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IB Biology Vocabulary by Topic 2009 syllabus-IB 国际课程生物词汇


IB Biology Vocabulary by Topic General Assignment: For each assigned word: A. Give the definition. B. Explain its biological significance. Topic 1: Statistical Analysis 1. error bars 2. range (of data) 3. mean 4. standard deviation 5. values 6. sample 7. normally distributed 8. t-test 9. significance 10. correlation 11. causation/ causal relationship 12. variables Topic 2 Cells 2.1 Cell Theory 1. cell theory 2. cell 3. unicellular 4. metabolism 5. homeostasis 6. reproduction 7. nutrition 8. molecule 9. cell membrane 10. virus 11. bacteria 12. organelle 13. SI 14. magnification 15. resolution 16. surface area to volume ratio 17. multicellular 18. emergent properties 19. differentiation 20. stem cells

2.2 Prokaryotic Cells 21. Prokaryote 22. ultrastructure 23. Escherichia coli (E. coli) 24. cell wall 25. plasma membrane 26. cytoplasm 27. pili 28. flagella 29. ribosomes 30. nucleoid 31. naked DNA 32. electron micrograph 33. binary fission 2.3 Eukaryotic cells 34. free ribosomes 35. rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 36. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 37. lysosome 38. Golgi apparatus 39. mitochondrion 40. nucleus 41. nuclear envelope 42. cytoplasm 43. 70S ribosomes 44. 80S ribosomes 45. compartmentalization 46. animal cell vs. plant cell 47. extracellular components 48. cell wall 49. glycoproteins 50. extracellular matrix 2.4 Membranes 51. plasma membrane 52. phospholipid bilayer 53. cholesterol 54. glycoproteins 55. integral proteins 56. peripheral proteins 57. hydrophobic

58. hydrophilic 59. phospholipid 60. membrane proteins 61. hormone binding sites 62. immobilized enzymes 63. cell adhesion 64. cell-to-cell communication 65. channels for passive transport 66. pumps for active transport 67. passive transport 68. active transport 69. diffusion 70. osmosis 71. simple diffusion 72. facilitated diffusion 73. membrane fluidity 74. endocytosis 75. exocytosis 2.5 Cell Division 76. cell cycle 77. interphase 78. G1 79. S 80. G2 81. mitosis 82. cytokinesis 83. tumor 84. cancer 85. protein synthesis 86. DNA replication 87. prophase 88. metaphase 89. anaphase 90. telophase 91. supercoiling of chromosomes 92. spindle microtubules 93. centromeres 94. chromosomes 95. poles 96. nuclear membranes Topic 3: The Chemistry of Life 3.1 Chemical Elements and Water

1. element 2. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen 3. sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium 4. polarity 5. hydrogen bond 6. thermal 7. cohesive 8. solvent 9. coolant 10. medium (for metabolic reactions/ transport) 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 11. organic 12. inorganic 13. amino acid 14. glucose 15. ribose 16. fatty acid 17. monosaccharide 18. disaccharide 19. polysaccharide 20. glucose 21. galactose 22. fructose 23. maltose 24. lactose 25. sucrose 26. starch 27. glycogen 28. cellulose 29. condensation/ dehydration synthesis 30. hydrolysis 31. glycerol 32. triglycerides 33. polypeptides 34. lipid 35. carbohydrate 36. protein 37. nucleic acid 3.3 DNA Structure 38. DNA 39. nucleotide

40. deoxyribose 41. nitrogen base 42. phosphate 43. adenine 44. guanine 45. cytosine 46. thymine 47. covalent bond 48. complementary 49. hydrogen bond 50. double helix 3.4 DNA Replication 51. Replication 52. helicase 53. DNA polymerase 54. semi-conservative 3.5 Transcription and Translation 55. RNA 56. transcription 57. RNA polymerase 58. genetic code 59. base triplets 60. translation 61. polypeptide 62. messenger RNA (mRNA) 63. transfer RNA (tRNA) 64. codon 65. anticodon 66. ribosome 67. amino acid 68. gene 3.6 Enzymes 69. enzyme 70. active site 71. enzyme-substrate specificity 72. pH 73. substrate concentration 74. induced fit model 75. denaturation 76. lactase

3.7 Cell Respiration 77. cell respiration 78. ATP 79. glycolysis 80. pyruvate 81. anaerobic 82. lactate 83. ethanol 84. carbon dioxide 85. mitochondrion 3.8 Photosynthesis 86. photosynthesis 87. energy 88. wavelengths 89. chlorophyll 90. pigment 91. absorption 92. photolysis 93. carbon fixation 94. organic molecules 95. biomass Topic 4: Genetics 4.1 Chromosomes, genes, alleles and mutations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. gene allele genome heritable gene mutation base substitution sickle-cell anemia

