________ of the essence of MarxistLeninist philosophy, its central propositions and problems, its __________ __________ historical role and significance in the complex world of today. It is an attempt to expound the basic principles and ideas of _____________ range this philosophy in a compressed form. Its _____ encompasses philosophy and art, man and his ________ in the world, the existence ____________ creative power of human reason, man and culture and many other problems that are not usually examined in similar courses ________ on Marxist-Leninist philosophy.

About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

Directions: Read the following poster. Can you understand what the poster means? What information can you learn from it? How do you feel after reading the poster?

The world’s water supply
If all earth’s water fit in a gallon jug, available fresh water would equal just over a tablespoon — less than half of one percent of the total. About 97 percent of the planet’s water is seawater; another two percent is locked in icecaps and glaciers. Vast reserves of fresh water underlie earth’s surface, but much of it is too deep to economically tap.

About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

1. What environmental issues do you think are the most pressing now? 2. Can you recognize what environmental issues do the following pictures show? What do you know about them? Share your knowledge with your classmates.

( Deforestation )
About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

( Global Warming )

( Air Pollution )

( Ozone Depletion )

About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion

Directions: We human beings live on the earth and always keep developing our civilization. Where do you think human civilization is heading? How can we live in harmony with nature? Discuss with your group members and share your experiences with them.

Parts Paras.
Part Division of the Text

1
Further Understanding Blank Filling

Main Ideas Man lives in the realm of nature. He is 1~2 connected with nature by “blood ties” and he cannot live outside nature. 3~4 As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows because the industrial transformation of the earth makes it increasingly difficult to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production.

2
True or False Questions and Answers Interview

3

5~7 At present, Mother Nature is being exhausted in resources, contaminated by synthetic products, and troubled by ecological imbalance. The previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

Parts Paras.
4

Main Ideas

8~9 The solution to man–nature lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature by all humanity. And the failure to live in harmony with nature and obey its laws would cause fatal disaster.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

nteract We humans live inside and i______ with the nature. The air, water and food make us constantly a_____ of the influence of ware nature. But we t_______ it too. We convert its wealth into ours. ransform ransfer lectricity E_______ is an example to serve our interest. We also t______ plants and animals to different climatic conditions, and by ransform changing the climate, we even t________ plants and animals.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

1. With the development of our society, human beings become more and more independent. ( F ) As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows. 2. The imperfect tools prevented our ancestors from satisfying their needs. ( F ) Despite their imperfect tools, they worked together stubbornly, collectively, and were able to attain results. 3. People in ancient times tended to see the nature’s elemental forces as friendly. ( F ) Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

4. Deforestation originally was due to human’ s fear of forest. (T ) 5. As time goes on, mankind begins to look for other resources to take the place of natural resources. ( F ) As time goes on, mankind becomes increasingly concerned with the question of where and how to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

1. What signs are given in this part to show that the previous dynamic balance is breaking down? The problem of replaceable resources of the biosphere has become acute. It is getting more difficult to satisfy the needs of human beings and society even for such a substance as fresh water. The problem of eliminating industrial waste is also becoming increasingly complex. 2. What is the feature of modern technology? An ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. 3. Why do young people like synthetic, glittering fabrics that are not good for them? Because they pay more attention to appearance than to health and they will only become aware of this harmful influence as they grow older.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

4. In what way are the synthetic products harmful to the earth? When synthetic products turn into waste, substances that in their original form were not very toxic are transformed into harmful substances in the cycle of natural processes.

Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview

Directions: Work in pairs to perform an interview. One student plays as the writer, Alexander Spirkin, and the other, a journalist. You two are talking about the man– nature relation. Your conversation should be based on part 4, and it should cover the following aspects: 1. How does the writer view the man–nature relation? 2. What is the solution to ecological crisis? 3. If human beings go on violating the laws of nature, what will happen? 4. What Oriental wisdom can we use for reference to deal with the man–nature relation?

Detailed Reading

Nature nurtures mankind unselfishly with its rich resources. Yet, man is so carried away in his transformation of nature that he is unaware that it also has limitations and needs constant care. Now worn by the excessive demands of mankind, nature is unable to maintain the ecological balance needed. Humanity is faced with the problem of how to stop, or at least to moderate, the destruction of Mother Nature.

