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TEST 1
SECTION 1 Good evening. King’s Restaurant. Example Good evening. I’m ringing about the job I understand you have vacant. WOMAN: Oh yes. MAN: I’d like to find out a few more details, if I may. WOMAN: Yes, of course. Can I take your name? MAN: It’s Peter Chin. WOMAN: Okay Peter. Well, if you want to ask about the job and then if we’re both still interested, we could arrange for you to come for an interview. MAN: Great, thanks. I’m afraid I missed the advert for the job but heard about it from a friend. WOMAN: That’s no problem at all. What would you like to know? MAN: Well, um, what sort of work is it — washing up? WOMAN: It’s answering the phone. Q1 MAN: Oh right, fine. WOMAN: And not waiting at table. MAN: That’d be good. And how many nights a week would it be? WOMAN: Well, we’re really only busy at the weekend. MAN: So two nights? WOMAN: Three actually, so it would work out at twelve hours a week. MAN: That’d be fine. It wouldn’t interfere with my studies. WOMAN: Are you at the university? MAN: Yes. First year Physics student. WOMAN: Oh, right. MAN: Um, and because I’m not an EU national would I need a work permit? WOMAN: Yes you would. Just get your tutor to sign it. MAN: That wouldn’t be a problem, if I were to get the job. Um, where exactly is the restaurant? WOMAN: Well, we have two branches — the one we’re recruiting for is in Hillsdunne Road. Q2 MAN: I don’t know that. How do you spell it please? WOMAN: It’s H-I-double L-S-D-U-double N-E Road. MAN: Got that. Thanks. Is it near a bus stop? WOMAN: Yes. The nearest one would probably be just beside the Library. Q3 MAN: Oh yes, I know it. That’d be fine for me. And could I ask about the pay? WOMAN: We’re offering ? 4.45 an hour. Q4 MAN: That’s very good. My last job was ? 3.95 an hour. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------WOMAN: We feel it’s pretty good and we also offer some good fringe benefits. MAN: Really? WOMAN: MAN:

WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: MAN: WOMAN: SECTION 2 ANDREW: JANE:

Well, we give you a free dinner, so you eat well. Right, better than hostel food! We certainly hope so! And we also offer extra pay for working on national holidays. Oh, that’s a really good perk, isn’t it? Yes, we think so. And then because of the difficulties of getting public transport, if you’re working after 11 o’clock we drive you home. Oh, that’s good to know. Well, we’d certainly be interested in inviting you for an interview, if you’re still interested? Oh yes, certainly. Could I just also ask what qualities you’re looking for? Well, for this particular job we want a clear voice, which you obviously do have! Thanks. And you must be able to think quickly, you know. Well, I hope I’d… So, when could you come in for an interview? We’re actually quite quiet tonight? Sorry, I couldn’t come tonight. Or tomorrow, I’m afraid. Thursday’s okay — that’d be 22nd of October. Fine, after 5 p.m.? Yes, fine. Would 6 o’clock be okay? Good. I look forward to seeing you. Oh, by the way, who should I ask for? Oh yes, of course, sorry. My name is Samira Manuja. Can you spell that, please? M-A-N-U-J-A. Okay, I’ve got that. Thanks very much. Look forward to seeing you…

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Now we go to Jane who is going to tell us about what’s happening in town this weekend. Right, thanks Andrew, and now on to what’s new, and do we really need yet another sports shop in Bradcaster? Well, most of you probably know Sports World — the branch of a Danish sports goods company that opened a few years Q11 ago-it’s attracted a lot of custom, and so the company has now decided to open another branch in the area. It’s going to be in the shopping centre to the west of Bradcaster, so Q12 that will be good news for all of you who’ve found the original shop in the north of the town hard to get to. I was invited to a special preview and I can promise you, this is the ultimate in sports retailling. The whole place has been given a new minimalist look with the company’s signature colours of black and red. The first three floors have a huge Q13 range of sports clothing as well as equipment, and on the top floor there’s a cafe and a book and DVD section.

You’ll find all the well-known names as well as some less well-known ones. If the haven’t got exactly what you want in stock they promise to get it for you in ten days. Unlike Q14 the other store, where it can take up to fourteen days. They cover all the major sports, including football, tennis and swimming, but they particularly focus on running, Q15 and they claim to have the widest range of equipment in the country. As well as that, a whole section of the third floor is devoted to sports bags, including the latest designs Q16 from the States — if you can’t find what you want here, it doesn't exist! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The shop will be open from 9.00 am this Saturday and if you go along to the opening then you’ll have the chance to meet the national 400 metres running champion Paul King, who’s coming along to open the shop, and he will be staying around until about midday to chat to any fans who want to Q17 meet him and sign autographs. Then there will be a whole range of special attractios all weekend. There will be free tickets for local sporting events for the first 50 customers, and also a special competition open to all. Just answer fifteen out of twenty sports questions correctly to win a signed copy of Paul King’s DVD ‘Spring Tips’, while the first person to get all the questions correct gets a year’s Q18 free membership of the Bradcaster Gym. All entrants will receive a special Sports calendar with details of all Bradcaster fixtures in the coming year. One of the special opening offers is a fitness test-a complete review of your cardiac fitness and muscle tone, actually done in the shop by qualified staff. This would normally cost ? 30.00 but is available at half price for this month only. There are only a limited number of places available for Q19&20 this, so to make a booking phone 560341. In addition, if you open an account you get lots more special offers including the chance to try out equipment at special open evenings. SECTION 3 TEACHER: Before we start, Spiros and Hiroko, thanks for coming in today to talk about your recent study experiences and congratulations to you both in doing so well in your first semester exams! I’d like to discuss with you the value of the English for Academic Purposes course you did here last year before starting your university course. Spiros, if I could start with you, what parts of the progamme have now proved to be particularly valuable to you? I think that having to do a seminar presentation really helped me. For example, a couple of weeks ago in our marketing subject, when it was my turn to give a presentation I felt quite confident. Of course, I was still nervous but because I had done one before, I knew what to expect. Also, I know I was well-prepared and I had practised my timing. In fact, I think that in relation to some of the other people in my group, I did quite a good job because my overall style was quite professional. What about you, Hiroko?

