当前位置:首页 >> 英语学习 >>

商务英语翻译教案(英译汉)


商务英语翻译 (英译汉) 2010 — 2011第一学期 适用班级 08商务英语(专科)1-2班
唐汝萍

? 课程安排与要求
? 1. 学时数:大约34。
? 2. 教学方法:讲授→练习(课堂讨论式、自测、口

?
? ? ?

译、笔译)→实践(课后独立式)→讲评。 3.以本教材为蓝本,某些章节适当补充一些技巧及 练习。 4. 教材中规定必学章节有:见教材《商务英语翻译 教程》(笔译)。 5. 每位学生需准备草稿本、笔记本、作业本(统一 规格)和红笔,最好每次课都带词典(英汉)。 6. 每次课需考勤,有要事需事先请假。

? 7. 必读的参考书目:见教材P279-280。(可

选择性地阅读)

?

?
? ?

? ?

英汉标点符号对比 英汉汉英翻译常见的标点符号对比: (1)汉语的省略符号是六个点 “……‖,而 英语的是三个点 “ … ‖; (2)英语文本中不能用“&”代替and,只有 在专有名词中或构成专有名词之一部分时才 可以。 China National Metal Products Import & Export Co. 中国五金制品进出口公司

? (3)汉语表示起止用的“~‖符号,而在英语

? ?

?
?

?
?

中用的连字符是“—‖,如“1979 ~1989‖写 作 “1979 - 1989‖。 (4) 在需要保留原文的引文时,应按照英语的 表达句式处理译文中的标点符号。例如: 原文: 他说:“好的,我同意。” 译文: “It’s OK‖, said he, ― I agree with you. ‖

? (5)汉语中有书名号,而英语则将其改为每 ? ? ? ? ?

个首字母大写。例如: Gone with the Wind (电影名) 《飘》 Translation Course(书名) 《翻译教程》 《红楼梦》A Dream of Red Mansions(小说名) (6)英语的句号是圆点“.‖, 而 汉语的是小 圆圈“。”。 (7)汉语的破折号“——‖又称为双字线, 英文的是单字线“—‖。

? 8. 英语中没有顿号, 而是逗号。翻译时应将逗

号改为顿号。例如: ? He can speak several foreign languages such as English, French, German and Japanese. ? 相关参考书: ? 李经伟,《英语标点符号用法指南》,金盾 出版社,2004,5 (价格:6元)

? 练习 (讨论、笔头翻译 ,做在草稿本上)

? 翻译下列句子,注意标点符号的处理(注意下划线部

分的转换):
?

? 1. Many new words have been added to the

English language in the past forty years.(增加 逗号) ? 2. Water and air are both necessary to man; the latter is more important. ? 3. All matter, regardless of state, has two things in common; it takes up room and it has weight. ? 4. We all agree with the idea that vitamin A is needed for healthy eyes.

? 5. There are two kinds of materials used in

engineering — metals and non-metals. ? 6. The solar energy — called radiant energy — can be changed into heat energy.

? 参考译文:
? 1. Many new words have been added to the

English language in the past forty years.(增加 逗号) ? 在过去四十年中,英语中又增加了许多词。 (增加逗号) ? 2. Water and air are both necessary to man; the latter is more important. ? 水和空气都是人类所必需的,而后者更为重 要。(原分号改为逗号)
?

? 3. All matter, regardless of state, has two

? ? ? ? ?

things in common; it takes up room and it has weight. 一切物质,不管其形态如何,都有两个共同点 :占有空间且具有重量。(原分号改为冒号) 4. We all agree with the idea that vitamin A is needed for healthy eyes. 我们都同意这个看法:维生素A对眼睛的健 康是不可少的。(增加冒号)

? 5. There are two kinds of materials used in

engineering — metals and non-metals. ? 工程上使用的材料有两种:金属和非金属。 (破折号改冒号) ? 6. The solar energy — called radiant energy — can be changed into heat energy.
? 称为辐射能的太阳能可以转换成热能。(破

折号取消)

Unit One Advertising 翻译知识 翻译的标准
(见教材P17-18)
? 补充: 我们在翻译实践中,如何来衡量译文水平的 高低和译文质量的优劣,如何评判与衡量译文好坏的尺 度,只有遵循翻译的标准。翻译标准是翻译活动必须遵 循的准绳。 ? 我国翻译事业迄今为止已有2000多年的历史。早在 前秦时代,译者对翻译标准就存在有不同的看法。译者 风格上就有直译与意译之分。在唐代,玄奘就已提出 “既须求真,又须喻俗”的翻译标准。然而,具有最大 影响,最有代表性的莫属清朝末年著名翻译家严复提出 的“信、达、雅”翻译标准。“信”是指译文忠实于原 文的内容和形式,即“意义不倍(背)本文”;“达” 是指译文通顺,不拘泥于原文的形式;“雅”则指译文 的风格优雅或文雅(刘重德1983)。
返回目录

? 严复提出的翻译标准在我国翻译史上起到了举足

轻重的作用,指明了翻译的正确方向,确定了翻 译实践中应遵循的原则和要求。从朱生豪的“神 韵说”,傅雷的“神似说”以及钱钟书的“化境 说”到鲁迅的“三美说”(许渊冲1984)无不是 这一翻译标准的产物。 ? 从严复提出的“信、达、雅”,到鲁迅的 “信”与“顺”,乃至目前翻译界所普遍认可的 “忠实”与“通顺”,其观点基本上是一致的。 “忠实”意为“信”,“通顺”意为“达”。钱 歌川先生对“信”的看法是,“所谓信,就是忠 实。也就是翻译正确而无错误”(钱歌川 1980)。 “所谓信是对原文忠实,恰如其分地把原文的意 思,用恰当的中文表达出来,即令字面不同,只 要含义不错,也就算是信了。我们翻译的单位, 至少应该是句,而不是字。要能把一段为一个单 位,自然更好了。原作者的思想感情和他的语言 风格,

? 我们至少把它融会贯通,合成一体,使意义和声调

配合无间,译文才能完全表达原文,所以说对原文 忠实,不止是对表面的字义忠实,必须对原文的思 想、感情、风格、声调、节奏等等,都要忠实才行” (钱歌川 1981)。 ? 在翻译实践中,译文不但要符合原意,保持原 作的风格,而且译文要通顺流畅,符合语言规范。 如何使译文忠实、通顺,译者首先应对原作有透彻 的理解,然后把所理解的东西用另一种语言加以准 确的表达。透彻的理解和确切的表达都不是十分容 易的事,但忠实、通顺的翻译标准应当是我们的理 想和努力的方向(张培基 1980)。

? 翻译标准

? 信达雅(严复)
? 等效论(瞿秋白) ? 神似说(傅雷) ? 化境说(钱钟书) ? 发扬译文语言优势(许渊冲)

? 信达雅(严复)

? “译事三难:信、达、雅。求其信已大难矣!

顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也,则达尚 焉。……译文取明深义,故词句之间,时有 所颠倒附益,不斤斤于字比句次,而意义则 不倍于本文。” ? Cf泰特勒三原则:
? 译作应完全复写出原作的思想

? 译作的风格和手法应和原作属于同一性质
? 译作应具备原作所具有的通顺

? 等效论(瞿秋白)

? “……翻译应当把原文的本意,完全正确的

介绍给中国读者,使中国读者所得到的概念 等 于 英 俄 日 德 法 ……读 者 从 原 文得来 的 概 念,……” ? Cf奈达“读者反应论”
? 一部译作译得是否正确,必须以读者的反应为标

准。倘若译文读者作出的反应基本等同于原文读 者对原作的反应,那就可以认为这部译作是成功 的。

? 神似说(傅雷)

? “以效果而论,翻译应当像临画一样,所求

的不在形似而在神似。以实际工作而论,翻 译比临画更难。临画与原画,素材相同(颜 色、画布,或纸或绢),法则相同(色彩学、 解剖学、透视学)。译本与原作,文字既不 侔,规则又大异。各种文字各有特色,各有 无可模仿的优点,各有无法补救的缺陷,同 时又各有不能侵犯的戒律。”

? 化境说(钱钟书)

?

“文学翻译的最高标准是‘化’,把作 品从一国文字转变成另一国文字,既能不因 语言习惯的差异而露出生硬牵强的痕迹,又 能完全保存原有的风味,那就算得入于‘化 境’。十七世纪一个英国人赞美这种造诣高 的翻译,比为原作的‘投胎转世’,躯壳换 了一个,而精魂依然故我。换句话说,译本 对原作应该忠实得以至于读起来不像译本。 因为作品在原文里决不会读起来像经过翻译 似的。”

? 发扬译文语言优势(许渊冲)
? “忠实于原文内容,通顺的译文形式,发扬

译文语言的优势 ,可以当作文学翻译的标 准。” ? “翻译可以不发扬译文语言的优势,但发扬 了译文语言优势的译文却是更好的翻译。是 否符合必要条件是个对错问题,是否符合充 分条件却是个好坏问题。”

? 见补充教案 ? 1.“广告翻译” ? 2.“影视翻译”

? Translate the following sentences, paying ? ? ?

?

attention to ―run‖ .(做在草稿本上) 1. We run machines with electricity. 2. The hot metal was run into a mold. 3. While the pump runs, make the hourly checks listed below: bearing temperature, suction and discharge pressure… 4. The base is gradually sloped toward the back so the coolant runs directly to the tank.

? 5. Wet surface grinding test were run with

Type IAI wheels… ? 6. Workhouses in England are run on a special system… ? 7. Coolant temperature runs about 540°F leaving the reactor, and 500°F entering it. ? 8. The fuel is running shot.
?

? 9. Two cables, thirty miles long, run under

the sea from England to France. ? 10. At a certain temperature, the metals in the bush will seize or run, and this will prevent damage to the shaft.

? 参考译文:

1. We run machines with electricity. 我们用电开动机器。 ? 2. The hot metal was run into a mold. ? 高温金属液被浇入铸模里。 ? 3. While the pump runs, make the hourly checks listed below: bearing temperature, suction and discharge pressure…
? 泵工作时,每小时检查一次以下内容:轴承的温度、

抽气和放气时的压力……

? 4. The base is gradually sloped toward the back so
?

?
? ? ?

the coolant runs directly to the tank. 底部逐渐向后倾斜,以便让冷却液直接流入冷却箱。 5. Wet surface grinding test were run with Type IAI wheels… 湿法平面磨试验用IAI型磨轮进行…… 6. Workhouses in England are run on a special system… 英国的救济院采用一种特殊体制来管理。

? 7. Coolant temperature runs about 540°F

leaving the reactor, and 500°F entering it. ? 冷却液进入反应堆时温度约为华氏500度,离 开反应堆时温度为华氏540度。 ? 8. The fuel is running shot. ? 燃料快要用完了。

? 9. Two cables, thirty miles long, run under

the sea from England to France. ? 英国和法国之间铺设有两条长达30英里的海 底电缆。 ? 10. At a certain temperature, the metals in the bush will seize or run, and this will prevent damage to the shaft.
? 当温度达到一定的高度时,轴承的金属将会

卡住或滚动,这样就能防止轴杆受损。

? Operate?(做在作业本上):
? 1. Automatic cells can operate without being

charged for decades. ? 2. Energy will operate some changes under this temperature. ? 3. The computer can operate only according to instructions. ? 4. In a future conflict, aircraft will have to operate under the threat of missiles.

? 5. Storage cells can be used to operate

automobiles. ? 6. The doctor decided to operate on him immediately. ? 7. Rockets operate in the vacuum of outer space. ? 8. The old worker teaches him how to operate machines.

? 9. This company operates only domestically.

? 10. The new motor operates well.

? 参考译文:

? 1. Automatic cells can operate without being
? ?

?
? ?

charged for decades. 自动电池数十年不充电也能使用。 2. Energy will operate some changes under this temperature. 这样的温度将会引起一些能量变化。 3. The computer can operate only according to instructions. 电脑只能按指令运行。

? 4. In a future conflict, aircraft will have to

cells operate under the threat of missiles.
? 在未来的战事中,飞机参战将面临导弹的威 ?

?
? ?

胁。 5. Storage can be used to operate automobiles. 蓄电池可用来发动汽车。 6. The doctor decided to operate on him immediately. 医生决定马上给他动手术。

? 7. Rockets operate in the vacuum of outer space.

? 火箭在外层空间的真空状态下飞行。
? 8. The old worker teaches him how to operate

?
? ? ? ?

machines. 老工人教他怎样开机器。 9. This company operates only domestically. 这家公司只经营国产品。 10. The new motor operates well. 新机器运转正常。

? .练习(课堂笔头作业1—10):
? Translate the following sntences, paying attention to

the meaning of verb phrase ―pick up‖ in each sentence

? 1. He stooped and picked up the broken glass. ? 2. Mother picked up the crying child.

? 3. Survivors of the air disaster were picked up

by small boats. ? 4. His health and spirits picked up after a week at the seaside. ? 5. How did you manage to pick up the language in such a short period of time?

? 6. ―I heard that the famous expert is going to ? ? ? ?

?

our college next week.‖ ―Where did you pick that up?‖ 7. Could you pick me up sometime before seven? 8. These murderers were picked up within 48 hours. 9. She picked up a used camera at the flea. 10. Consumption of wines and spirits picked up again before the National Day.

?

Unit Seven International Trade
翻译知识 涉外商务信函的翻译
(见教材P127)

返回目录

? Inside Address :
? 翻译下列地址: ? 1. Smith & James, Co., Ltd. ? ? ? ?

?
?

500 Norton Bldg. Seattle 4, Wash. U. S. A. (Bldg. = Building; Ltd. = Limited;Wash. = Washington ) 译文: (美国华盛顿州西雅图市第四邮区偌顿大楼500号 史密斯 · 詹姆斯股份有限公司启)

2. (To) The Manager The Pacific Railway Co., Inc. San Francisco 5, Cal. U. S. A. (Cal. = California 美国加州 ) 译文: 美国加州旧金山市第五邮区 太平洋铁路联合企业股份有限公司 经理先生

? 询价函

? 阅读并翻译下列信函,注意划线部分的译文。
?

?

? 1. 买方询价 (注意划线部分的翻译) ? 15 May, 20— ? The Japan Trading Co., Ltd. , ? Marunouchi, Tokyo. ? Dear Sirs, ? Seeing your advertisement in the Japan Trade Directory,

?

? ? ?

we ask you will kindly send us as soon as possible your latest price list of Japanese sundry goods, including synthetic fibre goods, with the lowest quotations, together with an illustrated catalogue. We shall be pleased to have you inform us of your best terms and conditions, and also your references. Ours are the London Bank, Ltd., London. Looking forward to receiving your immediate reply. Yours very truly, (Signature) ? James Traylor, President

? 译文:
? (划线部分译文):

? the Japan Trade Directory

? 日本贸易指南
? price list

? 报价表
? sundry goods ? 杂货

? synthetic fibre goods
? 合成纤维制品

?

? the lowest quotations

? 最低报价
? illustrated catalogue

? 附图(照)片的目录
? terms and conditions ? 条件、条款 ? references ? 资信

? 书信译文:

? 尊敬的先生:

从日本贸易指南中看到贵公司的广告,请贵公 司尽快惠寄日本产化学纤维杂货最新价目单和带有 图(照)片的商品目录,以及最优惠的报价为盼。 ? 同时,我公司也渴望了解贵公司最优惠的交易 条件和有关的资信情况。 ? 我公司业务往来银行是伦敦股份有限银行。盼 早日回复为荷。
? ? ? ?

J.T. 股份有限公司总经理 J.T. 敬上 20—年5月15日

?

2. 回信 (注意划线部分的翻译)

? ? ? ? ? ?

20 May, 20—
James Traylor & Co., Ltd., Leadenhall Street, London, E. C. 2. Dear Sirs, In reply to your esteemed letter of 15 May, we are now sending you enclosed herein our latest price list for Japanese Sundry Goods, together with our illustrated catalogue. As you will see in the above list, we have bid you the lowest prices, offering you our best quality goods, which we believe will induce you to favour us with your valued orders.

?

?
?

? ? ? ? ?

As for the samples, which if you require, we shall be pleased to send you on request. Our bankers are The East Japan Bank, Ltd., to whose branch house in London we refer you as to our standing. We await with deep interest to receive your immediate reply. Yours very truly, (signature) T. Iino. President

? 译文:
? (划线部分译文): ? to bid the lowest prices ? 买方递最低价格 ? best quality goods ? 优质商品 ? on request ? 承蒙

? our bankers
? 业务往来银行 ?

? We refer you to

? 请贵公司向……查询
? Standing ? 信用情况 ? branch house (office) ? 分公司

? 书信译文:
? 尊敬的先生:

5月15日来函收悉。现回复如下:今随函寄上我公司 日产杂货最新的价格表和有图(照)片的商品目录。从中 你会察觉,我公司以最低的价格向你提供优质商品。相信 定会获得贵公司的惠顾、订购。 ? 如若你公司需要样品,请赐函,定按照你司要求寄上。 ? 我司业务往来银行为东日本(股份有限)银行。有关 我司的资信情况,请径洽日本银行伦敦分行。 ? 我公司以浓厚的兴趣,恭候你公司的尽快回复。
?

?
? ?

?

日本贸易股份有限公司 总经理 饭野太郎 敬上 20—年5月20日

?

3. 买方询盘 (注意划线部分的翻译)

May 23, 20—

? The American Trading Co., Inc. ? Marunouchi, Tokyo ? Re Offering Printing Machines ? Gentlemen, ? We hand you enclosed drawings of two printing machines,

requesting you to inform us by return of the price and the time when you can deliver them. ? If your quotations are suitable and the machines prove satisfactory, we shall be able to place you with orders, as we are in need of some more machines to complete our factory plant. We shall be pleased if your representatives should call on us shortly. ? Yours very truly, ? (signature) T. Yada, Managing Director

? ?

译文: (划线部分译文): The American Trading Co., Inc. 美国贸易股份有限公司(Inc.: Incorporated, 美用; Ltd: Limited,英、日、中用) to hand one enclosed 随信附上 drawings 图纸,图样 printing machines 印刷机

by return 请回信 place orders 订购 factory plant 工厂设备 shortly 近日内 managing director 常务董事

?

书信译文: 要求对印刷机报价 随函附寄两台印刷机的图样,回信时,请告知该机的 价格和交货的日期。如贵公司的报价合适,机器质量令人满 意,我们拟向贵公司订购。为完成工厂的装备,我们正需要 若干机器,如贵司代表在近日内能到达我公司,则表示欢迎。
?

?
? ?

小樽印刷股份有限公司 常务董事 矢田太郎 敬上 20-年5月23日

? ? ?
? ?

? ? ?

4. 回信 (注意划线部分的翻译) May 25, 20— The Otaru Printing Co., Ltd. Otaru ? Re Printing Machines Gentlemen, We have received your esteemed letter of May 23 on the captioned matter, with drawings, and in anticipation of receiving your commands we quote you for the two printing machines as follows: No.1 at ?450,000 No. 2 at ?370,000 ex works, Osaki, Tokyo, net cash. Our quotations are so low that there will no other firm that is in a

? position to make you a more favorable bid, and

deliver faultless workmanship. We trust therefore that you will pass us orders. In a few days our representative Mr. K. Oka will have the pleasure of calling upon you, as we hope receive your valued orders. ? Yours very truly, ? (signature)
?

James Whitman, Manager

? 译文:
? (划线部分译文):

? on the captioned matter
? 关于上述事项,有关标题事

? commands ? (=order)订购

? quote
? 报价 ? net cash ? (=net cash payment)现金支付 ?

? favorable bid

? 有利的递价
? faultless workmanship

? 最完美的货品
? to pass orders ? (=to give orders) 订货 ? valued orders ? 大量订购

? Unit Eight Finance and Securities

翻译知识 ? 商务英语语篇的文体特点与翻译
(见教材P157 - 159)

? 句法特点(Business expressions and short sentences

补充商业用语与短句的实例以及翻译)。 ? 讲译: ? Enquiry (英) Inquiry (美)询价(询盘),系交易 前,一方向对方洽询有关商品的价格、数量、交货时 间、付款条件以及折扣等的统称,为交易前必经的步 骤。通常是一方请求对方提供 price list (价格表), catalogue (商品目录 ),sample (样品), pattern 款式,型号(模型)等。
?

? 翻译下列句子。(原文见发放的资料)
? 1. 询价(询盘) P181 ? 1——10题。

? 2.询价的提出与受理 P182 - 185
? 1-——35题。 ? 3. 询价,询盘和报价,报盘(Inquiries &

Quotation) P228 - 231 ? 1 ——15题; 1——13题。 ? 4. 复函——卖方报价(Replies – Quotations Given) ? 1——7题 P233; 14 ——21题 P237; 1——12题 P241。
?

? 5. 付款条件(Terms of Payment)P266 – 267

? 1——14 P 268 — 269。
? 6. 询求样品 (Samples, Patterns, Specimens,

etc. requested) ? 2——10题。 ? 7. 寄送样品(Samples, Patterns & Specimens Sent) ? 1——25题。
?

?

Unit Nine Marketing
Passage 1 Passage 7

? ?

返回目录

? Unit Ten Management and

Transportation ? 翻译知识 英汉互译中的语序对比 ? (见教材P189 - 192)
?

? 翻译下列句子?(笔头作业):

? 1. He came yesterday.
? 2. He drinks half a bottle of beer with

each of his meals. ? 3. He is not happy, though he is rich. ? 4. We ate to our hearts’ content at her home last Sunday.

5. Professor Tong is working with two of his new assistants in the laboratory at the moment. 6. Never have we seen so bright a future before us! 7. This university has six newly-established faculties, namely, Computer Science, High Energy Physics, Laser, Geo-physics, Remote Sensing, and Genetic Engineering.