Detailed Reading

Man in the Realm of Nature Alexander Spirkin Human beings live in the realm of nature. They are constantly surrounded by it and interact with it. Man is constantly aware of the influence of nature in the form of the air he breathes, the water he drinks, and the food he eats. We are connected with nature by “blood ties” and we cannot live outside nature. Man is not only a dweller in nature, he also transforms it. Humanity converts nature’s wealth into the means of the cultural, historical life of society. Man has subdued and disciplined electricity and compelled it to serve the interests of society. Not only has man transferred various species of plants and animals to different climatic conditions, he has also changed the shape and climate of his environment and transformed plants and animals.

Detailed Reading

As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows. Our distant ancestors lived in fear of nature’s destructive forces. Very often they were unable to obtain the merest daily necessities. However, despite their imperfect tools, they worked together stubbornly, collectively, and were able to attain results. Nature was also changed through interaction with man. Forests were destroyed and the area of farmland increased. Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man. The forest, for example, was something wild and frightening and people tried to force it to retreat. This was all done in the name of civilization, which meant the places where man had made his home, where the earth was cultivated, where the forest had been cut down.

Detailed Reading

But as time goes on mankind becomes increasingly concerned with the question of where and how to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production. Science and man’s practical transforming activities have made humanity aware of the enormous geological role played by the industrial transformation of the earth. At present the previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down. The problem of the so-called replaceable resources of the biosphere has become particularly acute. It is getting more and more difficult to satisfy the needs of human beings and society even for such a substance, for example, as fresh water. The problem of eliminating industrial waste is also becoming increasingly complex.

Detailed Reading

Modern technology is distinguished by an ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. Hundreds of thousands of synthetic materials are being made. People increasingly cover their bodies from head to foot in nylon and other synthetic, glittering fabrics that are obviously not good for them. Young people may hardly feel this , and they pay more attention to appearance than to health. But they become more aware of this harmful influence as they grow older. As time goes on, the synthetic output of production turns into waste, and then substances that in their original form were not very toxic are transformed in the cycle of natural processes into aggressive agents. Today both natural scientists and philosophers are asking themselves the question: Is man’s destruction of the biosphere inevitable?

Detailed Reading

The man-nature relation — the crisis of the ecological situation — is a global problem. Its solution lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature, not just by individuals, enterprises or countries, but by all humanity. One of the ways to deal with the crisis situation in the “man-nature” system is to use such resources as solar energy, the power of winds, the riches of the seas and oceans and other, as yet unknown natural forces of the universe. But to return to our theme, the bitter truth is that those human actions which violate the laws of nature, the harmony of the biosphere, threaten to bring disaster and this disaster may turn out to be universal. How apt then are the words of ancient Oriental wisdom: live closer to nature, my friends, and its eternal laws will protect you!

Detailed Reading

We are connected with nature by “blood ties” and we cannot live outside nature. 1. What does “blood ties” refer to? It refers to such very close relationship as kinship. 2. Translate this sentence.
我们与大自然血肉相连,离开大自然,我们将无法生存。 我们与大自然血肉相连,离开大自然,我们将无法生存。

Detailed Reading

Humanity converts nature’s wealth into the means of the cultural, historical life of society. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
人类把自然资源转变为各种文化和社会历史的财富。 人类把自然资源转变为各种文化和社会历史的财富。

Detailed Reading

Not only has man transferred various species of plants and animals to different climatic conditions, he has also changed the shape and climate of his environment and transformed plants and animals. Analyze the structure of this sentence. This is a compound sentence led by “not only… (but) also”. The first half led by “not only” is the inverted structure. More examples: Not only is Tom very clever, he is also very diligent. Not only did he lose his bag, but he himself got lost. Not only does he write the lyrics to the songs, but he also composes the music. Paraphrase this sentence. Man has shifted different kinds of plants and animals to areas with different climates from those of their original habitats. Moreover, man has transformed the shape and climate of his own environment and accordingly the plants and animals have also adapted themselves to the changes.

Detailed Reading

Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man. What can we learn from this sentence? We can learn that the power of nature is out of man’s control so that it is believed to be unfavorable to humanity. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
大自然及其威力被看成是和人类敌对的东西。 大自然及其威力被看成是和人类敌对的东西。

Detailed Reading

This was all done in the name of civilization, which meant the places where man had made his home, where the earth was cultivated, where the forest had been cut down. 1. Analyze the structure of this sentence. The attributive clause led by “which” includes another three attributive clauses led by “where” in parallel structure. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
这一切都是打着“文明”的旗号进行的。所谓“文明” 这一切都是打着“文明”的旗号进行的。所谓“文明”,就是人类在哪 里建立家园、耕耘土地,哪里的森林就被砍伐。 里建立家园、耕耘土地,哪里的森林就被砍伐。

Detailed Reading

Science and man’s practical transforming activities have made humanity aware of the enormous geological role played by the industrial transformation of the earth. Paraphrase this sentence. Man has realized the great geological changes caused by the industrial influence on the earth, which is made by science and man’s transforming activities in practice.