SPIROS:

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HIROKO:

Mmm, that’s interesting. In my group, I was really surprised by the way the students did their presentations — they just read their notes aloud! Can you believe that? They didn’t worry about their presentation style or keeping Q22 eye contact with their audience — and I remember that these things were really stressed to us in the course here. TEACHER: So, how did you approach your presentation, Hiroko? HIROKO: Well, to speak frankly, I read my notes too! At the time, it was a relief to do it this way, but actually when I had finished, I didn’t feel any real sense of satisfaction. Q23 I didn’t feel positive about the experience at all. SPIROS: That’s a pity. You know, although I was pleased with my presentation. I am not so pleased with my actual performance right now in the tutorials-during the Q24 whole semester I’ve not said anything in our tutorial discussions. Not a word. HIROKO: Really, Spiros? Why’s that? Do the other students talk too much? SPIROS: It’s partly that, but it’s mostly because I have had no confidence to speak out. Their style of speaking is so different — It’s not the style we were used to during the course. They use so many colloquialisms, they’re not very polite and sometimes there seems to be no order in their discussion. Also, they are very familiar with each other, so because they know each other’s Q25 habits, they can let each other into the discussion. HIROKO: You’re right, Spiros, I’ve experienced that too. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------HIROKO: For most of this semester, I’ve said absolutely nothing in tutorials. But recently, I’ve been trying to speak up Q26 more and I jump in, and I’ve noticed an interesting thing, I’ve noticed that if they thought my point was interesting or new, then the next time they actually asked for my opinion, and then it was much easier for me to be part of the discussion. SPIROS: That’s great, Hiroko! I hope that happens for me next Semester — I’ll have to work hard to find some interesting points. What helped you to find these ideas? HIROKO: I think that one thing that helped me with this was the reading. I’ve had to do so much reading this semester just to help me make sense of the lectures. At first I couldn’t understand what the lecturers were talking about, so I had to turn to the books and journals. Every night I read for Q27 hours, using the lists of references that were given, and I made pages of notes. At breakfast, I read and read my notes again. This habit has helped me to follow the ideas in the lectures, and it’s also given me some ideas to use in the tutorials. SPIROS: But I did so much reading anyway-I don’t think there’s any time left over for anything extra. My reading speed is still Q28 quite slow, though I’m much better at dealing with vocabulary than I used to be.

TEACHER: SPIROS:

HIROKO:

TEACHER: HIROKO: SPIROS:

TEACHER:

What else do you think we could add to the course program to help with this reading problem? There’s not really anything because it’s my problem. I remember we were given long articles to read. We didn’t like that but now I realise that reading those long articles was good preparation for the things I need to read now. Also, in class we regularly had speed-reading tasks to do, and we kept a record of our reading speed, so the teachers were encouraging us to work on that. That’s true Spiros, but what we read could have been different. Sometimes in the English class I felt frustrated when I had to read articles about the environment or health or education, because I wanted to concentrate on my own field, but we didn’t read anything about engineering. So, I think I wasted some time learning vocabulary I didn’t need. But surely the strategies you were taught for dealing with that vocabulary were helpful. Yes, but psychologically speaking, I would have felt much better working on reading from my own field. What do you think Spiros? I agree; that would have helped my confidence too and I would have been more motivated. It was good though that we could work on our own topics when we wrote the research assignments. Okay, let’s move on to writing now…

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SECTION 4 Good afternoon everyone. Well, with some of you about to go out on field work it’s timely that in this afternoon’s session I’ll be sharing some ideas about the reasons why groups of whales and dolphins sometimes swim ashore from the sea right onto the beach and, most often, die in what are known as ‘mass trandings’. Unfortunately, this type of event is a frequent occurrence in some of the locations that you’ll be travelling to, where sometimes the tide goes out suddenly, confusing the animals. However, there are many other theories about the causes of mass strandings. The first is that the behaviour is linked to parasites. It’s often found that stranded animals were infested with large numbers of parasites. For instance, a type of worm is commonly found in the ears of dead whales. Since marne animals rely heavily on their hearing to navigate, this type of infestation has the potential to be very harmful! Another theory is related to toxins, or poisons. These have also been found to contribute to the death of many marine animals. Many toxins, as I’m sure you’re aware, originate from plants, or animals. The whale ingests these toxins in its normal feeding behaviour but whether these poisons directly or indirectly lead to stranding and death, seems to depend upon the toxin involved.

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In 1988, for example, fourteen humpback whales examined after stranding along the beaches of Cape Cod were found to have been poisoned after eating tuna that contained soxitoxin, the same toxin that can be fatal in humans. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alternatively, it has also been suggested that some animals strand accidentally by following their prey ashore in the confusion of the chase. In 1995 David Thurston monitored pilot whales that beached after following squid ashore. However, this idea does not seem to hold true for the majority of mass strandings because examination Q34 of the animals’ stomach contents reveal that most had not been feeding as they stranded. There are also some new theories which link strandings to humans. A growing concern is that loud noises in the ocean cause strandings. Noises such as those caused by military exercises are of particular concern and have been pinpointed as the cause of some strandings of late.

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One of these, a mass stranding of whales in 2000 in the Bahamas coincided closely with experiments using a new submarine detection system. There were several factors that made this stranding stand out as different from previous strandings. This led researchers to look for a new cause. For one, all the stranded animals were healthy. In addition, the Q36 animals were spread out along 38 kilometres of coast, whereas it’s more common for the Q37 animals to be found in a group when mass strandings occur. A final theory is related to group behaviour, and suggests that sea mammals cannot distinguish between sick and healthy leaders and will follow sick leaders, even to an inevitable death. This is a particularly interesting theory since the whales that are thought Q38 to be most social — the toothed whales — are the group that strand the most frequently. The theory is also supported by evidence from a dolphin stranding in 1994. Examination of the dead animals revealed that apart from the leader, all the others had been healthy at the time of their death. Q39 Without one consistent theory however it is very hard for us to do anything about this phenomenon except to assist animals where and when we can. Stranding networks have been established around the world to aid in rescuing animals and collecting samples from those that could not be helped. I recommend John Connor’s Marine Mammals Ashore as an excellent starting point if you’re interested in finding out more about these networks, or establishing one yourself. Q40

SECTION 1 MAN: Good morning. Can I help you? WOMAN: Yes. I’ve just been accepted on a course at the university and I’d like to try and arrange accommodation in the hall of residence. Example MAN: Yes, certainly. Please sit down. What I’ll do is fill in a form with you to find out a little more about your preferences and so forth.