? ?

? ?

?

译文 : ? 1. He came yesterday. 他昨天来的(或:昨天他来了) ? 2. He drinks half a bottle of beer with each of his meals. 每餐他都要喝半瓶啤酒。 ? 3. He is not happy, though he is rich. 他虽富有,但不幸福。 ? 4. We ate to our hearts’ content at her home last Sunday. 我们上星期天在她家尽情地吃了一顿。

5. Professor Tong is working with two of his new assistants in the laboratory at the moment. ? 童教授正在实验室和他的两个新助手一道工作。 6. Never have we seen so bright a future before us! ? 我们从来都没看见过这样光明的前途。 7. This university has six newly-established faculties, namely, Computer Science, High Energy Physics, Laser, Geo-physics, Remote Sensing, and Genetic Engineering. ? 这所大学现有计算机科学、高能物理、激光、 地球物理、遥感技术、遗传工程等六个新建的专 业。

B.语言对比小议 (节选) 王宗炎
? 3.语言对比与语言技能 ? 如果问,语言对比对提高技能有什么好处,任

何有经验的教师都能不假思索就举出好些实例。 下面这几个是信手拈来的。
比搞不清。例如:

? 1)学外语必须了解其词义,可是有些词语的意思非对

?

汉语的“中学毕业生”,英语得怎么说呢?美 国人说 a high school graduate, 这跟汉语差不多。 可是英国人的名称是 a school leaver,这在字面上就 跟汉语相去很远。School leaver的意义是什么呢? Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture 说,是a student who has just left or is about to leave school after completing a course of study, 这个定义有多少中国学生能熟悉呢?再说, 这只是英国人的说法。要是对美国人说,Jack is a school leaver, 他便认为是个dropout, 即辍学生。 返回目录

?

我们有宣传部,“宣传”在汉语指说明讲解, 这有积极意义。不过不要以为“宣传”与 propaganda相当。美国人认为, propaganda这个 词 “often used disparagingly to connote deception or distortion‖, 英国人也说这个词 “usu. Derog. Information that is spread in a planned or official way, esp. by a government, in order to influence public opinion‖(Longman D.)。 (2)学外语,必得学语法,可是汉英语法格式有 不少分歧,这也非对比不明。例如,汉语代词和 英语代词并不总是两两相当的。一般说来,“我” 等于“I”,“我行我素”相当于I’ll stick to my old practice。但“我”有时又相当于“we”, “我校”可译为my school,也可译为our school,“我军”只能译为our army,不能译为 my army。“敌、我、友”的“我”,常常指的 是we不是I。

? (3)一个人怎么看自己和对方,汉语和英语各有

不同的表现法。中国学生称同校的学生为“同 学”,中国教师也称学生为“同学”;可是按英 语习惯,前者对,后者不对。汉语“同事”常指 同在一起工作的人,等于associate;英语 colleague 则范围较宽,可指a fellow worker in the same profession(WNWCD)。武汉大学的教师不 会称北京大学的教师为“同事”,只会说他们是 “同行”、“同仁”。另一方面,一个英国教师 来到中国,他可能称中国教师为 my colleague(s)。 ? (4)我们的话语结构的标志,跟英语也有出入。 有个外国留学生说,“跟中国人打电话我常常不 知道他把话说完了没有,因为听不到good-bye 或 bye-bye。”他不知道,中国人说“就这样”,就 等于美国人说 so long,再也没有下文了。 ? 上头这些例子说明,为了掌握运用英语的技 能,我们得随时进行语言对比,尤其是语境对比。

? 4.语言对比与理论研究

从事语言教学或翻译工作的人,对各种语言 往往作出某种估计评价。下文根据所得的资料, 谈谈英语与汉语分歧和类似之处,并提出对语言 评价问题的一些看法。 ? A.两种语言的分歧 (1)同是一样东西,中国人和英国人的着眼点不 同,因此给以不同的名称。一般说black 相当于 “黑”,red相当于“红”。但英国的 black tea , 就是汉语的“红茶”,为什么呢?因为英国人注 意的是茶叶本身的颜色,我们注意的却是茶汤的 颜色。 ? (2)同是一种颜色,汉语和英语可能加以不同的 描绘。一般说来,blue相当于“青”或“蓝”, white 相当于“白”。然而我们说,“这人气得
?

? anger. (Longman D.), 或者 white with rage (The

Random House Dictionary of the English Language)。 ? (3)一种颜色象征什么,汉语和英语可能相去很远。 汉语“青眼”、“青睐”表示喜爱或重视, 英语 green-eyed 却表示妒忌。汉语“眼红”表示妒忌, 英语red-eye 却表示失眠(如 red-eye flight指路程 很远,睡不好觉的飞行,见 The New Oxford Dictionary of English)。 ? (4)有的东西,汉语和英语的分类法不同。“柑、 橘、橙”在我们看来分明是三类,英语却统称之为 orange(见陆谷孙主编《英汉大词典》); armchair 是一个人坐的, sofa 是两至三个人坐的, 英美人认为截然有别,我们却笼笼统统地都叫做 “沙发”。

? B.两种语言的类似 ? 在某些地方,英语和汉语有类似之处,而且

类似得出奇。 ? (1)两个相反的词可能表示相同的意义。这个现 象两种语言都有。英语before 与 back 是相反的, 可是 I told her that I had met John ten years before 与 I told her that I had met John ten years back ,意思并无不同。“老”是年纪大,“小” 是年纪小,彼此相反。可是“老儿子、老姑娘、 老妹子”并不表示排行在前,却表示排行在末了 (见《现代汉语词典》(修订本))。 (2)汉语有些话不易找到确切的解释:“龙马精神” 是什么精神,说不清;“气壮山河”是什么样子, 难以想象;我们说“久有凌云志”并非想上天。 英语有的话也难下定义:为什么horse sense 的意 思是 common sense ?为什么说He is as drunk as a skunk (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary) ?

? (3)我们有些民间流行的话,是先民曾相信占星术的证

? ?

?

?

?

据,如:“寿星”、“灾星”、“福星高照”、“别在太 岁头上动土”。无独有偶,英语也说: (a)He was born under an unlucky star. (b)There was a bad railway accident that night—you can thank your lucky stars that you didn’t travel by train. (Longman Dictionary of English Idioms) (4)汉语有谦称和敬称,英语也有,不过方式不同。汉 语的“贵姓”、“宝号”、“大作”、“拙见”完全是套 语,英语写信给素不相识的人也说Dear sir 或Dear madam,这 也完全是套语。 看了上头这些例子,你说在汉英两种语言中,哪一种 是更明晰,更合理,更有科学性和逻辑性的呢? 搞语言对比,非但提高了我们的语言能力,还提高了 我们的理论水平。因为我们由此建立了语言平等观。我们 认识到,就价值而论,汉语和英语相比是平等的;同时我 们还认为,汉语英语两者跟任何其他民族语言相比,也是 平等的。

? C.学外语得注意什么东西? ? 这是个十分复杂的问题,不易答复,但搞过语言对比的人

?

?

?

?

会知道,望文生义是危险的,把一种语言的习惯套在另一 种语言上是不可取的。 (1)我们常说“某人心肠好”,这表示他为人善良;英 语也说He has a good heart。 但 He has a bad heart 一般并不表示他满怀恶意,却表示他心脏有病 (Longman D.) 。 (2)我们常说“亡羊补牢”,英语也说 Shut the stable door after the horse has bolted (或has been stolen)。 不过汉语的意思是“未为晚也”,英语的意思却是“无补 于事”。 (3)我们会说,“这个人会自食前言”,英语也说 John will eat his words。不过前者表示的不守诺言,后 者表示的却是承认失言。 (4)我们常常听见骂人的话如“坏蛋”、“混蛋”、 “王八蛋”,英语也说品质恶劣的人是a bad egg 。但是 美国人还能说 He’s a good egg (WNWCD),我们却无类 似的说法。似同实异,似是而非,这在学外语时是常常碰 到的现象。为了避免犯错误,我们得加倍小心。 (结束)

? Unit Eleven Law, Contract and Agreement
? 翻译知识 商务合同、协议的英语翻译

?
? ? ? ?

1. 见教材P224 – 226 2. 见补充教案“法律英语” (本教案P366)

?

?

? ?

?

?

?

?

? 翻译技巧

? 1. 词量的增减 (见教案3

P 48 — 85 ) ? 2. 词类的转换 (见教案3 P 87 — 141 ) ? 3.长句的翻译 (见教案3 P142 —213) ? 3. 逆向思维的作用 ( 见教案3 P 214 — 最后 )

? 二.将下列段落译成汉语,注意斜体部分的翻译。 ? 1. Don‘t get the idea that English is a greedy language. It

doesn‘t just take words---it gives them away too. Foreign countries have adopted many of our words. English language books, magazines, moves , songs, and TV shows popularize English words around the globe. Email and the Internet are strong influences today, too.

? 2. Masks have been a tradition for centuries in China,

particularly representing characters from classical opera. Now the mask from Europe is having a revival, and collectors are looking for valuable period masks from the 1920s and 1930s.
? 3. In Windows XP, Microsoft is finally offering an

operating system designed for consumer use that offers solid security. The entire computer can be off-limits to anyone without a user name and password, and all individual users control who has access to their files.

? 4. Microsoft products have long been criticized for

sacrificing security in the interest of convenience, and nowhere has this been more true than in consumer operating systems. Windows XP Home goes halfway toward rectifying the problem. All the tools are there, but in the interest of making things easy, Microsoft‘s defaults allow too many of them to go unused.
? 5. English has been an international language for only 50

years. If the pattern follows the previous language trends, we still have about 100 years before a new language dominates the world. However, this does not mean that English is replacing or will replace other languages as many fear. Instead, it may supplement or co-exist with languages by allowing strangers to communicate across linguistic boundaries.

B. 英汉语句子结构常式比较 (节选) 马秉义
? 2.英语句子结构分析 ? 现代英语有五种基本句型,即SVP,SV,SVO,SVOO,

SVOC。这五种基本句型都可以分为三部分。
? SVO是现代英语句子结构的典型代表。英语句子以动词为中

心,前边有施动者,后面有受动者,没有动词就不能成其为 句子,缺了主语、宾语就是语法错误。因为凡事件的发生必 有动词,施动者和受动者,施动者是句子的主语,受动者是 句子的宾语,SVO是对整个事件的完整描绘,表示一个完整 的意义。 句子结构还是SVO三分。

? SVOO中的0即间接宾语,实际上是个状语,可以变为状语,

返回目录

? SVOC中的C是O的补语,OC不可分,称为复合宾语,实

际上也是三分结构SVO。英语五种基本句型中,SVP句型 使用最多,其频率可能占三分之一左右。这是语言受形式 逻辑调控的典型例子之一。所谓形式逻辑,其核心内容是 概念和判断。判断有三部分:主项,联项,谓项。到语法 分析时就是:主语,联系动词,表语。SVP中的V本不是什 么动作,也没有多少实在的意义,但是因为英语句子以动 词为中心,必有三个部分,也就造成了SVP,三个部分缺 一不可。 ? SV是两个部分,这是英语中唯一的可以两分的句子。但 是这种句子在英语里很少见。就这个句型而论:一、把不 及物动词转换为动作名词作宾语,如不说We walked , 而 说We took a walk. 不说He dreamed, 而说He dreamed a good dream 以此变化满足了三分的心理。二、不及物 动词后边常常需要有状语,如 We live in Zhengzhou, 而变为 SVA 句型号,还是三分。 ? 英语句子结构的三分,是英美人的语言心理。只要主动宾 齐全了,一个句子有了三部分,心理上就得到了满足,语 法上就是合格的句子了。不仅句子如此,段落也是三分, 即主题句,扩展句,结尾句。文章也是三分,即引言,中 间,结尾。组词也是如此,平行结构也往往是三个,音节 也是三个,如用ABC三个字母表示“基础知识”,而不用 AB两个字母,也不用ABCD四个字母。

? 3.汉语句子结构常式分析
? 汉语语言学界在谈到汉语句子结构时,有人认为是SVO型,

有人认为是SOV型。其实汉语造句不关心这些,也不大有 词类的概念,只要符合阴阳对立模式就行了。如“我喜欢 吃大米”。是一句SVO式的句子,结构完整,意思并不大 完整。因为在汉语里它不大会单独出现,总是前后还得有 点东西,构成阴阳对立。如:“我喜欢吃大米,不喜欢吃 馒头”。“我喜欢吃大米,他喜欢吃馒头。”“我喜欢吃 大米,有没有菜都行。”“你喜欢吃什么?我喜欢吃大 米。”等等。

? 汉语句子结构不像英语那样三分,它只有两个部分:话题

和说明。它的基础不是形式逻辑,而是阴阳辨证。中国的 远古先民们很早很早就对世界形成了阴阳对立的认识,传 说中的伏曦八卦是很久远的了,历经夏易、商易、周易, 一脉相承。《易经》中的思想和语言文字都是阴阳对立。 到《诗经》已经比较系统了,从诗经到现在中间经过了二 三千年,今天遣词造句依然如此。

? 《诗经》是中国最早的文学精华,记录的是西周初期至春秋

500年间的文学创作。所记诗篇大多都是四字一顿,八字一 句,前边的四个字是话题,后边的四个字是说明。如“关关 雎鸠,在河之舟。”汉朝诗歌继承了这样的传统,如曹操的 “何以解忧,唯有杜康。”到唐朝诗歌鼎盛,发展为五言, 五字一顿,十字一句。如李白的“白发三千丈,缘愁似个 长。”或者七言,七字一顿,十四字一句。如“两岸猿声啼 不住,轻舟已过万重山。”到宋朝的词,最长是九字一顿。 如“问君能有几多愁?恰似一江春水向东流。” ? 诗词的句子如此,散文的句子也大抵如此,从甲骨文算起,它 是占卜算卦的记录,与《易经》内容相同,其语句充满了阴阳 辨证思想。到春秋百家的文章,如孔子的《论语》,“子曰: 学而时习之,不宜悦乎?”一句话的结构大抵也是两分的。

? 汉语句子的阴阳对立,不在语法,而在语意,其独特之处。 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

张今先生(1997)把汉语句子的表意类型,归纳为七种: 语义相反型:先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐。(宋 ? 范 仲淹) 语义相异型:窗含西岭千秋雪,门泊东吴万里船。(唐 ? 杜 甫) 语义递进型:同是天涯沦落人,相逢何必曾相识。(唐 ? 白 居易) 反义衬托型:衣莫若新,人莫若故。(春秋 ? 晏子) 同义衬托型:有莠则锄,有疾则医。(宋 ? 苏轼) 正说反说型:改过不吝,从善如流。(宋 ? 苏轼) 同义强调型:同声相应,同气相求。(周易 ? 乾 ? 文言)

? 张先生进一步指出,诗词,民歌的句子语义结构如此,散 ? ?

?
? ? ?

?
? ?

文句子的语义结构也是如此。比如: 有理而无益于治者,君子弗言:有能而无益于事者,君子 弗为。(君文子) 水浊,则无掉尾之鱼;政苟,则无逸乐之士。(邓析子) 天地者,万物之逆旅也;光阴者,百代之过客也。(李白) 只影自怜,命寄江湖之上;惊魂未定,梦游缧绁之中。 (苏轼) 夜光之珠,不必出于孟津之河;盈握之壁,不必采于昆仑 之山。(刘义庆) 木秀于林,风必摧之;堆出于岸,流必湍之;行高于众, 众必非之。(李康《运命论》) 兰生幽谷,不为莫服而不芳;舟在江海,不为莫乘而不浮; 君子行义,不为莫知而止休。(淮南子) 满则虑兼,平则虑险,安则虑危。(荀子) 思焉而得,故其言深;感焉而得,故其言切;触焉而得, 故其言易。(苏洵)

? 不仅句子如此,句群也是这样。两个句子是一个句

群,两个阴阳就是一个四象。四象是最稳定的结构, 所以古诗、绝句都采取这种结构。两个五绝相加就 是五律,两个七绝相加就是七律。阴阳结构的思维 方式从组词、造句、到篇章,一以贯之。一般说的 文章结构是起、承、转、合,只是一个笼统的说法。 修辞也遵循阴阳逻辑,排比结构往往是四个,音节 也是四个,成语总要凑够四个字,如用“甲乙丙丁” 四个字而不是说“甲乙丙”。

第六章 翻译理论基础知识与技巧 (6) 翻译知识 翻译技巧的灵活运用
? 在翻译实践中,人们摸索和总结出了各种不同的翻译技巧。

其中比较常用的就是在不少研究翻译的书中几乎都要提到 的八种翻译方法,即:1. 重复法(repetition);2. 增词 法 (amplification);3. 省略法(omission);4. 词类转移 法(conversion);5. 词序调整法(inversion);6. 分译 法(division);7. 正反、反正表达法(negation);8. 语态转换法(the change of the voices)。由于英汉两种 语言在表达方式上的差异,如何妥善解决内容与形式之间 的矛盾,使译文内容忠实于原文、文字通顺、明确易懂, 灵活运用和处理翻译技巧就显得尤为重要了。本章并不一 一讨论这些翻译技巧,因为,讨论翻译技巧的书已出版了 不少,大家已经十分熟悉。本章重点讨论的是,在翻译过 程中,译者应如何灵活运用这些翻译技巧,并针对性地列 举一些例子来进行分析。
返回目录

? 1.Proverbs are the popular sayings that

brighten so much Latin American talk, the boiled-down wisdom that you are as apt to hear from professors as from peasants, from beggars as from elegants. Brief and colorful, they more often than not carry a sting. ? 译文:谚语是使拉丁美洲人民言谈生动活泼的流 行俗语,是洗练睿智的语言,大学教授说,田野 农夫也说,市井乞丐说,名门闺秀也说。谚语简 洁明快、丰富多彩,往往带刺。 ? 分析:从以上译文中,我们不难发现,译者在认 真阅读了原文后,对译文进行了适当的技巧处理。 对这段刚好50个字符的原文,译者灵活地运用了 以下翻译技巧:

? (1)词义的选择:灵活地将“brighten‖译为“生动活
?

? ? ?

?

泼”,将“elegants‖巧译为“名门闺秀”。 (2)重复法—四字词语的运用:为了使译文语言生动, 译者共用了四个四字词语,如将“brighten‖,“boileddown‖,“Brief‖和“colorful‖分别译成“生动活泼”, “洗练睿智”,“简洁明快”和“丰富多彩”。 (3)增词法:译文中增加了“说,也说”,“是”。 (4)省略法:在译文中省略了原文中的冠词“a‖和“the‖, 代词“you‖,并列连词“and‖以及介词“from as from‖。 (5)正反、反正表达法:原文中“not carry ‖否定式,译 文用了肯定式“带(刺)”。 当然,这一小段文字的翻译还可作进一步的分析。但现在 读者可以看出这段译文的精彩之处,译文不仅完整地再现 了原文的内容,而且读起来也流畅通顺。几个四字词语把 谚语的特点刻画得淋漓尽致。

? 2.I took home a briefcase full of troubles. As I

sat down on that hot and humid evening, there seemed to be no solutions to the problems thrashing around in my brain. So I picked up a book, settled into a comfortable chair and applied my own special therapy—super-slow reading. ? 译文:我带着满满一皮包伤脑筋的问题回到家里。 黄昏时分,既闷热,又潮湿,我坐下来,满脑子 翻腾起伏的问题似乎找不到解决办法。我只好拿 起一本书,坐在舒适的椅子里,施展自己的特殊 疗法了—那就是超慢速阅读。 ? 分析:在这段不足60个字符的原文中,译者灵活 地运用了五种翻译技巧:

? (1)词义的选择:① 动词:通过上下文,译者巧妙地将

“picked up,settled into‖和“applied‖分别译成“拿起 (一本书)”,“坐在(舒适的椅子里)”和“施展(自 己的特殊疗法)”。② 并列连词:“and‖译为“既又”.
?

(2 ) 省略法:① 省略了原文中的连词 “as‖, ―so‖; ②冠词; ③物主代词 “ my‖.

? (3)增词法:为了译文通顺的需要,第三句中增加了

“(我)只好(拿起一本书)‖一词.
? (4)分译法和词序调整法:原文中“As I sat down on

that hot and humid evening,‖这一时间状语从句,译者灵 活地运用了分译法和词序调整法:“黄昏时分,既闷热, 又潮湿,我坐下来,”。

? (见补充技巧:教案3 P150 - 188)

练习1
? 一.将下列句子译成汉语,注意灵活运用句子后面所给出
?

? ?

?

?

的翻译技巧。 1. Of the geese outside the side-gate who come waddling after me with their long necks stretched out when I go that way, I dream at night: as a man environed by wild beasts might dream of lions. (译文用分译、增词、 标点符号的处理以及词序调整等方法) 2. The large, handsome room was almost empty. (译文 用四字词语和顺译法) 3. She turns her hands so that the sun may catch them differently, and slightly lifts her head to warm the other side of her face. (译文用省略法和分译法) 4. Life for almost everybody is a long competitive struggle where very few can win the race, and those who do not win are unhappy.(译文用分译法和词序调整法) 5. It is frequently said that computers solve problems only because they are ―programmed‖ to do so.(译文用 语态转换法,分译法和增词法)

? 6. I believe that life is infinitesimally brief in relation to the

?

? ?

