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全新版综合英语3- Unit2


Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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English Song — Abraham, Martin & John
Detailed Reading

Text Prediction

Background Information

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English Song — Abraham, Martin & John Think While Listening
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Read the Script of the Song
People in the Song

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Background Information Map Reading
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Timeline of Slavery
The Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin

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Think While Listening Listen to the song Abraham, Martin & John, sung by Dion, and think about the following questions.
Detailed Reading 1. A few names are mentioned in this song. Can you make out who these people are?

Clues: They are all Americans. All died young. They freed a lot of people. They are Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King and Bobby Kennedy. 2. Do you know why they all died young? 3. Whom did they free?

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Read the Script of the Song Abraham, Martin & John Has anybody here, Seen my old friend Abraham? Detailed Reading Can you tell me, where he?s gone? He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they die young, You know, I just looked around, And he?s gone. Anybody here, Seen my old friend John? Can you tell me, where he?s gone?

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He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they young, I just looked around, And he?s gone. Detailed Reading

Anybody here, Seen my old friend Martin? Can you tell me, where he?s gone? He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they die young, I just looked around, And he?s gone.

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Didn?t you love the things that they stood for? Didn?t they try to find some good for you and me? And we?ll be free, Detailed Reading Someday soon it?s gonna be one day ...

Anybody here, Seen my old friend Bobby? Can you tell me, where he?s gone? I thought I saw him walkin? up over the hill, With Abraham, Martin and John.

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People in the Song
1. Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the US. As President, he issued The Emancipation Proclamation Detailed Reading (《解放黑人奴隶宣言》) that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy (南部邦联). During the Civil War Lincoln stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg: “that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

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On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford?s Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping the South. The Detailed Reading opposite was the result, for with Lincoln?s death, the possibility of peace died.

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2. John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the thirtyfifth president of the US. In his Inaugural Address (就职演说) he said: “Ask not what Detailed Reading your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.” As President, he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights, calling for new civil rights legislation. On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, John F. Kennedy was killed by an assassin?s bullets as his motorcade (汽车队) wound through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die.

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3. Martin Luther King Dr. King was a pivotal (关键) figure in the Civil Rights Movement. His lectures and dialogues stirred ( 激 起 ) the concern and Detailed Reading sparked the conscience of a generation. In one of his speeches, he said, “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that ... one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with the little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today.”

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Dr. King was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. Dr. King was in Memphis to help lead sanitation workers in a Detailed Reading and protest against low wages intolerable working conditions.

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4. Bobby Kennedy Bobby Kennedy or Robert F. Kennedy, was the brother of President John F. Detailed Reading Kennedy. He was appointed attorney general (司法部长) of the United States in the early 1960s. In September 1962, Attorney General Kennedy enforced a Federal court order admitting the first African American student — James Meredith — to the University of Mississippi. The riot (暴动) that had followed Meredith?s registration ( 注 册 ) had left two dead and hundreds injured. Robert Kennedy saw voting as the key

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to racial (种族的) justice (正义) and collaborated (合作) with President Kennedy when he proposed the most farreaching civil rights statute since Reconstruction, The Civil Rights Act of 1964, passed after President Kennedy Detailed Reading was slain on November 22, 1963. Robert Francis Kennedy was slain on June 5, 1968 at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California. He was 42 years old. Although his life was cut short, Robert Kennedy?s vision and ideals live on today.

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Text Prediction

Read the introductory part of the text and think about the following questions.
In 2004 a center in honor of the “underground railroad” opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams. 1. What is an underground railroad in the normal sense? 2. What is this underground railroad special for? 3. Can you imagine what this railroad was built for?
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4. What probably are the dreams of the passengers? 5. What probably is the destination of their dreams? 6. What is the text probably about? Detailed Reading

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Map Reading Read the following three maps and answer the following questions.
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Click to see big picture.

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1. Find the following states:

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Detailed Reading South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia.
Which part do these states belong to, the Northern States or the Southern States? 2. Which states are most densely populated with slaves? 3. Where did most slaves want to go?

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Timeline of Slavery 1619 — Slaves in Virginia Africans brought to Detailed Jamestown are the first slaves Reading imported into Britain?s North American colonies.

1705 — Slaves as Property Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers allowed owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways.

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1775 — American Revolution Began Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Reading Concord on April 19Detailed sparked the war for American independence from Britain. 1776 — Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress asserted “that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”.

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1783 — American Revolution Ended Britain and the infant United States signed the Peace of Paris treaty.
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1808 — United States Banned Slave Trade Importing African slaves was outlawed, but smuggling continued. 1860 — Abraham Lincoln Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois became the first Republican to win the United States Presidency.

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1861~1865 — United States Civil War Four years of brutal conflict claimed 623,000 lives.
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1863 — The Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln decreed that all slaves in rebel territory were free on January 1, 1863.

1865 — Slavery Abolished The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlawed slavery.

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The Underground Railroad 1. General Information The Underground Railroad was not underground. Detailed Reading Because escaping slaves and the people who helped them were technically breaking the law, they had to stay out of sight. They went “underground” in terms of concealing their actions. Sometimes they even hid in unusual places. Many clever and creative ideas helped slaves during their escape. When abolitionist ( 废奴主义者 ) John Fairfield needed to sneak ( 偷偷摸摸地进行 ) 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati, he hired a hearse ( 灵 车 ) and disguised the group as a funeral procession.