TEST 2

WOMAN: Thank you. MAN: So first of all, can I take your name? WOMAN: It’s Anu Bhatt. Q1 MAN: Could you spell your name please? WOMAN: Yes. A-N-U…B-H-A double T. MAN: Thanks, and could I ask your date of birth? WOMAN: 31st March 1972. Q2 MAN: Thank you. And where are you from? WOMAN: India. MAN: Oh right. And what will you be studying? WOMAN: I’m doing a course in nursing. Q3 MAN: Right, thank you. And how long would you want to stay in hall, do you think? WOMAN: Well, it’ll take three years but I’d only like to stay in hall for two. I’d like to think about living outside for the third year. Q4 MAN: Fine. And what did you have in mind for catering? Do you want to cook for yourself or have all your meals provided, that’s full board? WOMAN: Is there something in between? MAN: Yes. You can just have evening meal provided, which is half board. WOMAN: That’s what I’d prefer. MAN: Yes a lot of students opt for that. Now, with that in mind, do you have any special diet, anything we should know about? WOMAN: Yes, I don’t take red meat. Q5 MAN: No red meat. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAN: Now, thinking about the room itself, we have a number of options. You can have a single study bedroom or you can have a shared one. These are both what we call simple rooms. The other alternative is to opt for a single bedsit which actually has more space and better facilities. There’s about ? 20 a week difference between them. WOMAN: Well, actually my grant is quite generous and I think the bedsit sounds the best option.Q6 MAN: Lovely. I’ll put you down for that and we’ll see what availability is like. Now can I ask some other personal details which we like to have on record? WOMAN: Yes, of course. MAN: I wonder if you could let us know what your interests are. This might help us get a closer match for placing you in a particular hall. WOMAN: Ummm. Well, I love the theatre. Q7 MAN: Right. WOMAN: And I enjoy sports, particularly badmintion. MAN: That’s worth knowing. Now, what we finish with on the form is really a list from you of what your priorities are in choosing a hall and we’ll do our best to take these into account. WOMAN: Well, the first thing is I’d prefer a hall where there are other mature students. If possible. Q8 MAN: Yes, we do have halls which tend to cater for slightly older students. WOMAN: Ummm and I’d prefer to be out of town. Q9 MAN: That’s actually very good for you because we tend to have more vacancies in out-of-town halls. WOMAN: Lucky! MAN: Yes. Anything else?

WOMAN: Well, I would like somewhere with a shared area. A TV room for example, or something like that. It’s a good way to socialise. Q10 MAN: It certainly is. WOMAN: That’s it. MAN: Now, we just need a contact telephone number for you. WOMAN: Sure, I’ll just find it. It’s double 67549. MAN: Great, so we’ll be in contact with you as soon as possible… SECTION 2 Hello, I’m delighted to welcome you to our Wildlife Club, and very pleased that you’re interested in the countryside and the plants and creatures of this area. I think you’ll be surprised at the variety we have here, even though we’re not far from London. I’ll start by telling you about some of the parks and open spaces nearby. One very pleasant place is Halland Common. This has been public land for hundreds of years, and what you’ll find interesting is that the River Ouse, which flows into the sea eighty kilometres away, has its source in the common. There’s an information board about the plants and animals you can see here, and by the way, the common is accessible 24 hours a day. Then there’s Holt Island, which is noted for its great range of trees. In the past willows Q11 were grown here commercially for basket-making, and this ancient craft has recently been reintroduced. The island is only open to the public from Friday to Sunday, because it’s quite Q12 small, and if there were people around every day, much of the wildlife would keep away. From there it’s just a short walk across the bridge to Longfield Country Park. Longfield has a modern replica of a far from over two thousand years ago. Children’s activities are often arranged there, like bread-making and face-painting. The park is only open during daylight hours, so bear that in mind if you decide to go there. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Longfield Park has a programme of activities throughout the year, and to give you a sample, this is what’s happening in the next few days. On Monday you can learn about herbs, and how they’ve been used over the centuries. You’ll start with a tour of our herb garden, practise the technique of using them as colour dyes for cloth. And listen to an illustrated talk about their use in cooking and medicine. Q14 Then on Wednesday you can join local experts to discover the variety of insects and brids that appear in the evening. We keep to a small number of people in the group, so if you Q15 want to go you’ll need to phone the park ranger a few days ahead. There’s a small charge, which you should pay when you turn up. I’m sure you’re all keen to help with the practical task of looking after the park, so on Saturday you can join a working party. You’ll have a choice of all sorts of activities, from planting hedges to picking up litter so you’ll be able to change from one to another when you feel like it. The rangers will be hard at work all day, but do come and join in, even for just a short while. One thing, though, is to make sure you’re wearing something that you don’t mind getting dirty or torn. Q16 And finally I’d like to tell you about our new wildlife area, Hinchingbrooke Park, which will be opened to the public next month. This slide doesn’t really indicate how big it is, but anyway, you can see the two gates into the park, and the main paths.