?

immensity of eternity.(译文用分译法) 7. When I try to understand what it is that prevents so many Americans from being a happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other.(译文用分 译法和正反表达法) 8. The sky is azure, evenly blue, hardly faded at the edge at all.(译文用正反表达法,增词法和省略法) 9. In 1970, he was placed under house arrest when he refused to use massive force in suppressing worker riots in the seaport.(译文用省略法,词序调整法和词义的选 择) 10. So cowed was their condition, and so long and so hard their experience of what such a man could do to them, within the law and beyond it, that not a voice, or a hand, or even an eye was raised. (译文用语态转换法, 分译法和增词法)

? 二.将下列段落译成汉语,注意灵活运用句子后面所给出

的翻译技巧。
? 1. I stooped to pick up my change and ticket from the

floor. I wondered how she would feel if she learned that the Negro before whom she had behaved in such an unladylike manner was habitually a white man. (译文用省 略法,标点符号的处理,分译法和词序调整法)
? 2. English is divesting itself if its political and cultural

connotations as more people realize that English is not the property of only a few countries. Instead, it is a vehicle that is used globally and will lead to more opportunities. It belongs to whoever uses it for whatever purpose or need. (译文用省略法,词序调整法,重复法和 标点符号的处理)

? 3. The world is in various stage of social, economical,

and demographic tradition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competition and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. (译文 用词序调整法,词义的选择,省略法,增词法,词类转换 法,和标点符号的处理)
? 4. Theatre and religion blur the lines between what is

real and what is imagined with their illusive sets, props, music, costumes and language. A good play ensnares us intellectually and emotionally in the conflicts among the characters as do most traditional narratives. (译文用 词序调整法,标点符号的处理,省略法,词义的选择以及 词类转换法)

? 5. Whatever you do, don‘t forget to include whole

fruits in both your and your children‘s diets. Whole fruits contain nutrients that don‘t survive the juicemaking process. You might also introduce your kids to the pleasures of a cool grass of water. On a hot summer‘s day or after a race around the playground, there‘s nothing like it. (译文用词序调 整法,正反、反正表达法,增词法,省略法以及词 义的选择)

? THE END-

Text B

差异(节选)

? 人类的神话1故事揭示了人与人之间有亲缘关系2,

这一点儿都不足为怪,因为所有的神话传说都试图 解释这个世界。而人类总面临许多相同的问题,有 着共同的基本需求3、欲望与恐惧。人们都需要爱 与被爱,都需要安全感,渴望了解生活、死亡、创 造与毁灭的奥秘。人与人需要彼此交流,也需要组 织他们的生活以便合作与竞争。人们都需要教育他 们的年轻一代4。所有的人们都需要艺术,显然人 们不只是从生理上紧密相联,人为的文化与文明5 也使人与人之间息息相关。
返回目录

? 人类学6与历史的研究使我们清晰地看到人们为了各自隐

蔽的目的,不管是政治的、社会的、经济的、还是宗教的, 而人为地制造出一些分歧7,夸大8了人类表面上的差别。 而事实上在许多基本的方面,我们的共同多于我们的差别。 我们穿着各异,但我们都穿着某种衣服。这是各自的文化 造成的。我们说不同的语言,但我们说话是为了让别人理 解我们,人类需要彼此沟通9。过于强调彼此间的差别10 将一无所获 ,相反会使我们失去很多。如果我们能够理 解人类彼此间的差别只是一些文化上的差异,而人性是一 样的,那么我们可以使这个常常不安宁的世界恢复明智与 和平。 ? 差别并不意味着谁优谁劣11,也不意味着谁好谁坏,谁对 谁错。它只能说明社会造成的人为的差异12,这些差异否 认了深置于每一个细胞中、无可改变的13普通人性。差异 产生了不同的思想情感和行为,而这有助于我们以和平和 建设性的方式解决人类的问题。 ? 我们是否能抛开那些人为的文化产生的敌对情绪,接受那 种从生理上讲兄弟般的友爱14呢?人类所有创造的一切, 无论是文化还是文明,人类都可以废弃,都可以改进。如 果我们这么做了,我们会赢得些什么呢?又会失去些什么 呢?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

提示: 1.神话:mythology 2.亲缘关系:close relatives 3.基本需求:basic needs 4.年轻一代:the young 5.人为的文化与文明:man-made culture and civilization 6.人类学:anthropology 7.分歧:divisions 8.夸大:exacerbate 9.彼此沟通:communicate with each other 10.差别:differences 11.谁优谁劣:inferior or superior 12.人为的差异:artificial distinctions 13.无可改变的:incontrovertible 14.兄弟般的友爱:brotherhood

练习2
? 一.将下列句子译成汉语,注意灵活运用句子后面所给出 ?

?
?

?
?

的翻译技巧。 1.我们的伟大祖国昂首挺立于世界民族之林,愈来愈成 为世界上任何人都不能忽视的巨大力量。(译文用主从的 处理,否定的转移和词类转换法) 2.唐代是我国封建社会的鼎盛时期。(译文用省略法, 词序调整法和词类转换法) 3.然而,没有工夫来品尝这个重要的时刻。(译文用增 词法) 4.在争论中无法击败无知者。(译文用增词法和词序调 整法) 5.掌握了放松的“艺术”,便会在正常的“生存”中得 到满足,无须努力或奋力。(译文用增词法,词序调整法 和词义选择的方法)

? 6.深吸一口气然后呼出,帮助心情平静,抵制身体对精

?

?

?
?

神压力的自然反应,改善身体的生理反应。(译文用词序 调整法,标点符号的处理,词类转换法,增词法和省略法) 7.通过饮食、药物和运动降低血压和胆固醇摄入,这样 能减少中风的风险。(译文用词序调整法,省略法和语态 转换法) 8.有规律的体育锻炼,比如慢跑、骑车或游泳,能增强 身体承受工作负荷的能力,从而抵制疲劳。(译文用标点 符号的处理,词序调整法,增词法和词义选择的方法) 9.与人相处,哪怕是跟最好的人相处,也很快就会让人 厌倦和消耗精力。(译文用省略法和词义选择的方法) 10.做先生的必然同时做学生,或者首先做学生,像马克 思所说的“教育者必先受教育”。(译文用分译法,增词 法,词序调整法和标点符号的处理)

? 二.将下列段落译成汉语,注意运用翻译技巧。

? 1.秀丽的西湖,在市区内占了相当大的面积。一望无际

的闪闪发光的碧水,三面为群山所衬托。一代又一代的人 民在这里修了横跨西湖的堤,建了亭阁和石桥,种了重柳 和花卉。(译文用分译法,增词法,词义选择和标点符号 的处理等方法) 要的方法。通常这时你的体力的和精神的健康也大有好处。 有些活动,像步行、游泳和骑车是非常好的,因为它们能 使身体松弛下来,而且给背部带来的压力比坐着和站着时 都小。(译文用词序调整法,增词法,省略法,句子结构 调整,词义选择以及标点符号的处理等方法) 老一套的生活方式。在这种情况发生时,我们就回头求助 于婚姻生活的基本原则——交流、冲突的解决和奉献—— 并重新开始按这一原则去做。(译文用省略法和词义选择 的方法)

? 2.有规律的锻炼是预防背痛或背部损伤的最好的和最重

? 3.婚姻生活是艰辛的;有时候我们不由自主地又回到了

? 4.我们的现代化建设,必须从中国的实际出发。无论是

革命还是建设,都要注意学习和借鉴外国的经验。但是, 照抄照搬别国经验、别国模式,从来不能得到成功。这方 面我们有过不少教训。把马克思主义的普遍真理同我们的 具体实际结合起来,走自己的道路,建设有中国特色的社 会主义,这就是我们总结长期历史经验得出的基本结论。 (译文用词序调整法,增词法,省略法以及标点符号的处 理的方法)
? 5.浪漫的爱情神话总是说,我们会遇到某个人,与其结

婚,从此过上幸福生活。那些童话故事没有告诉我们怎样 讨论自己的经济状况,甚至没告诉我们有这个必要。然而 你需要了解你的伴侣的最重要的事情之一,可能就是他或 她对金钱的看法。(译文用省略法,增词法以及词类转换 的方法)

阅读知识

A . Communicative Competence

? A final alternative would be to deny the

competence-performance dichotomy which we have been implicitly accepting and redefine our objective as the specification of a multicomponent ?communicative competence‘ which would consist, minimally, of four areas of knowledge and skills; grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.
? These four components cover essentially the

same areas of knowledge suggested earlier, though with some shifts of emphasis:
返回目录

? 1. Grammatical competence: knowledge of the rules of

the code, including vocabulary and word-formation, pronunciation/spelling and sentence structure i.e. the knowledge and skills required to understand and express the literal meaning of utterances. ? 2. Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge of and ability to produce and understand utterances appropriately in context, i.e. as constrained by topic, the status of the participants, purposes of the interaction, etc. ? 3. Discourse competence: the ability to combine form and meaning to achieve unified spoken or written texts in different genres. This unity depends on cohesion in form and coherence meaning (the relationships among the different meanings in a text; literal meanings, the mastery of communicative functions or social meaning). ? 4. Strategic competence: the mastery of communication strategies which may be used to improve communication or to compensate for breakdowns (caused by limiting factors in actual communication or to insufficient competence in one or more of the other components of communicative competence).

? This approach would lead us to attempt to specify ?

?

?

?

?translator communicative competence‘: The knowledge and ability possessed by the translator which permits him/her to create communicative acts – discourse – which are not only grammatical butsocially appropriate. A commitment to this position would make us assert that the translator must possess linguistic competence in both languages and communicative competence in both cultures, consisting of: (1) knowledge of the rules of the code which govern usage and knowledge of and ability to utilize the conventions which constrain use. (2) knowledge of the options available for the expression of all three macrofunctions of language and knowledge of and ability to use the options available for making clauses count as speech acts in conformity with the community ground-rules for the production and interpretation of a range of communicative acts in order to create, comprehend and use context-free TEXTS as the means of participation in context-sensitive DISCOURSE.

B . 汉译英的翻译单位问题(节选)
郭建中
? 3.以自然段落为翻译单位,可克服以句子为翻译单位许多

弊病。具体地来说,有以下五大优越性:1)以自然段落为 翻译单位,可考虑到句与句之间的连接; 2) 以自然段落为翻译 单位,可考虑到句与句之间的逻辑关系,以重组句子,或分译或 合译;3)以自然段落为单位,可按英语结构的特点,对汉 英段落进行重组;4)以自然段落为翻译单位,可按英语结 构的差异,重新分段;5)以自然段落为翻译单位,可考虑 到段与段之间的关系和衔接,从而逐步扩大到段群乃至整个 篇章。下面,我们将用实例加以分析和说明:
? 3.1以自然段落为翻译单位,可考虑到句与句之间的连接:

返回目录

? (1)关于禹的出生有许多神奇的传说。有的说,鲧死了

三年,尸体还没有腐烂。有人用刀子把尸体剖开,禹就跳 了出来;有的说,禹的母亲吃了一种野果,就生下了禹。 大家都说禹是神的儿子,是一个聪明、能干、了不起的英 雄。
? There have been many mythical stories about Yu‘s birth.

One is that three years after Gun was killed, his body still showed no sign of putrefaction, and when someone cut it open, out bounded Yu the boy. Another has it that Yu‘s mother gave birth to him after eating a kind of wild fruit. Anyway, in ancient times, everyone seemed to believe that Yu was the son of a god, an ingenious, capable and peerless hero.
? (分析:译文中除了考虑到“有的说有的说”之外,还添

加了像and和anyway 这样的连接词和起连接作用的副词。 这是因为汉语和英语句子的连接手段不同,英语以形合为 特征,汉语则以意合见长。)

? 3.2以自然段落为翻译单位,可考虑到句与句之间的逻辑

关系,以重组句子,或分译或合译:
?

(3)相传四千年以前,黄河流域发生了一次特大的 水灾,洪水冲毁了房屋和村庄,淹没了田地,淹死了许多 人。活着的人只好搬到山上去住,或者离开家乡,逃到很 远很远的地方去。 Legend has it that some four or five thousand years ago there once occurred in the Yellow River Valley a terrible flood which washed away whole villages with their houses and inundated large areas of cropland. Many people lost their lives in the flood and those who were fortunate enough to survive were forced to abandon their homes and go and ,live on hillsides or migrate to places far, far away.

?

? (分析:如果按句子为单位翻译,那么,我们一般以句子为

标记,把“淹没了田地,淹死了许多人”置于一个句子中处 理。但是,众所周知,英语句子结构的逻辑性,要比汉语强。 因此,在分析了整个段落句子之间的逻辑关系之后,译文没 有按原来汉语句子的结构来译,而是按英语句子的逻辑重组 句子。因此,把“淹死了许多人。活着的人”放在一个句子 中。如果仅仅以句子为翻译单位,就不可能这样做。其次, 把“冲毁了房屋和村庄”这一汉语中的并列结构译成主从结 构”which washed away whole villages with their houses‖。 因为,从英语句子的逻辑关系来看,“房屋”是在“村庄” 里,因此,“村庄”和“房屋”是不能并列的。句子只有经 过这样重组之后,才符合英语句子行文的习惯。) ? ...

? 3.3以自然段落为翻译单位,可按英语段落结构

的特点,对汉语段落进行重组:
?

(6)在四川西部,有一处美妙的去处。它 背依岷山主峰雪宝顶,树木苍翠,花香袭人,鸟 声婉转,流水潺潺。它就是松潘县的黄龙。
One of Sichuan‘s finest spots is Huanglong (Yellow Dragon), which lies in Songpan Mountain. It has lush green forests, filled with fragrant flowers, bubbling streams and songbirds.

?

? (分析:原文为风景胜地黄龙简介的第一段。该段反

映了中国人的思维方式——归纳法。即先描述或先 叙理由,后作结论,用外位式结构归纳全文。英美 人的思维方式却正好相反,他们往往采用演绎法, 即开门见山摆出结论,然后再推演,段落中的首位 主题句便是这种思维方式的典型体现。原文系名胜 介绍,为旅游业服务,主要具备信息功能与祈使功 能。为如实履行该功能,译者将最重要的信息作为 主题句置于段首——黄龙是什么地方,位于何地, 取得先声夺人,吸引读者(游人)的效果。)

? 3.4 以自然段落为翻译单位,可按汉英段落结构的差异, ? ? ?

? ?

?

?

重新分段: ... 3.5以自然段落为翻译单位,可考虑到段与段之间的关系 和衔接,从而逐步扩大到段群乃至整个篇章: (8)事实上,在现代国家中,绝对不受外来影响的固 有文化是不存在的。一位外国的著名历史学家曾经写道: “任何国家的文明,来自外来影响的产物总是多于本国的 发明创造。如果有人要把英国文化中任何受外国影响或来 源于外国的东西剔除掉,那么,英国的文化就所剩无几 了。” 事实也近乎如此。 In fact, there is not any native civilization on earth that does not bear traces of external influence. A noted American historian once wrote: ―The civilization of any country is much more the product of external influences than of native invention. If one subtracted everything from the English culture that had foreign roots or antecedents, there would be little left.‖ History bears proof of the above statement.

?

(分析:第二段开始句是“事实也近乎如此。”在译文中 “事实”用了“History‖替代,而“也近乎如此”用“the above statement‖来翻译,在语义上和结构上都更紧密地 与上一段衔接。所以,以段落为单位,在译文中就能考虑 到段与段之间的衔接问题。)

?

那么,以自然段落为翻译单位,是否也适用于英译汉呢? 我们认为也应该是适用的。因为,前面我们讲的以段落为 翻译单位的优越性在英译汉中都能体现,即在英译汉时, 也得考虑:1)句与句之间的连接;2)句与句之间的逻辑 关系,有时需重组句子,或分译或合译;3)英汉段落结 构的特点,对英语段落进行重组;4)英汉段落结构的差 异,重新分段(更多的场合可能需要合并);5)段与段 之间的关系和衔接,从而逐步扩大到段群乃至整个篇 章。...
们认为,如果两个或三个英语段落,所论及的主题有密切 关联时,或者说,所述说的事件有密切关联时,译成汉语 时才能考虑合并的问题。

? 但是,在英译汉的时候,进行段落合并时得特别慎重。我

第七章 各类文体的特点与翻译 (1) 翻译知识 叙事文体的特点与翻译
? 一. 英汉语叙事文体特点的共性与差异及翻译要领 ? 记叙文题材广泛、写作模式不拘一格,表达形式包括语言、

剪裁、布局因时因地因人而异,丰富多彩。英汉记叙文体 均有词汇精彩丰富、语法现象灵活变化、修辞手段多采多 姿的特点,并且常在客观叙述中融入作者的主观情感,力 求增强艺术感染力,或曰达到“煽情”的目的。
具体、细节之处存在颇多差异,翻译时必须十分注意。尽 管各类翻译本质上是一致的,但不同类型的翻译有不同层 次的要求,不同的体裁对于语篇有一定的制约性。记叙文 的翻译在思维、语义、审美各层面有一定的要求和规律, 最高境界就是忠实地把原作的内容、情感、艺术特征表达 出来而又使译文读者在信息和审美方面都得到与原文读者 等值的享受。

? 然而由于文化背景、表达习惯的不同,英汉记叙文在很多

返回目录

? 首先要着眼原作的本意,对其基调、脉络、言外之意应准

确领会。英语作品中的幽默和讽刺是很常见的,汉译时只 要不影响表达的流畅,应以异化为主。在把握原文总体风 格方面,译时如难以形神兼备,也不宜求形似而忽略神似。
? 现代英语叙述展开次序不拘一格,倒叙、插叙、时空荒诞

颇为常见,“意识流”的“流向”更是颠三倒四,飘忽不 定。汉译时能否照译或如何调整值得斟酌。汉语行文大多 仍是按时间顺序或一般性的思路顺序展开(如先因后果、 先前提后结论等),英译时也须考虑衔接、强调等因素而 决定是否调整。
? 英汉的时态、语态、语气、情态十分丰富,表达细腻、微

妙,汉语没有相应的语法现象,译时只能在深入理解的基 础上借助助词、补语或其他手段转达;而汉语惯用的无主 句、无关联词语衔接而用众多逗号的长句,英译时也须考 虑增补或重建。

? 词汇层次的翻译是最基础的,对基本义之外的引伸义、转义,

词的语域、文体色彩、上下义场域、语气轻重、褒贬、文化 内涵、背景含义、上下文搭配等,英译汉译时在把握原义、 找到等值表达方式的过程中常要推敲再三;英语中不少高度 抽象的名词、汉语中惯用的以增加美感为目的的重叠、对偶 词语都是翻译时很要运用技巧的对象。
? 习语谚语成语的翻译说得上是一门艺术,而修辞手法是直译

还是意译关系到文本本身和译者的双语水平。运用典故、双 关语、英语的矛盾修饰法、汉语的平仄对仗,似乎成了翻译 的难题,是译者不可掉以轻心的部分。

? 二. 英汉语叙事文体翻译实例 ? 1. New York Gynaecologist Nile Lauersen is a Park

Avenue infertility expert and a best-selling author with a high-wattage clientele. He hobnobs with socialites and celebrities ---- many of whom swear they would be childless but for his treatment. And he has been dubbed the “dyno gyno” by no less than TV personality Geraldo Rivera, whose wife was a patient. ? 妇科医生尼尔.劳阿逊是纽约派克大街的一名不育症专家, 其述著畅销,还有一群来头不小的主顾。他与社会名流、 各界精英亲切交谈、开怀对酌,他们中许多人郑重其事地 证实说若不是经他治疗,他们就会无法生儿育女了。他还 被绝不亚于电视名人杰拉尔多.里维拉(其妻也是他治疗 的病人)那样的人物授予“妇科圣手”的称号。(叶碧霞 译) ? 记叙文体往往词汇丰富而生动,翻译时应采取有效对策。 本译例把socialites, celebrities 和TV personality几个同义 词分别译为社会名流、各界精英、电视名人,既能忠实地 体现了原文的用词特点,又富于汉语的构词韵味,读起来 上口。对于 high-wattage (clientele)和“dyno gyno‖这种 俏皮的生造词义的用法,也就只能灵活地译为“来头不 小”(=能量大/有影响力)、“妇科圣手”。

? 2. But most think of Diana as more Cinderella than

savior. After the big wedding with a prince waiting at the aisle, she transformed herself from a plump nanny to a sleek jet setter. ? 但是大多数人认为戴安娜更像灰姑娘而非救世主。与 守候在教堂通道尽头的王子举行盛大婚礼后,她自已从一 名丰润的保姆变成了一个坐着喷气式飞行到处游玩的时髦 贵妇。(唐峥嵘译) ? 原句蕴涵了丰富的背景、典故方面的含意,译文在透彻 理解的基础上准确地传达了原意。“jet setter‖ 可指坐喷 气式飞行到处游玩的富翁,在这个句子具体的语境中,自 然应把“富翁”改为“贵妇”才适合;而“sleek‖是个多 义词,与本语境相关的意思有:时髦、豪华的;举止、谈 吐优雅的;(语言)圆滑的, 这些意思其实都包含在作者意图 刻画的戴妃形象中。上面的译文是忠实于原文的节奏的成 功译例,但若想倾向于更具体细腻地传达原文,还可略加 增补,译成“她自已从一名体态丰盈的保姆变成了一个坐 着喷气式飞行到处游玩的、举止优雅、谈吐得体的时髦贵 妇”。

? 3. Being smoked at is almost as bad for you as smoking,

we‘re now told . Possibly. But I‘m increasingly seeing these tiresome crusaders in a different light. I see them not so much as people who bully the individual, but as puny Davids in a fight where the tobacco Goliaths have it far too much their own way. ? 现在有人对我们说, 被动吸烟与自己吸烟一样有害。此 话也许有理,但我越来越对这些无聊的发起抵制吸烟运动 的十字军斗士有另外一种见解。我并不把他们看作那些以 众欺寡的人,倒觉得他们更像与巨人高科斯决一雌雄的瘦 弱的牧羊人大卫,而烟草巨人却我行我素,根本没把他们 放在眼里。(叶碧霞译) ? 运用修辞和借用典故是记叙文体常见手法。如果说前面 第一例中的Cinderella的故事和a prince waiting at the aisle 的西方婚礼习俗已成大家熟知的常识,直译也不影 响意思的表达,那么对这一例中提到的牵涉到欧洲史上惨 烈的十字军远征的crusader, 以及圣经故事中的牧羊人 Davis和巨人Goliath, 就有必要在译文中增加尽可能简单明 了的背景信息,否则一般的汉语读者会感到不知所言。这 就是笔者在翻译这几个词时加了说明性的定语或同位语的 原因。

? 4.1). Half a hundred men in possession of the exists ? ?