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Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a wooden box. 2. Routes to Freedom
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The routes the slaves traveled appear in this map. The trip is 560 miles (900 kilometers) long. A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to freedom in two months. For others, especially in bad weather, the trek (跋涉) might have lasted a year.

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, is one of the most famous Detailed Reading and popular pieces of Civil War literature. Drawn from selected pieces of real life anecdotes, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a book that drew many people into the fight over the institution of slavery. Northerners hailed (欢呼) the book, while southern slaveholders abhorred it.

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True or False

Part Division of the Text

Further Understanding

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Further Understanding

Questions and Answers Text Analysis

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True or False 1. Just like Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Josiah Henson was a long-suffering slave who was unwilling to stand up for himself. ( F ) According to Barbara Carter, Josiah Henson was a man of principle and totally different from Uncle Tom. 2. All the men and women who forged the Underground Railroad were blacks. ( F ) Some whites were driven by religious convictions and took part in this movement.

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3. These railroad conductors were frequently faced with death threats and warnings from the local government. ( T )

4. Many fugitives chose Canada as their primary destination because slavery had been abolished there. ( T )

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Part Division of the Text Parts Para(s) 1 1~5 Main Ideas It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civilrights struggles in America. By citing examples the author praises the exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.

2

6~23

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Questions and Answers 1. Both Josiah Henson and Uncle Tom were slaves. But in the eyes of Barbara Carter, they were different. In what way was Josiah Henson different from Uncle Tom? Uncle Tom was an enduring slave and unwilling to struggle for himself, while Josiah Henson did what he believed was right and took an active part in the antislavery movement.

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2. Why was Henson called an African-American Moses? In the Bible, Moses was the leader who brought the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and led them to the Promised Land. Just like Moses, Henson helped hundreds of slaves escape to Canada and liberty, so he was called an African-American Moses. 3. What was the Underground Railroad? Who forged it? The Underground Railroad was a secret web of escape routes and safe houses. Many men and women, including both the blacks and whites, together forged it.

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4. Why does the author want to tell the readers the stories of the heroes of the Underground Railroad?

Because most of them remain too little remembered and their exploits are still largely unsung.

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Text Analysis

In this part, the author tells the stories of three civilrights heroes. Who are they? Give the main idea of each story.
Stories Heroes 1 John Parker Para(s) 6~10 Main Ideas After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other slaves escape north to Canada to get freedom.

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Stories Heroes
2 Levi Coffin

Para(s)
11~15

Main Ideas
Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves escape at huge risk to himself. By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and became free at last.

3

Josiah Henson

16~23

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THE FREEDOM GIVERS Fergus M. Bordewich A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house. Alongside me was a slender woman in a black dress, my guide back to a time when the surrounding settlement in Dresden, Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. As we walked toward a plain gray church, Barbara Carter spoke proudly of her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson. “He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for that freedom.”

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Carter?s devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor. For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom, the longsuffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe?s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Ironically, that character has come to symbolize everything Henson was not. A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? Carter gets angry at the thought. “Josiah Henson was a man of principle,” she said firmly.

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I had traveled here to Henson?s last home — now a historic site that Carter formerly directed — to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. After winning his own freedom from slavery, Henson secretly helped hundreds of other slaves to escape north to Canada — and liberty. Many settled here in Dresden with him. Yet this stop was only part of a much larger mission for me. Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South. Between 1820 and 1860, as many as 100,000 slaves traveled the Railroad to freedom.

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In October 2000, President Clinton authorized $16 million for the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center to honor this first great civil-rights struggle in the U. S. The center is scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati. And it?s about time. For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. I was intent on telling their stories.

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John Parker tensed when he heard the soft knock. Peering out his door into the night, he recognized the face of a trusted neighbor. “There?s a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods in Kentucky, twenty miles from the river,” the man whispered urgently. Parker didn?t hesitate. “I?ll go,” he said, pushing a pair of pistols into his pockets.

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Born a slave two decades before, in the 1820s, Parker had been taken from his mother at age eight and forced to walk in chains from Virginia to Alabama, where he was sold on the slave market. Determined to live free someday, he managed to get trained in iron molding. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom. Now, by day, Parker worked in an iron foundry in the Ohio port of Ripley. By night he was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, helping people slip by the slave hunters. In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive.

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Crossing the Ohio River on that chilly night, Parker found ten fugitives frozen with fear. “Get your bundles and follow me,” he told them, leading the eight men and two women toward the river. They had almost reached shore when a watchman spotted them and raced off to spread the news. Parker saw a small boat and, with a shout, pushed the escaping slaves into it. There was room for all but two. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind.

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The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next “station” on the Underground Railroad — the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada. Over the course of his life, John Parker guided more than 400 slaves to safety. While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, explained, “The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color.”

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In the 1820s Coffin moved west to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, where he opened a store. Word spread that fleeing slaves could always find refuge at the Coffin home. At times he sheltered as many as 17 fugitives at once, and he kept a team and wagon ready to convey them on the next leg of their journey. Eventually three principal routes converged at the Coffin house, which came to be the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad.

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For his efforts, Coffin received frequent death threats and warnings that his store and home would be burned. Nearly every conductor faced similar risks — or worse. In the North, a magistrate might have imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence for aiding those escaping. In the Southern states, whites were sentenced to months or even years in jail. One courageous Methodist minister, Calvin Fairbank, was imprisoned for more than 17 years in Kentucky, where he kept a log of his beatings: 35,105 stripes with the whip.