As you can see, there’s a lake in the north west of the park, with a bird hide to the west of it, at the end of a path. Q17 So it’ll be a nice quiet place for watching the birds on the lake. Fairly close to where refreshments are available, there’s a dog-walking area in the Q18 southern part of the park, leading off from the path. And if you just want to sit and relax, you can go to the flower garden; that’s the circular area on the map surrounded by paths. Q19 And finally, there’s a wooded area in the western section of the park, between two paths. Q20 Okay, that’s enough from me, so let’s go on to… SECTION 3 PAM: Hi Jun. As you know, I’ve asked you here today to discuss the future of our Self-Access Centre. We have to decide what we want to do about this very important resource for our English language students. So, can you tell me what the students think about this? JUN: Well, from the students’ point of view, we would like to keep it. The majority of students say that they enjoy using it because it provides a variation on the classroom routine and they see it as a pretty major Q21 component of their course, but we would like to see some improvements to the equipment, particularly the computers; there aren’t enough for one each at the moment and we always have to share. PAM: Well yes, the teachers agree that it is a very valuable resource but one thing we have noticed is that a lot of the students are using it to check their personal emails. We don’t want to stop you students using it, but we think the computers should be used as a learning resource, not for emails. Some of us also think that we could benefit a lot more by relocating the Q22 Self-Access Centre to the main University library building. How do you think the students would feel about that, Jun? JUN: Well, the library is big enough to incorporate the Self-Access Centre, but it wouldn’t be like a class activity anymore. Our main worry would be not being Q23 able to go to a teacher for advice. I’m sure there would be plenty of things to do but we really need teachers to help us choose the best activities. PAM: Well, there would still be a teacher present and he or she would guide the activities of the students, we wouldn’t just leave them to get on with it. JUN: Yes, but I think the students would be much happier keeping the existing setup; they really like going to the Self-Access Centre with their teacher and staying together as a group to do activities. If we could just improve the resources and facilities, I think it would be fine. Is the cost going to be a problem? PAM: It’s not so much the expense that I’m worried about, and we’ve certainly got room to do it, but it’s the problem of timetabling a teacher to be in Q24 there outside class hours. If we’re going to spend a lot of money on equipment and resoureces, we really need to make sure that everything is look after properly. Anyway, let’s make some notes to see just what needs doing to improve the Centre. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PAM: Now, what about the computers? I think it might be a good idea to install some new models. They would take up a lot less room and so that would increase the work space for text books and so on. JUN: That would be great. It is a bit cramped in there at times. PAM: What about other resources? Do you have a list of things that the students would like to see improved?

JUN: Yes, one of the comments that students frequently make is that they find if difficult to find materials that are appropriate for their level, especially Q25 reading resources. So I think we need to label them more clearly. PAM: We that’s easy enough, we can get that organised very quickly. In fact I think we should review all of the study resources as some of them are looking a bit out-ofdate. JUN: Definitely. The CD section especially needs to be more current. I think we Q26 should get some of the ones that go with our latest course books and also make multiple copies. PAM: Good, now I was also thinking about some different materials that we haven’t got in there at all. What do you think of the idea of introducing Q27 some workbooks? If we break them up into separate pages and laminate them, they’d be a great resource. The students could study the main course book in class and then do follow-up practice in the Self-Access Centre. JUN: That sounds good. PAM: Okay, now finally we need to think about how the room is used. I’ll have to talk to the teachers and make sure we can all reach some agreement Q28 on a timetable to supervise the centre after class. But we also need to think about security, too. Especially if we’re going to invest in some new equipment. JUN: What about putting in an alarm? PAM: Good idea. The other thing I’d like to do is talk to our technicians and see whether we could somehow limit the access to email. I really don’t want to Q30 see that resource misused. JUN: What about if we agree to only use it before and after class? PAM: Yes, that would be fine. OK, anyway… that’s great for now. We’ll discuss it further when we’ve managed to… SECTION 4 Good morning everyone. Now whether you’re going to university to study business or some other subject, many of you will eventually end up working for a company of some kind. Now, when you first start working somewhere you will realise that the organisation you’ve joined has certain characteristics. And we often refer to these social characteristics as the culture of the organisation-this includes its unwritten ideas, beliefs, values and things like that. One well known writer has classified company cultures by identifying four major types. The first type is called the Power Culture, and it’s usually found in small organisations. It’s the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective, and because Q31 control is in the hands of just one or two people there aren’t many rules or procedures. Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations rather Q32 than, say, formal meetings or written memos. Now one of the benefits of this culture is that the organisation has the ability to act quickly, so it responds well to threat, or danger on the one hand, and opportunity on the other. But on the negative side, this type of organisation doesn’t always act effectively, because Q33 it epends too much on one or two people at the top, and when these people make poor decisions there’s no-one else who can influence them.

And the kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy Q34 to take risks, and for whom job security is a low priority. The next type is known as Role Culture-that’s R-O-L-E, not R-O-double L, by the way, and this type is uaually found in large companies, which have lots of different levels in them. Q35 These organisations usually have separate departments that specialise in things like finance, or sales, or maintenance, or whatever. Each one is coordinated at the top by a small group of senior managers, and typically everyone’s job is controlled by sets of rules and procedures Q36 — for example, there are specific job descriptions, rules for discipline, and so on. What are the benefits of this kind of culture? Well firstly, because it’s found in large organisations, its fixed costs. In other words it can achieve economies of scale. And secondly, it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise is Q37 important. On the other hand, this culture is often very slow to recognise the need for Q38 change, and even slower to reat. What kind of person does this type of culture suit? Well it suits employees who value security, and who don’t particularly want to have responsibility.Q39 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Moving on now to Task Cultures-this type is found in organistations that are projectoriented. You usually find it where the market for the company’s product is extremely competitive or where the products themselves have a short life-span. Usually top management delegates the projects, the people and other resources. And once these have been allocated, little day-to-day control is exercised from the top, because this would seem like ‘breaking the rules’. Now one of the major benefits of this culture is that it’s flexible. But it does have some Q40 major disadvantages too. For instance, it can’t produce economies of scale or great depth of expertise. People who like working in groups or teams prefer this type of culture. And finally, the fourth category is called the Person Culture… SECTION 1 MAN: Greek Island Holidays, can I help you? WOMAN: Yes, I hope so. I have a friend who’s just come back from Corfu and she’s recommended some apartments in Arilas. She thought they might be on your list. MAN: Arilas, Arilas, let me see. Can you give me the names? WOMAN: Yes, the first’s Rose Garden Apartments. I’d like to go with another friend in the last week of October. MAN: Well, we’ve got a lovely studio flat available at that time. I’m sure you’d enjoy the entertainment programme there too, with Greek dancing in the restaurant. Example WOMAN: And the cost for each of us? MAN: ? 219. WOMAN: That sounds very reasonable! I’m just jotting down some notes. Now the second one she mentioned was called Blue Bay. MAN: Blue Bay? Yes, in fact that’s very popular and it has some special features. WOMAN: Really? MAN: The main attraction is the large swimming pool with salt water. WOMAN: Much healthier, I understand.