?
?

?

?

might have staved an army to submission. 只消用半百兵力守住出口处,就能把里面的整支部队困 死饿死。(叶碧霞译) 2). A film of my leaving the fox hole would have revealed I was dashing like a gunshot in deed. 假如当时把我冲出工事掩体的动作拍摄下来,就会看到 我简直快得象出膛的炮弹。(叶碧霞译) 3). The U.S government‘s inquiry into Edward. Fei‘s security status seemed routine if slightly puzzling. Fei has long been one of the Energy Department‘s top expert --- a senior if relatively anonymous official. 虽说美国政府对爱德华. 费的从事机密门工作的资格进 行审查有点令人奇怪,但这又似乎是例行公事而巳。 费 多年来都是能源部顶尖的专家----假若说他算不上有什么 名气的话,但却可说是一位高级官员。(叶碧霞译) 记叙文体的另一特点是句式丰富、变化多。 对英语中的 虚拟含蓄条件句、倒装句、强调句及其他不属于常见句型 的结构,要准确理解,妥当翻译。如本条项第一、两个句 子,虚拟条件蕴涵在主语中;第三例的两个由if引导的从 句形式上是条件句,实质内容则是相当于though 引导的 让步从句。

? 5. 李曦尽管囊中羞涩,依然醉心于音乐创作,全然不像他

的孪生弟弟,只知醉心于名利,而没有羞耻心。
?

Impecunious as he was, Li Xi was deeply engrossed in music composition, utterly different from his twin brother, who was infatuated with fame and gain without sense of shame. (叶碧霞译)

? 汉英词义均有褒贬、广狭之分,词义的引伸和搭配也有不

同,翻译时无论是领悟原文或是选择表达方式,均须仔细 斟酌。如本例中的两个“醉心”,一褒一贬;句末的“羞 耻”确指心态而言,“囊中羞涩”却是汉语成语,与心理 无关,故有以上译法。

? 6. 我看不见那个小孩的脸,不知道他脸上的表情,但是从

他刚才的话里,我知道对于他另外有一个世界存在。没有 家,没有爱,没有温暖,只有一根生活的鞭子在赶他。 (巴金:《一个车夫》) ? I could‘n read his countenance without seeing his face. However, judging from what he had said, he was evidently living in a world of his own ---bereft of home, love or warmth, and flogged by the scourge of life. (张培 基译) ? 这里译者没有拘泥于原文字面上的形式,没有用三个 without的结构来译“没有家,没有爱,没有温暖”, 而选 择了bereft of (被剥夺)加三个名词。显然,意义更具体的 bereft (of) 比泛泛而言的without更能传达原文的深层含意。 同时, 汉语用三个重复“没有”的排比结构既因强调而加 深印象,读起来也铿锵上口,但若用直译的方法就远远不 如就现在的译法了--—既符合英语的简洁有力的表达习惯, 又保留了原作的神韵。另外,把“只有一根生活的鞭子在 赶他”这个从句转译成分词短语flogged by., 与bereft of 一起作伴随状语,使译文意思明了,结构整齐紧凑。否则, 按字面直译的话,就会因主语变动而显得句式松散,表述 累赘了。

? 7. 庆历四年春,滕子京谪守巴陵郡,越明年,政通人和,

百废俱兴。(范仲淹:《岳阳楼记》)

?

In the spring of the fourth year of the Qing Li period ( the year 1044), Teng Zijng was banished from the capital to be governor of Baling Prefecture. After he had governed the district for a year, the administration became efficient, the people became united, and all things that had fallen into disrepair were given a new lease of life. (杨宪益译) 所增加的内容之多。这里不仅有逻辑上的连接性词语,还 有不少汉语中可省略而英文形合特点所要求表现出来的内 容。就句子而论,汉语以意合为特点,而英语以形合为特 点。(吕俊)

?

? 原文只有24个字,而译成英文竟成了近60个词。由此可见

? 8.(1) . 拜完了天地,黑大汉洪喜就有些按捺不住。虽然看

不到新娘的脸,但新娘修长的双臂、纤细的腰肢,都显示 出这个胶州北乡女子超出常人的美丽来。(莫言:《翱 翔》)
?

After paying respects to the Heaven and earth, Hong Xi, a big, swarthy man, could not contain his excitement. His bribe‘s veiled face was hidden from him, but her long, shapely arms and willowy waist revealed that she was more beautiful than most girls in Northern Jiaozhou Township. ( Tr. by Howard Goldblatt)

? ―修长”英语译作“long, shapely‖: shapely解作“ having

an attractive or well-proportioned shape‖, 也就是“一副 骨肉匀称的美人胚子”。 “纤细的腰肢” 译作 “willowy waist‖, 此一形容词脱胎予willow; 以柳树作比喻使美人的 腰肢更形象化。新郎洪喜拜完了天地之后就有点按捺不住。 按捺不住的自然是新郎的兴奋心情( excitement) 。(注释: 谭柏山)

?

(2).腊月二十三灶王爷上天,后台封上戏箱,要等年初一开 戏。(新凤霞:《新凤霞回忆录》) god went up to heaven, and the theatre shut down until New year's Day. (Translated by Gladys Yang)

? On the twenty-third of the twelfth lunar month the Kitchen

? 原文中的“灶王爷”在中国民间传说中指管厨房的一个神。

西方既没有中国式的“灶”,更没有“灶王爷”之说,但是 他们也有各种各样的神(如爱神,宇宙之神等),因此,译 者用归化翻译法把“灶王爷”转变为“Kitchen God‖(灶 神),易于西方读者理解和接受。“王爷”变为“神”,虽 然名称变了,但其中所传达的信息没有变。(张美芳评)

? (3)都说这对新郎新娘是郎才女貌,天作之合——

男的文武双全、女的美丽动人。

? Everybody says the bride and bridegroom are a

perfect match----the girl is charming and the man is well versed both in military and civilian affairs . (叶碧霞译)
? 这一例是提醒译时也应注意英汉表达差异的细微

之处。“新郎新娘”和“文武双全”在英语习惯 表达中与汉语词序相反(“文武双全”也可译作 be fit for both physical exertion and intellectual pursuit),而“郎才女貌,天作之合”意思有重复, 并且下文已作了解释,因而把 “郎才女貌”略去 不译, 以符合英语避重复求简洁的习惯,同样, “美丽动人”如果照译为beautiful and attractive/ charming 也会显得累赘,因为这三个词其实是近 义词。

Text A The Two Roads John Ruskin 1
? It was New Year's Night. An aged man was

standing at a window. He raised his mournful eyes towards the deep blue sky, where the stars were floating like white lilies on the surface of a clear calm lake. Then he cast them2 on the earth, where few more hopeless people than him now moved towards their certain goal --- the tomb. He had already passed sixty of the stages leading to it, and he had brought from his journey3 nothing but errors and remorse4. Now his health was poor, his mind vacant, his heart sorrowful, and his old age short of comforts.
返回目录

? The days of his youth appeared like dreams before him,

and he recalled the serious moment when his father placed him at the entrance of the two roads5 --- one leading to a peaceful, sunny place, covered with flowers, fruits and resounding with6 soft, sweet songs; the other leading to a deep, dark cave, which was endless, where poison flowed instead, of water and where devils and poisonous snakes hissed and crawled. ? He looked towards the sky and cried painfully, "0 youth, return! 0 my father, place me once more at the entrance to life, and I'll choose the better way!" But both his father and the days of his youth had passed away. ? He saw the lights flowing away in the darkness. These were the days of his wasted life; he saw a star fall from the sky and disappeared, and this was the symbol of himself. His remorse, which was like a sharp arrow, struck deeply into his heart. Then he remembered his friends in his childhood, who entered on life together with him. But they had made their way to success and were now honoured and happy on this New Year's Night.

? The clock in the high church tower struck and the sound

made him remember his parents' early love for him. They had taught him and prayed to God for his good. But he chose the wrong way. With shame and grief he dared no longer look towards that heaven where his father lived. His darkened eyes were full of tears, and with a despairing effort, he burst out a cry: "Come back, my early days! Come back, my lost youth!" ? And his youth did return, for all this was only a dream, which he had on New Year's Night. He was still young though his faults were real; he had not yet entered the deep, dark cave, and he was still free to walk on the road which leads to the peaceful and sunny land. ? Those who still linger on the entrance of life, hesitating to choose the right road, remember that when years are passed and your feet stumble7 on the dark mountains, you will cry bitterly, but in vain: "0 youth, return! Oh give me back my early days !"

? 提示: ? 1. John Ruskin (1819-1900), English art critic and ? ? ? ? ? ?

writer. 2. cast them on: 把目光投向 3. journey: 指人生漫漫旅途 4. remorse: 悔恨 5. the entrance of the two roads: 两条路的岔口 6. resound with: 回响; 四处洋溢 7. (feet) stumble : 绊倒;失足

练习 1
? 一. 将下列句子译成汉语,注意对斜体部分根据语境或背景 ?

?

?

?

作必要的增补,使意思清楚、完整。 1. As the last straw break the laden camel‘s back, this piece of underground information crushed the sinking spirits of Mr. Dombey. ( Dickens: Dombey and Son) 2. From childhood on, high intelligence is an isolating factor, which is the cause that Sununu made a mistake so foolish it amounted to professional suicide. 3. Spell luck w-o-r-k. Edward John Debartolo‘s worth well over $ 1 billion, eighty-one years old, is still in his office every morning at 5:30, trying to extend his “lucky” streak. 4. Later, when Vale faced his audience from the platform, he was equally personable, speaking fluently and easily while marshaling arguments with skill.

?

?

?

? ? ?

5. However wet the road, whatever the visibility in mist or fog, they plough at very high speeds oblivious of police warning or speed restrictions until their journey comes to a premature conclusion 6. There is , in other words, a demand for people who are capable of seeing the forest rather than the trees, of making general judgements. We call these people ―generalists‖. 7. This year ends with long queues outside cinemas coast to coast for a hit film about shoddy journalism called ― Absence of Malice‖ 8. Live or die, we should be loyal to our party, to our people and to our motherland. 9. As the English writer John Donne put it four hundred years ago, ―no one is an island.‖ 10. But in our company, we‘re all expected to be selfstarters, who thrive on working alone.

? 一.将下列段落译成汉语,注意在斜体部分运用本章介绍

的或其他适用的翻译技巧 ? Standing in line at the unemployment office makes you feel very much the same as you did the first time you ever flunked a class or a test --- as if you had a big red ―F‖ for ―Failure‖ printed across your forehead. I fantasize myself standing at the end of the line in a crisp and efficient blue suit , chin up, neat and straight as a corporate executive. As I move down the line I start to come unglued and a half hour later, when I finally reach the desk clerk, I am slouching and sallow in torn jeans, tennis shoes and a jacket from the Salvation Army, carrying my worldly belongs in a shopping bag and unable to speak. ? In home visits, Edsall‘s sincere tone, broad smile and little-kid enthusiasm seem to melt families. After a few minutes of small talk, he launches into a smooth pitch for Syracuse (雪城大学). First come 15 minutes on academics and the value of Syracuse education. If the prospect is interested in communications, Edsall points out thatTed Koppel is an alumnus. Then comes football talk, how the Orangemen should be strong for years, their redshirt poicy, what a practice day is like.

Edsall views initial meetings as get-acquainted sessions. ― I don‘t use all my ammunition the first visit.‖ ? 3. Words are not always understood as what they are defined in dictionaries. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience, and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and learn, the more the number of words that mean something to us increases. ? 4. Microsoft founder Bill Gates is second only to British Prime Minister Tony Blair in the power he exerts on British life, a survey in the Sunday Times said. Another American, Alan Greenspan, the head of the US Federal Reserve, is in third place while media magnate Rupert Murdoch comes fourth. Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown comes fifth and is the only other British politician to make the top ten. But power seems to rub off on those who walk with the powerful. Mr. Blair‘s official spokesman Alastair Campbell is ninth in the survey while the prime minister‘s chief of staff, Jonathan Powell, is 40th. But the embattled leader of the opposition Conservative Party, William Hague, does not even make it into the top 100.
?

? 5.

Some old American Laws sound very strange today. In fact, some probably sounded strange when they were written! For example, in the southeastern state of Florida, it is illegal to wash yourself in a bathtub without wearing a swimming suit. ? In the western state of Idaho, you cannot give your girlfriend a box of candy unless it weighs more than 22 kilograms. ? In Blythe, California, you cannot wear cowboy boots unless you own two cows. You can wear cowboy boots in Madisonville, Texas, without owning any cows. But you must own two cows to wear your pants inside the tops of your boots.

Text B

我的童年(节选) 冰心

? 父亲喜欢种花养狗,公余之暇,这是他唯一的消遣。

因此我从小不怕动物,对于花木,更有普遍的爱好。 母亲不喜欢狗,却也爱花,夏夜我们常常在豆棚花 架下1,饮啤酒,汽水,乘凉。母亲很早就进去休 息,父亲便带我到旗台2上去看星,他指点给我各 个星座3的名称和位置。他常常说:“你看星星不 是很多很小,而且离我们很远么?但是我们海上的 人一时都离不了它。在海上迷路的时候看见星星就 如同看见家人一样。” 因此我至今爱星甚于爱月。
返回目录

? 父亲又常常带我去参观军舰,指点给我军舰上的一切,我

只觉得处处都是整齐,清洁,光亮,雪白;心里总有说不 出的赞叹同羡慕。我也常得亲近父亲的许多好友,如萨镇 冰先生,黄赞侯先生。他们都是极严肃,同时又极慈蔼, 生活是那样纪律,那样恬淡,他们也作诗,同父亲常常唱 和4,他们这一班人是当时文人所称为的“裘带歌壶,翩 翩儒将5‖。我当时的理想,是想学父亲,学父亲的这些好 友,并不曾想到我的“性”6阻止了我作他们的追随者。 ? 这种生活一直连续到了十一岁,此后我们回到故乡—— 福州——去,生活起了很大的转变。我也不能不感谢这个 转变!十岁以前的训练,若再继续下去,我就很容易变成 一个男性的女人7,心理也许就不会健全。因着这个转变, 我才渐渐的从父亲身边走到母亲的怀里,而开始我的少女 时期了。 ? 说到童年,我常常感谢我的好父母,他们养成是我一 种恬淡,“返乎自然”的习惯,他们结我一个快乐清洁的 环境,因此,在任何环境里都是能自足,知足。我尊敬生 命,宝爱生命,我对于人类没有怨恨,我觉得许多缺憾是 可以改进的,只要人们有决心,肯努力。 ? 我不但常常感念我的父母,我也常常警惕我们应当怎样做 父母。

? 提示: ? 1. 豆棚花架: the bean or flower trellises ? 2. 旗台: the naval ship bridge ? 3. 星座: constellation ? 4. 唱和: in response to, on the same theme and

using the same rhyme pattern. ? 5. 裘带歌壶,翩翩儒将: scholar general ? 6. 我的“性”: being a female ? 7. 变成一个男性的女人: become very masculine

练习 2
? 一.把下列句子译成英语,注意斜体部分的翻译,要考虑

?
? ?

?
?

汉英表达习惯的不同。 1. 我们找不出话来了。在我知道了他的惨痛遭遇以后,我 究竟应该拿什么话劝他呢? 2. 时至今日,仍然有许多美国人觉得中国远在天涯海角, 鲜为人知,令人心驰神往。 3. 政府官员孔繁森,为了去一个贫困地区工作,离开了 年迈的母亲和家庭,是政府鼓励全国人民学习的新英雄人 物的榜样。 4. 灾难深重的中华民族,一百年来,其优秀人物奋斗牺牲, 前赴后继,探索救国救民的真理,是可歌可泣的。 5. 埃及的金字塔,大约五千年前伟大的皇帝---即法老---的 陵墓,是如何在沙漠中修建的,至今仍是个谜。

? 6. 为了逃避那一双双熟悉的眼睛,释放后,经人介绍,他来

到湖南南县一家木器厂做临时工。 ? 7. 说的是古代有一位老人,住在华北,名叫北山愚公。 ? 8. 人们都呆了,木偶泥神般,看着她扇动着胳膊往前飞行。 她飞的速度不快,常人快跑就能踩到她投在地上的影子。

(莫言:《翱翔》) ? 9. 他们在我国胡作非为,称王称霸的日子一去不复返了。 ? 10他们跟那些下岗工人说,在西方发达国家,做钟点工很普 遍,也受欢迎,干这种零活不叫丢人现眼或低人一等,而是 很正常的赚钱途径,

? 二. 把下列段落译成英语,注意斜体部分的翻译,

要考虑汉英表达习惯的不同:

? 1. 黄豆豆,中国最有才华的舞蹈演员兼编舞之一,

正在做一个高难度的平衡动作。黄豆豆在舞蹈方面 的成就,可以和李安东电影方面的成就比美:两人 都有办法既展现传统的中国文化又使之现代化。黄 的作品“醉鼓”、“秦俑”都力图从隔离的舞蹈世 界解脱出来,使之成为真正的大众文化。他解释为 何要把古今中外融为一体时说:“中国人对过去的 看法有问题,他们就像古人一样思考。我却是通过 现代人这个筛子去解释历史的。”

? 2. 从山海关外开进关里的火车突然一辆辆全装满了哭哭叫

叫逃难的人,靠近北戴河车站的杨庄群众,听说这个情况, 已经有点惊奇了;接着又听说日本海军占领了秦皇岛,杨庄 里就沸腾起来了;从秦皇岛和秦皇岛附近逃到杨庄来的男男
女女和小孩子再一拥塞在街头,杨庄的群众就更加人心惶惶。 (杨沫:《青春之歌》)
?

3. 牛仔们几乎每天都早出晚归地工作。他们通常只在发薪 日去城里,一个月的进城次数会超过一次的没有几个人。在 城里,牛仔可能会将挣的钱全部喝掉或输掉。有时他们会因 为喝得太多而做坏事,但是大多数城镇对他们不是很严厉, 因为他们不想失去生意。

还是从火车上说起吧!大约在我四岁多的时候,我坐 过火车。当时带我坐车的人,是我的舅舅,叫张全斌。记 得我当时的打扮挺滑稽的,穿着蓝布大褂、小坎肩,戴瓜 皮小帽。那时候,小孩子打扮成那个样子,够不错了。在 我的童年中,也就只有过这么一次。在火车上,因为小, 没坐过火车,也很少见过家里以外的人,觉得挺新鲜。也 许人在幼年时代终归想要些温暖吧!那时舅舅抱着我,哄 着我,我觉得很温暖。一路上吃了炒栗子,睡了一会觉, 就到了北京。根据这个情况,现在估计起来,我可能是从 天津来的。(候宝林:《我的青少年时代》) ? 阴历新年,又称春节,它在中国就像圣诞节在美国,是最 重要的节日。阴历每年都以一种动物表示。1997年是牛年, 牛以吃苦耐劳和坚韧不拔著称。 ? 春节是中国人家庭团圆和举办特别活动的喜庆日子。 北方的哈尔滨市举办了冰雕展览,而南方正是杜鹃花、梅 花和桃花盛开的时节,所以广州举办一年一度的花市。中 国的电视台播放七个小时除夕特别节目,收看观众之多, 竟远远超过美国收看美式足球超级杯赛的观众。 ? 世界各地的中国城也都热烈欢度春节。
? 4.

阅读知识

A. Translatability of Style ( Excerpt) by Liu Zhongde

? Among Chinese translators, there are still quite a few

who consider the original literary style untranslatable although many thinly that it should be reproduced and that it is possible to reproduce it. It seems that the question of translatability is worth further discussing. Here in this part, I'd like to introduce the arguments for the translatability of style. As for those against it they will be analyzed in the next three parts.
? Translators who deem it possible to reproduce the style

of the original work have a lot of valuable opinions. But because the space is limited, they can ?t be quoted here one by one. Mao Dun (茅盾) may be taken as their representative. In 1954, he pointed out at the National Conference of Literary Translators:
返回目录

? "Literary works are a kind of art created in language.

What we demand of them is not merely the recording of concepts and of incidents. Besides these, they should possess artistic images which are attractive to the reader. In other words, the reader must have a strong feeling towards the characters' thought and behaviour through the artistic images portrayed in their literary works. Literary translation is to reproduce the original artistic images in another language so that the reader of the translation maybe inspired, moved and aesthetically entertained in the same way as one reads the original.
? As for Western translation theoreticians, there are a

large number of well-known ones who firmly maintain both the necessity and possibility of reproducing the original style. For instance, Alexander Eraser Tytler (1813) says in the first chapter of his Essay an the Principles of Translation:

? "I would therefore describe a good translation to be that

in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work. "1
? Both the Chinese and Western theoreticians as

mentioned above hold that the reproduction of the literary style of the original work is necessary and possible, still I must admit that it is really a hard task to accomplish.
? In spite of the difficulty in reproducing the original style, I

quite agree to the views maintained by Dr. Nida in his Language Structure and Translation.