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As for the slaves, escape meant a journey of hundreds of miles through unknown country, where they were usually easy to recognize. With no road signs and few maps, they had to put their trust in directions passed by word of mouth and in secret signs — nails driven into trees, for example — that conductors used to mark the route north. Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder. Quakers often dressed their “passengers,” both male and female, in gray dresses, deep bonnets and full veils. On one occasion, Levi Coffin was transporting so many runaway slaves that he disguised them as a funeral procession.

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Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives. Slavery had been abolished there in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the runaways to settle their vast virgin land. Among them was Josiah Henson. As a boy in Maryland, Henson watched as his entire family was sold to different buyers, and he saw his mother harshly beaten when she tried to keep him with her. Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner?s regard.

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Money problems eventually compelled his master to send Henson, his wife and children to a brother in Kentucky. After laboring there for several years, Henson heard alarming news: the new master was planning to sell him for plantation work far away in the Deep South. The slave would be separated forever from his family. There was only one answer: flight. “I knew the North Star,” Henson wrote years later. “Like the star of Bethlehem, it announced where my salvation lay. ”

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At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off with their four children. Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, the family reached Cincinnati, where they made contact with members of the Underground Railroad. “Carefully they provided for our welfare, and then they set us thirty miles on our way by wagon.” The Hensons continued north, arriving at last in Buffalo, N. Y. There a friendly captain pointed across the Niagara River. “?Do you see those trees?? he said. ?They grow on free soil.?” He gave Henson a dollar and arranged for a boat, which carried the slave and his family across the river to Canada.

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“I threw myself on the ground, rolled in the sand and danced around, till, in the eyes of several who were present, I passed for a madman. ?He?s some crazy fellow,? said a Colonel Warren.” “?Oh, no! Don?t you know? I?m free!?”

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Josiah Henson was a man of principle. Paraphrase the sentence.

Josiah Henson observed/followed moral principles.

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I had traveled here to Henson?s last home — now a historic site that Carter formerly directed — to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. 1. Who was Moses? In the Old Testament, Moses was the Hebrew prophet and lawgiver who led the Israelites out of Egypt. 2. Why was Henson called an African-American Moses? Henson, a black who lived in America, helped other blacks escape from the US.

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Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? And what does but mean? Here but is an adverb, which means “only”.

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Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. 后来他终于靠这门手艺攒够钱赎回了自由。

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In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive.
Paraphrase the sentence. In Kentucky, anyone who captured him, no matter he was dead or alive, would be rewarded $1000 and now he was going to Kentucky.

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There was room for all but two. What does but mean? What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? Here but is a preposition, which means “except”.

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The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next “station” on the Underground Railroad — the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada.

1. What does made it mean?
Make it means “succeed in doing something”. Here made it means “arrived (at the Ohio shore)”. 2. What does leg mean? Leg means “a stage of a journey or course”. For example, the last leg of the flight (飞行中的最后一段 路程).

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Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, What is a Quaker? A Quaker is any member of the Society of Friends, a religious group established in England in the 1650s by George Fox. They were originally called Quakers because members were thought to “quake” or shake with religious excitement. Quakers worship Christ without any formal ceremony or fixed beliefs, and their meetings often involve silent thought or prayer. They are strongly opposed to violence and war, and are active in education and charity work.

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Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner?s regard. 1. What does lot mean in this sentence?

Lot means “one?s fortune in life, fate”.
2. Paraphrase “rose far in his owner?s regard”. He was regarded highly by his owner.

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breeze: n. a gentle wind
A gentle breeze blew over the garden. 凉爽清新的微风 a cool, refreshing breeze NB: All of the following words are related to wind. Can you match them with their definitions?

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hurricane gust gale

a strong, abrupt rush of wind a very strong wind a severe tropical cyclone, usu. involving heavy rains a rotating column of air

tornado

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slender: adj. 1. (of people) slim; not very wide but comparatively long or high slender fingers a slender waist 有苗条身材的女子 a woman with a slender figure 2. (of things) slight; inadequate
a slender income 渺茫的希望 slender hopes

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CF: slender, thin & slim 这几个词都有细小、瘦弱之意。 slender 主要表示苗条之瘦,往往含有瘦得好看或匀称 的意思。例如:

Film actress Zhang Ziyi is a slender woman.
电影演员章子怡身材苗条。 When the wind blows, the slender tree bends but never breaks. 起风时,细长的树常被吹弯但决不会被吹断。

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CF: thin 表示人或物的直径与长度的比例较小。例如: People usually get thinner after an illness. 生病后,人们通常变得瘦一些。 This metal may be thin but is of great strength. 这种金属虽然很薄,但强度却很高。 slim 用于指人与动物时,其含义与 slender 相同,但 在引申意义上却侧重于贫乏和不足状态。例如: As a slim boy, he has now filled out. 他原是一个清瘦的男孩,现在胖多了。 To tell you the truth, your chances to pass the exam are too slim. 实话告诉你,你考试过关的希望实在是太小了。

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racial: adj. relating to a person?s race, or to different races of people
There is a serious racial conflict in that African country.

他是种族歧视的牺牲者。
He was a victim of racial discrimination.

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stand up for: speak, work, etc. in favor of sb./sth.; support sb./sth
Don?t be afraid to stand up for your rights. 我所有的朋友都会支持我。 All my friends will stand up for me. stand up to: to oppose fearlessly; to bear, to last A soldier must stand up to the danger. 士兵必须敢于面对危险。

你的论点根本经不起仔细检查。
Your argument just won?t stand up to close scrutiny.

