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语言学导论复习题


1 Introduction I. Blank-filling

1. The description of a language at some point of time in history is a synchronice_____ linguistic study; the description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic______ linguistic study. Modern linguists tend to prefer a synchronic______ approach to a diachronic______ one. 2. Speech______ and writing______ are the two major media of linguistic communication. Modern linguistics regards the speech______ language as the primary medium of human language. 3. If a linguistic study aims to describe and analyze the language people actually use, it is said to be descriptive_______; if the linguistic study aims to lay down rules for “correct and standard” behavior in using language, it is said to be prescriptive______. 4. Langue______ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community, and parole______ refers to the realization of langue in actual use. 5. Language is a system of arbitrary_______ vocal symbols used for human communication______. 6. Competence______ can be defined as the ideal user ?s knowledge of the rules of his language, and performance______ can be defined as the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication. 7. Language is arbitrary______ in the sense that there is no intrinsic 本质的 connection between a linguistic symbol and what the symbol stands for. 8. The fact that children acquire spoken language before they can read or write also indicates that language is primarily vocal______. 9. Language is productive______ or creative in that its users can produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences, including sentences they have never heard before. 10. Language can be used to refer to things which are present or absent, real or imagined matters in the past, present, or future, or in far-away places. This is what displacement______ means. 11. The study of language as a whole is often called general______ linguistics. 12. Linguistics can be defined as the systematic______ study of language______. 13. Duality of structures is also referred to as double______ articulation 结构双重性 ______. II. Multiple choice 1. The distinction between langue and parole was made by the Swiss linguist ___ in the early 20th century. A. Noam. Chomsky B. F. de Saussure C. Charles Hockett D. J.R. Firth 2. The distinction between competence and performance was made by the American linguist ___ in the late 1950?s. A. Noam. Chomsky B. F. de Saussure C. Charles Hockett D. J.R. Firth 3. A modern linguist would not prefer to be a(n) ___.
A. observer B. analyzer C. judge D. recorder

II. True or false judgement

( ) 1. Langue is concrete while parole is abstract. Langue is relatively stable while parole varies from person to person, and from situation to situation. ( ) 2. Similar to Saussure, Chomsky thinks that what linguists should study is the ideal speaker ?s performance, not his competence. ( ) 3. Modern linguistics is prescriptive while traditional grammar is descriptive. ( ) 4. Modern linguistics regards the spoken language as primary, not the written. ( ) 5. Traditional grammar forced languages into a Latin-based framework. ( ) 6. In modern linguistics, a diachronic approach seems to enjoy priority over a synchronic one. ( ) 7. “Language is a system” means that elements of language are combined according to rules. ( ) 8. Language is culturally as well as genetically transmitted. ( ) 9. Linguistics studies not any particular language, but languages in general. ( ) 10. In a broad sense applied linguistics refers to the application of linguistic theories and principles to language teaching, especially the teaching of foreign and second languages. ( ) 11.A modern linguist is interested in what is said, not in what he thinks ought to be said. Keys: I. Blank-filling 1. synchronic, diachronic, synchronic, diachronic 2. Speech, writing, speech 3. descriptive, prescriptive 4. Langue, parole 5. arbitrary, communication 6. competence, performance 7. arbitrary 8. vocal 9. productive 10. displacement 11. general 12. systematic/scientific, language 13. double articulation II. Multiple choice 1. B 2. A 3. C III. True or false judgement 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T 11. T
2 Phonology I. Blank-filling

