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高三英语宾语补足语的用法


宾语补足语 的用法

英语的五个基本结构
S十V 主谓结构 S十V十P 主系表结构 S十V十O 主谓宾结构 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构 说明: 说明: 主语; 谓语; 表语; S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语; 宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语; O=宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语; C=宾语补

足语

1.S 十 V 句式 He runs quickly.他跑得快。 quickly.他跑得快。 2.S 十 V 十 P 句式: 句式: The story sounds interesting.这个故事听起来有趣。 interesting.这个故事听起来有趣。 3.S 十 V 十 O 句式 They built a house last year.他们去年建了一所房子。 year.他们去年建了一所房子。 4.S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式 He offered me his seat / his seat to me.他把座位让给我。 me.他把座位让给我。 5.S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式 They found her happy that day.他们发现那天她很高兴。 day.他们发现那天她很高兴。 I found him out.我发现他出去了。 out.我发现他出去了。 They named the boy Charlie.他们给这个男孩起名为查理。 Charlie.他们给这个男孩起名为查理。 I saw him come in and go out.我见他进来又出去。 out.我见他进来又出去。 fast.他们感到汽车行驶得很快。 They felt the car moving fast.他们感到汽车行驶得很快。 He found the door of study closed to him.他发现研究所的大 him. 门对他关闭了。 门对他关闭了。

一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有: 可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
1、名词: 名词: We made him our monitor. monitor. They thought this good advice. advice. They named their daughter Jenny. Jenny. 常用名词充当宾语补足语的动词有: 注①:常用名词充当宾语补足语的动词有: call, name, elect, make, think, appoint, choose, find, consider, keep, wish, feel等。 feel等 充当宾语补足语的名词若表示正式的或独一无二的头衔、 注②:充当宾语补足语的名词若表示正式的或独一无二的头衔、职 位时,前面一般不用冠词, 位时,前面一般不用冠词,如: They elected John chairman of the committee. committee.

一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有: 可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
2、形容词: 形容词: You should keep your room clean and tidy. tidy. We’d better leave the door open. open. 常用形容词充当宾语补足语的动词有: 注:常用形容词充当宾语补足语的动词有: believe, think, get, keep, make, find, set, like, wish, see, consider, prove, have, leave, 以及paint, drive, turn, cut 等。 以及paint, 3、现在分词: 现在分词: I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. face. At this moment she noticed the teacher coming in. in.

一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有: 可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
4、动词不定式: 动词不定式: Nobody could make him change his mind. mind. Would you like me to come along with you? He believed the earth to be a globe. globe. 5、过去分词: 过去分词: He watched the TV set carried out of the room. room. Last year they had their house rebuilt. rebuilt. When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. understood. 6.此外,副词和介词短语也可以充当宾语补足语,如: 此外,副词和介词短语也可以充当宾语补足语, When do you want it back? Why didn’t you invite them in? We could hear the children at play outside. outside.

二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系: 宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
1、 当名词 、形容词 、 副词和介词短语充当宾语补足语时 , 它们和 当名词、形容词、副词和介词短语充当宾语补足语时, 宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不完整。 宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不完整。 宾语补足语说明宾语的情况、性质、特征、状态、身份或属类等。 宾语补足语说明宾语的情况、性质、特征、状态、身份或属类等。 试比较: 试比较: We made him our monitor. (He is our monitor.) monitor. monitor. You should keep your room clean and tidy. (Your room is clean tidy. and tidy.) tidy. We could hear the children singing in the classroom. classroom. (The children are singing in the classroom.) classroom.

二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系: 宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
3、 当过去分词充当宾语补足语时, 它与宾语之间有着动宾关系, 当过去分词充当宾语补足语时,它与宾语之间有着动宾关系, 即:宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的承受者,如: 宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的承受者, I once heard this song sung in Japanese. Japanese. (This song was once sung in Japanese.) Japanese. I didn’t want the children taken out in such weather. weather. (The children were taken out in such weather.) weather.