? "Rather than being impressed by the impossibilities of

translation," says he. "anyone who is involved in the realities of translation in a broad range of languages is impressed that effective interlingual communication is always possible, despite seemingly enormous differences in linguistic structures and cultural features. These impressions as to the relative adequacy of interlingual communication are based on two fundamental factors: (1) semantic similarities between languages, due no doubt in large measure to the common core of human experience; and (2) fundamental similarities in the syntactic structures of languages at the so called kernel, core, level. "2It seems, then, that the principle of dynamic equivalence (or functional equivalence) put forward by Nida is worth studying for it may contribute to the reproduction of the original style in translation.

? Notes: ? 1. Tytler, Alexander Eraser, 1813. Essay on the

Principles of Translation, Everyman‘s Library ed. By Ernest Rhys
? 2. Nida, Eugene A.,1975, Language Structure and

Translation, 98. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California

B. 中英风格的翻译及评价标准 (节选) 胡德香
? 从中西词典中对风格一词的定义来看,风格具有多方面的涵

义,是作品所具有的独特的艺术格调、气派和作风,是通过 内容和形式的和谐统一所表现出来的思想倾向和艺术风貌。 风格的实现可以通过各种方式,不仅从作品的文字形式上, 还需读者(或听众)从心理上、感觉上和联想上深刻体会才 能了解。风格的形成取决于作家的思想倾向、生活经历、艺 术修养、个性气质等主观因素,同时与作家所处的时代、社 会和文化等客观因素有着密切关系。因此,风格常常带有时 代的、阶级的、民族的或地域的特征,但这并不意味着风格 是不可转移的,强调风格独特性的同时,也应该承认风格具 有相对稳定性和宏观上的普遍性,不仅属于某一独立个体, 也可以属于一个群体,不同的人也可以有同样的风格,换育 之,风格是可以模仿的。
返回目录

? 因此,无论中英语言和文化之间存在多大的差异,

如果从宏观上把握,作者风格的或热情奔放,或温 柔妩媚;或庄重典雅,或生硬粗暴;或明白晓畅, 或晦涩难懂等等都是可以互相借鉴和传递的。正如 翁显良先生指出的:“风格可译,指的是原作意象 的隐或显、婉或直、艳丽或质朴、庄重或谐谑都可 以泽;何止可以译,简直非译不可。” ? 中西方虽存在语言、历史和文化背景上的差异,但 无论是作家与作家之间,还是作家与译者之间,皆 有着彼此相通的风格特征。因此,风格传译是完全 有可能的。

?

风格可译不仅理论上存在可能,更被中外译者的翻译实践证 明是可行的。译作中能传达出原文的“意”、“味”、 “气”、“韵”等各种风格之美者不胜枚举,可以说,每一 部成功的译作都较好地传达了原文的神韵和风格。举个大家 熟悉的例子,培根的论说文Of study以其略带古风而文词练 达的风格受到读者喜爱,王佐良先生的译文又何尝不是这样, “读书足以信情,足以傅采,足以长才。”惟妙惟肖地传达 了原文“Studies serve for delight, for ornament,and for ability.”的写作特点:简约、典雅,又具睿智和风趣。王 尔德的《快乐王子》是篇优美的散文似的童话,吸引着一代 又一代的大人和孩子,可是如果没有巴金先生那传神的译文, 恐怕我们就没有这么幸运了。下面我们来欣赏一下原文和译 文的片段:

?

?

?

?

?

(1) Why can‘t you be like the Happy Prince?‖ asked a sensible mother of her little boy who was crying for the moon. : The Happy Prince never dreams of crying for anything.‖ ―你为什么不能像快乐王子那样呢?”一位聪明的母亲对 她那个哭着要月亮的孩子说,“快乐王子连做梦也没想到 会哭着要东西。” (2) One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friend had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind, for he was in love with the most beautiful Reed. 某一个夜晚一只小燕子飞过城市的上空。他的朋友们六 个星期以前就到埃及去了,但是他还留在后面,因为他恋 着那根最美丽的芦苇。 (3) ―Shall I love you?‖ said the Swallow, who liked to come to the point at once, and the Reed made him a low bow. So he flew round and round her, touching the water with his wings, and making silver ripples. This was his courtship, and it lasted all through the summer.

? ―我可以爱你吗?”燕子说,他素来就有马上谈到本题的脾

气,芦苇对他深深地弯一下腰。他便在她的身边不停地飞来 飞去,用他的翅子点水,做出许多银色的涟漪。这便是他求 爱的表示,他就这样地过了一整个夏天。(转引自袁锦翔, 1989:297-299)原文使用的是口语化的语言,流畅质朴, 译文同样清新动人,读起来朗朗上口,如母亲对孩子说的话 用适合孩子的语言:“连做梦也没想到”,口语化的用词还 有“恋着”、“不停地飞来飞去”、“用他的翅子点水”等 等,一如原文那么清新、明丽,真正做到了“如风格以出”。 ? 从以上中英风格比较和翻译实践的例证中可以看出,风格 翻译是可行。 ? 注:本章及第十章、十一章中翻译知识及练习答案中句与段 的翻译,未加注明的均为编者所译、评。

第八章 各类文体的特点与翻译 (2) 翻译知识 描述文体的特点与翻译
? 一. 英汉语描述文体特点的共性与差异及翻译要领

描述文体与记叙文体密切相关,第九章所述英汉语记叙 文体特点的共性与差异及翻译要领其实也适用于描述文体。 ? 描写文与记叙文不同之处在于,前者需选择一定的时空 顺序,而后者着重于人的感受。描写文的特点是在叙事、 写人、绘景、状物时勾画出一幅逼真的画面,恰如电影中 的特写镜头、进行时中的动作、工笔画的重点部分,生动 细致,营造气氛,给读者一个在视觉、听觉、嗅觉、味觉、 触觉上亲历其境的感受。为了达到这个目的,在写作时往 往要借助于词汇的选择和修辞的运用。描写文体的用词往 往着眼于细微之处,多用具体准确的下义词而少用上义词, 或在一组同义词中选用词义(从其内涵、外延或感情色彩 而言)最为细腻传神那一个。在修辞上,各种比喻、拟人、 拟声、夸张等都是常用手法。
?
返回目录

? 英汉语描写文体在共有上述特点的同时,又存在一定的差

异。例如描写人时,汉语较多写人的外貌、行为、经历, 而英语可能更着力于人的内心活动;描写人的外貌时,汉 语大多着意眼、鼻、嘴,而英语可能反而注意耳朵、下巴。 又如,英语的景物描写不重写意而重写实,力求忠实地再 现自然。而汉语却贵在情景交融,描写中大量渗入作者的 主观感受,同一个客观景物,因作者的感情丰富或博古通 今而致的优美的联想、刻画而增色不少,以至文章成为千 古名篇,而该景物则因此文而名传天下、闻名后世。 ? 由于这些差异,在翻译时如何处理也就需要注意。一般来 说遵循异化原则以忠实于原文,但如因此而使译文拗口累 赘或文理不通,大失美感的话,就要作相应的调整了。另 外,碰到所译词汇在上下义或感情色彩或文化内涵不完全 等值时,有必要推敲原意然后采用相应技巧。涉及修辞手 段时,当照译效果不隹时,只能选择使读者读起来能懂又 感受原作艺术层次的办法,例如保留原喻意而变换喻体等。

? 二. 英汉语描述文体翻译实例

1. I see advancing upon all this in hideous onslaught the Nazi war machine, with its clanking, heel-clicking, dandified Prussian officers, its crafty expert agents fresh from the cowing and tying down of a dozen countries, I see also the dull, drilled, docile, brutish masses of the Hun soldiery plodding on like a swarm of crawling locusts. (Churchill: Speech on Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R.) ? 我看到狰狞可怖的纳粹战争机器正向这一切冲杀过来,那 里面有刀枪寒光闪闪、皮靴咔嚓作响、全副披甲的普鲁士 军官,有刚刚以武力威逼征服了十数个国家的老奸巨滑的 走狗,还有大批大批的麻木愚昧而又训练有素、服从指挥 而又野蛮粗鲁的德国兵队伍蝗虫般蠕动着向前推进。(叶 碧霞译)
?

? 这段话译自以口若悬河闻名的丘吉尔的著名演说词。

他得体地运用数个形容词,有声有色地描绘为一幅 纳粹进攻苏联的可怖景象。clanking, heelclicking是像声词,用来描写德军皮靴、兵器碰撞 的声音,dandified 原指全身装扮花哨,讽刺那些 身穿有绶带肩章的军服、神里神气的普鲁士军官, 现按汉语喜用四字词的习惯作必要的增补,译为 “刀枪寒光闪闪、皮靴咔嚓作响、全副披甲的”,与 原文的风格也对应。这里expert 意为老练的,与 crafty 一起译为老奸巨滑的, 倒也与前后风格一致。 既忠实地译出原作的内容又尽量体现原作的风格也 是可行的。

?

2. To study the new physics is to embark on a journey of wonderment and paradox, to glimpse the universe in a novel perspective. Even the creation of the universe itself has fallen within the province of scientific inquiry.

?

学习新兴的物理学就象踏上充满奇观的旅途,以一种新 颖奇特的观点来看宇宙万物,其论点往往是非而是。即使 开创宇宙(这件事本身)也纳入了科学探索的范畴。(叶 碧霞译)

?

原文是一位科学的门外汉----一名神职人员描述科学的新 发展时所说的话。这里的novel和province不宜按其基本义 来译,按上下文搭配关系,应译其引伸义,前者为“新颖 奇特 ”, 后者指“学识或职权范围”。这一译例提示,英 语描述文体用词丰富细腻的特点也可表现在多义词方面, 因此汉译时要理解原文、对一词多义的义项选择要有正确 的判断。除了词汇之外,翻译时要考虑的另一角度是句法。 从语法上说,paradox在句中与wonderment前后并列,但 就语义而言,它与“in a novel perspective ‖衔接更紧, 故编者在翻译时把它挪后,与“to glimpse the universe in a novel perspective‖一起译成“以一种新颖奇特的观点 来看宇宙万物,其论点往往是非而是”,当然, 要按原文 结构直译为“学习新兴的物理学就像踏上充满奇观与矛盾 的旅途,看宇宙新颖奇特的景观”也未尝不可,见仁见智 罢了。不过编者还是选择了现在的译法,因为这样更能抓 住原文的重点所在——对新兴物理学的描述。

3. With guests about I am conscious of myself as a solid, but as soon as they have gone I expand into a gas again. And a gas can have more delight than a solid. So—Goodby! Good-bye ! Good-by! Good— ? 当身前身后有宾客存在时,我感到自己是一块固体;他们 走了,我又重新膨胀扩张成为一团气体。 而气体嘛,自然可 以比固体更快乐。因此——再见! 再见! 好走! 好—-了! (叶碧霞译) ? 这句话译自英国作家Priestley 的随笔delight, 幽默风趣。第 三个good-bye 看上去未说完, 其实是用了双关手法---- 告别 宾客之余,又为自己从应酬中解脱而叫好。译者为自己正好 找到难得的汉语也是双关的译法“好走—好了!”而视之为 自己的得意之作。
?

? 4.She was silent for a moment, fighting herself.

Then she began, for the first time, I suspect, in years, to cry her heart out. It was like the bursting of a pent-up river. All the sled fears and perplexities and griefs poured over its banks. And when the flood time had passed, her strained, make-believe cheerfulness had given place to an openhearted serenity. ? 她沉默了一会儿,内心在斗争。然后开始哭了, 我猜想这是多年来她头一次尽情痛哭。就象堵住 的河水决了口,埋在心底的恐惧、困惑和忧伤冲 破堤坝般一下子倾倒了出来。滔滔洪水过后,她 一改以往的强颜欢笑,显得心情坦荡,恬静安详。 (陈文伯译,有改动)

? 这一段话 摘自Keeping the Heart’s Door Open (敞开心扉)。

原文语句简洁,修辞也很简单,但已把“她”前后的心态 变化、一连串的行为表现描写得很生动细致。译文既准确 地传达了原意又符合汉语的行文习惯。“fighting herself‖ 根据上下文译为“内心在斗争”; ―pent-up‖原意为“被 关禁的”,引伸为“郁积的”,形式上修饰river,又可形 容对方的心情。 但因用了“河水”、“堤坝”的比喻, 所以译成“(被) 堵住的”, bursting 与pored over 也就顺 理成章地译为“决了口”、“冲破堤坝”才能前后一致; grief 译为“忧伤”更突出了对方内敛性格的韵味; serenity 的内涵远比“安静”丰富,应为“恬静安详”; the flood time 中的time 直译出来怎么着都拗口,把它略 去而增补“滔滔”二字,组成顺口的汉语四字词;同理 strained, make-believe cheerfulness 意为“勉强装出来 的高兴样子”, 译成“强颜欢笑”,使整段话读起来通 顺流畅。另外,象“I suspect ‖这类插入语译时处理成主 句更合汉语的表达习惯。可见,即使是看似简单的文字, 也需仔细斟酌才能把相关的描述有声有色地译出来。

? 5. 绿的呢,是麦田,和风吹送,翻起了一轮一轮

的绿波 ? The green is wheat fields, blown by the breeze into green waves. ? 译文多么简洁、地道!但若因考虑“和风吹送” 意为“被和风吹送”, 而“翻起”,应为“和风吹 送”的结果而译为“The green is white fields; they are blown by the breeze so that they turn up green waves‖, 将会多么生硬、累赘。汉语里 动词用得多,没有非限定动词。英语里动词用得 少,介词用得多;即使用了动词,也有限定动词 与非限定动词之分。汉译英时,要做到“纲举目 张”,以动词为纲,其余译为非限定动词或介词, 甚至干脆省掉。上述译文就是把“和风吹送”译 为过去分词,用最简单的方式——介词“into‖表 示结果。(潘利锋译、评; 略有修改)

? 6. 今天,难得雾是那么稀薄,空中融融地混合着金黄色的阳

光,把地上的一切,好像也照上一层欢笑的颜色。说不出的 一股香气,幽然的吹进了我的鼻孔,我一回头,才发现了在 背后的一段矮坡上,铺满着一片金钱似的小花。(缪崇群: 《花床》)
?

Today, however, the fog was wonderfully thin and the air was filtered through with golden sunlight that tinted everything on the ground with a joyful hue. .As a faint aromatic scent seemed to be wafting into my nostrils, I turned only to find a stretch of a gentle incline thickly strewn with golden-coin-like flowers.

? 原文是一篇抒情散文,作者借描写大自然之景,运用婉转

含蓄的象征和联想,抒发对亡妻真诚的怀念之情,翻译时 要考虑“景”与“情”的相关因素, 有些字眼需做些推敲。 “难得”可以设法用英语表达在出来,如“(the fog was very thin ) which was rare‖; 若从作者的角度体验一下他的 感受,他说“难得雾是那么稀薄”时一定是怀着十分喜悦 的心情,鉴于此,将此话译成the fog was wonderfully thin,虽然wonderfully和“难得”在词意上并不完全对应, 但从再现作者当时的心情来看,似人也能产生较好的效果。 译“融融地” ,如有对应的英语词汇固然好,但也不必 一字一词对着译,若想象一下阳光透过薄雾照射到地面时 的情景,把它做一简单的描述,由此想到了filter这个词。 “照上一层欢笑的颜色”, 其实颜色本身并不欢笑,是作 者心里高兴,故译成tinted with a joyful hue. ―说不出”和 “幽然”两词没有按字面意义译。“说不出”其实就是 faint, 后者意思是dim或indistinct, 这就和汉语的“说不出” 意思十分吻合。“幽然地”无须特别译出,其意正包含在 动词waft之中。“waft‖意为“pass or cause to pass easily or gently through or as if through the air‖, 这里的 “easily or gently‖很恰当地表达了“幽然地”的意思。 (高巍、刘士聪译、评; 略有改动)

? 7. 其(指芸——-编者)形削肩长颈,瘦不露骨,眉

弯目秀,顾盼神飞,唯两齿微露,似非佳相。 (《浮生六记》)

?

Of a slender figure, she had drooping shoulders and a rather long neck, slim but not to the point of being skinny. Her eyebrows were arched and in her eyes there was a look of quick intelligence and soft refinement. The only defect was that her two front teeth were slightly inclined forward, which was not a mark of good omen. (林语堂译)

? 虽以西方读者为依归,但他主要的目的是向西方人介绍中

国文化,而芸是他赞赏备至的中国文学史上最可爱的女性, 所以译文用简练的字眼把一位秀外慧中的东方女性展现在 西方人面前。原文的描写与西方人心目中的美人形象相差 甚远。中西文化不同的审美传统给译者出了个难题:是把 原文中的描述直接搬到目的语中,把一位异域的美人介绍 给译文读者呢?还是用目的语中典型的美人形象去替代原 文中的美人形象,使之能符合目的语文化对美人的期待呢? 这就是翻译的异化与归化之争了。一般来说,应以归化翻 译为主、异化为辅,既方便目的语读者对原作理解与接受, 也满足他们对源语言文化的“特异性”的兴趣。林语堂翻 译的《浮生六记》虽以西方读者为依归,但他主要的目的 是向西方人介绍中国文化,而芸是他赞赏备至的中国文学 史上最可爱的女性,所以译文用简练的字眼把一位秀外慧 中的东方女性展现在西方人面前。她虽不丰满,也不是金 发碧眼,但她苗条的身材、清纯的气质、生动以神采与西 方的美人比起来更有一种独特的东方丰韵,给译作增加了 一抹东方文化的情致。倒是最后一句“The only defect .‖ 会令西方读者费解:为何一个人的牙齿排列与命运有关? 但这对西方读者来说,正好构成了中国文化的一种“特异 性”。(孙会军评;略有改动)

? 8. 这儿的峡谷又是另一番景象:谷中急水奔流,穿峡而过,

两岸树木葱茏,鲜花繁茂,碧草萋萋,活脱脱一幅生机盎 然的天然风景画。各种奇峰异岭,令人感受各异,遐想万 千。 ? It is another gorge through which a rapid stream flows. Trees, flowers and grass, a picture of natural vitality, thrive on both banks. The weird peaks arouse disparate thoughts. ? 原文小小的一段景点简介,竟用了如此多的对偶和连珠四 字结构,音韵俱佳,且无重复之感。其实汉语中不少惯用 的华丽词藻有时并无多大实际意义,大多出于讲究声韵对 仗、渲染情感气氛或顺应汉语行文习惯等方面的考虑。翻 译时若能避“虚”就“实”,去掉那些不必要的虚华溢美 之词,就能使译文符合英语民族描写景物重在客观写实的 审美特点而表达得自然流畅。而译文用词练达,表达直观 简洁,尤以“thrive‖、“vitality‖二词译得极富动感,可谓 画龙点睛。同时“disparate thought‖也是一锤定音,恰到 好处地表达了原意,结合上下文,诗情画意尽在其中。 (贾文波译、评)

Text A Moonrise over Monument Valley ( Excerpt)
? We were here for a purpose: to see the full moon rise

over this most mysterious and lonely of scenic wonders . ? Our camp faced east — toward the rising sun and the rising moon and across a limitless expanse of tawny desert, that ancient sea, framed by1 the towering nearby twin pinnacles called The Mittens. We began to feel the magic even before the sun was fully down. ? As the sun disappeared entirely, the evening afterglow brush tipped2 all the spires and cliffs with magenta, deepening to purple, and the sand ripples stood out like miniature3 ocean waves in darkening shades of orange. Off to the east on the edge of the desert, a pale saffron glow told us the moon was about to rise behind a thin layer of clouds.
返回目录

? We had our cameras on tripods and were fussing with

light meters, making casual bets as to the exact place where the moon would first appear, when it happened — instant enchantment4. Precisely between the twin spires of The Mittens, the enormous golden globe loomed suddenly, seeming as big as the sun itself, behind a coppery curtain on the rim of creation5.
? We were as totally unprepared for the great size of the

moon as we were for its flaming color, nor could we have prepared ourselves for the improbable setting. We felt like the wizards of Stonehenge6, commanding the planets to send their light through the magic orifices in line at the equinox. Had the Navajo medicine men7 contrived this for our benefit?

? The massive disk of the moon seemed to rise very fast

at first, and optical effect magnified by the crystalline air and the flatness of the landscape8 between us and the distant ragged skyline. Then it seemed to pause for a moment, as if it were pinioned on one of the pinnacles or impaled in a sharply upthrusting rocky point. Its blazing light made inky shadows all around us split by the brilliant wedge of the moon's path9 between the spires. The wind had stopped. There was not a sound anywhere, not even a whisper. If a drum had sounded just then, it would not have been out of place, I suppose, but it would have frightened us half to death. ? Before the moon had cleared10 the tops of The Mittens, the show was over and the magic was gone . A thin veil of clouds spread over the sky, ending the spell11 as suddenly as it had come upon us. It was as if the gods had decided that we had seen enough for mere mortals on one spring night, and I must confess it was something of a relief to find ourselves back on mundane earth again, with sand in our shoes and a chill in the air. ? ( adapted from Advanced College Composition by Tang Junfeng)

提示: 1. ( be) framed by: 以为背景 2. tip: 给顶端加上→点缀 3. miniature 微型的→ 微微(泛起)的 4. instant enchantment: 瞬间的迷人景象 5. on the rim of creation: 刚开始时 6. Stonehenge: 史前巨石柱;巨石阵 7. the Navajo medicine men: 纳瓦霍族的巫医 8. the flatness of the landscape: 平坦的地形 9. the brilliant wedge of the moon's path : 耀眼的 楔形的月光之路 ? 10. clear: 离开;消失 ? 11. spell: 魔力
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

练习1
? 一。把下列句子译成汉语,注意斜体部分的译法。 ? 1. Perhaps the most heart-stopping moment in the

?