TEST 3

MAN: That’s right. And it isn’t far from the beach, either —only 300 metres, and only around healf a kilometre to some shops, so you don’t ave to be too energetic. Q1 WOMAN: Is it much more expensive than the first one? MAN: Let me just check. I think at the time you want to go it’s around ? 260 — no ? 275 to be exact. WOMAN: Right, I’ve got that. Now there are just two more apartments to ask you about. Um, I can’t read my own writing! Something to do with sun… Sunshine, is it? MAN: I think you meant the Sunshade Apartments. They’re on a mountainside. Q2 WOMAN: Any special features? MAN: Yes, each room has its own sun terrace and there are shared barbecue facilities. WOMAN: Sounds lovely! MAN: Yes, it is rather well-equipped. It also provides water sports — it has its own beach. There are facilities for water-skiing. WOMAN: Any kite-surfing? My friend’s quite keen. MAN: Not at the hotel but I’m sure you’ll find some in Arilas. There’s also satellite TV in the apartments. WOMAN: And how much is that one? MAN: ? 490 with two sharing. WOMAN: You mean ? 245 each? MAN: I’m afraid not! Each person has to pay that amount and there must be at least two in an apartment. WOMAN: I don’t think that would be within our budget, unfortunately. And the last one sounds a bit expensive too- the Grand! MAN: Actually it’s quite reasonable. It’s an older style house with Greek paintings in every room, and a balcony outside. WOMAN: Sounds nice. What are the views like? Q3 MAN: Well, there are forests all round and they hide a supermarket just down the road, so that’s very useful for all your shopping needs. There’s a disco in the area too. WOMAN: And the price? MAN: ? 319 at that time, but if you leave it till November it goes down by 40%. Q5 WOMAN: Too late, I’m afraid. MAN: Well, why don’t I send you a brochure with full details, Ms…? WOMAN: Nash. But don’t worry about that, I’m coming to Upminster soon and I’ll call and get one. I just wanted to get an idea first. MAN: Well, that’s fine. We’ve got plenty here when you come. WOMAN: If you’ve got a minute, could I just check a couple of points about insurance? I got one policy through the post but I’d like to see if yours is better. MAN: Fine. What would you like to know? WOMAN: Well, the one I’ve got has benefits and then the maximum amount you can claim. Is that like yours? MAN: Yes, that’s how most of them are. WOMAN: Well, the first thing is cancellation. If the holiday’s cancelled on the policy I’ve got, you can claim ? 8,000. MAN: We can improve on that, Ms Nash. For Greek Island holidays, our maximum is ? 10,000. WOMAN: That’s good — of course our holiday won’t even cost ? 1,000 together! MAN: It’s still sensible to have good cover. Now, if you go to hospital, we allow L600.

WOMAN: Yes, mine’s similar. MAN: And we also allow a relative to your holiday resort. Q7 WMAN: My policy just says their representative will help you. MAN: You can see there’s another difference there. And what happens if you don’t get on the plane? WMAN: Nothing, as far as I can see on this form. MAN: Don’t you have missed departure? WMAN: No, I’ll just jot that down. Q8 MAN: We pay up to ? 1,000 for that, depending on the reason. And we’re particularly generous about loss of personal belongings-up to ? 3,000, but not more than ? 500 for a single item. Q9 WMAN: Then I’d better not take my laptop! MAN: Not unless you insure it separately. WMAN: OK-thanks very much for your time-you’ve really been helpful. Can I get back to you? Your name is? MAN: Ben-Ludlow. That’s L-U-D-L-O-W. I’m the Assistant Manager here. I’ll give you my number. It’s 081260543216. Q10 WMAN: But didn’t phone 081260567294? That’s what I’ve got on the paper. MAN: That’s the main switchboard. I’ve given you my direct line. WMAN: Right, thank you… SECTION 2 WOMAN: For the second in our series about locally-run businesses, we meet Simon Winridge, co-founder of the hugely-successful Winridge Forest Railway Park. Welcome, Simon. Now, perhaps you can begin by telling us a little bit about how it all started.Q11 MAN: Well, during the 1970s, my wife, Liz and I had just acquired 80 acres of sheepfarming land, and we decided to settle down and have children. Pretty soon we had a daughter, Sarah, and a son, Duncan. The place was wonderful for the kids: they particularly loved trains and gradually built up an enormous network of miniature railway track. I began to develop larger-scale models of locomotives but we didn’t think anything more of it until I went on a trip to a theme park near Birmingham and decided we could do a much better job! So we set up a small one ourselves based on the miniature railway and we opened to the public for just a month that year, 1984in July-our driest month-because our children said they didn’t want our guests to have a miserable, wet visit. I dealt with Park business and Liz carried on with the farm work.Q12 It soon became clear that we were onto a winner. We began to extend the railway track and lay it among more interesting landscape by planting trees, which in turn attracted more wildlife, and by making cuttings through the rock. Nowadays, we’re open all year round and we’re pleased to say that Winridge is one of the most popular visitor attractions in the area-with 50,000 visitors a year — a million and a half people have been through our doors since we opened. Q13 All these visitors mean we have had to expand our operation and it’s now a truly family concern. I’m near to retirement age so I only concern myself with looking after the mechanical side of things — keeping the trains going. Q14 Liz now devotes all her energies to recruiting and supporting the large Q15 squadron of workers, which keep the place running smoothly. We’re really pleased that after some years away teaching, Sarah has now returned Q16 to the park and makes sure the visitors are kept fed and watered, which keeps her pretty busy as you can imagine. Our son,