4.2 Meiosis 8. meiosis 9. reduction division 10. diploid 11. haploid 12. homologous chromosome 13. crossing over

14. Stages of Meiosis a. Prophase I b. Metaphase I c. Anaphase I d. Telophase I e. Prophase I f. Metaphase I g. Anaphase I h. Telophase I 15. Cytokinesis 16. non-disjunction 17. Down syndrome (trisomy 21) 18. karyotype 19. chorionic villus sampling 20. amniocentesis 21. pre-natal 4.3 Theoretical genetics 22. genotype 23. phenotype 24. allele 25. dominant allele 26. recessive allele 27. codominant alleles 28. locus 29. homozygous 30. heterozygous 31. carrier 32. test cross 33. monohybrid cross 34. Punnett grid 35. multiple alleles 36. ABO blood groups 37. sex chromosomes 38. sex linkage 39. X-linked 40. colour blindness 41. hemophilia 42. pedigree 4.4 Genetic engineering and biotechnology 43. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 44. gel electrophoresis 45. DNA profiling

46. electric field 47. paternity 48. forensics 49. Human Genome Project 50. gene transfer 51. genetic engineering 52. host cell 53. restriction enzymes (endonucleases) 54. DNA ligase 55. plasmid 56. recombinant 57. gene cloning 58. genetically modified 59. clone 60. reproductive cloning 61. therapeutic cloning Topic 5: Ecology and evolution 5.1 Communities and ecosystems 1. species 2. habitat 3. population 4. community 5. ecosystem 6. ecology 7. autotroph 8. heterotroph 9. consumers 10. detritivores 11. saptrotrophs 12. food chain 13. food web 14. trophic level 15. energy flow 16. energy transformations 17. pyramids of energy 18. nutrients 19. decomposers a. saprotrophic bacteria b. fungi 5.2 The greenhouse effect 20. carbon cycle

21. biosphere 22. photosynthesis 23. respiration 24. fossilization 25. combustion 26. carbon dioxide 27. methane 28. oxides of nitrogen 29. precautionary principle 30. the greenhouse effect 31. global warming 32. detritus 33. permafrost 5.3 Populations 34. population 35. natality 36. immigration 37. mortality 38. emigration 39. sigmoid (S-shaped) population growth curve 40. exponential growth phase 41. transitional phase 42. plateau phase 5.4 Evolution 43. evolution 44. Charles Darwin 45. selection pressure 46. evidence 47. fossil record 48. selective breeding 49. homologous structures 50. population 51. offspring 52. struggle for survival 53. variation 54. species 55. sexual reproduction 56. natural selection 57. antibiotic resistance 58. heritable variations 5.5 Classification

59. binomial nomenclature 60. Carolus Linnaeus 61. hierarchy of taxa 62. kingdom 63. phylum 64. class 65. order 66. family 67. genus 68. species 69. bryophyta 70. filicinophyta 71. coniferophyta 72. angiospermophyta 73. porifera 74. cnidaria 75. platyhelminthes 76. annelida 77. mollusca 78. arthropoda 79. invertebrate 80. dichotomous key Topic 6: Human health and physiology 6.1 Digestion 1. digestion 2. enzymes 3. substrate 4. product 5. optimum pH 6. amylase 7. protease 8. lipase 9. mouth 10. esophagus 11. stomach 12. small intestine 13. large intestine (colon) 14. anus 15. liver 16. pancreas 17. gall bladder 18. absorption

19. assimilation 20. villus 6.2 The transport system 21. heart 22. 4 chambers of the heart 23. atria 24. ventricles 25. blood vessels 26. valves 27. atrio-ventricular valves 28. semilunar valves 29. coronary arteries 30. myogenic muscle contraction 31. pacemaker 32. medulla of the brain 33. epinephrine 34. arteries 35. capillaries 36. veins 37. plasma 38. erythrocytes 39. leucocytes a. phagocytes b. lymphocytes 40. platelets 41. carbon dioxide 42. oxygen 43. hormones 44. antibodies 45. urea 46. d 6.3 Defence against infectious disease 47. pathogen 48. virus 49. bacteria 50. antibiotics 51. mucous membranes 52. phagocytic leucocytes 53. ingest 54. antigens 55. antibodies 56. HIV 57. immune system