?

?
?

process occurs when a 70-ton crane moves into position above the mold and drops lines attached to a vacuum cups that lift the mirror like a massive spaceship. 2. Tiny islands are strung around the edge of the peninsula like a pearl necklace. On the islands are hunks of coral reef, coconut palms and fine white sand. 3. So far the exodus from New York is no more than a trickle, but it could become a flood if the fear of crime begins to overshadow the city‘s unique combination of pizzas and opportunity. ( pizza: 异族;少数民族后裔) 4. Grandma said Uncle Jim was such kind a man who burnt his boat when he bit off more than he could chew. 5. There was something original, independent and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.

?

?

6. The Berlin Philharmonic‘s unique love-hate relationship with Karajan1 is not likely to be repeated with the lower-key Abbado2. (Note: both Karajan and Abbado are very famous conductors of orchestra)

?

7. The great writer Charles Dickens loved Christmas, and described its merriness and warm-heartedness in books like A Christmas Carol, with drawing-room scenes of blazing log fires, while the December snow outside made all the country white.
8. Rushing throngs, blinded by the darkness and the smoke, rushed up one street and down the next, trampling the fallen in a crazy fruitless dash toward safety. ( Robert Silverberg: Pompeii)

?

? 9. Notwithstanding the continual wrangle between

the governor and the House, in which I, as a member, had so large a share, there still subsisted a civil intercourse between that gentleman and myself, and we never had any personal difference.
? 10. No alien land in all the world has any deep,

strong charm for me but that one; no other land could so longingly and beseechingly haunt me sleeping and waking, through half a lifetime, as that one has done.

? 二. 把下列段落译成汉语,注意译时对斜体部分的词语或

句子结构作必要的不对应的处理: ? 1. The rising of the sun was noble in the cold and warmth of it: peeping down the spread of light, he raised his shoulder heavily, over the edge of gray mountain and wavering length of upland, Beneath his gaze the dewfogs dipped and crept to the hollow places, then stole away in line and column, holding skirts and clinging subtly at the sheltering corners where rock hung over grassland, while the brave lines of the hills came forth, one beyond other gliding. ? 2. ―There he comes!‖ somebody called, and then everybody who was in a position to see watched him as he hurried breezily along ---- a graceful, tallish man in very light gray suit and gray fedora hat, with a full square beard at least as white as his suit, who moved with energy, and smoked passionately at a big cigar. When he came in at the outer door and into the good-sized room and down the aisle to the front, threw his hat on the table in the corner, mounted the two steps to the platform, looked about with a commanding eye, and the was sudden silence and unrestrained expectancy.

?

?

3. I strolled to the Pantheon1 and had delicious pea soup and a small steak in a fine crowded restaurant full of students and vegetarian law professors. Then I sat in a little park in PlacePal-Painleve2 and dreamily watched a curving row of beautiful rosy tulips rigid and swaying fat shaggy sparrows, beautiful short-haired mademoiselles. (Note: 1. 先贤祠 2. 保尔-潘勒弗广场 )

? 4. Perhaps the quickest way to understand the elements

of what a novelist is doing is not to read, but to write; to make your own experiment with the dangers and difficulties of words. Recall, then, some event that has left a distinct impression on you ---- how at the corner of the street, perhaps, you passed two people talking. A tree shook; an electric light danced; the tone of the talk was comic, but also tragic; a whole vision, an entire conception, seemed contained in that moment. But when you attempt to reconstruct it in words, you will find that it breaks into a thousand confliction impressions. Some must be subdued; others emphasized; in the process you will lose, probably, all grasp upon the emotion itself. Then turn from your blurred and littered pages to the opening pages of some great novelist----- Defoe, Jane Austen, Hardy. Now you will be better able to appreciate their mastery ( Virginia Woolf: How Should One Read a Book?)

? 5. Departing Guests ? I am more of a host than a guest. I like people to stay

with me but do not much care about staying with them, and usually say I am too busy. The only people we ask to stay with us are people we like—I do not believe in business hospitality, which has the seed of corruption in it—and all Fridays I work in a pleasant glow just because 1 know some nice people are coming down by the last train. I am genuinely glad to see them. But I suspect that I am still more delighted when they go, and the house is ours again; It is not that I feel that I have been mistaken in these guests, though this has happened of course at times. After the week end I may like them more than ever, having discovered new virtues and unsuspected charms. Nevertheless, I am delighted to see them go. They leave more room in which to live properly. Meals are quicker and easier. There is, no more hanging about, no more sight-seeing, no further necessity for bright talk.

? My mind, like my body, puts on its old clothes

again. I enjoy hard work (my own kind) and foolish play, and both are difficult when you are cluttered up with guests. I like to think about life in this world, and it is not easy to do this when animated and talkative pieces of it are all over the place. With guests about I am conscious of myself as a solid, but as soon as they have gone I expand into a gas again. And a gas can have more delight than a solid. So—Good-by! . . . Good-by! . . : Good— ? ( taken from Delight by J.B. Priestley)

Text B

白杨礼赞 (节选) 茅盾

? 那就是白杨树,西北极普通的种树,然而实在不是平凡的一

种树! ? 那是力争上游的一种树,笔直的干,笔直的枝。它的干呢, 通常是丈把高,象是加过人工似的,一丈以内,绝无旁枝; 它所有的丫枝呢,一律向上,而且紧紧靠拢,也象是加过人 工似的,成为一束,绝无横斜逸出1;它的宽大的叶子也是 片片向上,几乎没有斜生的,更不用说倒垂了。它的皮,光 滑而有银色的晕圈,微微泛出淡青色2。这是虽在北方的风 雪的压迫下却保持着倔强挺立的一种树!哪怕只有碗来精细 罢, 它却努力向上发展,高到丈许,二文,参天耸立不挠, 对抗着西北风。

返回目录

? 这就是白杨树,西北极普通的一种树, 然而决不是平凡的树!

它没有婆娑的姿态3 , 没有屈曲盘旋4的虬枝,也许你要说它 不美丽, --- 如果美是专指“婆娑”或“横斜逸出”之类而 言,那么白杨树算不得树中的好女子;但是它却是伟岸5, 正直,朴质,严肃,也不缺乏温和,更不用提它的坚强不屈 与挺拔,它是树中的伟丈夫! 你在积雪初融的高原上走过, 看见平坦的大地上傲然挺立这么一株或一排白杨树,难道你 就觉得树只是树?难道你就不想到它的朴质,坚强不屈,至 少也象征了北方的农民;难道你竟一点也不联想到,在敌后 的广大土地上,到处坚强不屈,就象这白杨树一样傲然挺立 的守卫他们家乡的哨兵6,难道你又不更远一点想到这样枝 枝叶叶靠紧团结,力求上进的白杨树, 宛然象征了今天在华 北平原纵横激荡7,用用血写出新中国历史的那种精神和意 志。

? 白杨不是平凡的树。它在西北极普遍,不被人重视,

就跟北方农民相似;它有极强的生命力8,磨折不 了,压迫不倒,也跟北方的农民相似。我赞美白杨 树,就因为它不但象征了北方的农民,尤其象征了 今天我们民族解放中所不可缺的9朴质,坚强,以 及力求上进的精神。
? 让那些看不起民众,贱视民众,顽固的倒退的人们

去赞美那贵族化的楠木10(那也是直挺11的)罢, 但是我要高声赞美白杨树!

? 提示:
? 1. 横斜逸出: sideway growth. ? 2. 银色的晕圈,微微泛出淡青色: a faint light green with ? ? ?

?
? ? ? ?

?

hazy silver spots 3. 婆娑的姿态: the graceful carriage of a dancer 4. 屈曲盘旋: twine and climb 5. 伟岸: big and tall 6. 守卫他们家乡的哨兵: 不宜译为sentries ,应译作 soldiers guarding our homeland 7. 纵横激荡: fighting heroically 8. 有极强的生命力: are bursting with vitality 9. 我们民族解放中所不可缺的: central to our struggle for national liberation 10. 楠木是一种贵重的常绿乔木,可音译为 nanmu 12. 秀颀: good-looking and tall

练习 2
? 一. 把下列句子译成英语,注意斜体部分的译法。

? 1. 宏儿没有见过我,远远的对面站着只是看。(鲁迅:《故
? ? ? ?

乡》) 2. 我们的游船驶进了长达13公里的主航道,只见两岸山如刀 削,绿树红花,景色十分秀丽。 3. 这会儿他们心照不宣地拿长矛当军刀砍来砍去,而不敢用 能致命的矛尖。 4. 完全进入了冬天的状态:山峦看见雪的日子多了,风也吹 得厉害。 5. 广州的茶座十分兴旺, 茶座中各式点心,纷呈茶食之胜---月饼,鲜虾饺,干蒸烧卖,香麻苹叶角等各种款式点心,奇 技巧思,出人意外,各具特色,享名遐迩。

? 6. 王羲之的书法飘若游云, 矫若惊龙。 ? 7. 庐山的雨,很有点出人意表, 它来也匆匆,去也

匆匆。 ? 8. 少壮不努力,老大徒悲伤。 ? 9. 新中国诞生的时候,自平跟随父母蹦蹦跳跳地回 到了祖国怀抱,与千千万万同龄人一样,生活在充 满欢乐的世界里。 ? 10. 上海一位“公子”到日本当了“打工仔”想发 “洋财”回家,结果不到一个月便累得腰酸背疼, 喊爹骂娘。

? 二. 把下列段落译成英语,注意译时对斜体部分的词语或

句子结构作必要的不对应的处理,甚至省略:

? 1. 从桂林坐船沿漓江到阳朔,有83里水程,景色非常秀

姿态各异,或坐或卧,或奔跑,或昂首长嘶,是漓江名胜 之一。碧莲峰,立于阳朔县城江岸。形如一朵含苞欲放的 莲花,故称碧莲峰。 ? 2. 孩子简单。他们不爱钱,不爱荣誉,不爱大而漂亮的房 子,有人把他弄痛了,哭过一场也什么都忘了。所以,他 们脑袋一碰枕头就能呼呼睡去,拥有世界上最佳质量的睡 眠。 ? 孩子好奇。孩子总在想一些东西,也在思考一些东西。 他们的头脑常常处于快乐的旋转之中。一朵奇特的云,一 片鲜见的树叶,都会引发孩子许多的联想。同样的生活, 在孩子的眼里会呈现出我们发现不了的乐趣和快乐。这世 界上最亮的那双眼睛,是孩子的。

丽,碧水青峰,江山如画。冠岩,是进入阳朔的第一胜景。 船过草坪,便可见它直立江边,外貌很像一顶古老的紫金 冠,因此称为“冠岩”。再往前行,便是画山,山壁平削, 上面青绿黄白颜色,纵横交错,呈现出一幅马图。这些马

?

?

?

?
? ?

3. 1976年2月4日,在全危地马拉( Guatemala), 人们都在家里安睡,突然他们脚下的大地开始 剧烈抖动,西半球破坏最严重的地震发生了。 在首都一座十七世纪的教堂里人们听到了巨大 的爆炸声。在首都的西部,一家面包坊轰然倒 塌, 并把隔壁的房屋压得粉碎。 “怎样回事?”人们尖声喊道。他们从床上一 跃而起,冲到街上。夜一片漆黑,所有的东西 都在移动。 屋顶塌陷,建筑物倒塌,成百的人被埋在石块 和砖瓦的下面。 一个印第安人说:“你好好的去睡觉,然后一 醒来,整个世界都变了。” 在这次地震发生后的几个星期中,据统计有两 万三千人死亡,大约七万七千人受伤。

? 4. 一间中国旧式房子。后面有一门通院子,左右各一门

通耳房,房的中间偏右方,一张方桌,四围几张小椅。桌 子铺了白布,中间放着一盏煤油灯及茶具。偏左方,一米 茶几,两张椅子,靠壁放着。一张椅背上搭着一体雨衣, 旁边放着一个手提包。后面的左边靠墙放着一张类似洗脸 架带有镜子的小桌,上面放着一个时钟及花瓶。屋内尚有 其他的陈设,壁上还有一些字画,但都很简单而俭朴。
? 5. 广州又被誉为“花城”,一年四季鲜花盛开。广州的

花市,特别是每年一度的花市,更是引人人胜。中外游人 不远万里而来,一睹南国花市的盛况,领略花市独有的东 方情调。每逢春节来临之际,广州及其四乡的花农,总在 除夕的前3天里,聚集在西关、河南、东山等处街市,搭 建临时的竹架芦棚,布置出花团锦簇的花街。那娇艳的芍 药,宫丽的牡丹、怒放的菊花、玲珑的金桔、清雅的水仙, 婀娜的吊钟,在花匠们精心培植之下,百花竞放,万紫千 红,一片锦绣。一到晚上,更是灯火辉煌,人如潮涌,灯 光花色,分不清天上人间.

阅读知识 A . Chinese and Western Thinking on Translation (excerpt) by André Lefevere
? Different cultures have tended to take translation for

granted, or rather, different cultures have taken the technique of translating that was current at a given time in their evolution for granted and: equated it with the phenomenon of translation: as such. Histories of translation in the West have shown: increasingly that the technique of translating in Western cultures has changed repeatedly, over the centuries, and that what was accepted as 'obvious' at one particular time was, in fact, little more than a passing phase. The important point is that shifts and changes in the technique of translating did not occur at random. Rather, they were intimately linked with the way in which different cultures, at different times, came to terms with the phenomenon of translation, with the challenge posed by the existence of the Other and the need to select from a number of possible strategies for dealing with that Other. ----返回目录

? --We are, therefore, finally beginning to see different

methods of translating as well as different approaches to translational practice as contingent, not eternal, as changeable, not fixed, because we are beginning to recognise that they have, indeed, changed over the centuries. Paradoxically, once it is accepted that translation is contingent, it becomes possible to highlight the central position it has always occupied in the development, indeed the very definition of cultures. That contingency is even easier to see when two different traditions are compared. Such a comparison may, I believe, shed light not just on the two traditions, but ultimately also on the phenomenon of translation itself.

? I shall consider what I would like to call 'translational

practice' both in the Chinese and Western traditions. By translational practice I mean a practice that integrates the 9 actual activity of translating into itself. It precedes that activity in that it gives certain guidelines, whether these are followed by particular translators or not, that are themselves the product of thinking about the process of translation within a culture. Translational practice also follows the process of translating, since it plays a part in the reception of translated texts in the culture, or cultures for which they are intended.

? In short, translational practice is one of the strategies a

culture devises for dealing with what we have learned to call 'the Other'. The development of a translational strategy therefore also provides good indications of the kind of society one is dealing with. The fact that China, for instance, developed translational strategies only three times in its history, with the translation of the Buddhist scriptures from roughly the second to the seventh centuries AD, with the translation of the Christian scriptures starting in the sixteenth, century AD, and with the translation of much Western thought and literature starting in the nineteenth century AD, says Something about the image of the Other dominant in Chinese civilisation, namely that the Other was not considered very important. Nor is China, as was sometimes erroneously believed, alone in that respect. A much more extreme example is provided by Classical Greece, which showed no interest in the Other, did not develop any thinking about translation and hardly translated anything at all. ? ( from Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation )

B . 从汉、英景物描写看民族审美差异(节选) 贾文波
? 一般而言,汉语的景物描写大多文笔优美,用词凝炼含蓄、

音韵和美,语言近乎诗化,景物刻画不求明细,讲究“情 景交融”、“意与境混”的“诗情画意”艺术境界,追求 一种意象的朦胧之美。英语则不然,英语在描写景物时, 其表达总是那么客观具体,精细深刻,描绘直观可感,没 有汉语那么多的意象思维和情感色彩,没有那么多的委婉 和浓缩,写景手法上多诉诸于具象的景物罗列而使之形象 鲜明可感,具有一种真实自然的理性之美,与汉语的写景 手法形成鲜明对比。。

返回目录

? 汉、英民族分属东西两大不同的文化体系,形成了各自不同

的思维方式、文化传统和审美意识。汉语的景物描写历来 “诗情画意”盎然,行文运笔风格如诗,强调神韵和意境的 渲染。因而其景物刻画常明晰不足而含蓄有余,多带模糊思 维的痕迹。例如用“灼灼”形容桃花之明艳,用“依依”曲 尽杨柳之轻柔,到底是何景象不予明说,任读者自行品味。 而在语言表达上,就有了行文用字宜双不宜单、讲究四六骈 体、工整对仗、音韵和美的习惯和传统,就有了“文必秦汉、 诗必盛唐”、“为情而造文,要约而写真”,“一切景语皆 情语”的写作风格,处处完美地再现了汉民族极富东方哲理 的美学思想。

? 西方民族的审美习性在这些方面则大相径庭。西方传统哲

学强调分析型抽象理性思维,在主观与客观的物象关系上, 反复、更多地强调的是摹仿和再现。亚里斯多德就主张美 学的最高境界便是“照事物应有的样子去摹仿,”这一观 点早已渗透到了西方文学艺术的各个领域。这一“摹仿论” 一直成为西方传统艺术和美学的基本立场,以致西方的现 实主义、浪漫主义、自然主义等艺术流派,其本质都源于 这一摹仿论,反映出西方传统哲学思维偏重理性、突出个 性,主、客观对立的特点。这种趋势反映到语言表达形式 上,就出现了英语重形式、重写实、重理性的特点,形成 了其句式构架严整、表达思维镇密、行文注重逻辑理性、 用词强调简洁自然、描述突出直观可感的风格。具体到景 物描写,英语大多行文简洁通顺,描述符合客观理性,注 重形象的鲜明可感,注重上下文语义的照应,最忌表达华 而不实、累赘堆砌,语言上追求一种自然流畅之美。

? 汉英民族这种审美习惯上的明显差异, 特别是在意象与形象、

“虚”与’‘实”、主观抒发与客观写实三个方面形而了鲜 明的对照。 ? 汉语的景物描写一贯强调“意与境混”的境界,追求那种客 观景物与主观情感高度和谐、融为一体的浑然之美。“其文 章之妙,客观物象经过心灵化、意识化成为内心之象;主观 意趣经过对象化、移情化,成为物化之意。意象能通过实体 (具象式)来物化虚美,化“无”形为“有”态,具有一种 朦胧之美和模糊审美的意味。在审美习惯上,意象与形象并 非完一致。形象要较意象更具体些、稳定些而意象则比形象 要虚化一些,其模糊信息的蕴量也相应大些。而在汉语的景 物描写中,人们常常将景物的内在意蕴依附于其外在的表象 之上,人文色彩浓郁,意境深远但缺乏客观清晰的具体描绘。

? 英语的景物描写则不然。英语更多地借重鲜明可感的具体

形象来逼真地再现客观景物,而不刻意在描绘的言辞上作 过多的意象渲染。它的语言大多明晰客观符合理性,是站 在自然之外去欣赏自然之美。因而在很多情况下、往往用 简单的具象罗列而不是意境的深化来传达实实在在的景物 之美,以达西方“摹仿自然”、“再现现实”的艺术审美 效果。因此,它的语言没有汉语那么多的人文色彩,没有 那么多的虚美含蓄和意象渲染。

?

汉语写景重意境的美学观点使其作品具有一种超越现实、 虚实不定的朦胧、变形之美,“虚”与“实”巧妙结合。 这种虚象的本质带有很大的模糊性,因而使得汉语的景物 描写多少增加了一些‘虚”的夸张成分并使描绘的实景有 些变形,而这正是汉语写景所追求的艺术审美效果。对汉 民族而言,这种夸张和变形非但不显“虚”,反被认为是 一种绝妙的联想和生动的“比兴”,使描写栩栩如生,意 如画,情如诗,增添无穷美感。但从英语的理性思维角度 来看,这些意象的确有些“虚”的成分,不合英语写实的 原则,给人模糊失真、笼统含蓄的感觉。

英语的景物描写大多是实景实写,不重写意而在绘景,力求 忠实地再现自然。尽管它也用夸张,拟人等各种修辞手法, 但在表述实境实体时却往往是实打实的客观描绘,力求准确 清晰不走形,让读者有一个直观明确的印象,因而在遣词构 句上常常显得客观朴实、干净利落。 ? 另一方面,由于汉语历来有表达四六骈体,行文用字宜双不 宜单的习惯,因而在景物描写中常常使用大量的对偶平行结 构和连珠四字句,意在声律对仗,行文工整、文意对比,达 到音、形、意皆美的效果。而这些表达相对英语而言,在很 大程度上都有同义重复之嫌,但用在汉语中却能使表达更添 文采和气势,华丽而富有诗意。
?