Duncan, has been a stalwart of the park for the last ten years, taking over from me in the area Q17 of construction — and I’ll say a little bit more about that in a moment — and his new wife, Judith, has also joined the team in charge of retail. That’s Q18 becoming a tremendous growth area for us-a lot of people want to buy souvenirs. WOMAN: So have you finished your development of the site for the moment? MAN: Not at all! We’ve constantly looking for ways to offer more to our visitors. The railway remains the central feature and there’s now 1.2 kilometres of the line laid but we’d like to lay more. Because of the geology of the area, our greatest problem is digging tunnels. But we’re gradually overcoming that. We’re also very pleased with a new installation of the GO-Kart arena Q19 which is 120 square metres in area. Again the problem is the geology; we had to level the mounds on the track for safety reasons. We wanted to enable 5-12 year olds to use the go-karts. And the main attraction here is the Formula 1 Kart. We’ve known Q20 fights to break out over who gets it! And then finally to our most recent development which is the landscaped… SECTION 3 TUTOR: Ah Caroline… come on in. Sit down. CAROULINE: Thanks. TUTOR: So how’s the dissertation planning going? CAROULINE: Well Dr Schulmann, I’m still having a lot of trouble deciding on a title. TUTOR: Well, that’s perfectly normal at this stage. And this is what your tutorials will help you to do. CAROULINE: Right. TUTOR: What we’ll do is jot down some points that might help you in your decision.. First of all, you have chosen your general topic area, haven’t you? CAROULINE: Yes, it’s the fishing industry. Q21 TUTOR: Oh yes, that was one of the areas you mentioned. Now, what aspects of the course are you good at? CAROULINE: Well, I think I’m coping well with statistics, and I’m never bored by it. Q22 TUTOR: Good, Anything else? CAROULINE: Well, I found computer modelling fascinating — I have no problem following what’s being taught, whereas quite a few of my classmates find it difficult. TUTOR: Well, that’s very good. Do you think these might be areas you could bring into your dissertation? CAROULINE: Oh yes, if possible. It’s just that I’m having difficulty thinking how I can do that. You see I feel I don’t have sufficient background information. TUTOR: I see. Well, do you take notes? CAROULINE: I’m very weak at note-taking. My teachers always used to say that. Q23 TUTOR: Well, I think you really need to work on these weaknesses before you go any further. CAROULINE: What do you suggest? TUTOR: Well, I can go through the possible strategies with you and let you decide where to go from there. CAROULINE: Okay, thanks. TUTOR: Well, some people find it helpful to organise peer-group discussions — you know, each week a different person studies a different topic and shares it with the group.

CAROULINE: Oh right. TUTOR: It really helps build confidence, you know, having to present something to others. Q24 CAROULINE: I can see that. TUTOR: The drawback is that everyone in the group seems to share the same ideas… they keep being repeated in all the dissertations. Q25 CAROULINE: Okay. TUTOR: You could also try a service called ‘Student Support’. It’s designed to give you a structured programme over a number of weeks to develop your skills. Q26 CAROULINE: Sounds good. TUTOR: Yes, unfortunately there are only a few places. But it’s worth looking into. Q27 CAROULINE: Yes, of course. I know I’ve got to work on my study skills. TUTOR: And then there are several study skills books you can consult. CAROULINE: Right. TUTOR: They’ll be a good source of reference but the problem is they are sometimes too general. Q28 CAROULINE: Yes, that’s what I’ve found. TUTOR: Other than that I would strongly advise quite simple ideas like using a card index. CAROULINE: Well, yes, I’ve never done that before. TUTOR: It’s simple, but it really works because you have to get points down in a small space. Another thing I always advise is don’t just take your notes and forget about them. Read everything three times — that’ll really fix them in your mind. Q29 CAROULINE: Yes, I can see it’d take discipline but… TUTOR: Well, if you establish good study skills at this stage they’ll be with you all your life. CAROULINE: Oh yes, I completely agree. It’s just that I don’t seem to be able to discipline myself. I need to talk things over. TUTOR: Well, we’ll be continuing these tutorials of course. Let’s arrange next month’s now. Let’s see, I can see you virtually any time during the week starting 22nd January. CAROULINE: What about the 24th? I’m free in the afternoon. TUTOR: Sorry, I’m booked then. What about the following day? CAROULINE: Thursday? I can make the morning. TUTOR: Fine, we’ll go for the 25th then. CAROULINE: That’s great, thanks. Q30 SECTION 4 Good morning. In the last few lectures I’ve been talking about the history of domestic building construction. But today I want to begin looking at some contemporary, experimental designs for housing. So, I’m going to start with a house which is constructed more or less under the ground. And one of the interesting things about this project is that the owners-both professionals but not architectswanted to be closely involved, So they decided to manage the project themselves. Their chief aim was to create somewhere Q31 that was as environmentally-friendly as possible. But at the same time they wanted to live somewhere peaceful-they’d both grown up in a rural area and disliked urban life. So the first thing they did was to look for a site. And they found a disused stone quarry in a beautiful area. The price was relatively low, and they liked the idea of

recycling the land, Q32 as it were. As it was, the quarry was an ugly blot on the landscape, and it wasn’t productive any longer, either. They consulted various architects and looked at a number of designs before finally deciding on one. As I’ve said, it was a design for a sort of underground house, and it was built into the earth itself, with two storeys. The north, east and west sides were set in the earth, and only the sloping, south-facing side was exposed to light. That was made of a double layer of very strong glass. There were also photovoltaic tiles fixed to the top and Q33 bottom of this sloping wall. These are tiles that are designed to store energy from the sun. And the walls had a layer of foam around them too, to increase the insulation. Q34 Now, what is of interest to us about this project is the features which make the building energy-efficient. Sunlight floods in through the glass wall, and to maximise it there are lots q35 of mirrors and windows inside the house. That helps to spread the light around. So that’s the first thing — light is utilised as fully as possible. In addition, the special tiles on the outside convert energy from the sun and generate some of the house’s electricity. In fact, and it’s possible that in future the house may even generate an electricity surplus, and that the owners will be able to sell some to the national grid. Q36 As well as that, wherever possible, recycled materials have been used. For example, the floors are made of reclaimed wood. And the owners haven’t bought a single item of new Q37 furniture-they just kept what they already had. And then there’s the system for dealing Q38 with the waste produced in the house. This is dealt with organically — it’s purified by being filtered through reed beds which have been planted for that purpose in the garden. So the occupants of the house won’t pollute the land or use any damaging chemicals. It’s true that the actual construction of the house was harmful to the environment. Mainly because they had to use massive amounts of concrete — one of the biggest sources Q39 of carbon dioxide in manufacturing. And, as you know, this is very damaging to the environment. In total, the house construction has released 70 tons of carbon dioxide into the air. Now that’s a frightening thought. However, once the initial ‘debt’ has been cleared — and it’s been calculated that this will only take fifteen years — this underground house won’t Q40 cost anything-environmentally I mean-because unlike ordinary houses, it is run in a way that is completely environmentally friendly. So, eco-housing like this is likely to become much more…

SECTION 1 WOMAN: Can I help you? MAN: Yes, I’ve just moved to this area with my wife and children and I’d like to know where we can all register with a doctor at a Health Centre. WOMAN: Okay. Well, there’s Doctor Green at The Harvey Clinic. We always recommend her for babies, because she’s very good with them and she runs a special clinic. Example Q1 MAN: Oh…actually my youngest child is five, so that wouldn’t be any good for us.