三、在用现在分词或不定式作宾语补足语的动词中,有些只能用现 在用现在分词或不定式作宾语补足语的动词中, 在分词作宾语补足语;有些只能用不定式作宾语补足语;还有的动 在分词作宾语补足语;有些只能用不定式作宾语补足语; 词既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语: 词既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语: 1 、 只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词有 : catch, keep, mind, 只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词有: 例如: prevent, stop, smell, excuse 等。例如: She caught her son smoking a cigarette. cigarette. His words started me thinking. thinking. 2、只能用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:wish, desire, expect, love, 只能用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有: prefer, trust, encourage, let, allow, permit, mean, lead, bring, put, hurry, cause, remind, ask, invite, beg, request, worry, advise, persuade, call on, tell, order, command, require, make, force, drive, forbid, warn, help, teach, show, assist, report, bear, wait for // think, take, know, judge, consider, suppose, believe, allow, prove, declare等。 declare等 3 、 既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有 : see, watch, notice, look at, observe, listen to, hear, feel, have, imagine, discover, like, want, understand, hate, get, set, leave等。 leave等

四、使用不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式符号 to 的取舍问题: 的取舍问题: 使用不定式作宾语补足语时, 1、在hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, observe 等动 词后的不定式需省去 to 。
I have my students come early. early. We often hear him sing the song at home (=He is often heard to sing the song at home.) They knew her very well.They had seen her grow up from childhood. (=They knew her very well.She was seen to grow up from childhood.)

2、help 一词后的不定式,可带 to,也可以不带 to。 一词后的不定式, to, to。
Would you like to help me(to)carry the luggage

五、在复合宾语中,宾语通常为名词或代词,但有时也可 在复合宾语中,宾语通常为名词或代词, 以用不定式(短语) 动名词(短语) that从句来充当 从句来充当。 以用不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或that从句来充当。 这时,应使用先行it代替宾语 代替宾语, 这时,应使用先行it代替宾语,而将真正的宾语移到句子 的后部, 的后部,如:
I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings. shortcomings. Do you consider it any good trying again? We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us. us. 注意:在这种结构中,宾语补足语通常为名词或形容词; 注意:在这种结构中,宾语补足语通常为名词或形容词;常用 于这种结构的动词有: 于这种结构的动词有: feel, find, think, make, take, judge, consider 等。

with复合结构的七种形式 复合结构的七种形式
with结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用 结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用 的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、 的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、 不定式复合结构、 不定式复合结构、动名词复合结构和独 立主格结构均能起很重要的作用。 立主格结构均能起很重要的作用。With 复合结构指的是“with+宾语 宾语+宾语补足 复合结构指的是“with+宾语+宾语补足 结构,它是一个十分有用的结构, 语”结构,它是一个十分有用的结构, 不仅教材中经常出现,考试中经常考到, 不仅教材中经常出现,考试中经常考到, 而且它也是同学们写作时使句子变得 高级” “高级”的一个重要手段

构成 : 它是由介词with或without+复合结构构成, 复合结构构成, 它是由介词 或 复合结构构成 复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾 复合结构作介词 或 的复合宾 语,复合宾语中第一部分宾语由名词或 代词充当,第二部分补足语由形容词、 代词充当,第二部分补足语由形容词、 副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充 副词、介词短语、 分词可以是现在分词, 当,分词可以是现在分词,也可以是过 去分词。它的作用;用作状语, 去分词。它的作用;用作状语,表示原 时间,伴随, 因,时间,伴随,条件等

? 形式一 with+宾语 形容词 宾语+形容词 宾语 ? He often sleeps with the windows open. 他常开着窗睡觉。 他常开着窗睡觉。 ? Don’t speak with your mouth full. 不要满嘴巴食物说话。 不要满嘴巴食物说话。