? 汉语的景物描写很少有单纯写景的,汉语与西方语言(特

别是英语)在语言风格上的本质区别是:汉语的人文色彩 和英语的理性原则。汉语的客观景物描写几乎从未离开过 主观心意的抒发,在描绘自然美的同时无时不在传递一种 情感美。因而,在景物描写中诉诸于意象来抒发主观感受 便几乎成了表达的常式,所谓“一切景语,皆情语也”。 英语写景有避“虚’就“实”的特点,注重客观景物的真 实再现。因而,它要求景物描述形象逼真、清晰可感,突 出客观物象的具体形状和姿态,展现自然的真实美。 汉 英民族在写景审美上的这一些差异实际上反映的是两种完 个不同的思维习惯:重直觉了悟与重客观理性。汉语的写 景会有那么多的模糊和主观色彩,而英语的写景却那么强 调直观清晰和再现自然。 ? 汉语的这种写景高度意象化的特点与英语凭借具体形象再 现自然的手法形成了鲜明的对照。因此,对于汉语这一类 文章的英译,一定要注重突出英语民族的审美情趣和欣赏 习惯,在行文方式、遣词造句上善于打破汉语的格局,破 除汉语思维的干扰,强调突出客观理性的描写。在汉译英 的过程中,对汉语原文斟词酌句认真推敲,透过虚象看到 实质,找出直观可感的具体形象来,做到化“虚”为 “实”,分清虚实主次,化主观意象为直观形象,去繁从 简,力求真实,就能译出符合英语审美原则的译文来。

第九章 各类文体的特点与翻译 (3) 翻译知识 说明文和议论文的翻译
? 一. 英汉语说明文和议论文的文体特点的共性与差异及翻

译要领 ? 就体裁而言,说明文和议论文属于同一范畴,议论文体也 可看作是一种独特的说明文体。两者的功能均为解释、说 明,以客观、理性为特征,但说明文重在信息而议论文重 在说服。说明文和议论文用词庄重,语法规范,层次分明, 结构完整,思路慎密,条理清楚,逻辑性强。这些特点为 英汉双方所共有。 ? 英汉两语的说明文及议论文在用词的语体取向上是一致的, 一般来说用普通或正规词句(common or formal ),喜用学 术性强的“大词”(big word) , 而不用俚俗语、方言、口 语。在文章结构方面, 即导入、提出论点、展开论证、结 论、呼应的布局也大致相同。
返回目录

? 英汉说明文和议论文较大的差异表现在句子这一层次上, 包

括某些句子成分、句型结构、语序、衔接标识等等。在用词 方面,英语大量使用名词(短语)而汉语多用动词或主谓结构, 在词义的引伸、用词的重复、替代、省略、增补等以及其他 的修辞技巧方面, 英汉语也常因习惯不同而存在不对应、不 等值的情况。另外,在思维的展开方式上也存在差异。英语 说明文和议论文往往呈直线式思路,无论篇、段、句均习惯 开门见山,直奔主题;而汉语说明文和议论文的文脉走向常 常是不拘一格,除直线式外,也有螺旋式,显得迂回曲折, 在引出话题前花费笔墨铺陈,然后步步深入,再画龙点睛。

? 英语说明文及议论文喜用长句,句中层次多,喜用插入成

份或独立结构,扩展手段常用短语或从句作后置修饰语。 其结构严谨,句与句之间,尤其多重复句的从句、分句之 间,必须用关联词语(有时也可用标点符号)来表示相互 关系,即所谓“形合”特征;不仅句与句之间,而且段落 与段落之间,整个篇章都讲究衔接、过渡的标志性词语。 汉语语言简洁灵活,各分句既可以靠关联词语连接,也可 只凭其内容上内在的逻辑关系贯串起来,呈“意合”特征; 其文篇少用长句,句法多变,各段落的安排也表现出布局 谋篇方面不太强调形式上的规定,可随着作者思路展开而 天马行空,只要内在的有机联系合符逻辑即可。英语稍长 的句子,都会把说话人最关注的对象前置,即遵循具体、 近期、眼前、局部、核心部分优先,而一般、远期、远处、 整体、附带部分排后的次序; 而汉语则相反,在时空顺序 上都是先提全局再谈部分,逻辑方面也按前因、后果或先 从属、后主体的顺序,先讲清笫一层,再进而第二层,因 此句型偏短而清楚有力。英语说明文及议论文因强调所提 供信息的客观性,与谁是动作的执行者关系不大而多用被 动语态;但汉语在很多情况下用被动语态都会显得生硬而 不自然,宁改用主动语态或其他后结构。

? 基于以上所述, 英汉翻译时应注意几个方面: ? 要准确辨析词义,尤其是在特定的上下文中所携带的政治、

历史、社会背景等文化内涵。英汉说明或议论文体往往在 涉及各行业、各领域时运用一些专用术语,一来可达到行 文简练而又信息量大的目的,二来也是其正式或庄重的文 体风格特征的体现,在翻译时须熟悉两语相关领域的表达 习惯,能找到等值词最好,否则就要考虑引伸、增补或如 何直译、意译等技巧的运用了。 ? 在搞清句子结构的基础上,准确理解原意并用符合汉语表 达习惯的方式译出。句单位的翻译常常要在语序、句子成 份、句型等方面作删、增、分、合之类的调整,以免别扭 晦涩乃至意思走样。 ? 就篇章而言,一般不改变原文的整体结构和展开顺序,力 求忠实地转达原文的思想内容、论证逻辑,有可能的话, 再现其风格特色。在翻译遇到拦路虎时,为了理清原作思 路,要在较大的语言单位作分析,找出内在联系,切忌死 抠某些词语之类的小结构,找不准真义所在。

? 二. 英汉语叙事文体翻译实例
? (1) Eosimias, which lived 45 million years ago, made

news last week when paleontologists disclosed new fossil evidence placing the little animal at a critical juncture in the history of life, what some experts are calling the primate equivalent of the missing link. ? 生活在四千五百万年前的曙猴上周成了新闻报导的对象— — 古生物学家发现了新的化石物证,把这种小动物在生 物史上的位置,定位于一个重要的接合点上,某些专家称 之为相当于(生命进化链中的)所缺失的灵长类这个环节的 动物。(叶碧霞译) ? Eosimias是个新造词,这里的根据其构词组成部分(eo --始新、原始的;simian--猿猴)译为曙猴或始早猿。 “Missing link‖ 意为一系列完整事物中缺少的一个环节, 这里根据上下文作了增补,才能使译文准确完整地表达原 文的信息。

? (2). people who haven‘t purchased or perused the Word

since their Sunday School days, are confounded: Which Bible will give a particular person ——maybe a scholar or a seeker, a harried parent, a struggle student —— spiritual nourishment, moral enlightenment and literary pleasure? ? 那些自小以来就没有买过或研读过圣经的人们现在不由 得感到迷惑了:哪一种圣经将会给某一个人——可能是一 个学者、追求真理者、忧心忡忡的父母、或是内心煎熬不 宁的学生——带来心灵上的慰藉、道义上的启发和文学阅 读的愉悦?(端木义万编) ? 本译例所作的转换、增补、调整是基于文化背景或上下文 搭配的原因。Sunday School 是指西方儿童礼拜日接受宗 教教育的去处,这是他们小时候的惯例之事,故since their Sunday School days 译为“自小以来”也行了。 Seeker 必须加上宾语,汉译文的意思才清楚,而harried, 原意为“受折磨”、“十分头痛”, 现译成“忧心忡忡 的”, 是鉴于该语境的主题、上下文的语义搭配而选择的 通畅表述。同理,Struggling (students) 和 (spiritual) nourishment 译为“内心煎熬不宁的(学生)‖、“(心灵上的) 慰藉”, 而不译作“奋斗的”和“滋养”。

? 2. Pollution is a "dirty" word. To pollute means to

contaminate to spoil something by introducing impurities which make it unfit or unclean to use. Pollution comes in many forms. We see it, smell it, taste it, drink it, and stumble through it. We literally live in and breathe pollution, and, not surprisingly, it is beginning to threaten our health, our happiness, and our very civilization.
? 污染乃是一个肮脏的字眼。污染就是弄脏,就是因为带来

杂质而使某种东西变得不洁净而无法使用,从而毁掉了这 种东西。污染以多种形式出现。它不仅看得见,闻得出, 尝得到,喝得着,而且我们还常常被它绊倒。的确,我们 生活在污染之中,呼吸着污染的空气,而且,不足为奇的 是,污染正在开始威胁我们的健康,我们的幸福,甚至我 们的文 ? 明。(李王侠译)

? 从句法的角度来说,出于同样的修辞目的,英汉语常常会用

不同的手法。本译例中的“To pollute means to contaminate to spoil something by‖ 译成“污染就是弄脏, 就是因为 从而毁掉了”,其缘故在于译者领会原文抨击污染 现象时多次运用排比结构,语气铿锵有力,所以把原英文中 的结果状语to spoil 译为与to contaminate并列的means的宾 语, 并译成比“意思是”语气更强的“就是”再加以重复, 达到了很好的强调效果。对see it, smell it, taste it, drink it的 处理,则根据汉语习惯,译成不同的补语与相应的动词搭配。 在译live in and breathe pollution时, 也把与第二个动词搭配 的宾语pollution作具体的引伸,译为“(呼吸着)污染的空 气”,使译文通顺流畅。

? 3. (1). Brief and powerless is Man's life; on him and all

his race the slow, sure doom falls pitiless and dark. It remains only to cherish, ere yet the blow fall, the lofty thoughts that ennoble his little day; disdaining the coward terrors of the slave of Fate, to preserve a mind free from the wanton tyranny that rules his outward life; to sustain alone, a weary but unyielding Atlas , the world that his own ideals have fashioned. (Bertrand Russell: A Free Man‘s Worship)
?

人的生命短暂而脆弱。不可避免的死亡虽然缓慢却一定 会降临他及他的同类,阴森而毫不怜惜。因而在沉重的打 击降临之前,一个人所能做的就只有珍惜那使他短暂的人 世勾留变得有意义的高尚思想,蔑视那种对命运恐惧而卑 躬屈膝的懦夫态度;始终保持一颗自由的心,能够摆脱左 右他外在生活的那种恣意纵横的力量;他就像疲累而不屈 的擎天巨神,独自支撑着他自己的理想所开拓的一片天空。 (陈文伯译)

? 原文遣词运句风格凝重,译文忠实地反映了这一特点。

“不可避免的死亡” 及“那种恣意纵横的力量”把doom 和 (the wanton) tyranny 的意义表达得很具体、清楚而且 与上下文搭配得合理。 同样,“ the world‖ 因为要考虑与 Atlas (擎天巨神)及sustain搭配合理,也灵活地译成“一 片天空”而非“世界”。

? (2). And these troubling silences provoke the greatest

question of all: what does the Constitution mean? ? 而这些讳莫如深的问题令人产生一个最大的疑问:宪法 究竟是什么? ? 句中的silence不作“静寂”“沉默”解,其释义为 absence or omission of mention。有时某个词语在一般的 英汉或双解词典中查不到合适的释义, 有必要找原版的英 英词典,而且对该词的上下文所致的词义制约、词义范围 等应先心中有数,选择词义后仍放回上下文中检验才能确 保无误。(方梦之译、注)

? 4. (1) One can perhaps get a clearer picture of Japan‘s

acute population pressure by imagining what Switzerland would be like if that small and mountainous country were inhabited by 28 million people instead of the 5.7 million as at present. ? 只要设想一下,假如那小小的瑞士居住的人口不是现在的五 百七十万,而是两千八百万,瑞士会是什么情景,人们便会 清楚地理解日本所面临的人口压力是多么大。(王海生译) ? 英语原文突出句子主题 “Japan‘s population pressure ‖而 把它放在前面; 但汉语习惯于先提出假设、条件、原因再谈 结果,先叙事再归纳,所以从原句中间的“if‖入手,再把后 面与前面句首的内容按逻辑理顺译出。

? (2). Air travel is such an everyday experience these days

that we are not surprised when we read about a politician having talks with the Japanese Prime Minister one day, attending a conference in Australia the following morning and having to be off at midday to sign a trade agreement in Hong Kong. ? 如今空中旅行是件司空见惯的事。因此,当我们在报上着到 某日某位政治家在和日本首相进行会谈,次日上午又在澳大 利亚参加会议,中午还得去香港签署一份贸易协定的报导时, 就不会感到奇怪了。(魏进尊,吴代生译编) ? 英语长句较多,译时也就须在顺序、关联方面多推敲,然 后按汉语习惯流畅译出。本例与上一例稍不同,是先译头尾, 再译中间。

? 5. 唐长安城包括今西安市城区和近郊区,面积相当于现在

西安城的七倍半,城周有三十六点七公里,城内居住着约 一百万人口。 ? (译文1:) During the Tang Dynasty, Chang‘an included present-day Xi‘an and its suburbs, 6.5 times larger than pre-liberation Xi‘an. It was 36.7km in circumference, and had a population of one million. ? 这个译文存在以下几点不足,一是增加了原文中没有的信 息(解放前的长安),这样出现了古代长安, 现在长安, 解 放前的长安三个事物的关系,从而产生混乱。二是谓语动 词(一般表示主要信息)出现了三个,即①included ② was ③had分别表示面积、周长和人口。而我们分析原文 可知,它主要包括两个信息点,一是古代长安城的大小, 二是当时的人口。对面积大小提供了与今西安城比较的情 况,并附以城周的数据。因此,翻译时应该用谓语结构表 达主要信息,而其他辅助信息应以辅助结构形式出现(如 with;equal to ),否则会主次不清。三是include一词使用 不当。古代长安如何能include今天的西安及近郊?因此原 文中的“包括”不应直接对应为include这个只能表示共时 性关系而不能表示历时性关系的词,不妨改用equal to这 一短语。

? 汉译英中要抓住主要信息来组句,不另节外生枝,

使译文重点突出。现把原文改译如下: ? (译文2:) In Tang Dynasty, its capital city Chang‘an, with a circumference of 36.7 km, was 7.5 times as large as Xi‘an today, equal to the whole area of present-day Xi‘an together with its outskirts, and had a population of about one million. (吕俊译、 评)

? 6. 汉语英译与英语汉译一样,原文中有关历史、政治、文

? ?

?

?

化风俗等背景信息,要在翻译时作妥善处理。请看以下几 例: (1). 新中国的成立,标志着中华民族实现了空前的大团结。 The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 marked an unprecedented great unity of the Chinese nation, ( 庄绎传译) (2)我国先秦思想家早就提出了“亲仁善邻,国之宝也” 的思想,反映了自古以来中国人民就希望天下太平、同各 国人民友好相处。 Chinese thinkers of the pre-Qin days (over 2000 years ago) advanced the doctrine "loving people and treating neighbors kindly are most valuable to a country". This is a reflection of the aspiration of the Chinese people for a peaceful world where people of all countries live in harmony. (庄绎传译)

? 以上两例均源自江泽民主席一九九七年十一月一日在美国哈

佛大学的演讲。例(1) 原文中“新中国”一词所表达的概念 在中国已人人皆知,但美国人就未必清楚,如果直译成 “The founding of New China marked‖可能会引起误解。因 此,译者把“新中国”改译为西方人所熟悉的说法“中华人 民共和国”,并在译文中增加了“in 1949‖,使原文中的信 息在译文中得到了更清楚的表达。例(2) 所提到的“先秦” 指我国秦代以前的历史时期,译文在括号内加了“over2000 years ago‖,也是为方便目的语听众/读者。即使是对中国 历史一无所知的外国人,也可以借助所加的时间状语了解到, 早在2000多年前.中国人已有“亲仁善邻”的提法。(张美 芳评)

? 7. 发展才是硬道理。抓住机遇,发展自己,关键是发展经济。

? Development is the most essential criterion. We should

seize the opportunities to develop our country, and the key is to develop our economy. (马磊编) ? 现代汉语中出现不少时尚的说法,带口号式风格,简洁有力, 琅琅上口,广为流传,但若直译,从英语角度来说,往往不 知何解,应准确地解读其真正含义,用常规表述方式译出。 如本例中的“硬道理”,指不容置疑的即根本的原则,故译 为the most essential criterion 或the absolute principle。又 如:―一刀切”可译为 to impose uniformity, ―安居工程”不妨 译成adequate housing project 。

? 8. 失败并不可怕,痛苦并不可怜,只有怯懦才是可悲的。

失败是个未知数。当我们在失败之后,勇于化痛苦为动力, 那么,就有可能从“痛苦”这个岔道口找到通向成功之路。 (岑桑:《失败是个未知数》) ? Failure is not fearful, suffering from failure is not pitiful, and only drawing back from failure is really sad. Failure is not always final. If we meet with failure, we should turn it into a motivation and at this juncture find a way out to success. (马秉义译) ? 根据译者的注释,此处的“痛苦”、“怯懦”虽可按常规 译为 pain、cowardice, 但均指由“失败”所致的结果,因 而译为 suffering from failure 及 drawing back from failure, 可使原来深层意思的、概括性的表述更具体、准确。如把 “失败是个未知数”译为Failure is uncertain 或 Failure is unknown, 前者表示不确定,后者表示不知道,这样译文 会产生了岐义,或让人不得要领。而final 作表语,有“不 可变更”之意,更符合原文意思。“岔道口”可不译作 cross 而译为 juncture, 既指不同道路的交界处,也可一语 双关,指“关键时刻”。

Text A An Experiment in Love: Nonviolent Rrsistance ( Excerpts) Martin Luther King
? In my weekly remarks as president of the

resistance committee, I stressed that the use of violence in our struggle would be both impractical and immoral. To meet hate with retaliatory hate would do nothing but intensify the existence of evil in the universe. Hate begets hate; violence begets violence; toughness1 begets toughness. We must meet the forces of hate with the power of love; We must meet physical force with soul force. Our aim must never be to defeat or humiliate the white man, but to win his friendship and understanding.
返回目录

? Admittedly,nonviolence in the truest sense is not

a strategy that one uses simply because it is expedient at the moment2;nonviolence is ultimately a way of life that men live by because of the sheer morality of its claim3.But even granting this,the willingness to use nonviolence as a technique is a step forward.For he who goes this far is more likely to adopt nonviolence later as a way of life.

? It must be emphasized that nonviolent resistance is not a

method for cowards ;It does resist.If one uses this method because he is afraid or merely because he lacks the instruments of violence4,he is not truly nonviolent.This is why Gandhi often said that if cowardice is the only alternative to violence,It is better to fight.He made this statement conscious of the fact that there is always another alternative:no individual or group need submit to5 any wrong,nor need they use violence to right6 that wrong; there is the way of nonviolent resistance.This is ultimately the way of the strongman.It is not a method of stagnant passivity7.The phrase―passive resistance‖ often gives the false impression that this is a sort of―do-nothing 8method‖, in which the resister quietly and passively accepts evil.But nothing is further from the truth.For while the nonviolent resister is passive in the sense that he is not physically aggressive toward his opponent, his mind and emotions are always active, constantly seeking to persuade his opponent that he is wrong. The method is passive physically but strongly active spiritually. It is not passive non-resistance to evil, it is active nonviolent resistance to evil.

? 提示: ? 1. toughness: 粗暴 ? 2. expedient at the moment: 眼前权宜之计的 ? 3. the sheer morality of its claim: 它的道德内涵 ? 4. the instruments of violence: 暴力手段 ? 5. submit to: 向低头 ? 6. right: 纠正,匡正 ? 7. stagnant passivity: 不图进取 ? 8. do-nothing: 无所作为

练习 1
? 一. 把下列句子译成汉语,注意斜体部分的译法。 ? 1. The May Fourth Movement of 1919 saw the beginning

?

?

?

?

of the ―New Redology‖, represented by scholars such as Hu Shi and Yu Ping-bo. 2. The penguin is not designed for land travel. Much of the energy it uses for walking is squandered just waddling from side to side. 3. Service occupation is a census category and should not be confused with the economists‘ term ― service sector‖ , which is the broad term that applies to business such as wholesale and retail trade, banking, real estate, and so on. 4. He said he, however, was something of a physicist and knew that Hawking was to modern theory of time and space what Shakespeare was to English drama. 5. The idea of test-tube babies may make you starry-eyed with delight at the wonders of modern medicine or bleary-eyed with considering the moral/ legal implications of starting life in a laboratory.

? 6. Like those of little experience, he was easily elated by ?

?
?

?

success and deflated by failure. 7. At every period the area including the two river basins and the plateau of Decan, contained a mixture of races devoid of unity but including every stage of civilization, from the very primitive to the highly evolved. 8. The Lebanese inferno, in short, is painful proof that evil still can become banal. 9. In medicine as in law, government, and other lines of work, the requirement of honesty often seem less important because of greater needs: the need to shelter from cruel news or to uphold a promise of secrecy; to expose dishonesty or to promote the public interest. 10. Almost by nature, this wealth aggrandizement breeds corruption in three forms ---- financial, political and philosophical, and the considerable parallels between contemporary excesses and those of 70 years ago don’t warrant any firm conclusion about the next few years.

? 二. 把下列段落译成汉语,注意斜体部分的译法。 ? 1. Only 100 years ago man lived in harmony with nature.

There weren't so many people then and their wants were fewer. Whatever wastes were produced could be absorbed by nature and were soon covered over. Today this harmonious relationship is threatened by man's lack of foresight and planning, and by his carelessness and greed. For man is slowly poisoning his environment. ? 2. Like other animals and even plants, humans have built-in clocks that regulate internal functions on a 24hour basis. For most mammals, the clocks trigger sleep and waking, as well as metabolism, hormone levels, body temperature and many other changes. ? 3. The life of man, viewed outwardly, is but a small thing in comparison with the forces of Nature. The slave is doomed to worship Time and Fate and Death, because they are grater than anything he finds in himself, and because all his thoughts are of things which they devour.

? 4. Now in the late 90's, with the handover to China as

part of the students' accepted reality, things have taken a curious turn, with attitudes to English, especially spoken English, once again becoming very positive. The new generation of students is much more international in outlook and also very pragmatic. They want English as the most useful world language, and as a stepping-stone to international job opportunities. Nor do they feel that this in any way diminishes their pride in being Chinese ? 5. A beautiful woman, we say in English. But a handsome man. ? To preen, for a woman, can never be just a pleasure. It is also a duty. It is her work.. If a woman does real work—and even if she has clambered up to a leading position in politics , law, medicine, business, or whatever—she is always under pressure to confess that she still works at being attractive. But in so far as she is keeping up as one of the Fair Sex she brings under suspicion her very capacity to be objective, professional, authoritative, thoughtful. Damned if they do—women are. And damned if they don't.