Detailed Reading

At present, the previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down. 1. What can we learn from this sentence? We can learn from the sentence that man has threatened the balance between man and nature and between nature and society, which used to be maintained dynamically, but now tends to collapse. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
目前,人与自然以及自然与社会整体之间过去存在的动态平衡, 目前,人与自然以及自然与社会整体之间过去存在的动态平衡,已显现 出崩溃的迹象。 出崩溃的迹象。

Detailed Reading

Modern technology is distinguished by an ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. 1. What can we infer from this sentence? We can infer from this sentence that it is modern technology, to a great extent, that enables the production and consumption of large quantities of synthetic goods. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
现代技术的特征是生产和使用日益丰富的人工合成产品。 现代技术的特征是生产和使用日益丰富的人工合成产品。

Detailed Reading

Its solution lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature, not just by individuals, enterprises or countries, but by all humanity. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
这一问题的解决之道在于理性而明智地协调生产和对大自然的关爱之 间的关系,这不仅要依靠个人、企业或者国家的力量, 间的关系,这不仅要依靠个人、企业或者国家的力量,而且要依靠全 人类的力量。 人类的力量。

Detailed Reading

But to return to our theme, the bitter truth is that those human actions which violate the laws of nature, the harmony of the biosphere, threaten to bring disaster may turn out to be universal. 1. Paraphrase this sentence. As we come to the topic under discussion, it is painful to see the fact that human activities may well bring disaster through the violation of the laws of nature and the harmony of the biosphere. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
但是,回到我们原先的主题上, 但是,回到我们原先的主题上,令人难以接受的事实是那些违背了自 然规律、破坏了生物圈和谐的人类行为将会带来灾难, 然规律、破坏了生物圈和谐的人类行为将会带来灾难,而这一事实可 能是普遍存在的。 能是普遍存在的。

Detailed Reading

realm: n. a country ruled over by a king or queen; a general area of knowledge, activity, or thought The king had to call representatives of different classes of the realm into consultation upon the national economic crisis.
影片将孩子们带入了幻想的王国。 影片将孩子们带入了幻想的王国。

The movie has brought children to a realm of imagination. Collocations: public realm 公众领域 He always projects an image of success in public realm.
他总是以成功人士的形象出现在公众面前。 他总是以成功人士的形象出现在公众面前。

within the realms of possibility 有可能的 It was actually within the realms of possibility.
这是完全有可能的。 这是完全有可能的。

interact: vi. if people or things interact with each other, they affect each other
Detailed Reading

Lucy interacts well with other children in the class.
所有事物都是互相联系又互相作用的。 所有事物都是互相联系又互相作用的。

All things are interrelated and interact with each other.

transform: vt.
Detailed Reading

to completely change the appearance, form, or character of something or someone, especially in a way that improves it Increased population has transformed the landscape.
这部戏几乎在一夜之间把她从一个不为人知的校园女生变成了演 艺巨星。 艺巨星。

The play transformed her almost overnight from an unknown schoolgirl into a megastar.

CF: change, convert & transform
Detailed Reading

这些动词均有“变化,改变”之意。 这些动词均有“变化,改变”之意。 指任何变化,完全改变,强调与原先的情况有明显的不同。 指任何变化,完全改变,强调与原先的情况有明显的不同。 change 指进行全部或局部改变以适应新的功能或用途。 指进行全部或局部改变以适应新的功能或用途。指信仰或态 convert 度时,强调较激烈、大的改变。 度时,强调较激烈、大的改变。 指人或物在形状、外观、形式、 transform 指人或物在形状、外观、形式、性质等方面发生的彻底变 失去原状成为全新的东西。 化,失去原状成为全新的东西。

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. transform 1. In order to ________ their environment, he drew up the project. ________ 2. Carbon dioxide can be converted into oxygen through the agency of plant. 3. Why do the leaves on trees ______ colour in autumn? change 4. He always attempts to ______ others to a particular doctrine or convert belief.

convert: v.
Detailed Reading

to change something into a different form of thing, or to change something so that it can be used for a different purpose or in a different way They converted the spare bedroom into an office. In the process, the light energy converts to heat energy.
他成功地让我接受了他的观点。 他成功地让我接受了他的观点。

He succeeded in converting me to his point of view.

Detailed Reading

subdue: vt. gain control of, esp. by defeating For a century we laboured to settle and to subdue the continent.
警方设法制服了愤怒的人群。 警方设法制服了愤怒的人群。

Police managed to subdue the angry crowd. NB:
可作形容词,意为“柔和的,减弱的, 该词的过去分词subdued可作形容词,意为“柔和的,减弱的,无精打 采的” 例如: 采的”。例如:

In the bar, there is subdued light and soft music. Richard seems very subdued tonight.

Detailed Reading

discipline: 1. vt. train or develop, esp. in obedience and self-control Disciplining children takes patience and consistency.
不同文化中对于孩子的训导方式是不一样的。 不同文化中对于孩子的训导方式是不一样的。

Different cultures have different ways of disciplining their children. 2. n. 1) a way of training someone so that they learn to control their behaviour and obey rules The book gives parents advice on discipline.

2) an area of knowledge or teaching
Detailed Reading

The information that has evolved in one discipline may permit exciting advancement in another.
她对营销这门学科的实践知识和强烈的求知欲给我留下了深刻的 印象。 印象。

I was greatly impressed by her practical knowledge of the discipline of marketing and her strong desire to learn more. Collocations: discipline problem discipline oneself instill discipline into sb.
纪律问题 自律 灌输纪律观念

Detailed Reading

compel: vt. make (a person or thing) do sth., by force, moral persuasion, or orders that must be obeyed Our minds are so constructed that they compel us to view the external world in only one way.
法律要求雇主必须提供健康保险。 法律要求雇主必须提供健康保险。

The law compels employers to provide health insurance. CF: compel, force & oblige
这些动词均含“迫使”之意。 这些动词均含“迫使”之意。 compel 指在法律、权力、力量或行动等的驱使下被迫而为。例如 指在法律、权力、力量或行动等的驱使下被迫而为。例如:

A parent may compel his child to do his lessons by threatening to suspend his allowance.
家长可能会采用威胁暂停津贴的办法迫使其子女学习。 家长可能会采用威胁暂停津贴的办法迫使其子女学习。

Detailed Reading

force

指用个人意志、权力、权威或暴力等, 指用个人意志、权力、权威或暴力等,迫使他人改变看法 或做本不愿做的事。例如: 或做本不愿做的事。例如

Government troops have forced the rebels to surrender.
政府军已经迫使叛乱者投降。 政府军已经迫使叛乱者投降。

oblige

指由于生理或道德上的需要,促使某人做某事, 指由于生理或道德上的需要,促使某人做某事,也指有权 威的人或机构迫使某人做某事, 威的人或机构迫使某人做某事,还可指在特定情况下被迫 作出的反应。例如: 作出的反应。例如

Circumstances had obliged him to sell the business.
形势逼迫他卖掉公司。 形势逼迫他卖掉公司。

Detailed Reading

transfer: 1. v. move from one place, job, position, etc., to another Michael transferred from Company 6 to the Security Service. 2. n. Most of the bills are paid by electronic transfer.
权力的移交迅速而又和平地得以实现。 权力的移交迅速而又和平地得以实现。

The transfer of power was effected swiftly and peacefully.

in fear of: in a state of fear about
Detailed Reading

Ordinary people lived in fear of being arrested by the secret police.
他们生活在不断的饥饿恐惧中。 他们生活在不断的饥饿恐惧中。

They live in continual fear of starvation.

attain: vt. to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time
Detailed Reading

More women are attaining positions of power in public life.
他们最后一定能获得解放。 他们最后一定能获得解放。

They’re sure to attain emancipation in the end.

hostile: a.
Detailed Reading

showing extreme dislike or disapproval; unfriendly Senator Lydon was hostile to our proposals.
工程进展得很慢,因为不少学者对普通人持敌对态度。 工程进展得很慢,因为不少学者对普通人持敌对态度。

The project proceeded slowly because many scholars were hostile to the common people.

Detailed Reading

retreat: vi. move back or leave a center of fighting or other activity, esp. when forced to do so Perry lit the fuse and retreated to a safe distance.
从公众生活中隐退是不明智的。 从公众生活中隐退是不明智的。

It was not a sensible choice to retreat from public life. CF: retire, retreat & withdraw

这些动词均含“退下,退却”之意。 这些动词均含“退下,退却”之意。 指从公开或公共场合退下到私下场所, retire 指从公开或公共场合退下到私下场所,也指被免除职务或自 动辞职、退役等。例如: 动辞职、退役等。例如

I retired from teaching three years ago.
三年前我就不再教书了。 三年前我就不再教书了。

Detailed Reading

retreat

含消极意味,多指被迫采取退下或退却的行动。 含消极意味,多指被迫采取退下或退却的行动。

The enemy was forced to retreat.
敌军被迫撤退了。 敌军被迫撤退了。 强调因某种原因而有意离开,常含礼貌、谦恭等理由。 withdraw 强调因某种原因而有意离开,常含礼貌、谦恭等理由。也 指军队的撤退。 指军队的撤退。

As the troops withdraw , the entire city celebrated the liberation.
部队撤退时,整个城市欢庆解放。 部队撤退时 整个城市欢庆解放。 整个城市欢庆解放

Detailed Reading

concerned: a. affected by something or worried about it; believing something is important All the people present are concerned with children’s education.
很多政客更关注的是权力和控制而不是人民的利益。 很多政客更关注的是权力和控制而不是人民的利益。

Many politicians are more concerned with power and control than with the good of the people. Collocations: concerned with 关注,关心; ……相关 关注,关心;与……相关 concerned about / for 担心, 担心,关爱 concerned to do sth. 专注于做某事 as far as … is concerned 就……而言 ……而言

Detailed Reading

ominous: a. making you feel that something bad is going to happen The car is making an ominous rattling sound.
不祥的黑云预示着雷暴的到来。 不祥的黑云预示着雷暴的到来。

The ominous black clouds predicted the coming thunderstorm.

Detailed Reading

acute: a. severe; very great The housing shortage is more acute than first thought.
一颗蛀牙可以引起强烈的疼痛。 一颗蛀牙可以引起强烈的疼痛。

A bad tooth can cause acute pain. Collocations: acute disease acute anxiety acute shortage acute sense acute mind
急性病 急剧焦虑 严重短缺 敏锐的感觉 机智的头脑

Detailed Reading

substance: n. a material; type of matter The leaves were covered with a strange sticky substance.
大气中的有害物质威胁着人们的健康。 大气中的有害物质威胁着人们的健康。

Harmful substances in the atmosphere are threatening people’s health.

complex:
Detailed Reading

1. a. consisting of many different parts and often difficult to understand A complex highway system is to be established in order to enhance the national transportation.
随着我们的工业和社会环境变得更加错综复杂,供电可靠性方面的 随着我们的工业和社会环境变得更加错综复杂 供电可靠性方面的 要求也与日俱增。 要求也与日俱增。

The demands for reliability of power supply increase daily as our industrial and social environment becomes more complex. 2. n. a group of buildings, or a large building with many parts, used for a particular purpose They live in a three-story apartment complex.

CF: complex, complicated, sophisticated & intricate
Detailed Reading

这些形容词均含“复杂的”意思。 这些形容词均含“复杂的”意思。 强调内在关系的复杂, 强调内在关系的复杂,需通过仔细研究与了解才能掌握和 complex 运用。 运用。 的含义接近,但语气更强,着重极其复杂, complicated 与complex的含义接近,但语气更强,着重极其复杂,很 难分析、分辨或解释。 难分析、分辨或解释。 强调事物达到高级的程度所体现出的复杂性。 sophisticated 强调事物达到高级的程度所体现出的复杂性。 着重指错综复杂,令人迷惑不解。 intricate 着重指错综复杂,令人迷惑不解。

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. Peter seemed to have a good understanding of the most complex/complicated __________________ issues. 2. Joan shows me the highly sophisticated computer software. ___________ 3. Mental illness is a very ___________ subject. complicated 4. The plot of the novel is _______ and fascinating. intricate ___________ 5. The higher the level of competition, the more sophisticated the timing systems.

distinguish: v.
Detailed Reading

makes someone or something different or special The factor that distinguishes this company from the competition is customer service. His attorney argued that he could not distinguish between right and wrong.
他们找到了一种方法将癌细胞从正常组织中区分开来。 他们找到了一种方法将癌细胞从正常组织中区分开来。

They have found a method of distinguishing cancer cells from normal tissue.

synthetic: a.
Detailed Reading

produced by synthesizing; not naturally produced; artificial Among the synthetic fibres used in furnishing fabrics are nylon, polyester and acrylic.
我们已经学会了从自然界提取原材料创造新的合成材料。 我们已经学会了从自然界提取原材料创造新的合成材料。

We have learned to extract raw materials from nature to create new synthetic materials.