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principle: n. a rule or standard, especially of good behavior
She was a woman of principle. I usually follow the principle that it is better not to get involved in other people?s quarrels.

我们恪守人人都应受到公平对待的原则。
We adhere to the principle that everyone should be treated fairly.

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Collocation:

against one?s principle as a matter of principle by principle
of principle

违反原则
作为原则性问题 按照原则,根据原则 有原则的 坚持原则 抛弃原则

adhere to one?s principles
abandon one?s principles

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historic: adj. famous or important in history a historic spot 两位领导人的具有历史意义的会见 a historic meeting between the two leaders CF: historic & historical 这两个词都是形容词,都有“历史上的”之意。 historic 泛指历史上有名的或富有历史意义的。例如: This change in government is a historic event of our times. 这项政府变革是当代具有历史意义的大事。

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The signing of The Declaration of Independence was a historic occasion. 《独立宣言》的签署是具有历史意义的事件。 CF: historical 主要意思是属于历史的,历史上的,与历史 有关的,真实的而不是传说中的。例如:

He gave all his historical papers to the library.
他把他所有的历史资料都赠送给这个图书馆。 There is a historical society in our university. 我们大学有一个历史研究所。

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site: n. place where a building, town, etc. was, is, or will be situated
The site for the new factory has not been decided. 一所新的学校占据了工厂的旧址。 A new school occupies the site of the old factory. Collocation: a historic site construction sites a battlefield site 历史古迹 建筑工地

战场的遗址

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mission: n. particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group
Mission accomplished. 任务已完成。 代表团成功地完成了使命。 The delegation completed its mission successfully. 炸毁那座桥梁的任务未能完成。 The mission to blow up the bridge failed.

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Collocation:
carry out / perform a mission fulfill a mission 执行任务 完成使命

cancel a mission

取消一项任务

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web: n. network of fine threads spun by a spider or some other spinning creature; complex series or network
The spider is spinning a web. 铁路网 a web of railroads 电话线网络 a web of telephone wires

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liberate: vt. set free
Pattern: liberate sb. from sth. liberate people from poverty liberate sb. from economic worry 解除心中偏见 liberate the mind from prejudice 把一个国家从军事控制中解放出来 liberate a country from a military control

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forge: v.
1. create by means of much hard work Their friendship was forged by shared adversity. 他们和法国共产党建立了联系。 They forged links with the French Communist Party. 2. make a forgery or counterfeit He got the money dishonestly, by forging his brother?s signature on a check. 伪造签名

forge a signature

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authorize: vt. give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to
I have authorized him to act for me during my absence. 主任允许我们在实验室工作。

The director authorized us to work in the laboratory.

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exploit:
1. n. brave or adventurous deed or action Their heroic exploits will go down in history.

歌颂某人的功绩
sing sb.?s exploits 他的战功使我感到惊异。 His military exploits amazed me.

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2. vt. employ to the greatest possible advantage exploit one?s talents

充分发挥某人的才能
exploit one?s friends 利用自己的朋友 这家公司用长工时、低工资的方法来剥削工人。 The company exploited its workers with long hours and low pay.

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be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth.
He was intent on the job he was doing. 他决心去法国继续深造。 He is intent on going to France to continue his studies.

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peer: vi. look closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see well (followed by at/through/into, etc.)
She peered at him closely, as if not believing it could really be him. She peered through the mist, trying to find the right path.

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CF: peer, gaze & stare 这三个词都是动词,都有注视、凝视之意。 peer 通常指半闭着眼睛看,并伴随着向前移动,含有 好奇地看或难以看清的意味。例如: The old man peered at her over his spectacles. 老头儿从他的眼镜上方盯着她。 Short-sighted people often peer at others when they are wearing no glasses. 近视眼的人不戴眼镜时常常眯着眼看人。 The sleepy father got up and peered through a crack in the door to see who knocked at the door. 还未睡醒的父亲起了床,透过门缝眯着眼看是谁在敲门。

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CF: gaze 指持久不停地看,通常有惊奇、羡慕、感叹等含 义。例如:
All of us gazed at the beautiful view in the distance. 我们都凝视着远方美丽的景色。

For two hours Tom sat gazing out of the window.
两个小时过去了,汤姆一直坐着凝视着窗外。 stare 指出于好奇、惊讶、茫然或赞叹等原因而瞪大眼 睛长时间、直接地注视。例如: The woman stared at the stranger in astonishment. 那个女人吃惊地盯着陌生人。 It is very impolite to stare at other people. 死死盯着他人是极不礼貌的。

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on the side: as an additional job or source of income; secretly
He is a teacher, but he makes a little money on the side by repairing cars in his free time. He?s married but he has a girlfriend on the side. 他虽有妻室,但暗地里还有一个女朋友。

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capture:
1. n. the act of taking by force or of being taken by force He was released yesterday, six months after his capture by the terrorists. 2. v. take (a person or animal) as a prisoner She was captured trying to escape from the country.

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close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround The people were trapped when the enemy army began to close in on them.
Night is closing in.

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religious: adj. of religion
a religious service 宗教仪式 宗教问题 a religious question

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conviction: n. firm opinion or belief

She expressed her firm conviction that television was harmful to children.
她坚信她是对的。 She had a firm conviction that she was right. Collocation: a lifelong conviction political conviction strengthen/deepen one?s conviction that … 终身的信仰 政治信念 增强/加深某人的信念?