Text B “今” 李大钊
? 我以为世间最可宝贵的就是“今”,最易丧失的也是“今”。

因为他最容易丧失2,所以更觉得他可以宝贵。 ? 为甚么“今”最可宝贵呢?最好借哲人耶曼孙3所说的话答 这个疑问:“尔若爱千古,尔当爱现在。昨日不能唤回来, 明天还不确实,尔能确有把握的就是今日。今日一天,当明 日两天。” ? 为甚么“今”最易丧失呢?因为宇宙大化4刻刻流转,绝不 停留。时间这个东西,也不因为吾人责他爱他稍稍在人间留 恋。试问吾人说“今”说“现在”,茫茫百千万劫5,究竞 那一刹那是吾人的“今”,是吾人的“现在”呢?刚刚说他 是“今”是“现在”,他早已风驰电掣的一般,已成“过去” 了。吾人若要“糊糊涂涂把他丢掉6,岂不可惜?
返回目录

? 有的哲学家说,时间但有“过去”与“未来”,并无“现

在”。有的又说,“过去” “未来”皆是“现在”。我 以为 .“过去未来皆是现在”的话倒有些道理。因为 “现在”就是所有“过去”流人的世界,换句话说, 所有 “过去”都埋没于7―现在”的里边。故一时代的思潮8, 不是单纯在这个时代所能凭空成立的,不晓得有几多“过 去”时代的思潮,差不多可以说是由所有“过去”时代的 思潮,一一凑合而成9的。吾人投一石子于时代潮流里面, 所激起的波澜声响,都向永远流动传播,不能消灭。屈原 的《离骚》10,永远使人人感泣11。打击林肯头颅的枪声, 呼应于永远的时间与空间12。一时代的变动,绝不消失, 仍遗留于次一时代,这样传演,至于无穷,在世界中有一 贯相联的永远性。昨日的事件,与今日的事件,合构成数 个复杂事件。此数个复杂事件,与明日的整个复杂事件, 更合构成数个复杂事件。势力结合势力,问题牵起13问题。 无限的“过去”,都以“现在”为归宿14。无限的“未 来”,都以“现在”为渊源15。“过去”“未来”的中间 全仗有“现在”以成其连续,以成其永远,以成其无始无 终的大实在16。一掣现在的铃,无限的过去未来皆遥相呼 应17。这就是过去未来皆是18现在的道理,这就是“今” 最可宝贵的道理。

? 我请以最简明的一句话写出这篇的意思来: ? 吾人在世,不可厌“今”而徒回思“过去”,梦想

“将来”,以耗误“现在”的努力;又不可以“今” 境自足,毫不拿出“现在”的努力,谋“将来”的 发展。宜善用“今”,以努力为“将来”之创造。 由“今”所造的功德罪孽,永久不灭19。故人生本 务20,在随实在之进行21,为后人造大功德。

? 提示: ? 1. ―今”: the living present (美国诗人Longfellow 在其诗作

?
? ? ? ? ? ?

? ?

中称“过去”为 the dead Past. ―现在”为the living Present。“Living‖是增益成分。 2. 最容易丧失 ( =最容易被人们错过): the most apt to slip through our fingers 3. 耶曼孙: 今译为“爱默生”即 Emerson 4. 宇宙大化(=宇宙与生命): the universe as well as human life 5. 茫茫百千万劫(―劫”本指天灾人祸;整个短语据上下文 指“无数人生起伏变化”): in the ups and downs of life 6. 糊糊涂涂把他丢掉(糊糊涂涂=轻率地、随意地): unthinkingly idle away the present 7. 所有“过去”都埋没于: the entire legacy of the past lies hidden in 8. 时代的思潮: the prevailing thought of the age 9. (由)一一凑合而成: to be the synthesis of

? 10. 《离骚》: The Lament ? 11. 永远使人人感泣(感泣=触动心弦): will continue to

?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

touch a deep chord in the heart of every reader through all ages 12. 打击林肯头颅的枪声,呼应于永远的时间与空间: The lethal shot that hit Abraham Lincoln's head will keep echoing through all lands and all eternity. 13. 牵起: gives rise to 14. 以为归宿: results in 15. 以为渊源: results from 16. 大实在: a big whole 17. 遥相呼应: you will hear the distant echoes of 18. 皆是: is inclusive of 19. 由“今”所造的功德罪孽,永久不灭 (= 我们今天的功 过,都将给将来留下长远的影响): Our deeds of today, good or bad, will have an everlasting impact on the future. 20. 本务: duty 21. 随实在之进行(= 跟随时代潮流): keep up with the trend of the times

练习2
? 一. 把下列句子译成英语,注意斜体部分的译法或句子结

?
?

?

?

?

构的处理。 1. 世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、 标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演化历史。 2..孙中山领导了我国近代历史上的资产阶级民主革命,推 翻了清朝,结束了统治中国几千年的封建专制制度,创立 了资产阶级民主共和国---中华民国,开创了中国历史的新 的一页。 3. 尽管华裔美国人中人才辈出,但其中涉足美国政坛者甚 少。 4. 因为真正的科学家是无以畏惧的,所以我们希望一切有 抱负的科学家们能勇敢地负起责任,克服困难,不要怕挫 折,不要怕有人议论讥笑,也不要怕向旧观念挑战。 5. 目前我国还是一个发展中国家,对外援助只能量力而行。

? 6. 世界范围的经济、文化和科学技术的竞争,归根结底是民

族素质的竞争。

? 7. 跨文化交际不仅需要另一种语言的知识,而且也需要对非

语言行为(手势、面部表情)以及文化行为、价值、习俗的 理解。 ? 8. 《红楼梦》中常通过作者的自白流露出“到头一梦”、 “万境皆空”的思想,主人公贾宝玉、林黛玉身上也常常有 “人生如梦”、“世事无常”的情绪。

? 9. 由于没有阶层出身、承袭的职业上或教育上的限制阻碍一

个孩子的发展,他所能取得的成就从理论上讲也就没有止境。 ? 10 . 政府机构重叠庞大、人浮于事的现象严重,这不仅滋生 文牍主义和官僚主义,助长了贪污腐败和不正之风,也给国 家财政带来了沉重的负担。(文牍主义: red tape)

? 二. 把下列段落译成英语,注意斜体部分的译法: ? 1. 失败的下一站是“痛苦”却不是终点站, 而是岔

道口。这岔道口岔出两条路:一条是心灰意冷、一 蹶不振的路,这路是通向彻底的失败,这时的失败 是真正的失败;另一条是汲取教训、奋起拼搏的路,
这路是通向再失败或失败的反面——成功。但只有 踏上这条路, 才有成功的希望。因此一个人遭到了 失败, 并不意味着这就是结束,问题在于,站在 “痛苦”这个岔道口的时候,自己选择哪一条路。 (岑桑:失败是个未知数)

? 2. 科学是讲求实际的,科学是老老实实的学问,来不得半

点虚假,需要付出艰巨的劳动。同时,科学也需要创造,需 要幻想,有幻想才能打破传统的束缚,才能发展科学。科学 工作者不应当把幻想让诗人独占了。满娥奔月,龙宫探宝, 《封神演义》上的许多幻想,由于科学发展,今天大都变成 了现实。伟大的天文学家哥白尼说:人类的天职在于勇于探 索真理。我国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。 我们一定要打破陈规,披荆斩棘,开拓我国科学发展的道路。 既异想天开,又实事求是,这是科学工作者特有的风格,让 我们在无穷的宇宙长河中去探索无穷的真理吧! (郭沫若: 《科学的春天》) (Notes: 满娥奔月: Chang'e flying to the moon; 龙宫探宝: probing the underwater, treasure-trove in the palace of the Dragon King;《封神演义》: Apotheosis of Heroes )

? 3. 我们面对同一件事时,脑海里常常有两个“自己”在

斗争,自己与自己的斗争常常成为生活中最大的困扰。面 对利益,一个“自己”说:“你做了就足够了,名利是给 别人看的,不论安不安在你身上,你就是你,永远只做最 真实的你。”这时另一个“自己”却不甘心:“我做出了 成绩,就该得到表扬,就该得到承认!”于是你本已平心 静气放弃了名利,又在不甘心的驱使下伸出了手。 ? 4. 中国是个农业国家,12亿人口的大多数居住在农业地 区,但新的农业技术大大减少了必须“种田”的人口。为 了寻找工作,很多昔日的农民流人了中国大城市。 ? 为防止城市中心人口过多,中国政府正在农村新建很多小 城镇。这些城镇像磁石一样成为周围工商业活动中心,创 造了各种工作机会。同时,还有足够的房屋供这些新到的 工人居住。 ? 中国正通过兴建新的合理规划的小城镇来替代城市的扩展, 这是解决许多发展中国家共同问题的一种雄心勃勃的方式。

? 5. 去年春天,我国遭遇了一场非典疫情重大灾害。党中

央、国务院把人民群众的身体健康和生命安全放在第一位, 及时研究和部署防治非典工作。贯彻《中华人民共和国传 染病防治法》,制定《突发公共卫生事件应急条例》,将 非典列为法定传染病管理,如实公布疫情,在全国范围内 实行群防群控。国务院和地方政府成立防治非典指挥部, 统一调度人力物力财力,充分发挥城乡基层组织的作用, 确保预防、救治工作紧张有序进行。组织科研攻关,在诊 断、治疗、防疫等方面取得重要进展。对农民非典患者实 行免费治疗等措施,严防疫情向农村扩散。 ? 在抗击非典斗争的艰难时刻,各级领导干部深入第一线, 全国人民万众一心,社会各界同舟共济,广大医务工作者 临危不惧,中华民族经受住了严峻的考验。 ? (温家宝总理在第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议上的 政府工作报告(节选))

阅读 A .The Nature of Translation Eugene A. Niod & Charles R. Taber
? Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor

language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. But this relatively simple statement requires careful evaluation of several seemingly contradictory elements.

返回目录

REPRODUCING THE MESSAGE

? Translating must aim primarily at "reproducing the

message." To do anything else is essentially false to one's task as a translator. But to reproduce the message one must make a good many grammatical and lexical adjustments. For example, the Hebrew idiom "bowels of mercies" cannot be literally rendered into English if one really wants to communicate the message of the source language, for though we have the words "bowels" and "mercy" in English, we simply do not employ this combination. A meaningful equivalent is "tender compassion," and it is precisely in this manner that many translations attempt to reproduce the significance of this source-language expression.

EQUIVALENCE RATHER THAN IDENTITY

? The translator must strive for equivalence rather than

identity. In a sense this is just another way of emphasizing the reproduction of the message rather than the conservation of the form of the utterance, but it reinforces the need for radical alteration of a phrase such as "it came to pass." which may be quite meaningless. In fact, it is often misunderstood. Since in Greek egeneto, "it happened," is often only a "transitional word" to mark the beginning of a new episode, it is sometimes best not reproduced. In other instances, one may use some more natural transitions, e.g. , "and then," "now," "later."

A NATURAL EQUIVALENT
? The best translation does not sound like a translation.

Quite naturally one cannot and should not make the Bible sound as if it happened in the next town ten years ago, for the historical context of the Scriptures is important, and one cannot remake the Pharisees and Sadducees into present-day religious parties, nor does one want to, for one respects too much the historical setting of the incarnation. In other words, a good translation of the Bible must not be a "cultural translation." Rather, it is a "linguistic translation." Nevertheless, this does not mean that it should exhibit in its grammatical and stylistic forms any trace of awkwardness or strangeness. That is to say, it should studiously avoid "translationese" - formal fidelity, with resulting unfaithfulness to the content and the impact of the message.

THE CLOSEST EQUIVALENT
? A conscientious translator will want the closest

natural equivalent. It has been argued, for example, that in present-day English a natural equivalent of "demon-possessed" would be "mentally distressed." This might be regarded by some as a natural equivalent, but it is certainly not the "closest equivalent." Moreover, "mentally distressed" is a cultural reinterpretation which does not take seriously the cultural outlook of the people of Biblical times.

THE PRIORITY OF MEANING
? As has already been indicated in the definition of

translating, meaning must be given priority, for it is the content of the message which is of prime importance for Bible translating. This means that certain rather radical departures from the formal structure are not only legitimate but may even be highly desirable. For, example; the neb has rendered John 1 : 1b as "what God was, the Word was." This seems very different from the traditional "the Word was God," but it is an entirely legitimate translation, since it specifies unambiguously the predicate function of the term "God." To make this attributive function of the predicate noun quite clear, and thus to avoid the prevalent error of reversing the order, i.e., "God was the Word" .

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STYLE
? Though style is secondary to content, it is

nevertheless important. One should not translate poetry as though it were prose, nor expository material as though it were straight narrative. It is usually quite impossible to represent some of the stylistic subtleties of the original, e.g., plays on words, where the meaning of a passage so often depends upon knowing the double meaning or the allusion.

? In trying to reproduce the style of the original one

must beware, however, of producing something which is not functionally equivalent. For example, Mark employs typical Semitic Greek in the use of the conjunction kai, "and," to begin many sentences. most of these conjunctions are reproduced literally, with the result that 26 sentences in Mark I begin with"And,“producing a kind of style completely contrary to good English usage. In fact, it gives the impression of being "childish." This means that reproducing style, even on a formal level, may not result in an equivalence, and it is functional equivalence which is required, whether on the level of content or on the level of style.

? As may be clearly noted from the discussion of the

definition of translating, one is constantly faced by a series of polar distinctions which force him to choose content as opposed to form, meaning as opposed to style, equivalence as opposed to identity the closest equivalence as opposed to any equivalence, and naturalness as opposed to formal correspondence. In order to choose meaningfully between these opposing sets of defining features, it is necessary to set up certain fundamental criteria for guidance in the process; That is to say, one must establish a set of priorities, which can define translating from different perspectives: the perspectives of form and of" comprehensibility.

A SYSTEM OF PRIORITIES
? As a basis for judging what should be done in specific

instances of translating, it is essential to establish certain fundamental sets of priorities: (1) contextual consistency has priority over verbal consistency (or word-for-word concordance), (2) dynamic equivalence has priority over formal correspondence, (3) the aural (heard) form of language has priority over the written form, (4) forms that are used by and acceptable to the audience for which a translation is intended have priority over forms that may be traditionally more prestigious. These four priorities reflect four different perspectives. The first views the translation in terms of its linguistic forms. The second is based upon the reactions of the receptors. The third deals with the typical circumstances of communication and is especially applicable to Bible translation since, the Bible is generally heard far more (as the result of its being read in worship services) than it is read personally. The fourth priority, which consists of a complex set of factors, e.g., age, sex, education, and background experience, analyzes the problems of translation from the standpoint of the types of audience.

B.

语料库与翻译研究(节选) 廖七一

? 在英国科学院的资助下,英国曼彻斯特大学科技学院语言

工程系的翻译研究中心于1995年开始创建世界上第一个可 比语料库——翻译英语语料库。翻译英语语料库收集的是 由英美翻译家从世界其他国家语言的原著翻译成英语的文 本。翻译英语语料库下分四个子库:小说、传记、报纸、 杂志 。 ? 翻译英语语料库除了带有一般单语语料库的附码之外, 每一文本还附带以下一些信息:译者——姓名、性别、性 别倾向(仅限文学作品); 民族、职业、身份; 翻译——方 式(文本内容处理方式)、篇幅、出版社、出版时间、版 权所有者、赞助人、评论(如果有的话,是肯定还是否定)、 评述;翻译过程——方向(翻译成母语/翻译成外语/翻译 成惯常使用语言)、形式(翻译中使用的特定写作方式, 书面语还是口语)、类型(全译/概译/选译/翻译要点); 以及有关原作者的相关信息。
返回目录

? Baker认为,翻译英语语料库之所以收集如此多的超语言

信息,以便研究者都能了解这些信息,原因是“我们并不 认为翻译是纯粹的语言现象,而是受到社会、文化、思想 和认知限制的”活动. 翻译英语语料库的应用可以帮助研 究人员探索读者对翻译的期望、翻译理论家对翻译的态度 和设想,以及专业翻译人员的翻译实践的三者之间的互动 关系。 ? 自80年代以来,越来越多的翻译理论家对翻译文本进行了 广泛深人的研究,Baker认为,翻译文本有其固有的特征, 即翻译文本带有某种普遍性。她认为,翻译普遍性“是译 文文本特有的语言特征”,根植于翻译活动之中,也就是 说翻译活动的特殊性使然,因而“与翻译过程中涉及的两 种语言的影响无关”。比如,在对比分析英语文本与用英 语翻译过来的文本的基础上,我们可以发现几乎所有的英 语翻译文本都具有若干特征,有的翻译理论家将这些普遍 性归纳为简略化、明朗化、规范化等。 ? 简略化(simplification)主要表现在译文文本的词汇、句 法与修辞手法三个方面。

? 通过对比研究发现,在译语中出现词义空缺或没有恰当的等

值关系时,译者常常用上义词、意义近似的同、一般的或熟 悉的同义词代替,或将原语中词义功能转换为译语中功能相 当的词;常常用迂回说法代替神学、技术和文化术语;如果 出现文化空缺,常常采用改写的方式。句法简略化表现为简 化冗长复杂的句子结构;将复杂的短语结构改变为更精炼的 结构;减少重复、省略冗余结构和多余信息;精简过长的迂 回说法;删减修饰短语或定语。 ? 上述简化与省略实际上也是修辞简化的一个部分。Toury 称, 至今为止,对所有语言翻译文本的研究都表明,“避免原语 中的重复是最明显、最一贯的标准做法”。

? 明朗化(explication)是译文文本的第二个特点。Blum

Kulka 认为,译者在翻译过程中常常采取一些策略提高译 文的明朗化程度,而且明朗化与可读性之间有明显联系。 明朗化策略如增加解释性语句,将紧凑的文章扩展,增添 修饰语和连接词,增加连贯性,增添额外信息,插入解释, 重复,将泛指的地名具体化,使带有歧义的代词所指明朗 化等。在出现文化鸿沟时,Baker 还提出增加背景知识或 信息。在口语翻译中,为达到清楚、明晰的目的,译员还 常常用重复同义词来代替省略。 ? 规范化(conventionalization)是翻译普遍性的另一个重 要特征。Vanderauwera 利用语料库发现,有大量证据表 明,从德语翻译成英语的文本中,标点的使用、措辞的选 择、文体、句子结构和文本组织都存在着变更,存在一个 普遍的趋势,即向文本读者“明显接受的文本习惯靠近的” 倾向 (Baker)。翻译过程中这些调整同样也反映在词汇、 句法和修辞手法诸方面。如将德语专有名词和带有文化内 涵的词汇归化,尽量减少外来词和短语,改正不规范的标 点符号等。

?

同样,在翻译中原文不完整的句子,别扭奇特的句法结 构往往代之以简单句;现在时、历史现在时往往用英语中 更符合习惯的过去时代替;使句子、段落和篇章的结构更 符合逻辑;原语中的口语改为标准的书面语;生硬、造作 的表达方式改为更规范的短语等等。其结果是,译文比原 文“可读性更强,更符合习惯,更为大家所熟悉,而且组 织结构更加连贯”(Bake)。
在翻译理论上曾经有人认为,有些文本要倾向于原著, 尽可能紧贴原文;有些文本应该倾向于译著,使译文流畅 自然,通俗易懂。但从现有的语料库研究发现,上述调整 对侧重原著的翻译同样适用。Toury 在研究了不同文化中 大量的文学翻译之后认为,在翻译活动中普遍存在标准化 的规律(law of standardization)。他还提出,译文文本 的调整程度在各个文化中有所区别:“在特定文化中翻译 越是处于边缘或次要地位,译文

相关文章:
商务英语翻译教案
商​务​英​语​翻​​教​案 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档课时教案课题名称 授课日期 授课班级 授课地点 9. 9.6 4 BE1101,02 ...
《新编商务英语翻译》教案
《新编商务英语翻译教案_教学案例/设计_教学研究_教育专区。Unit 1 Business ...一个长句包含作者的多步逻辑推理,英译汉时可用分译法。 Thus it happened ...
2015商务英语翻译教学计划
课程类型 商务英语翻译 □ 理论课(不含实践)√□理论...——译例分析(实际商务情景的语料为例句)——归纳...训练学生的翻译能力,从而商务英 语翻译课程的教学...
高职商务英语翻译测试研究
龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 高职商务英语翻译测试研究 作者:曹思思 来源:《江西教育 C》2016 年第 12 期 摘要:翻译测试是高职商务英语翻译教学体系中...
商务英语翻译教程_教案_unit6
商务英语翻译教程_教案_unit6_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。商务英语翻译教程_教案_unit6今日推荐 157份文档 2015国家公务员考试备战攻略 ...
商务英语翻译教程第5单元 教案
商务英语翻译教程第5单元 教案_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。商务英语翻译教程第...汉译时可以从反面来表达,即正说反法(negation);二是英语里有 些从反面表达...
商务英语翻译教程 教案 第10单元 商业银行
商务英语翻译教程 教案 第十单元 商业银行 I.学习目的与要求 通过本单元的学习, 使学生掌握复合词的翻译方法;了解商业银行的有关术语及 其翻译。 II.教学时间:4...
商务英语翻译教程第3单元 教案
商务英语翻译教程第3单元 教案_其它语言学习_外语学习_教育专区。商务英语翻译 自考...词来翻译英语中的被动意义 被动句的翻译 P36 &37 英语中的被动句既可以...
商务英语翻译教程第7单元教案
商务英语翻译教程第7单元教案_其它语言学习_外语学习_教育专区。商务英语翻译教程...译成状语从句 The computer, which seems to play the role of a human ...
商务英语翻译答案
商务英语翻译答案_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。Unit 1 1.从你的简历和应聘申请书来看,你对营销工作已有相当多的经验。 I see from your résumé and ...
更多相关标签: