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第讲三动词及定语从句


第三讲 动词及定语从句
1.什么是动词?动词有哪些种类? 根 据 句 法 功 能 分类 谓语动词 (实义动词) 主动词 助动词 非谓语动词 不定时 V-ing V-ed 根 据 词 汇 意 义 分类 状态动词 动作动词 状态词 仪态词 持续性动词 中止性动词 连系动词 实义动词 基本主动词 情态动词 be ,become,turn get laugh ,wash,climb be ,do,have,will can ,may,must

to laugh, to write, to walk Laughing ,writing ,walking Walked ,laughed, asked Be, love,think, remain,stay Stand, lie,sit Live,work,study,walk Die,finish ,leave ,come ,go, run

1.词的种类 (一)实义动词 实义动词是指具有完整意义,可以单独作为与的动词,主要是表示主语的动作,状态 和品质。实义动词包括及物动词和不及物动词。实义动词与助动词相结合表示更加复杂的 动词意义。 ▲及物动词 Vt :可以直接加宾语 可以加双宾语:动词+间宾+直宾 动词+直宾+to/for+间宾 ▲不及物动词 Vi : 可以直接构成句子的谓语动词部分,其后不能直接加宾语 如加宾语则需要用介词连接, 介词的选择有时取决于宾语, 有时取决 于动词 eg This book belongs to me. This book sells well. I buy the book for you. I buy you the book. ▲持续性动词与中止性动词 持续性动词又称延续性动词,表示一种可以持续的行为过程或状态。 常见的有: burn,drink,eat,have,fly,have,keep,know,lie,live,play,rain,read,run,sing,sleep,smoke,snow,sing, sleep, stand,study, talk,wait, walk,wear, work 中止性动词又称非持续性动词,表示行为或过程是短暂瞬间完成的。 常见的有: Admit,arrive,begin,borrow,buy,break,close, come,die,fall,go,hit,join,jump,leave,lose,move,marry,open,put,return,reach,start, stop 持续性动词与中止性动词之间的转换 leave → be away 离开; borrow → keep 借; buy → have 买; begin/start → be on 开始/上演;open/close sth → keep sth open/closed; die → be dead;finish /end /stop→ be over 结束/完成;
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join → be in+组织机构或 be a member of+组织机构; fall ill → be ill; get up → be up; catch /get a cold → have a cold 感冒; come here → be here;go there → be there;become → be 成为; come back → be back;fall asleep → be asleep 睡着; get to/ arrive/reach → be (in);leave → be away from; get to know → know;go (get) out → be out;put on → wear; catch a cold →have a cold;go abroad → be abroad 去国外; go to school → be in school/be a student 上学; marry → be married(to)结婚; wake up → be awake 醒; make friends with → be friends with 成为/交朋友; lose → be lost /be missing /be gone 丢失; lose one's job /work → be out of work /a job 等。 (二)系动词:连接主语和表示主语身份性质状态的表语的动词。 Be 动 词 : am, is, are 表状态的词 : appear, become, get, remain, seem, feel, taste, smell, sound, look 感 官 动 词: look,sound,touch,smell,feel,taste ※系动词后加 Adj./N/介宾作表语构成 主+系+表 The dish smells good. (三)助动词:do, did, have, had, shall, should, will, would (四)情态动词:can(could), may(might), must, dare, need +V 原 (五)动词短语:put on, put off, take off 2.动词的基本形式有哪些? Ⅱ 动词的基本形式 规则:V 原---V 原 ed---V 原 ed 不规则:do---did---done go---went---gone have---had---had write---wrote—written Ⅲ 动词的时态 ,语态 时态---动词的时态 一般 现在 过去 将来 过去将来 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 进行 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 过去将来进行时 完成 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 过去将来完成时 完成进行 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成进行时 过去将来完成进 行时