TEST 4

WOMAN: Right. MAN: Is there anywhere else I could try? WOMAN: Yes, the Eshcol Health Practice is the next one on my list. Q2 MAN: How do you spell that? WOMAN: E-S-H-C-O-L. And it’s Doctor Fuller, who has space on his list. The clinic only opened a year ago, so the facilities are all very modern. MAN: That sounds good. WOMAN: And it’s particularly good if you’re busy during the day, because they also Q3 do appointments in the evening. They’re closed on Saturday, though. The only other place on the list is the Health Centre on Shore Lane. You can register with Doctor Gormley, that’s G-O-R-M-L-E-Y. He’s new there, Q4 but the centre has a very good reputation. MAN: Oh yes, I thnik I know the road. That would be the best one. Thanks. Could you tell me, will all their services be free? WOMAN: Erm… there are usually some small charges that doctors make. Let me see what it says about the Shore Lane Centre. If you need to be vaccinated before any trips abroad. you won’t have to pay for this. Erm, Q5&6 what else? The sports injury treatment service operates on a paying basis, as does the nutritional therapy service. Some health centres do offer alternative therapies like homeopathy as part of their pay-to-use service. Shore Lane are hoping to do this soon-I think they may start with acupuncture. And finally, if you need to prove you’re healthy or Q5&6 haven’t had any serious injuries before a new emplover will accept you, you can get a free fitness check-up there, but you’d most likely have to pay for insurance medicals though. MAN: Okay, thanks. WOMAN: You might also be interested to know the Centre is running a pilot scheme of talks for patients. I’ve got the list here. Actually, they look very interesting. MAN: What sort of things? WOMAN: Well, the first one’s about giving up smoking. It’s next week, the twentyfifth of February, at 7 pm, and that’s in Room 4. It says, the talk will stress Q7 the health benefits particularly for people with asthman or heart disease. MAN: That sounds very interesting. WOMAN: There’s also a talk for families with children. It’s on Healthy Eating, and takes place on the first of March at five o’clock. MAN: Will that be at the Health Centre? WOMAN: Erm, actually it’s at the primary school on Shore Lane. I imagine they’re inviting the parents of pupils there-it says here ‘all welcome.’ Q8 MAN: Mmm, I might go to that if I have time. WOMAN: There’s a couple of other talks-one giving advice about how to avoid injuries while doing exercise. It’s on the ninth of March. Oh, it’s a late afternoon talk, at four thirty, and it’ll be in Room 6. It also says the talk is Q9 suitable for all ages. And finally, there’s a talk called ‘Stress Management’Q10 which is… SECTION 2 MAN: Hello? WOMAN: Hi. It’s Laura Carlton here. We’ve just arrived at the holiday flat, but I can’t get the hot water and heating to work. MAN: Oh right! That’s easy. Don’t worry. In the upstairs cupboard, you’ll find the water heater. You’ll see three main controls on the left at the bottom of the heater. The first one-the round one on the far left-is the most Q11 important one for the heating and hot water. It’s the main control switch. Make sure it’s in the ‘on’ position. The switch itself doesn’t light up, but the little square below will be black if the

switch is ‘off’. That’s probably what’s happened-it’s got switched off by mistake. The middle one of these three controls-you’ll see it’s slightly larger than the first onecontrols the radiators. If you feel cold while you’re there and need the radiators on, this needs to be turned to maximum. The last of the three controls-the one on the right-is usually on about a number for setting which for the water in the taps is usually quite hot enough. Below the heating controls in the middle is a small round plastic button. If Q12 there isn’t enough water in the pipes, sometimes the heater goes out. If this happens you’ll need to press this button to reset the heater. Hold it in for about five Q12 seconds and the heater should come on again. Then there’s a little square indicator under the third knob that’s a kind of alarm light. It’ll Q13 flash if you need to reset the heater. WOMAN: It sounds complicated… MAN: I’m sure you won’t have any problems with it. There should be some more instructions on the side of the heater. Call me back if you can’t make it work. WOMAN: Okay. WOMAN: While you’re on the phone, we haven’t managed to find a few things we need, like extra pillows for the beds and some wasing powder. Is there any here?Q14 MAN: Pillows… yes. If you look in the cupboard, the large white one upstairs-to the left of the bathroom door-there should be fore or five on the top shelf. And if you want to do some washing, there’s some powder for that…probably by the back door. There’s a kind of shelf there above the sink. In fact, I’m sure there’s some there, in a large blue box. You need about half a cup full for each wash. Q15 And that reminds me, the spare key to the back door is hanging on a hook Q16 on the wall by the sitting room window. Please make sure to put it back when you’ve used it. The previous guests lost it in the garden and I had to get another one made! And if you have any trouble with the lamps, you’ll find some spare bulbs in a large cardboard box. It’s on top of the washing Q17 machine with all kinds of useful things in it. Oh, and another thing I forgot to mention when we last spoke… WOMAN: Yes? MAN: I’ve left you a local map, so you’ll be able to find your way around easily. It shows the whole area. I put it in the top drawer of the chest under the TV Q18 in your bedroom. There’s a whole file of local information in there too. WOMAN: Thanks. What about visiting the town? Can you give us any advice? MAN: Yes. You’ll need to take the car. It’s too far to talk from the flat really. You have to pay to leave your car in all the car parks now I’m afraid…I like the one that’s by the station best and you can walk to the town centre from there in five minutes. That’s where all the best restaurants are. But if you want a takeaway, the ltalian one does really good pasta and pizzas. Call 7-3 double 2,8-1for that one, or 7 double 6, double 1, 9 for the Chinese. Q19 They’re both good and they’ll both deliver to the flat. As for places to visit, yes, do go and see the railway museum. The exhibition is small but really good. It gets very crowded on Sundays, so I suggest you visit it on a quieter day, later in the week, but not on Thursdays which is market day-you won’t find anywhere to park and it’s Q20 also the only day of the week when they’re not open! Anything else? WOMAN: Not for the moment. Thanks! SECTION 3 PAUL:Hello, Kira, how are you?