Detailed Reading

glitter: vi. shine brightly with flashing points of light The river glittered in the sunlight.
晨露在阳光下闪烁。 晨露在阳光下闪烁。

The morning dews glitter in the sun. CF: flash, gleam & glitter
这些动词都有“闪光,闪烁,闪亮”之意。 这些动词都有“闪光,闪烁,闪亮”之意。 flash 指突然发出随即消失的闪光,如闪电的光。例如: 指突然发出随即消失的闪光,如闪电的光。例如:

Lightning flashed overhead.
闪电在头顶闪光。 闪电在头顶闪光。 指透过间隔物或映衬于较暗背景上的微弱光线。例如: gleam 指透过间隔物或映衬于较暗背景上的微弱光线。例如: Day was by this time approaching, the west was dim, the east beginning to gleam. 这时,白昼逐渐到来,西面一片朦胧,东边开始熠熠发光。 这时,白昼逐渐到来,西面一片朦胧,东边开始熠熠发光。 指连续发出的闪烁不定的光。例如: glitter 指连续发出的闪烁不定的光。例如: His blue eyes glittered with anger. 他的蓝眼睛闪烁着愤怒的光芒。 他的蓝眼睛闪烁着愤怒的光芒。

cycle:
Detailed Reading

1. n. a number of related events happening in a regularly repeated order Sometimes the only way to break the cycle of violence in the home is for the wife to leave. 2. v. travel by bicycle; go through a series of related events again and again He cycles to work everyday.
水通过机器循环再利用。 水通过机器循环再利用。

The water is cycled through the machine and reused. Collocations: break the cycle cycling tour cycle lane / path / route life cycle
打破循环 骑车环游 自行车道 生命周期

as yet:
Detailed Reading

until now The meeting will be held on an as yet undecided date.
我们到现在还没有科林的消息。 我们到现在还没有科林的消息。

We’ve had no word from Colin as yet.

theme: n.
Detailed Reading

the main subject or idea in a piece of writing, speech, film, etc The book's theme is the conflict between love and duty.
林奇的大部分画作是关于同一主题的不同变体。 林奇的大部分画作是关于同一主题的不同变体。

Most of Lynch’s pictures were variations on the same theme. CF: issue, theme & topic
这些名词均有“主题、话题”之意。 这些名词均有“主题、话题”之意。 指有争论、急需讨论研究的热点话题。 issue 指有争论、急需讨论研究的热点话题。 正式用词,多指文学、艺术作品的主题或论文、演说的主题。 theme 正式用词,多指文学、艺术作品的主题或论文、演说的主题。 普通用词,含义广泛,既可指文章、讲话的题目, topic 普通用词,含义广泛,既可指文章、讲话的题目,谈话的内 又可指提纲中的标题甚至段落的主题或中心思想。 容,又可指提纲中的标题甚至段落的主题或中心思想。

Detailed Reading

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. issue 1. Capital punishment is a highly controversial _____. theme 2. Their story echoes the central _____ in Part 1 of this book Principles. issues 3. Global warming and youth crime are the key ______in the election campaign. ____ 4. The wedding has been the only topic of conversation for weeks.

threaten:
Detailed Reading

be a danger or threat to; seem likely (to harm, spoil, ruin, etc.) He threatened to take them to court.
这一事件将有损他的声誉。 这一事件将有损他的声誉。

The incident threatens to ruin his reputation.

apt: a.
Detailed Reading

1) exactly suitable “Love at first sight” is a very apt description of how he felt when he saw her.
惩罚应当与罪行相适应。 惩罚应当与罪行相适应。

The punishment should be apt for the crime. 2) having a natural tendency to do something Some of the staff are apt to arrive late on Mondays.