6.4 Gas exchange 58. ventilation 59. gas exchange 60. cell respiration 61. trachea 62. lungs 63. bronchi 64. bronchioles 65. alveoli 66. capillaries 67. intercostal muscles 68. diaphragm 69. abdominal muscles 6.5 Nerves, hormones and homeostasis 70. central nervous system (CNS) 71. peripheral nerves 72. neurons 73. electrical impulses 74. motor neuron 75. dendrites 76. cell body 77. axon 78. myelin sheath 79. nodes of Ranvier 80. motor end plates 81. receptors 82. sensory neurons 83. relay neurons 84. effectors 85. resting potential 86. action potential 87. depolarization 88. repolarization 89. Sodium ions 90. potassium ions 91. synaptic transmission 92. neurotransmitter 93. post-synaptic membrane 94. endocrine system 95. glands 96. hormones 97. homeostasis

98. negative feedback 99. hypothalamus 100. sweat glands 101. skin arterioles 102. shivering 103. glucagon 104. insulin 105. alpha cells 106. beta cells 107. type I diabetes 108. type II diabetes 6.6 Reproduction 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. menstrual cycle FSH LH estrogen progesterone ovulation endometrium testosterone pre-natal in vitro fertilization

Topic 7: Nucleic acids and proteins 7.1 DNA Structure 1. DNA 2. antiparallel 3. 3’ 4. 5’ 5. hydrogen bonding 6. purines 7. pyrimidines 8. nucleosomes 9. histone 10. supercoiling of chromosomes 11. chromosome 12. transcription 13. unique or single-copy genes 14. highly repetitive sequences (satellite DNA) 15. gene 16. exon 17. intron

7.2 DNA replication 18. DNA replication 19. prokaryotes 20. eukaryotes 21. helicase 22. DNA polymerase III 23. DNA polymerase I 24. RNA primase 25. DNA ligase 26. Okazaki fragments 27. deoxynucleoside triphosphates 7.3 Transcription 28. transcription 29. sense strand (coding strand) 30. antisense strand (template strand) 31. promoter region 32. RNA polymerase 33. nucleoside triphosphates 34. terminator 35. eukaryotic RNA 36. introns 37. mature mRNA 7.4 Translation 38. translation 39. tRNA 40. tRNA-activating enzyme 41. amino acid 42. ATP 43. shape of tRNA 44. CCA at the 3’ end 45. ribosomes 46. large subunit 47. small subunit 48. tRNA binding sites 49. mRNA binding sites 50. initiation 51. elongation 52. translocation 53. termination 54. peptide bond

55. polysome 56. start codon 57. stop codons 58. free ribosomes 59. bound ribosomes 60. secretion 61. lysosomes 7.5 Proteins 62. protein 63. primary structure 64. secondary structure 65. tertiary structure 66. quaternary structure 67. fibrous 68. globular 69. polar amino acids 70. non-polar amino acids 71. function 7.6 Enzymes 72. metabolic pathway 73. chains 74. cycles 75. enzyme-catalyzed 76. induced-fit model 77. lock-and-key model 78. activation energy 79. catalyze 80. exothermic reaction 81. competitive inhibition 82. non-competitive inhibition 83. inhibitor 84. end-product inhibition 85. allosteric sites Topic 8 Cell respiration and photosynthesis 8.1 Cell respiration 1. 2. 3. 4. oxidation reduction electrons oxygen

5. hydrogen 6. proton 7. glycolysis 8. phosphorylation 9. lysis 10. oxidation 11. ATP formation 12. hexose sugar 13. cytoplasm 14. ATP 15. pyruvate 16. NADH + H+ 17. mitochondrion 18. electron micrographs 19. aerobic respiration 20. link reaction 21. Krebs cycle 22. electron transport chain 23. oxygen 24. decarboxylate 25. acetyl group 26. coenzyme A 27. oxidative phosphorylation 28. chemiosmosis 29. cristae 30. surface area 31. inner membrane 32. outer membrane 33. matrix 8.2 Photosynthesis 34. chloroplast 35. light-dependent reactions 36. light-independent reactions 37. photoactivation 38. photosystem II 39. photolysis of water 40. electron transport 41. cyclic photophosphorylation 42. non-cyclic photophosphorylation 43. reduction of NADP+ 44. chemiosmosis 45. RuBP(ribulose bisphosphate) 46. Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) 47. reduction

48. glycerate 3-phosphate (GP or G3P) 49. triose phosphate (TP) 50. regeneration of RuBP 51. surface area 52. thylakoid 53. light absorption 54. stroma 55. action spectrum 56. absorption spectrum 57. limiting factors 58. light intensity 59. temperature 60. concentration of carbon dioxide Topic 9: Plant Science 9.1 Plant structure and growth 1. tissues 2. stem 3. leaf 4. dicotyledonous plant 5. monocotyledonous plant 6. parallel venation 7. net-like venation 8. vascular tissue 9. cotyledon 10. floral organs 11. fibrous adventitious roots 12. tap root with lateral branches 13. absorption of light 14. gas exchange 15. support 16. water conservation 17. bulbs 18. stem tubers 19. storage roots 20. tendrils 21. apical meristem (primary meristem) 22. lateral meristem (cambium) 23. auxin 24. phototropism Transport in angiospermophytes 25. root system