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impose: vt. 1. place (a penalty, tax, etc.) officially on sb./sth. New duties were imposed on wines and spirits. 征收进口税 impose a tax on imports 2. try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a belief)

She imposed her ideas on the group.
I must perform the task that has been imposed on me.

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transport: vt. take sth./sb. from one place to another in a vehicle It took all day to transport the furniture to the new apartment. The goods were transported by train. 公共汽车把我们从机场送到城市。 A bus transported us from the airport to the city.

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disguise: vt. give sb./sth. a false appearance He disguised himself as a woman.

The soldiers disguised themselves by wearing white garments in the snow. 这一事实是无法隐瞒的。
It is impossible to disguise the fact.

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abolish: vt. end the existence of (a law, custom, system, etc.) The death penalty is to be abolished before the end of this year. 废除奴隶制 abolish slavery 坏的风俗应当废除。 Bad customs should be abolished.

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compel: vt. make (sb.) do sth.; force

Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer for the mission.
大雨迫使我们呆在屋内。 The heavy rain compelled us to stay indoors. Collocation: compel sb. to do sth. be compelled to (do) 强迫某人做某事 不得不(做)

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at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger The disease is spreading, and all children under five are at risk. Collocation: at all risks (=at any risk) at the risk of 无论冒什么危险;无论如何 冒?之险;不顾?之风险

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starve: v. (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger starve to death What?s for dinner? I?m starving! 晚饭吃什么? 我饿死了!

starve for news
渴望消息

She?s lonely, and starving for companionship. 她很寂寞,渴望友谊。

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pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as)

He can pass for a Frenchman.
I can?t imagine how this place passes for a five-star hotel. 他被认为是个医生。 He passes for a doctor. 他被误认为是个有学问的人。 He passes for a learned man.

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Useful Expressions

Sentence Translation
Listening and Speaking Problem Solving Writing Practice Talk about the Pictures

Proverbs and Quotations

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Writing Practice

A Brief Introduction
A Sample Homework

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Useful Expressions 1. 微风 2. 支持 3. 有原则的人 4. 历史遗迹 5. 解放奴隶 6. 决定要做某事 7. 轻轻的敲门声 a gentle breeze stand up for

a man of principle
a historic site liberate slaves be intent on doing sth. a soft knock

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8. 铸铁
9. 传播消息

iron molding spread the news religious convictions find refuge next leg of the journey principal routes

10. 宗教信仰
11. 寻得庇护

12. 下一段行程
13. 主要路线 14. 面临危险

face risks

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15. 课以罚金 16. 记录 17. 路标 18. 出殡队伍

impose a fine
keep a log of road signs a funeral procession a virgin land in the eyes of (sb.)

19. 未开垦的土地 20. 在(某人)看来

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Listening and Speaking Listen to the personal account of runaway slave Linda Brent and answer the following questions. Peter took me in his boat and raised me on board. About four o?clock, we rowed three miles to the swamp ( 沼 泽 ). My great fear of snakes had been increased by the bite I had received. But I was in no situation to choose, and I gratefully accepted the best that my poor friends could do for me.

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A very small garret (顶楼) was between the boards and the roof. The garret was only nine feet long and seven feet wide. The air was stifling ( 沉 闷 的 ); the darkness total. The rats and mice ran over my bed. It seemed horrible to sit or lie in a cramped ( 狭 促 的 ) position day after day, without one gleam (光线) of light. Yet I would have chosen this, rather than my lot as a slave ... After seven years in my tiny and dark hiding place, I finally secured a passage to New York in a boat with the help of my friends and family. However, I was rather disappointed when I got to New York: It made me sad to

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find the north followed the customs of slavery. We were carried away in a large, rough car. It was crowded with people. Screaming and kicking babies were on the beds. The fumes of the whiskey and the dense tobacco smoke were sickening to my senses.

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1. What were Linda?s biggest fears? She feared that the snakes might bite her. 2. What conditions did she have to endure? She had to endure the cramped garret, the rats, the stifling air and the darkness. 3. Why was she disappointed with what she found in New York? It made her sad to find the north followed the customs of slavery.

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Problem Solving If you had been free individuals living at the time, do you think you would have assisted in helping the slaves to freedom? Consider the pros and cons of your decisions, including the dangers to yourselves if you were to help.

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A Brief Introduction One of the most difficult parts of writing about complex and serious topics is actually doing the research. The following guidelines might be helpful for you to get the information in the most efficient way possible. Step 1 The first place you should go to conduct research is the library. University libraries, especially those on research-based campuses, are great resources. You should begin your research by searching the library catalogs for books and journals that relate to your topic.

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Step 2 Once you?ve found your written sources, start searching online databases for electronic copies of scholarly journals. Databases like JSTOR and Science Direct contain a wealth of information that may be relevant to your topic.

Step 3 If you still need more sources after you?ve dug through the databases, use Google Scholar. While you?re less likely to find full-text articles this way, the abstracts of articles that you find can be very useful. Some information may be the same as what you?ll find in the databases, but you may find that you?re coming across new sources.

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Step 4 The last place that you should go to get resources for your research paper is to general search sites, such as Google or Yahoo. Very few of the results that these sites return will be suitable for inclusion in your source list. However, many websites do contain useful statistics or articles that you can use to improve your research paper.