? 形式二 with+宾语 副词 宾语+副词 宾语 ? He stood before his teacher with his head down. 他低着头站在老师面前。 他低着头站在老师面前。 ? He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。 他和衣躺在床上。

? 形式三 with+宾语 名词 宾语+名词 宾语 ? He died with his daughter yet a schoolgirl. 他去世时,女儿还是个小学生。 他去世时,女儿还是个小学生。 ? 形式四 with+宾语 介词短语 宾语+介词短语 宾语 ? She said good-bye with tears in her eyes. 她含着眼泪说了声再见。 她含着眼泪说了声再见。 ? He was asleep with his head on his arms. 他头枕着胳膊睡着了。 他头枕着胳膊睡着

? 形式五 with+宾语 现在分词 短语 宾语+现在分词 短语) 宾语 现在分词(短语 ? He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他 没熄灯就睡着了。 没熄灯就睡着了。 ? I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病,我无法 因为妈妈有病, 去度假。 去度假。

? 形式六 with+宾语 过去分词 短语 宾语+过去分词 短语) 宾语 过去分词(短语 ? He sat there with his eyes closed. 他闭目 坐在那儿。 坐在那儿。 ? All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里 工作。 工作。

? 形式七 with+宾语 不定式 短语 宾语+不定式 短语) 宾语 不定式(短语 ? I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。 ? With so many people to help us, we are sure to finish it in time. 有这么多人帮忙, 有这么多人帮忙, 我们一定能按时完成。 我们一定能按时完成。

with复合结构的作用 复合结构的作用
with复合结构在句子中作状语,表示原因、 复合结构在句子中作状语,表示原因、 复合结构在句子中作状语 时间、条件、伴随、 时间、条件、伴随、方式等 1)We sat on the dry grass with our backs to the wall.(作伴随状语 作伴随状语) 作伴随状语 2)She could not leave with her painful duty unfulfilled.(作原因状语 作原因状语) 作原因状语 3)He lay in bed with his head covered.(作方 作方 式状语) 式状语

4)Jack soon fell asleep with the light still burning.(作伴随状语 作伴随状语) 作伴随状语 5)I won't be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.(作原因状语 作原因状语) 作原因状语 6)He sat with his arms clasped around his knees.(作方式状语 作方式状语) 作方式状语

注:with复合结构在句子中还可以作 复合结构在句子中还可以作 定语,阅读下面的句子。 定语,阅读下面的句子。 1)There was a letter for Lanny with a Swiss stamp on it.(作定语修饰letter) it.(作定语修饰letter) 2)It was a vast stretch of country with cities in the distance.(作定语修饰 stretch of 作定语修饰a 作定语修饰 country) )

Practice

单句改错
1. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself understand. understood 2. We all elected Jason the monitor. 3. The teacher asked us not make so to much noise. 4. --- What a nice fire you have in your fireplace! --- During the winter I like my house warmly and comfortable. warm

5. Don’t leave the water run while you brush your teeth. running 6. He pushed the door opening. open 7. She looked around and caught a man put his hand into the pocket of a putting to passenger. 8. With a lot of difficult problems settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. hidden 9. When I came in, I found a boy hide behind the door. 10. It was a pity that the great writer with died of his works unfinished.

单项选择 1. Tell him _____ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut 2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. ---- I know, I’m going to have it _____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended 3. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today he was made ____ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry 4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going C. for risk to go B. risking to go D. risk going

5. I found the door _____ when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 8. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newlyelected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 9. I advised _____ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start

10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still ____. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating 11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out 12. He managed to make himself____with his____English. A. understand; breaking B. understand; broken C. understood; breaking D. understood; broken 13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing

Thank you


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英语宾语补足语 | 英语中的宾语补足语 | 英语中宾语补足语 | 高中英语宾语补足语 | 初中英语宾语补足语 | 宾语补足语 | 过去分词作宾语补足语 | with 宾语 宾语补足语 |