8. F

9. T

10. F

1. Phonetics______ is defined as the study of the phonic medium of language.

2. The three important branches of phonetics are: (1) 发音学 articulatory_______ phonetics, which studies how a speaker uses his speech organs to articulate the sounds; (2) 听觉 acoustic______ phonetics, which studies the physical properties of speech sounds and (3) 声学 acoustic _______ phonetics, which studies how the sounds are perceived by the hearer. 4. Vibration of the vocal_______ cords______ results in a quality of speech sounds called “voicing______”, which is a feature of all vowels and some consonants in English. 5. There are two ways to transcribe speech sounds. The transcription with letter-symbols only and the transcription with letter-symbols together with the diacritics. The former is called broad_____ transcription while the latter is called narrow______ transcription. 6. The sound [p] is pronounced differently in the two words pit and spit. In the word pit, the sound[p] is pronounced with a strong puff of air, but in spit the puff of air is withheld to some extent. In the case of pit, the [p] sound is said to be aspirated ______ and in the case of spit, the [p] sound is unaspirated______. 7. Speech sounds in English can be divided into two broad categories: vowels______ and consonants______. 8. When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart, letting air go through without causing vibration, the sounds produced in such a condition are voiceless______. 9. In terms of manner of articulation the English consonants can be classified into the following types: stops_______, fricatives_______, affricates______, liquids______, nasals_______, glides______. In terms of place of articulation, the English consonants can be classified into the following types: bilabial______, labiodental ______, dental______, alveolar______, palatal______, velar______, glottal______ consonants. 10. English vowels may be distinguished as front______, central______, and back ______ according to which part of the tongue is held highest. 11. According to the openness of the mouth, we can classify the vowels into: close ______ vowels, semi close______ vowels, semi open ______ vowels and open ______ vowels. 12. Vowels can be classified according to the shape of the lips. In English, all the front vowels are unrounded ______ vowels and most back vowels are rounded ______. 13. The English vowels can be classified according to the length of the sound. The long vowels are all tense______ vowels and the lax______ vowels are lax vowels. 14. A phoneme is not any particular sound, but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone______ in a certain phonetic context. 15. The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments are called the allophones______ of that phoneme. 16. Phonetically similar sounds might be related in two ways. If they are two distinctive phonemes they are said to form a phonemic______ contrast______. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, then they are said to be in complementary _______ distribution______. 17. When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound

segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two sound combinations are said to form a minimal______ pair ______. 19. Rules that govern the combination of sounds in a particular language are called sequential______ rules. 21. The parts of speech that are normally stressed in an English sentence are nouns _____, main______ verbs, adjectives______, adverbs______, numerals ______ and demonstrative______ pronouns; the other categories of words like articles______, person______ pronouns, auxiliary______ verbs, preposition______, and conj unctions______ are usually not stressed. 25. In English we can produce a sound by moving from one vowel position to another through intervening positions, the sound thus produced is called a diphthong______. 26. Speech______ sounds are sounds that convey meaning in human communication. 27. IPA is the short form for International______ Phonetic______ Alphabet______ or I______ P______ Association______. 28. In English glides are sometimes called semivowels______. The English glides are _w _____ and ___j ___. 29. A phoneme consists of a set of distinctive 与众不同的______ features. It is just because of these features that a phoneme is capable of distinguishing meaning.
II. Multiple choice

1. Which of the following is NOT a suprasegmental feature? A. phoneme B. stress C. tone D. intonation 2. The English word that contains a voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop is ____. A. peak B. speak C. tip C. topic 3. Chinese is a(n) ___ language. A. intonation B. tone C. pitch D. stress 4. The rules that govern the combination of sounds in a particular language are called _________. A. sequential rules B. combining rules C. assimilation rules D. deletion rules 5. Which of the following is a minimal pair? A. fear, pear B. put, hut C. bit, beat D. beat, beast
III. True or false judgement

( ) 2. Linguists are interested in all sounds produced by humans. ( ) 3. The “same” sounds we claim to have heard are in most cases only phonetically similar, but rarely phonetically identical. ( ) 4. Narrow transcription is normally used in dictionaries and teaching textbooks for general purposes. ( ) 6. A phoneme is a phonological unit, it is a unit that is of distinctive value. ( ) 7. The location of stress in English does not distinguish meaning. ( ) 10. Conventionally phonemes are placed within square brackets, and phones in slashes. Keys: Blank-filling 1.Phonetics

2.rticulatory, acoustic, auditory 4.vocal cords, voicing 5.broad, narrow 6.aspirated, unaspirated 7.vowels, consonants 8.voiceless 9.stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids, nasals, glides; bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal 10.front, central, back 11.close, semi-close, semi-open, open 12.unrounded, rounded 13.tense, lax 14.phone 15.allophones 16.phonemic contrast, complementary distribution 17.minimal pair 19.sequential 21.nouns, main, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, demonstrative; articles, person, auxiliary, prepositions, conjunctions 25.diphthong 26.Speech 27.International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Association 28.semivowels, [w], [j] 29.distinctive Multiple choice 1-5 ABBAC True or false judgement 2.F 3.T 4.F 6.T 7.F 10.F
3. Morphology I. Blank filling 1. In English, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are sometimes called o______ class words since we can regularly add new words to these classes. The other syntactic categories, such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns, are sometimes called c______ class words since new words are not usually added to them. 2. M______ refers to the study of the internal structure of w______, and the rules by which words are formed. 3. The most basic element of meaning is traditionally called m______. 4. Some morphemes occurs only before other morphemes. Such morphemes are called p______; other morphemes occur only after other morphemes, such morphemes are called s______. 5. When some morphemes are conjoined to other morphemes a new word is formed, such morphemes are called d______ morphemes. 6. Bound morphemes which are for the most part purely grammatical markers, signifying such concepts as tense, number, case and so on are referred to as i______ morphemes.

Multiple choice
1. Which of the following underlined parts is a bound morpheme? A. inborn B. impossible C. quickly D. without 2. Which of the following underlined parts is a free morpheme? A. readable B. westward C. clockwise D. freely 3. Which of the following underlined parts is a derivational morpheme? A. smaller B. stimuli C. interviewee D. John?s 4. Which of the following underlined parts is NOT an inflectional morpheme? A. oxen B. excited C. data D. encourage 5. How many morphemes can we find in the word ?internationalize?? A. Three B. Four C. Five D. Six 6. Which of the following does not belong to the open classes? A. nouns B. verbs C. articles D. adverbs 7. The word centralization consists of _____ syllables as against _____ morphemes. A. five/five B. five/four C. four/three D. four/four 8. The word uncomfortable consists of _____ syllables as against _____ morphemes. A. four/three B. five/two C. five/three D. three/five 9. In modern English, which of the following is NOT a free morpheme? A. ceive B. ulcer C. escape D. aspect III. True or false judgment ( ) 1. Bound morphemes cannot occur “unattached” while free morphemes can occur alone. ( ) 2. Some morphemes may occur in many words, combining with different morphemes but for which it is difficult to find a constant meaning. ( ) 3. Inflectional morphemes are attached to words or morphemes, but they never change their syntactic category. Yet they usually add lexical meaning to the words or morphemes. ( ) 4. It is often the case that compounds have the same stress patterns from the noncompounded word sequence. ( ) 6. Pronouns and articles fall into the closed classes. ( ) 7. Words like blackboard, international, sit-in, living room are compounds. ( ) 8. As for the compound greenhouse, the primary stress falls on the second part of the word. ( ) 9. A single word may contain one or more morphemes. ( ) 10. To a certain degree, the meaning of a compound can be inferred from its meanings of individual parts. ( ) 11. Such affixes as –or, -ize, -ish used to form the words actor, modernize and childish are called inflectional affixes. ( ) 12. Inflectional affixes are used to form new words with new lexical meanings. Keys:

Blank-filling
1.open, close 2.Morphology, words 3.morpheme 4.prefixes, suffixes

5.derivational 6.inflectional

II. Multiple choice
1. B. 1. T 10. T 2. D 2.T 11. F 3.C 3. F 12. F 4. D 4. F 5. B 6. T 6. C 7. F 7. B 8. F 8. C 9.T 9.A

True or false judgement

4 Syntax
I. blank 1. S______ is a branch of linguistics that studies how words are combined to form s______ and the rules that govern the formation of s______. 4. Phrases that are formed of more than one word usually contain the following elements: h______, s______ and c______. The word around which a phrase is formed is termed h______. The words on the left side of the heads are said to function as s______. The words on the right side of the heads are c______. 5. Syntactic units that are built around a certain word category are called p______. 8. The syntactic category of a specifier differs depending on the category of the h______. D______ serve as the specifiers of nouns while q______ typically function as the specifiers of verbs and d______ words as the specifiers of adjectives. 11. Many linguists nowadays believe that sentences, like other phrases, also have their own heads. They take an abstract category i______ as their heads, which indicates the sentence?s t_____ and a______. 12. There are two levels of syntactic structure: the d______ structure and the s______ structure. II. Multiple choice 1. Phrases that are formed of more than one word usually contain the following elements EXCEPT___: A. head B. specifier C. complement D. inflection 3. Which of the following is the head of the phrase ?a very lovely girl?? A. very B. girl C. a D. lovely 4. The following underlined parts are termed specifier EXCEPT___? A. listen attentively B. seldom sing songs C. quite right D. that old house 5. Which of the following underlined parts is the complement of the phrase? A. a story about a wolf B. cut the hair C. a careful man D. often read books Keys: I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Blank-filling Syntax, sentences, sentences Noun, Verb, Adjective, Preposition meaning, inflection, distribution head, specifier, complement, head, specifiers, complements

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. II. 1.D

phrases coordinate structures, coordination head, phrase head, Determiners, qulifiers, degree complementizers expressible, heads, adjective, adverb, prepositional inflection, tense, agreement deep, surface complement clause, matrix clause Multiple choice 3.B 4.A 5.A

5 Semantics
I. Blank-filling 1. Semantics can be defined as the study of m______. 2. According to Plato?s n______ theory, the words used in a language are simply labels of the objects they stand for. 3. The contextualists hold that meaning should be studied in terms of s______, use, context----elements closely linked with language behavior. 4. Synonymy refers to the s______ or close similarity of meaning. Words that are close in meaning are called s______. 6. B______ English and A______ English are the two major geographical varieties of the English language. 7. D______ synonyms refer to synonyms used in different regional dialects. 8. The same one word may have more than one meaning, this is what we call p______ and such a word is called a p______ word. 9. H______ refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form, i.e. different words are identical in s______ or s______, or in both. 10. When two words are identical in sound, they are h______. When two words are identical in spelling, they are h______. When two words are identical in both sound and spelling, they are c______ h______. 11. H______ refers to the sense relation between a more general, more inclusive word and a more specific word. The word which is more general in meaning is called the s______, and the more specific words are called its h______. 12. The term antonymy is used for o______ of meaning, words that are opposite in meaning are a______. 13. Componential analysis is based upon the belief that the meaning of a word can be dissected into meaning components, called s______ f______. 14. There are two aspects to sentence meaning: g______ meaning and s______ meaning. 15. A predication consists of a______ and p______. 16. Hyponyms of the same superordinate are c______ to each other. II. Multiple choice 1. Which of the following best describes the relations between “He was a bachelor all his life” and “He never married all his life”?

A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 2. Which of the following best describes the relations between “The police stopped the minors from drinking” and “The minors were drinking”? A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 3. Which of the following best describes the relations between “She saw a girl” and “She saw a child”? A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 4. Which of the following best describes the relations between “Mary likes western food” and “Mary shows no interest in western food”? A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 5. ?This is a ball? is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 6. ?I like you and your sister ? is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 7. ?Kate gave me a gift? is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 8. ?It is sunny? is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 9. ?John runs quickly? is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 10. ?famous? and ?notorious? A. dialectal synonyms B. collocational synonyms C. stylistic synonyms D. synonyms that differ in their emotive meaning 11. ?petrol? and ?gasoline? are ___. A. dialectal synonyms B. collocational synonyms C. stylistic synonyms D. synonyms that differ in their emotive meaning 12. ?accuse…of ? and ?charge…with? are ___. A. dialectal synonyms B. collocational synonyms C. stylistic synonyms D. synonyms that differ in their emotive meaning 13. ?inquire? and ?ask? are ___. A. dialectal synonyms B. collocational synonyms C. stylistic synonyms D. synonyms that differ in their emotive meaning

14. Which of the following pair of words are homophones? A. ad---add B. lead (领导)---lead (铅) C.mouth (口))---mouth(袋口) D.animal---cow 15. Which of the following pair of words are homographs? A. sew---sow B. lead (领导)---lead (铅) C.mouth (口))---mouth(袋口) D. tec---tech 16. Which of the following pair of words are complete homonyms? A. flour---flower B. tear(眼泪)---tear (撕掉) C. heroin---horoine D. criket---criket 17. The relation between ?furniture? and ?wardrobe? is ___. A. homophony B. homography C.hoponymy D. polysemy 18. ?beautiful? and ?ugly? are ___. A. gradable antonyms B. ungradable opposites C. relational opposites D. complementary synonyms 19. ?married? and ?unmarried? are ___. A. gradable antonyms B. ungradable opposites C. relational opposites D. complementary synonyms 20. ?employer? and ?employee? are ___. A. gradable antonyms B. ungradable opposites C. relational opposites D. complementary synonyms III. True or false judgement ( ) 1. Linguistic forms having the same sense may have different references in different situations. ( ) 2. Linguistic forms with the same reference might differ in sense. ( ) 3. Complete synonyms, i.e. synonyms that are mutually substitutable under all circumstances, are frequently seen. ( ) 4. The meaning of a sentence is the sum total of the meanings of all its components. ( ) 5. Some sentences may be grammatically well-formed, yet they may not be semantically meaningful. Keys:

Blank-filling
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. meaning naming situation sameness, synonyms native, loan British, American Dialectal polysemy, polysemic/polysemous Homonymy, sound, spelling homophones, homographs, complete homonymy Hyponymy, superordinate, hyponyms oppositeness, antonyms semantic features grammatical, semantic

15. arguments, predicate 16. co-hyponyms

Multiple choice
1.A 10.D 19.B 2.D 11.A 20.C 3.C 12.B 4.B 13.C 5.B 14.A 6.C 15.B 7.D 16.D 8.A 17.C 9.B 18.A

True or false judgement
1.T 2.T 3.F 4.F 5.T

6

Pragmatics

I. Blank-filling 1. Pragmatics is the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect s______ c______. 4. According Paul Grice, in making conversation, the participants must first of all be willing to cooperate; otherwise, it would not be possible for them to carry on the talk. This general principle is called the C______ Principle. 5. C______ utterances were statements that either state or describe, and were thus v______; p______ utterances, on the other hand, were sentences that did not state a fact or describe a state, and were not v______. 6. According to the s______ a______ theory, we are performing actions when we are speaking. 7. According to Austin?s new model, a speaker might be performing three acts simultaneously when speaking: l______ act, i______ act, and p______ act. 9. There are four maxims under the Cooperative Principle: the maxim of q______, the maxim of q______, the maxim of r______, the maxim of m______. 10. While the meaning of a sentence is a______, and d______, that of an utterance is c______, c_______. 11.When we flout a maxim of Cooperative Principle, our language becomes i______. II.Multiple choice 1. Speech act theory was originated with the British philosopher ___ in the late 50?s of the 20th century. A. John Searle B. John Austin C. Paul Grice G. Leech III. True or false judgement ( ) 2. John Austin distinguished performatives from constatives and stated that while the former were verifiable, the latter were unverifiable. ( ) 3. While the meaning of a sentence is abstract and context-dependent, that of an utterance is concrete and context-independent. ( ) 4. The meaning of an utterance is richer than the meaning of the sentence on which the utterance is based. ( ) 5. Of the three speech acts proposed by Austin, linguists are most interested in the perlocutionary act. Keys:

Blank-filling
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1. B successful, communication context utterance Cooperative Constative, verifiable, performative, verifiable speech act locutionary, illocutionary, perlocutionary representatives, directives, commissives, expressives, declarations quality, quantity, relation, manner abstract, decontextualized, concrete, context-dependent indirect

Multiple choice True or false judgement
2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F

7 Language Change
I. Blank-filling 1. Clipping refers to the a______ of longer words or phrases. 2. A blend is a word formed by c______ parts of other words. 3. Acronyms are words derived from the i______ of several words. 4. New words may be coined from already existing words by “subtracting” an affix thought to be part of the old word. Such words are called b______. 5. When cultures come into contact, words “borrowed” from one language to another are called l______ words. 6. Words like eye, honeymoon and knee used to be nouns, but now they are also verbs. These words have undergone functional s______. II. Multiple choice 2. Of the following words, ____ is an acronym. A. UNESCO B. E-MAIL C. Kent D. TV 3. The word “wife” used to mean “a female person”; now it means “the spouse of a man”. The word has undergone a sort of semantic change called ____. A. widening of meaning B. narrowing of meaning C. extension D. borrowing 4. The word box used to mean “container made of boxwood”, but now it means “container in general”. This is an example of ____. A. widening of meaning B. narrowing of meaning C. extension D. borrowing 11. Backformation is a type of word-formation by the ____ of a supposed affix from a ____ form already present in the language. A. deletion…longer B. adding…shorter C. deletion…shorter D. adding…longer