KIRN:Fine thanks, Paul, how are you? PAUL:Well, thanks. It’s good to see you. It must be twelve since you did our course? KIRN:That’s right. It’s nice to come back and say hello. PAUL:What course did you enrol in? KIRN:Actually, I went straight into third year Pharmacy. They credited me with two years, which probably made it more difficult for me. PAUL:On the other hand, you were lucky to be granted credits. Is that why you chose the course? KIRN:Yes. And, as I’d already finished a course in it in my country, I thought it Q21 would be easier if I studied something I already knew. PAUL:I didn’t realise you went into third year. I thought you started in first year. No wonder it wonder it was so hard! And what do you think is one of the big differences between studying at a university here and studying in your country? KIRN:Well, I’ve found it very difficult to write assignments, because I wasn’t familiar with that aspect of the system here. The main problem is that the lecturers expect you to be critical. That made me feel really terrible. I thought “How can I possibly do it? How can I comment on someone else’s research when they probably spent five years doing it?” I think lot of people who come from overseas countries have similar problems. But after a while it became easier for me. People expect you to have problems with the process of reading and writing but, in fact, it is more a question of Q22 altering your viewpoint towards academic study. PAUL:How was the content of the lectures? Was it easy for you? KIRN:I didn’t really have many problems understanding lectures. The content was very similar to what I’d studied before. PAUL:And what about the lecturers themselves? Are they essentially the same as lecturers in your country? KIRN:Well actually, no. Here, they’re much easier to approach. After every Q23 lecture you can go and ask them something you didn’t understand. Or you can make an appointment and talk to them. About anything in the course. PAUL:Maybe you found them different because you’re a more mature student Q24 now, whereas when you were studying in your country you were younger and not so assertive. KIRN:No, I don’t think that’s the difference. Most of the students here do it. In my faculty, they all seem to make appointments-usually to talk about something in the course that’s worrying them, but sometimes just about something that might really interest them, something they might want to Q25 specialise in. The lecturers must set aside certain times every week when they’re available for students. PAUL:That’s good to hear. PAUL:And how was your timetable? Was it a very busy year? KIRN:Very, very busy. They make you work very hard. Apart from lectures, we had practical sessions in a lot of subjects. We did these in small groups. Q26 I had to go and work four hours every week in a community pharmacy. Actually, I enjoyed this very much-meeting hew people all the time. Then in second semester, we had to get

experience in hospital dispensaries, so every second day we went to one of the big hospitals and worked there. And on top of all that we had our assignments, which took me a lot of Q27 time. Oh, I nearly forgot, between first and second semesters, we had to work full-time for two weeks in a hospital. Q28 PAUL:That does sound a very heavy year. So are you pleased now that you did it? Do you feel some sense of achievement? KIRN:Yeah, I do feel much more confident, which I suppose is the most Q29 important thing. PAUL:And have you got any recommendations for people who are studying from overseas? KIRN:Well, I suppose they need very good English. It would be much better if they spent more time learning English before they enter the university, because you can be in big trouble if you don’t understand what people are saying and you haven’t got time to translate. PAUL:Anything else? KIRN:Well, as I said before, the biggest problem for me was a lack of familiarity Q30 with the education system here. PAUL:It sounds as if it was a real challenge. Congratulations, Kira. KIRN:Thanks, Paul. SECTION 4 Good morning. Today I’d like to present the findings of our Year 2 project on wildlife wound in gardens throughout our city. I’ll start by saying something about the background to the project, then talk a little bit about our research techniques, and then indicate some of our interim findings. First of all, how did we choose our topic? Well, there are four of us in the group and one day while we were discussing a possible focus, two of the group mentioned that they had Q31 seen yet more sparrow-hawks-one of Britain’s most interesting birds of prey-in their own city centre gardens and wondered why they were turning up in these gardens in great numbers. We were all very engaged by the idea of why wild animals would choose to inhabit a city garden. Why is it so popular with wildlife when the countryside itself is becoming less so? The first thing we did was to establish what proportion of the urban land is taken up by private gardens. We estimated that it was about one fifth, and this was endorsed by Q32 looking at large-scale usage maps in the town land survey office-24% to be precise. Our own informal discussions with neighbours and friends led us to believe that many garden owners had interesting experiences to relate regarding wild animal sightings so we decided to survey garden owners from different areas of the city. Just over 100 of them Q33 completed a survey once every two weeks for twelve months-ticking off species they had seen from a pro forma list-and adding the names of any rarer ones. Meanwhile, we were doing our own observations in selected gardens throughout the city. We deliberately chose smaller ones because they were by far the most typical in the city. The whole point Q34 of the project was to look at the norm not the exception. Alongside this primary research on urban gardens, we were studying a lot of books about the decline of wild animals in the countryside and thinking of possible causes for this. Q35

So what did we find? Well, so much that I just won’t have time to tell you about here. If you’re interested in reading our more comprehensive findings, we’ve produced detailed graphic representations on the college web-site and of course any of the group would be happy to talk to you about them. Just email us. What we’ve decided to present today is information about just three species-because we Q36 felt these gave a good indication of the processes at work in rural and urban settings as a whole. The first species to generate a lot of interesting information was frogs. And there was a Q37 clear pattern here-they proliferate where there is suitable water. Garden ponds are on the increase, rural ponds are disappearing, leading to massive migration to the towns. Hedgehogs are also finding it easier to live in urban areas-this time because their Q38 predators are not finding it quite so attractive to leave their rural environment, so hedgehogs have a better survival rate in cities. We has lots of sightings, so all in all we had Q39 no difficulties with our efforts to count their numbers precisely. Our final species is the finest of bird singers, the song thrush. On the decline in the countryside, they are experiencing a resurgence in urban gardens because these days gardeners are buying lots of different plants which means there’s an extensive range of Q40 seeds around, which is what they feed on. Another factor is the provision of nesting places-which is actually better in gardens than the countryside. Hard to believe it, but it’s true. Incidentally, we discovered that a massive new survey on song thrushes is about to be launched, so you should keep an eye open for that. Now, I’d be happy to answer any questions you may have…


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