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时代周刊 20170410


A P R I L 1 0 , 2 0 17

Dear Washington, We need to rebuild. Can you get your act together?
25 smart ways to fix our infrastructure
A SPECIAL REPORT

time.com

VOL. 189, NO. 13 | 2017

5 | Conversation 6 | For the Record

The?View
Ideas, opinion, innovations

The?Brief
News from the U.S. and around the world

?

SPECIAL REPORT Rebuilding America
The nation must modernize its ailing infrastructure. Does President Trump have what it takes to make it happen? By David Von Drehle 22

Time?Off
What to watch, read, see and do

17 | How social

47 | The Whitney

7 | Why Trump’s Executive Order may reverse Obamaera climate change policies, but not the downturn in coal jobs 10 | Ian Bremmer on

media fueled misinformation about missing juveniles in the D.C. area
18 | Why big data

Biennial offers a glimpse of art under Trump
50 | Reviews: Five

△ Trains wait at Belt Railway Company of Chicago in Bedford Park, Ill., on March 10
Photograph by Jamey Stillings for TIME

What to Build
From air-traffic control to Internet access, the ideas we need to invest in now 28

Came Back and The Zookeeper’s Wife 13 Reasons Why

can bring communities together
19 | Rare photos

51 | Netflix drama 52 | A podcast for every listener 54 | New histories of

tensions between the E.U. and Turkey
12 | Muslims in

from NASA’s Apollo moon missions
20 | Nine gadgets

How to Get It Right
Four steps to make sure the bet pays off 45

the British city of Birmingham are on the defensive after attacks near Parliament
14 | Somalia

that are designed for better sleep

Protestantism and evangelicals
55 | Kristin van

Ogtrop’s ode to her Roomba
56 | 10 Questions
ON THE COVER:

faces drought and impending famine

for Congressman John Lewis

Illustration by Peter Greenwood for TIME

TIME (ISSN 0040-781X) is published by Time Inc. weekly, except for two skipped weeks in January and one skipped week in March, May, July, August, September and December due to combined issues. PRINCIPAL OFFICE: 225 Liberty Street, New York, NY 10281-1008. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send all UAA to CFS (See DMM 507.1.5.2); Non-Postal and Military Facilities: send address corrections to TIME Magazine, P.O. Box 62120, Tampa, FL 33662-2120. Canada Post Publications Mail Agreement No. 40110178. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Postal Station A, P.O. Box 4322, Toronto, Ontario M5W 3G9. GST No. 888381621RT0001. ? 2017 Time Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. TIME and the Red Border Design are protected through trademark registration in the United States and in the foreign countries where TIME magazine circulates. U.S. Subscriptions: $49 for one year. SUBSCRIBERS: If the Postal Service alerts us that your magazine is undeliverable, we have no further obligation unless we receive a corrected address within two years. Your bank may provide updates to the card information we have on file. You may opt out of this service at any time. CUSTOMER SERVICE AND SUBSCRIPTIONS: For 24/7 service, visit time.com/customerservice. You can also call 1-800-843-TIME; write to TIME, P.O. Box 62120, Tampa, FL, 33662-2120; or email privacy@time.customersvc.com. MAILING LIST: We make a portion of our mailing list available to reputable firms. If you would prefer that we not include your name, please call or write us. PRINTED IN THE U.S. XXXXXXX

1

Conversation

What you said about ...
IS TRUTH DEAD? The April 3 cover story on President Trump’s use of the truth provoked a massive response. In the New York Times, Frank Bruni wrote that the President’s “delusional” statements in his interview with Michael Scherer could qualify him as “poet laureate of the sandbox.” But Pamela Trull of Homewood, Ala., wrote that she believes liberal and conservative media alike share blame for today’s ‘Is truth problems with truth, dead? Only for mixing news and if we all opinion. Respondstop trying ing to the evoking of TIME’s iconic to speak it.’ 1966 “Is God Dead?” MICHAEL KNAPP, cover, Bob Hunt of Woodway, Wash. Sun City West, Ariz., noted that the bigger question is, rather, “Does truth matter?” Meanwhile, Washington Post columnist E.J. Dionne tweeted a reminder that in 1969, another TIME cover asked if God were coming back to life. “Here’s hoping the truth makes a similar comeback,” he wrote. BEYOND HE OR SHE For many readers, Katy Steinmetz’s March 27 cover story on evolving notions of gender hit home. Sheila Raghavendran of Mason, Ohio, wrote to say that the piece was a great starting point for heterosexual and cisgender readers to learn more about gender fluidity and to “help us achieve a more compassionate world.” And while some readers were moved to share their own coming-out stories, others wished the feature had included interviews with a wider array of subjects. “This is not [just] a millennial issue,” wrote Christine Biship Smith, 59, “but one that ‘I’m not a many people have been she. silenced on because of the boxes allowed by a binary I’m not a he. society.” And Aaron Rogers I’m you. of Elgin, Ill., saw a parallel I’m me. between the story and the “Is Truth Dead?” cover that I’m we.’ followed: concepts once FENN ESSER, seen as absolute are “now Yorktown Heights, something to be defined by N.Y. each individual.”