True or false
2. ( 3. ( 4. ( 7. ( 11. ( 13. ( ) English has a great number of loan words. ) American English has some influences on British English. ) English has never undergone sound change. ) All acronyms are pronounced letter by letter. ) Blending is a process of both compounding and abbreviation. ) Since the Second World War there has been a trend towards much greater formality of expression. Keys:

I.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Blank-filling
abbreviation combining initials back-formation loan shift

II.
2.A

Multiple choice
3.B 4.A 11.A 7. F 11. T 13. F

III.
8

True or false judgement
2. T 3. T 4. F Language and society

I. Blank Filling
1.Sociolinguistics studies the relation between language and s______. 2.A r______ dialect is a linguistic variety used by people living in the same geographical region. 3.S______ refers to the linguistic variety characteristic of a particular social class. 4.I______ is a personal dialect of an individual speaker that combines elements regarding regional, social, gender, and age variations. 5.Halliday distinguishes three social variables that determine the register: f______ of discourse, t______ of discourse, and m______ of discourse. 6.A p______ is a special language variety that mixes language and it is used by people who speak different languages for restricted purposes such as trading. 7.When a pidgin has become the primary language of a speech community, and is acquired by the children of that speech community as their native language, it is said to have become a c______. Key: 1.society 2.regional 3.Sociolect 4. Idiolect 5. field, tenor, mode 6. pidgin 7.creole

II. True of False Judgement
( ) 1. A speech community is a group of people who form a community and share the same language or a particular variety of a language. ( ) 2. Speech variety refers to any distinguishable form of speech used by a speaker or a group of speakers. ( ) 3. Language used by men and women have some special features of their own. ( )4. Male and female speeches are also found to be different in the use of intonations. ( ) 5. Male speech is, on the whole, less assertive and thus sounds to be more polite than female speech.

( ) 6. Standard dialect is a particular variety of a language which is related to a particular group of language users. ( ) 7. Standard dialect is based on a selected variety of a language, usually the local speech of an area which is considered the nation?s political and commercial center. ( )8. Pidgins typically have a limited vocabulary and a very reduced grammatical structure characterized by the loss of inflections, gender and case. 1. T 2T. 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. T

9 language and culture
Blank Filling 1.Generally speaking, there are two types of culture: m______ and s______. 2.Through communication, some elements of culture A enter culture B and become part of culture B, thus bringing about cultural d______. Key:1. material, spiritual2. diffusion III. ( )1. Material culture is concrete, substantial and hidden. ( ) 2. Most of spiritual culture is abstract, ambiguous and observable. ( ) 3. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf proclaimed that the structure of the language people habitually use influences the ways they think and behave. ( ) 4. People in the West tend to verbalize their gratitude and compliments less than Chinese speakers but they tend to accept thanks and compliments more directly and frankly than we Chinese do. ( ) 5. In communication with the westerners, it is inappropriate for us to ask questions about personal information like age, family background, salary, etc. 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 12 Language and Brain I. Blank Filling 1.Neurolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and b______. 2.The brain is divided into two sections: the lower section called the brain s______ and higher section called c______. 3.The most severe form of non-fluent aphasia is g______ aphasia, suffering from which patients are completely mute. 4.Psycholinguistics is the study of language p______. It is concerned with the processes of language c______ and p______. Key: 1.brain 2.stem, cerebrum 3.global 4.processing, comprehension, production II.. True or False Judgement ( ) 1. Neurons are the basic information processing units of the nervous system. ( ) 2. The cerebrum that differs in different species is essential for life. ( ) 3. Each hemisphere of the human brain controls the opposite half of the body in terms of muscle movement and sensation. ( ) 4. Generally speaking the right hemisphere seems to excel in analytic tasks whereas the left hemisphere excels in tasks which require an overall appreciation of complex patterns. ( ) 5. Complex mental activities such as language do not always fall neatly into one hemisphere

or the other but involve the coordinated functioning of both hemispheres. Keys: 1. T

2. F

3. T

4. F

5. T


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