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初三英语定语从句讲解


定语从句的用法和精练
一、定语从句的概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词后 二、定语从句的关系词 引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括 that, which, who(宾格 whom,所有格 whose)等, 关系副词包括 where, when, why 等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句 的重要成分。 三、定语从句的分类 根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。 限制性定语从句紧跟先行词, 主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意 思仍完整。 四、关系代词的用法 (一)限制性定语从句中关系代词的用法 作用 主语 先行词 宾语 及物动词宾语或没被 提前的介词宾语 被提前的的介词宾语 定语

指人 指物

Who/that, as Which/that, as

Who/whom/that, as That/which, as

介词+whom 介词+which

Whose/of whom Whose/of which

1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如: Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that 作主语) The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that 作宾语) 2.which 用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如: The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语) The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语) 3.who, whom 用于指人,who 用作主语,whom 用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用 who 代替 whom, 也可省略。例如: The girl who often helps me with my English is from England. 经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语) Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语) 注意 :(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which 可省略,但介词在关系代词前时 ,只能用“介词 +which/whom”结构。例如: This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。

Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。 (2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如: This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。 (3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。 (4)关系词只能用 that 的情况: a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用 that,而不用 which. 例如: He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。 b.被修饰的先行词为 all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one 等不定代词时,只能用 that,而不用 which.例如: Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

c.先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用 that,而不用 which.例如: This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。 d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用 that, 而不用 which. 例如: I can remember well the persons and some

pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。 e.以 who 或 which 引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用 that.例如: Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁? f.主句是 there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用 that,而不用 which.例如: There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。 h.有两个定语从句时,其中一个宜用 which,另外一个宜用 that。如: They secretly built up a small factory, which produced things that could cause pollution. I .当先行词在主句中作表语。而关系代词在从句中也作表语时,如: Shanghai is no longer the city that is used to be. (5) 关系词只能用 which,而不用 that 的情况: a.先行词为 that, those 时,用 which, 而不用 that.例如: What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用 which,而不用 that.例如: This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。 c.引导非限制性定语从句,用 which, 而不用 that.例如: Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。 { d.先行词后面有插入语时,只用 which 不用 that。 Here is the English grammar book which, as I’ve told you, will help you improve your English. (6)as 引导限制性定语从句常用下列句式; a. such+名词+as.. b. such(pron)+as (二)非限制性定语从句中关系代词的用法 作用 主语 先行词 及物动词宾语 宾语 被提前的的介词宾语 定语 c.the same +名词+as

指人

Who,

as

Who/whom, as

介词+whom

Whose/of whom

指物 句子 1.

Which, as

Which, as which

介词+which

Whose/of which

关系代词在任何情况下都不能省略,如

I want to buy a dictionary, which is valuable to my learning. 2. who, whom , which 不能用 that 代替。如

This is New York, which I have visited for several times. 3. which 引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词可以是一个词也可以是一个句子。如 He was late again, which made the teacher very unhappy. 五、关系副词的用法 (一)当关系代词在定语从句中作状语时,要用关系副词。其中 when=表示间的介词(如: in,at,on,during 等)+which;where=表地点的介词(如:in,at,on,under 等)+which;why=表原因的介词 (如:for)+which.如:I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing . (when=on which) Can you tell me the office where he works?(where=in which) Do you know the reason why he is absent?(why=for which) (二)where/when=介词+关系代词 which,有时为表达清楚,还可以在关系副词 where/when 前加介词 from/to 等,如: China is the birthplace of kites,from where kite flying spreads to Japan,Korea,Thailand and India. (三)关系副词 when,where 可用于非限制性定语从句中,而关系副词 why 不可以。

I.单项填空。
1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father? -Yes, he’s our headmaster. A. he B. who C. which D. whom 2. Is this the river _____I can swim? A. which B. in which C. that D. the one 3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know. A. where B. which C. that D. it 4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day? A. that you bought B. you bought it C. that you bought it D. which you bought it 5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands. A. which agrees B. who agree C. who agrees D. which agree 6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing. A. that B. it C. which who 7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate A. who’s B. whose C. that of which. 8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister. A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who; was 9. I love places ______the people are really friendly. A. that B. which C. where D. who 10. The world ______ is made up of matter. A. in that we live B. on which we live

C. where we live in D. we live in 11. Do you know the scientist _______ gave us a talk just now? ( 天津市) A. who A. which A. where B. whom B. what B. which C. which C. whose C. who D. whose D. whom D. what 12. This is the dictionary _______ Mum gave me for my birthday. (河北省) 13. Shaolin Temple _______ lies in the west of Zhengzhou welcomes the visitors both at home and abroad. 14. —Do you know the girl _______ is standing under the tree? —She is my little sister. (福州市) A. who A. that B. whom B. who C. whose D. which D. when 15. This is the question _______ we are talking about now. ( 吉林省) C. where 16. —What are you looking for? —I am looking for the book _______ I bought yesterday. ( 长沙市) A. who A. who A. which A. which A. whose A. where A. that A. when A. which B. which B. which B. / B. who B. who B. that B. when B. which B. what C. whose C. whom C. whom D. who D. whom D. whom D. what 17. Jack, there is someone in the office _______ would like to speak with you. ( 厦门市) 18. If a bag is filled with books and pens, it must belong to someone _______ works hard. (临沂市) 19. Many young people prefer the songs _______ have great lyrics. ( 泰安市) C. where C. that C. which C. where C. what C. whom D. who 20. Even teachers can’t understand some expressions _______ their students use in daily life. 21. Beijing is the 29th city _______ holds the Olympic Games. ( 芜湖市) 22. Have you read the book _______ I gave you yesterday? ( 茂名市) 23. The man _______ came to our party with a present is my old friend. ( 茂名市) 24. I like writers _______ write short stories. ( 襄樊市) 25. —There are many volunteers _______ are helping the children in Sichuan. —And most of them are college students. (咸宁市) A. which A. whose A. who B. when B. that B. which C. whose C. who C. where D. who D. which 26. We know Jackie Chan _______ movies are very popular with the young. ( 恩施自治州) 27. The boy _______ I talked with just now is my best friend. ( 南充市) 28. —What kind of music do you like? —I like music _______ I can sing along with. (自贡市) A. who A. why B. that B. where C. what C. who D. which 29. He is the only student _______ plays table tennis better than Jim. (南宁市) 30. —The duty of Project Hope is to help poor children, isn ’t it? —Yes, it has built many schools _______ those children can study happily. (哈尔滨市) A. where B. when C. which

答案 1-5CBCAC

6-10ABCCB

11—15 AABAA 16—20 BADAC

21—25 BACDD

26—30

AABCA


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