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Homework

Suppose you are an American and an advocate of the civil rights movement in the U.S. You are now invited to speak for about three minutes to a group of overseas students about the movement. Write a speech script which should cover the following points:
(1) When were the first black people brought to America? How were they treated in the new land? (2) How did black Americans live in the U.S. after slavery ended?

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(3) What gave rise to the civil rights movement? Who was its leader? (4) What has the civil rights movement helped to bring about? (5) Why is it believed that much remains to be done before black Americans enjoy full equality?

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The Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. The first Africans in America arrived in 1619. By 1640, Maryland became the first colony to institutionalize slavery. In 1860, the election of Abraham Lincoln as President led to the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War. The progress of the war produced The Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves, and ultimately ended slavery in the United States.

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Even though the slavery ended, racial segregation persisted. For example, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate “white” and “colored” domains. Those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality. The Civil Rights Movement was a struggle against racial oppression and prejudice. It was at a peak from 1955 to 1965. Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in the “wrong” part of the bus. She worked with civil rights organizations to start the Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped end segregation on buses in the South. Mary McLeod Bethune created

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created schools for black students and worked with several U.S. presidents to make sure all children receive a good education. Martin Luther King gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech and led the Montgomery Bus Boycott. One important achievement of the Civil Rights Movement was the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin in employment practices and public accommodations. Forty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains, in some area, a residentially segregated society.

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society. Small businesses in black neighborhoods still receive fewer loans. Recent studies show that groups of homeowners of all races tend to self-segregate in order to be with people of the same education level and race. Today, many whites are willing, and are able, to pay a premium to live in a white neighborhood. Therefore, it is believed that much remains to be done before full and complete equality is achieved.

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Sentence Translation

1. Carter?s devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor.
卡特对其先辈的忠诚不仅仅关乎一己之骄傲,而且 关乎家族荣誉。 2. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind. 小船徐徐驶向对岸,帕克眼睁睁地看着追捕者把他 被迫留下的人团团围住。

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3. I threw myself on the ground, rolled in the sand and danced around, till, in the eyes of several who were present, I passed for a madman. 我扑倒在地,在沙土里打滚,手舞足蹈,最后,在 场的那几个人都认定我是疯子。 4. 我步出这幢两层小屋,微风轻轻拂过加拿大平原。 A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house.

5. 中心计划于2004年在辛辛那提市对外开放。
The center is scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati.

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6. 黑人去当乘务员常常是由本人痛苦的经历所激发,而那 些白人则往往是受了宗教信仰的感召。 While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. 7. 许多黑奴在夜色掩护下赶路,有时脸上涂着厚厚的白粉。 Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder.

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Talk about the Pictures

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Proverbs and Quotations 1. Give me liberty, or give me death. 不自由,毋宁死。 2. A new breeze is blowing — and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on: there is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken. — George Bush, American president 一阵新风正在吹来——为自由激励的民族随时准备 前进:开拓新的道路,采取新的行动。 ——美国总统 G. 布什

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3. A man is either free or he is not. There cannot be any apprenticeship for freedom. — I. A. Baraka, French writer 人要么是自由的,要么是不自由的,从来就不存在 过渡阶段。 ——法国作家 I. A. 巴拉卡

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4. Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? — Patrick Henry, American revolutionary
难道生命如此宝贵,和平如此甜美,以至于不惜以 枷锁和奴役为代价来换取吗? ——美国革命家 P. 亨利

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5. Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth. — George Washington, Father of the United States 自由一旦生根,便是棵迅猛生长的植物。 ——美国国父 G. 华盛顿

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Culture Notes Reading Comprehension Tasks

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Culture Notes

Who Is Rosa Parks? An Interview with Rosa Parks
NAACP

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Comprehension Task

A Video Clip Discussion

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Who Is Rosa Parks?
Rosa Parks, the “mother of the civil rights movement” was one of the most important citizens of the 20th century. Mrs. Parks was a seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama when, in December of 1955, she refused to give up her seat on a city bus to make room for a white passenger. The bus driver had her arrested. She was tried and convicted of violating a local ordinance.

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Her act sparked a citywide boycott of the bus system by blacks that lasted more than a year. The boycott resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on city buses. Over the next four decades, she helped make her fellow Americans aware of the history of the civil rights struggle. This pioneer in the struggle for racial equality was the recipient of innumerable honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Her example remains an inspiration to freedom-loving people everywhere.

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An Interview with Rosa Parks Question: What people inspired you as a child?

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Question: Could you tell us exactly what happened that day on that Montgomery bus?

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My mother was a teacher in a little school, and she believed in freedom and equality for people, and did not have the notion that we were supposed to live as we did, under legally enforced racial segregation. She didn?t believe in it.

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I was arrested on December 1st, 1955 for refusing to stand up on the orders of the bus driver, after the white seats had been occupied in the front. And of course, I was not in the front of the bus as many people have written and spoken that I was — that I got on the bus and took the front seat, but I did not. I took a seat that was just back of where the white people were sitting, in fact, the last seat. A man was next to the window, and I took an aisle seat and there were two women across. We went on undisturbed until about the second or third stop when some white people boarded the

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bus and left one man standing. And when the driver noticed him standing, he told us to stand up and let him have those seats. He referred to them as front seats. And when the other three people — after some hesitancy — stood up, he wanted to know if I was going to stand up, and I was not. And he told me he would have me arrested. And I told him he may do that. And of course, he did.

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NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”.