26. mineral ion 27. water uptake 28. branching 29. root hairs 30. diffusion 31. fungal hyphae 32. mass flow of water 33. active transport 34. cellulose 35. cell turgor 36. lignified xylem 37. transpiration 38. xylem vessels 39. transpiration pull 40. cohesion 41. adhesion 42. evaporation 43. guard cells 44. stomata 45. abscisic acid 46. abiotic factors 47. humidity 48. transpiration 49. xerophytes 50. reduced leaves 51. rolled leaves 52. spines 53. deep roots 54. cuticle 55. water storage tissue 56. low growth form 57. CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) 58. C4 physiology 59. phloem 60. active translocation 61. source 62. sink 9.3 Reproduction in angiospermophytes 63. flower 64. sepal 65. petal 66. anther 67. filament 68. stigma

69. style 70. ovary 71. pollination 72. fertilization 73. seed dispersal 74. dicotyledonous seed 75. non-endospermic 76. testa 77. micropyle 78. embryo root 79. embryo shoot 80. cotyledons 81. germination 82. gibberellin 83. amylase 84. long-day plant 85. short-day plant 86. phytochrome a. Pr b. Pfr Topic 10: Genetics 10.1 Meiosis 1. chromosome 2. phases of meiosis a. Prophase I b. Metaphase I c. Anaphase I d. Telophase I e. Prophase II f. Metaphase II g. Anaphase II h. Telophase II 3. cytokinesis 4. chiasmata 5. crossing over 6. genetic variety 7. random orientation 8. independent assortment 10.2 Dihybrid crosses and gene linkage 9. genotypic ratio 10. phenotypic ration

11. dihybrid cross 12. unlinked autosomal genes 13. autosomes 14. sex chromosomes 15. non-sister chromatids 16. homologous chromosomes 17. alleles 18. linkage group 19. recombinant 20. linked genes 21. test cross 10.3 Polygenic inheritance 22. polygenic inheritance 23. continuous variation Topic 11: Human health and physiology 11.1 Defence against infectious disease 1. blood clotting 2. clotting factors 3. platelets 4. thrombin 5. fibrinogen 6. fibrin 7. immunity 8. clonal selection 9. memory cells 10. active immunity 11. passive immunity 12. antibodies 13. antigens 14. placenta 15. colostrums 16. antigen presentation 17. macrophages 18. helper T-cells 19. activation 20. B-cells 21. plasma cells 22. memory cells 23. cytotoxic T-cells 24. monoclonal antibodies 25. vaccination

26. primary response 27. secondary response 28. pandemic 29. epidemic 11.2 Muscles and movement 30. bones 31. ligaments 32. muscles 33. tendons 34. nerves 35. cartilage 36. synovial fluid 37. joint capsule 38. antagonistic muscles 39. biceps 40. triceps 41. joint 42. striated muscle fibres 43. myofibrils 44. light bands 45. dark bands 46. mitochondria 47. sarcoplasmic reticulum 48. nuclei 49. sarcolemma 50. sarcomere 51. Z lines 52. actin 53. myosin 54. skeletal muscle 55. calcium ions 56. cross-bridges 57. ATP 58. contraction 11.3 The kidney 59. excretion 60. cortex 61. medulla 62. pelvis 63. ureter 64. renal 65. nephron 66. glomerulus

67. ultrafiltration 68. blood pressure 69. fenestrated blood capillaries 70. basement membrane 71. osmoregulation 72. reabsorption 73. proximal convoluted tubule 74. microvilli 75. osmosis 76. active transport 77. loop of Henle 78. medulla 79. collecting duct 80. ADH (vasopressin) 81. glomerular filtrate 82. urine 83. diabetes 11. 4 Reproduction 84. testis 85. interstitial cells (Leydig cells) 86. germinal epithelium cells 87. spermatozoa 88. Sertoli cells 89. spermatogenesis 90. mitosis 91. cell growth 92. meiosis 93. cell differentiation 94. LH 95. testosterone 96. FSH 97. ovary 98. germinal epithelium 99. primary follicles 100. mature follicle 101. secondary oocyte 102. oogenesis 103. polar body 104. epididymis 105. seminal vesicle 106. prostate gland 107. semen 108. gametes 109. fertilization

110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119.

acrosome reaction cortical reaction HCG blastocyst implantation placenta amniotic sac amniotic fluid oxytocin positive feedback


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