(1).一般现在时:Be 动词或实义动词 客观真理事实,能力,习惯,经常,情感态度,心智 ▲一些表示感觉,拥有,心智,态度的词可以用一般现在时来代替现在进行时或一般过去时 (2).现在进行时:be+Ving ▲表示此时此刻正在发生 ▲当表示近期计划,安排的事情
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很有可能发生的时候,可用现在进行时表将来 I am going. I am leaving tomorrow. ▲ 与 always, constantly, forever 等副词连用,表示厌烦,赞美等情绪 He’s always losing his keys. 他老是丢钥匙 You are always thinking of others. 他总是想着别人 (3)现在完成时:have/has+Vp.p. ▲动作发生在过去,但影响或结果,动作状态可以延续到现在,常见的瞬间动词有: come, go, get to= arrive= reach, leave, buy, sell, open, close, join/take part in, begin=start, bring, take, give, marry The car has arrived. She has lived here since 1995. Tom has been ill for 5days. The lift has broken down. Have you ever talked to him about it? ▲ work, live, study, wait, teach 等词的现在完成时和完成进行时用法一样, ,表示、动作从过 去持续到现在 He has lived here all his life. He has been living all his life. They have been working well this term. They have worked well this term. (4)现在完成进行时:have/has been V ing,表示从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,动作 是否延续下去由上下文决定 I have been writing letters all this morning. My mother has been teaching English for 20 years. I have been coughing all night. All these years we have been trying to get in touch with him. (5).一般过去时:Ved,was,were ▲ 只着眼过去的事实或发生在过去的动作 ▲ 过去习惯的动作 ▲ 叙述小说,故事情节 eg I saw him in the morning. She suffered a lot in her childhood. The train was 10minutes late. I used to live in Beijing. He would go to the park as soon as he was free. ▲现在完成时与一般过去时的不同 现在完成时:强调在过去时间内发生的动作,影响到现在

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一般过去时:强调在过去时间内发生的动作,状态,与现在无关 I have bought some fruit for you. I bought the fruit in the supermarket. I have just had my lunch. I had my lunch in a cafeteria. (6).过去进行时:was/were+V ing, ▲过去某时某刻正在进行的动作 eg It was raining at this time yesterday. ▲在 while/when/as 引导的时间状语从句中,用过去进行时长背景,用一般过去时表示在长 背景下发生的短动作(长背景短动作) eg While I was doing my homework, the telephone ran. As he was reading the newspaper, Granny fell asleep. ▲ 表示过去一段时间内将要发生的动作 When I arrived, the train was going to start. (7).过去完成时: ▲在过去的过去发生的动作 ▲同一般过去时连用表示先后顺序 ▲mean/ intend/ want/ hope / expect / think / suppose 表示愿望, 打算类的动词用过去完成时表 示未曾实现的愿望和意图 eg I had learned French by the end of last term. When I entered the room, I found that I had left the key in the office I had hoped to see more of shanghai. I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at the moment. ▲在 hardly A when B ,no sooner A than B 句型中,A=B=句子,A 用过去完成时,要倒装,B 用一般过去时,不倒装 eg Hardly had I entered the room when the telephone rang. (8).过去完成进行时:had been V ing, 强调 过去的过去延续到过去的动作或状态 eg He had been studying French before she went aboard. (9).一般将来时:will/shall+V 原,表将来的动作及安排 ▲ 多种表将来的形式: be to do 表示按计划,安排做;正式的会话或访问,表建议或忠告 shall/will+V 原 准备做且一定做或许诺,请求 be going to do 打算做,做的可能性很大 be about to do 马上做 who will be on duty? I will. I will be home for dinner. Spring will come. She is to be married next month. (10).过去将来时:would/should/could/might+V 原 (11).过去将来完成时:would/should/could/might+have+Vp.p.,多用在虚拟语气中

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定语从句
(一)定义及相关术语
1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词之后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等;关系副 词有 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担 当一个成分。例如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中, who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引导定语从 句的关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语从句中作主语。

(二)关系代词引导的定语从句
1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博 物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈 论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的 班长。 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3.Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意 思也没有。 4.That 指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语, 作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观 这座城市的人数达一百万。

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Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的 信。 5.Whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?

(三)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.明天我将把你要的杂志带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.我们将去听那位我们经常 谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意:1. 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如: look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那个保姆照看 的小宝宝们都很健康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误) 2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom,不可用 who, that;关系代词指 物时只可用 which,不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是 我的邻居。 The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞 机实在很舒服。 The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误)
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3. “介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词 或者数词。如: He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们 俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果, 有 些已经坏了。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班总共有4 0个学生,大多数来自大城市。 Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今为止, 他写了 10部小说,其中3部是关于农村生活的。 词+关系代词引导的定语从句特例 1)...... , ...of +关系代词。2)which 代替 this/that/the

(四)关系副词引导的定语从句
1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所 学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记 得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗? 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗? 3. why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意: 关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 如: From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known w hat he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时, 他就已经知道长大后要做什 么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发 生巨大的变化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀 请的原因是十分明了的。

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(五)限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句
形式上:不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上:译成先行词的定语:“...的” 关系词的使用上:A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that C.可用 who 代替 whom

非限制性定语从句
形式上:用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上:A.不可省略 B.不用 that C.不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例: The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是 我唯一的可以依靠的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句举例 : His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他, 对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立 的, 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every y ear. 去年夏天,我参观了人民大会堂,在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。