1. 大自然的王国
Useful Expressions

the realm of nature serve the interests of society climatic conditions in fear of daily necessities in the name of civilization be concerned with irreplaceable natural resources dynamic balance ominous sign

2. 为社会利益服务
Listening Comprehension

3. 气候环境
Summary Writing

4. 在对……的恐惧之中 在对…… ……的恐惧之中
Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

5. 日常必须品 6. 打着“文明”的旗 打着“文明” 号 7. 关注 8. 不可替代的自然资源 9. 动态平衡 10. 不祥之兆

11. 崩溃
Useful Expressions

break down industrial waste synthetic goods from head to foot the cycle of natural processes lie in as yet return to our theme laws of nature turn out

12. 工业废物
Listening Comprehension

13. 人工合成材料
Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

14. 从头到脚 15.自然循环 自然循环 16. 在于 17. 直到目前 18. 回到我们的主题上 19.自然规律 自然规律 20. 结果是

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Directions: Here is a passage about environmental problem. You are required to listen to the passage several times and answer the following questions. 1. When did many people in North America turn their attention to environmental problems? In the late 1960s. 2. Why did they criticize skyscrapers widely? Because skyscrapers often overburden public transportation and parking lot capacities. 3. What energy resource do skyscrapers consume greatly? Electric power. 4. What can we learn if we compare the heat loss or gain of a glass wall and that of a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board? The heat loss or gain through a glass wall is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board.

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

5. What may be done to lessen the strain on heating and airconditioning equipment in a skyscraper? We may use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. 6. What negative influences may be caused by mirror-walled skyscrapers? They may raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighbouring buildings. 7. What do skyscrapers put a strong burden on as is mentioned at the end of the passage? The city’s sanitation facilities.

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

In the late 1960s, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities. Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120, 000 kilowatts — enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day. Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain) through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating and airconditioning equipment, builders of skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain.

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighbouring buildings. Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city’s sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year — as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut , which has a population of more than 109, 000.

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Directions: Write a brief summary of the text. The topic sentence of each paragraph has been done for you. Man and the environment are closely related. _________ Man relies on the environment for air, water and food. Man cannot live _______________________________________________ without nature at all. ________________ However, man and the environment have never been on As society develops, man’s such bad terms as they are now. ______________________ ___________________________________________________ transformation of nature such as deforestation has greatly ___________________________________________________ changed the shape and climate of his living environment. Mass ___________________________________________________ production has resulted in the shortage of irreplaceable natural ___________________________________________________ resources for production. The discharge of industrial wastes ___________________________________________________ endangers our health and makes it more and more difficult to ___________________________________________________ satisfy man’s needs for the so-called replaceable such as _____. water A harmonious relationship between man and nature is essential for human survival on the earth. We should do our ______________ best to protect our environment by planting more trees, _______________________________________________ reducing industrial wastes and using renewable energy to _______________________________________________ preserve the environment for future generations ______________________________________.

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Directions: Work in pairs or groups to prepare a presentation on one environmental problem such as water pollution, acid rain, global warming, or hazardous wastes, etc. You may find the information you need from the Internet. Your presentation should cover the causes, effects and solutions of the environmental problem you work on. Suggested sources of information: 1. Center for Environmental Diplomacy: http ://cedsite.org/ 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/ 3. www.ce65.com (中国环境资源网)

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

1. Man will conquer nature.
人定胜天。 人定胜天。

2. Nature is the glass reflecting truth.
大自然是反映真理的一面镜子。 大自然是反映真理的一面镜子。

3. Nature will have its course.
天行其道。 天行其道。

4. Experience is not what happens to a man; it is what a man does with what happens to him. — Aldous Leonard Huxley, American writer
经验不会从天而降;经验只有通过实践才能获得。 经验不会从天而降;经验只有通过实践才能获得。 —— 美国作家 A.L. 赫胥黎

Useful Expressions Listening Comprehension Summary Writing Optional Classroom Activities Picture Talking Proverbs and Quotations

5. Economy the poor man’s mints; extravagance the rich man’s pitfall. — Martin Tupper, American economist
节约是穷人的造币厂,浪费是富人的陷阱。 节约是穷人的造币厂,浪费是富人的陷阱。 —— 美国经济学家 M. 塔珀

6. Reason is man's faculty for grasping the world by thought, in contradiction intelligence, which is man's ability to manipulate the world with the help of thought. — Erich Fromm
理智是人类凭借思想领会世界的能力,才智则相反, 理智是人类凭借思想领会世界的能力,才智则相反,是人类借助思想把 持世界的能力。 持世界的能力。 —— 埃里克 弗洛姆 埃里克·弗洛姆


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