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Planning


Planning
Iris & If

Plans are nothing ; planning is everything .
------- Dwight D Eisenhower

计划不是最重要的,计划的过程才是最重要的。 计划不是最重要的,计划的过程才是最重要的。

Business Plan
A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals.

Why Do Managers Plan?
– planning is the primary management function that establishes the basis for all other management functions – planning gives direction – planning reduces uncertainty – planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities – planning establishes goals and standards used in controlling

Traditional Objective Setting
T op M agem t’s an en O jectiv b e “W n e eed to im prov e th com an perform e p y’s ance”

D ision iv M anager’s O jectiv b e

“I w to see a ant sign ifican im rov en t p em t in this d ision’s p iv rofits”

D artm t ep en M anager’s O jectiv b e In iv u d id al E p m loyee’s O bjectiv e

“Increase p rofits, regard less of th m s” e ean

“D on’t w orry abou t q ality: ju w u st ork fast”

Types of Plans
strategic plans - apply to the entire organization –establish organization’s overall goals –seek to position the organization in terms of its environment tactical plans - specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved –tend to cover short time periods

Types of Plans
? long-term plans - time frame beyond three years – definition of long term has changed with increasingly uncertain organizational environments ? short-term plans - cover one year or less ? specific plans - clearly defined with little room for interpretation – required clarity and predictability often do not exist ? directional plans - flexible plans that set out general guidelines – provide focus without limiting courses of action

Types of Plans
? single-use plans一次性计划 - one-time plans specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation ? standing plans持续性计划 - ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly
– include policies, procedures, and rules

You plan should include :
? An executive summary ? A short description of the business opportunity ? Your marketing and sales strategy ? Your management team and personnel ? Your operations ? Financial forecasts

Planning In The Hierarchy Of Organizations
Strategic Plann ing

Top Executives

Middle-Level Managers

O perational Planning

First-Level Managers

Effective Plan
Most effective plan is a workable document used by organizational members for direction and guidance
如果计划是可操作性的,它为组织成员支 如果计划是可操作性的, 出实际的努力方向和对实施提供指导, 出实际的努力方向和对实施提供指导,这 才是最有效的

The End
Thank you


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