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Rosa Parks: the Mother of the American Civil Rights Movement Nancy Steinbach Until the 1960?s, black people in many parts of the United States did not have the same civil rights as white people. Laws in the American South kept the two races separate. These laws forced black people to attend separate schools, live in separate areas of a city and sit in separate areas on a bus.

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On December 1, 1955, in the southern city of Montgomery, Alabama, a forty-two year old black woman got on a city bus. The law at that time required black people seated in one area of the bus to give up their seats to white people who wanted them. The woman refused to do this and was detained for this offense. This act of peaceful disobedience started protests in Montgomery that eventually led to legal changes in minority rights, ushering in a new era of the civil rights movement in the United States. The woman who started it was Rosa Parks.

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She was born Rosa Louise McCauley in 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. She attended local schools until she was eleven years old. Then she was sent to school in Montgomery. She left high school early to care for her sick grandmother, then to care for her mother. She did not finish high school until she was twenty-one. Rosa married Raymond Parks in 1932. He was a barber. He was also a civil rights activist. Together, they worked for the local group of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 1943, Mrs. Parks became an officer in the group and later its youth leader.

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Rosa Parks worked as a seamstress in Montgomery from the 1930?s until 1955. Then she became a representation of freedom for millions of AfricanAmericans. In much of the American South in the 1950?s, the first rows of seats on city buses were for white people only. Black people sat in the back of the bus. Both groups could sit in a middle area. However, black people sitting in that part of the bus were expected to leave their seats if a white person wanted to sit there.

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Rosa Parks and three other black people were seated in the middle area of the bus when a white person got on the bus and wanted a seat. The bus driver demanded that all four black people leave their seats so the white person would not have to sit next to any of them. The three other blacks got up, but Mrs. Parks refused. She was arrested. Some popular stories about that incident include the statement that Rosa Parks refused to leave her seat because her feet were tired. But she herself said in later years that this was false. What she was really tired of, she said, was accepting unequal treatment. She explained later that this seemed to be the place for her to stop being pushed around and to find out what human rights she had, if any.

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A group of black activist women in Montgomery was known as the Women?s Political Council. The group was working to oppose the mistreatment of black bus passengers. Blacks had been arrested and even killed for violating orders from bus drivers. Rosa Parks was not the first black person to refuse to give up a seat on the bus for a white person. But black groups in Montgomery considered her to be the right citizen around whom to build a protest because she was one of the finest citizens of the city.

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The women?s group immediately called for all blacks in the city to refuse to ride on city buses on the day of Mrs. Parks?s trial, Monday, December fifth. The result was that forty thousand people walked and used other transportation on that day. That night, at meetings throughout the city, blacks in Montgomery agreed to continue to boycott the city buses until their mistreatment stopped. They also demanded that the city hire black bus drivers and that anyone be permitted to sit in the middle of the bus and not have to get up for anyone else.

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The Montgomery bus boycott continued for 381 days. It was led by local black leader E.D. Nixon and a young black minister, Martin Luther King, Junior. Similar protests were held in other southern cities. Finally, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on Mrs. Parks?s case. It made racial separation illegal on city buses. That decision came on November 13, 1956, almost a year after Mrs. Parks?s arrest. The boycott in Montgomery ended the day after the court order arrived, December twentieth.

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Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Junior had started a movement of non-violent protest in the South. That movement changed civil rights in the United States forever. Martin Luther King became its famous spokesman, but he did not live to see many of the results of his work. Rosa Parks did. Life became increasingly difficult for Rosa Parks and her family after the bus boycott. She was dismissed from her job and could not find another. So the Parks family left Montgomery. They moved first to Virginia, then to Detroit, Michigan. Mrs. Parks worked as a seamstress until 1965. Then, Michigan Representative John Conyers gave her a job working in his congressional office in Detroit. She retired from that job in 1988.

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Through the years, Rosa Parks continued to work for the NAACP and appeared at civil rights events. She was a quiet woman and often seemed uneasy with her fame. But she said that she wanted to help people, especially young people, to make useful lives for themselves and to help others. In 1987, she founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development to improve the lives of black children. Rosa Parks received two of the nation?s highest honors for her civil rights activism. In 1996, President Clinton honored her with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. And in 1999, she received the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor.

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In her later years, Rosa Parks was often asked how much relations between the races had improved since the civil rights laws were passed in the 1960?s. She thought there was still a long way to go. Yet she remained the face of the movement for racial equality in the United States. Rosa Parks died on October 24, 2005. She was ninety-two years old. Her body lay in honor in the United States Capitol building in Washington. She was the first American woman to be so honored. Thirty thousand people walked silently past her body to show their respect.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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Representative Conyers spoke about what this woman of quiet strength meant to the nation. He said: “There are very few people who can say their actions and conduct changed the face of the nation. Rosa Parks is one of those individuals.”

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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detain: vt. force (sb.) officially to stay in a place
Several of the injured were detained overnight in hospital. 警方已经对两个嫌疑犯进行拘留审问。 Two suspects have been detained by the police for questioning.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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lead to: cause (sth.) to happen or cause (sb.) to do sth.
Reducing speed limits should lead to fewer deaths on the roads.

导致第一次世界大战爆发的事件
the events that led to the start of the First World War

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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legal: adj. allowed or done according to the law; connected with the law
your legal rights 公司所做的事情完全合法。 What the company has done is perfectly legal.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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usher in: cause (sth. new) to start Yesterday?s match between the Huston Rockets and Los Angeles Lakers ushered in the start of the new NBA season.