(一)限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况
1. 当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定 代词时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如: Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗? There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么 不可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需 的资料。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who,如: Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样 的事。 All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应邀来参加她 婚礼的客人都是重要人物。 2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如: The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大 本钟。 3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如: This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4.当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如:
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This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后, 那辆 旧车成了他的唯一拥有。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如: Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会 议的人。 5.当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身? 6.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如: They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能 记起的在校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他 的 毛驴。

(二)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是: 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如: He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主 句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含 义。如: As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人,这一点我们从他的口音可 以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知, 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次 了,这一点我不相信。 注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用 which。如: Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老是迟到,这 使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的,这使得这些 桌子很重。 1. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句 意思有区别。如: She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一 条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。

(三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导, 而且
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通常可以省略。如:
The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令 人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。

(四)关系代词与关系副词的选择
用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用(即所担当的成 分)。试比较: A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景 色优美而闻名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起 度假的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过 的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这就是 他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。

(五)but 有时也用作关系词引导定语从句。如:
There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。 (but = who don’t)

(六)定语从句与同位语从句的区别
1.定语从句修饰限定先行词,它与先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容, 它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. (定语从句) 刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴 黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. (同位语从句) 他已经去世了,这个事实很 明了。 2.定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分,关系代词 在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。 同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导, 在从句中一般不担当成分; 有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导,这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. (定语从句) 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. (同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。 The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (定语从句) 我 们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. (同位语从句) 我们 如何筹集这么多资金,这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. (定语从句) 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. (同位语从句) 他是否 一定会赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。 3.同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。 如: A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. (同位语从句)我们可
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以向老师请教,这个主意不错。 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. (同位语从句) 地球围绕 太阳转,这个事实人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun. C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. (同位语从句) 请注 意如何保护野生动物这个问题。 The problem is how we can protect the wild animals. 练习一: 1. 【2013 北京】 27. Many countries are now setting up national parks ______ animals and plants can be protected. A. when B. which C. whose D. where 2. 【2013 福建】27. The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those _______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 3. 【2013 湖南】 21. Happiness and success often come to those ________ are good at recognizing their own strengths. A. whom B. who C. what D. which 4. 【2013 江苏】 32. The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China ______ , he remembers starting as early as his childhood. A. where B. which C. what D. when 1.5.【2013 江西】33. He wrote a letter ______ he explains what had happened in the accident. A. what B. which C. where D. how 6.【2013 辽宁】34. He may win the competition, _____ he is likely to get into the national team. A. in which case B. in that case C. in what case D. in whose case 7.【2013 山东】31. There is no simple answer, _____ is often the case in science. A. as B. that C. when D. where 8.【2013 山东】35. Finally he reached a lonely island _________ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom 9. 【2013 陕西】 16. ______ is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived. A. It B. That C. What D. As 10. 【2013 四川】 9. Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment ______ they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where 11.【2013 天津】6. We have launched another man-made satellite, _____is announced in today’s newspaper. A. that B. which C. who D. what 12.【2013 新课标 II 卷】4. When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house _____ I would be staying. A. what B. when C. where D. which 13.【2013 新课标 I 卷】33.”You can’t judge a book by its cover,” ______ .
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A. as the saying goes old B. goes as the old saying C. as the old saying goes D. goes as old the saying 14.【2013 浙江】5. The children, ______ had played the whole day long, were worn out. A. all of what B. all of which C. all of them D. all of whom 15. 【2013 浙江】 13. The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform ______ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A. what B. where C. when D. why 16.【2013 重庆】24. John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of ______ are family members. A them B. that C. which D. whom 17.【2013 安徽】29. Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, ______ made one of the Chinese people’s long-held dreams come true. A. it B. that C. what D. which 练习二:

(1)选择题 1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is Mary's. A the smallest of which B the smaller of which C the smallest of them D the smallest one 2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished. A by the time B by which time C by that time D by this time 3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london. A none of them B no one of which C all of which D none of which 4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life. A who B whose C in whose D in which 5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow. A whose B of which C it's D that 6.She may have missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour. A what B that C which D this 7.1)I have three children,and two of _____ are doctors. 2)I have three children, two of ____ are doctors. 8.There two thousand students in our school,____ are girls. A two-thirds in which B two-thirds in them C two-thirds of them D of whom two thirds 9.I have bought two ballpens,_____ writes well. A neither of them B none of them C neither of which D none of which (2)特殊结构定语从句点击 1. These houses are sold at such a low price ________ people expected. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I've never heard so interesting a story ________ you told me. A. as B. that C. of which D. about which 3. I've seen the same film ________ you saw yesterday.
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A. that B. which C. as D. like 4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear. A. that B. which C. as D. like 5. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. This is the first time ________ he has been here. A. that B. when C. at which D. which 8. I don't like ________ you speak to her. A. the way B. they way in that C. the way which D. the way of which
答案: 练习一 1.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。定语从句中不缺少主干成分,故使用关系副词; 先行词指地点,故选 where。 2.【答案】A【解析】考查定语从句。其中 those 作为先行词,定语从句中缺少 lives 的定语,故用 whose。 3.【答案】B【解析】考查定语从句。先行词为 those,指人;定语从句中缺少主语, 故使用关系代词 who。 4.【答案】B【解析】考查定语从句。先行词为 passion,定语从句中缺少宾语,故用 关系代词 which。 5.【答案】C【解析】考查定语从句。先判断从句类型为定语从句,定语从句中谓语 explain 后接 what 引导的宾语从句作宾语,因此不缺少主干成分,排除 B 项,答案为 C。 6.【答案】A【解析】考查定语从句。两分句间无连词,故排除 B 项(不能用作连词, in this/ that case 用于并列句中) 。此处 which 指代前面主句,in which case 引导定语从句用语 替代并列句中的 in this/ that case。句意为:他可能赢得这场比赛,如果这样的话,他就可能 进入国家队。 7.【答案】A【解析】考查定语从句。此处 as 引导定语从句指代整个主句内容,含有 “正如”之意,定语从句部分译为“在科学上这是常有的事”。 8.【答案】C【解析】考查定语从句。句意为:最后他到达一个完全与世隔绝的孤岛。 定语从句中缺少主语,因此使用关系代词;先行词 island 指物,故使用关系代词 which. 9.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。此处 as 引导的定语从句位于主句之前,指代整 个主句内容。意为:正如孩子们常有的情况一样,医生到的时候 Amy 就好了。 10.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。此处先判断从句类型为定语从句,先行词为 the environment,定语从句中 live 为不及物动词,因此不缺少主干成分,应填关系副词;且先 行词 environment 指地点,故用 where,相当于 in which。 11.【答案】B【解析】考查定语从句。此处关系代词 which 指代整个主句引导非限制 性定语从句。翻译为:我们又发射了一颗人造卫星,这是在今天的报纸上宣布的。故答案选 B。
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12.【答案】C【解析】考查定语从句。定语从句中 stay 为不及物动词,故不缺主干成 分,用关系副词;先行词为 house,指地点,故用关系副词 where。 13.【答案】C【解析】考查定语从句。考查 as 引导的定语从句,意为:正如古语所说。 14.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。先判断为定语从句,先行词为 children,故答 案为 D。 15.【答案】B【解析】考查定语从句。定语从句中不缺少主干成分,且先行词 platform 指地点,故用 where。 16.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。先行词为 40 people,定语从句中缺少主语,故 使用 whom。介词之后不能用 that,应予以排除;which 指先行词为物;them 为人称代词, 应用于并列句中。 17.【答案】D【解析】考查定语从句。此处 which 指代前面整个主句内容引导非限制 性定语从句。句意:莫言 2012 年被授予诺贝尔奖,使中国长期以来的梦想之一成为现实。 练习二:(1)(1---6ABDCBC 7----9B DDC) (2)1. B。当先行词被 such 修饰时,定语从句用 as 引导,即构成结构为"such+(a/an)+ 形容词+名词+as"引导的定语从句,意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为:这些房屋以 人们原来估计的那样低的价格出售。 2. A。由 so interesting a story = such an interesting story 和上面一题的解释便可得知答案。as 在定语从句中作宾语。整句意为:我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣的故事。 3. A 4. C。当先行词被 same 修饰时,定语从句由 that 或 as 引导,但意思不同。用 that 引导定语 从句指同一物,而用 as 引导定语从句指同类事物。 5. A。做此题的关键是要知道 I think 在定语从句中作插入语,做题时将其去掉便可容易得到 答案。 6. B。As 在此引导非限制性定语从句,代表它所修饰的整个句子内容,并且它可放在所修 饰句子的前、中或后面。其常见结构如:as you know, as is said above, as is often the case(情 况经常是这样)等。如选A,则需将逗号改为 that;如选 D,则需将逗号改为 is that。 7. A。当先行词为 the first time, the last time 等时,定语从句的引导词用 that 而不用 when。 8. A。当先行词为 way 时,定语从句的引导词用 that 或 in which, 也可省略。

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