石油的发现开创了一个高就业和繁荣的时代。
The discovery of oil ushered in an era of employment and prosperity.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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activist: n. sb. who works to achieve social or political change
The firm has been targeted by animal rights activists. 环境保护主义者 environmental activists

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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advancement: n. progress or development in one?s job or in one?s social position
advancements in science All she was interested in was the advancement of her own career. 她只对自己事业的发展感兴趣。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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representation: n. sth. that represents
Children get no representation in most countries. The clock in the painting is a symbolic representation of the passage of time. 画里的钟象征着时间的流逝。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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arrest: vt. seize with the authority of the law The police arrested her for drinking and driving.

他被逮捕并被指控谋杀。
He was arrested and charged with murder.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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be tired of: become bored with (sb. or sth.)
I?m tired of watching television; let?s go for a walk.

卢克很快就对他的新玩具感到厌倦了。
Luke was soon tired of his new toy.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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push (sb.) about/around: tell (sb.) what to do in an impolite or threatening way He sometimes felt his boss was trying to push him around.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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oppose: vt. disagree with (sth.) and try to prevent (it) from happening Most of the local residents opposed the closing of their hospital.
教会强烈反对同性结婚。 The Church strongly opposes same-sex marriage.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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trial: n. a legal process in which a court of law decides whether or not sb. is guilty of a crime
The trial is due to take place next month. 一个来自西雅图的男人正因谋杀罪受审。 A man from Seattle is on trial for the murder.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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transportation: n. a system or method for carrying passengers or goods from one place to another The price includes air transportation, hotels, and some meals.
这个城市需要改进公共交通。

The city needs to improve its public transportation.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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throughout: prep. in every part of (sth.); during the whole period of (sth.)
The H1N1 flu spread rapidly throughout the world. 整个美国都庆祝感恩节。 Thanksgiving is celebrated throughout the U.S.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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boycott:
1. v. refuse to buy, use, or take part in (sth.) as a way of protesting The union called on its members to boycott the meeting.

我们抵制所有用动物做实验的产品。
We boycott all products tested on animals. 2. n. the act or an instance of boycotting A boycott of/against goods from the EU (European Union) began in June.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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spokesman: n. sb. who has been chosen to speak officially for a group, organization, government, etc. (also spokesperson, spokeswoman) a spokesman for the victims? families
白宫发言人 a White House spokesman

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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representative: n. sb. who is chosen to do things, speak, vote, etc. for sb. else
He is an elected representative of the school. 这家公司在每个欧洲城市都有两个代表。 The firm has two representatives in every European city.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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fame: n. the state of being known about by a lot of people because of one?s achievements Jackson won/achieved/gained fame as a singer before she became an actress.
在那时,甲壳虫乐队处于他们的名誉巅峰。 At that time, the Beatles were at the height of their fame.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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equality: n. a situation in which people have the same rights, status, etc. Women have yet to achieve full equality with men in the workplace.
所有人都享有机会平等的权利。 All people have the right to equality of opportunity.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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lie in honor/state: (dead body of an important person) be put in a public place so that people can go and look at it to show respect He lay on the marble slab in the centre of the tiny chapel like a king lying in state.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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This act of peaceful disobedience started protests in Montgomery that eventually led to legal changes in minority rights, ushering in a new era of the civil rights movement in the United States. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 这一和平的不服从行为在蒙哥马利引发了抗议,最终使 少数民族权利在法律上发生了变化,开创了美国民权运 动的新时代。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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She explained later that this seemed to be the place for her to stop being pushed around and to find out what human rights she had, if any. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 后来她解释说,这儿似乎是她结束受人摆布,弄清她究 竟有何人权的地方,如果她真享有人权的话。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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But black groups in Montgomery considered her to be the right citizen around whom to build a protest because she was one of the finest citizens of the city. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

但是,蒙哥马利的黑人团体认为应该团结在她周围组织 抗议活动,她是适合担此重任的公民,因为她是该市最 优秀的公民之一。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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He said: “There are very few people who can say their actions and conduct changed the face of the nation. Rosa Parks is one of those individuals.”

Translate the sentence into Chinese.
他说:“只有极少人能说自己的行动和行为改变了国家 的面貌。罗莎?帕克就是那些人中的一个。”

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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A Video Clip Watch the video clip and fill in the form with information about Rosa Parks.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
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Her job Place where she lived Her function in the NAACP What she decided to do one day on her way home from work by bus? What she replied when the bus driver threatened her? What happened to her consequently?

Seamstress Montgomery, Alabama Secretary of local Chapter of the NAACP She refused to give up her seat for a white man. “You may go and do so.” She was arrested.

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Discussion A recently released report on sex discrimination by the Centre for Women?s Law and Legal Services at Beijing University has revealed the extent of sex-based discrimination in the workplace in China. The report is based on a survey of 3,000 respondents. Almost one-quarter of all people surveyed said they believed they had been refused employment due to sex-based discrimination; 23.6% of those surveyed said they had been passed over for a job because of their female sex.

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The report concluded that female workers occupied a lower position in the general employment structure: 76.4% of those surveyed worked in education, medical services, scientific research, sales, advertising, marketing, restaurant and manufacturing sectors. Only 11.8%, 2.2% and 11.2% worked respectively in government, the legal or auditing/accounting sectors.

Do you feel or know of any sex discrimination in your life? What are your views on this subject?


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