TIME 100 POLL Every year, TIME honors the 100 most influential people in the world—a collection that includes politicians, artists, scientists and lawmakers as well as leaders in business, technology and sports. Although the magazine’s editors choose the final list of influencers, we also want to hear from you about who you think should make the cut this year. The official TIME 100 list will be announced on April 20, but readers can cast their votes in the 2017 TIME 100 reader poll until 11:59 p.m. E.T. on April 16. Immediately after the poll closes, its winner will be revealed. Learn more and cast your vote at time.com/2017-time-100-poll

BONUS TIME POLITICS

Subscribe to TIME’s free politics newsletter and get exclusive news and insights from Washington, sent straight to your inbox. For more, visit time.com/ politicsemail

TOXIC WASTE TIME Labs has mapped all 1,317 so-called Superfund sites—the most toxic locations in the U.S., as tracked by the federal government. They’re scattered across the country, but New Jersey’s 114 is the most for any state. Learn more at time.com/ toxic-map

SETTING THE RECORD STRAIGHT ? In the View (April 3), we misstated the crowdfunding platform for Nimuno Loops. It is Indiegogo, not Kickstarter.
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T I M E 10 0 : G E T T Y I M A G E S

Please recycle this magazine and remove inserts or samples before recycling

5

For the Record

‘We’re going to be living with Obamacare for the foreseeable future.’
PAUL RYAN, Speaker of the House, withdrawing his health care bill before a scheduled vote on March 24; it did not have the support it needed to pass

C7+,6,6$1 +,6725,& 020(17 )520:+,&+ 7+(5(&$1%( 127851,1* %$&.

THERESA MAY, British Prime Minister, announcing on March 29 the formal notification of Britain’s departure from the European Union

15,000
Number of steps people should walk daily to keep their hearts healthy, according to a study of 111 middle-aged Scottish postalservice workers in the International Journal of Obesity

‘HISTORY HAS SHOWN THAT IF YOU WANT PROGRESS, YOU NEED TO ENFORCE IT.’
THORSTEINN VIGLUNDSSON, Social

Mice A study found humans have provided them homes for 15,000 years—longer than thought

‘White House announces Jared Kushner is now responsible for?everything.’
THE HUFFINGTON POST, responding to White House plans to place the President’s adviser and son-in-law atop a new Administration office empowered to reform wide swaths of the federal government, in addition to earlier reports that Kushner would also work on trade deals and Middle East peace talks

15%
Percentage of female undergraduates at the University of Texas at Austin who reported having been raped while enrolled, in a newly released survey conducted by and across the statewide UT system in fall 2015 and early spring 2016; officials described the full study as the nation’s most comprehensive look into sexual assaults in higher education ever

GOOD WEEK BAD WEEK

Affairs and Equality Minister of Iceland, speaking in support of a law that would mandate that employers show they pay men and women equally; on March 28, the country became the first to introduce such legislation

Men Scientists reported that treatments for low testosterone did not improve cognitive function

$50,000,000

Estimated value of a 706-carat diamond found in Sierra Leone; the pastor whose digging team made the discovery surprised some by entrusting the diamond’s sale to the revenue-strapped government rather than selling it himself on the black market

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y B R O W N B I R D D E S I G N F O R T I M E

‘Why, just because of one Daesh, kill everyone?’
ALI ABDULGHANI, resident of Western Mosul, questioning U.S.-led airstrikes on ISIS—or Daesh—targets in which Iraqi officials believe as many as 200 civilians were killed, a nearly unprecedented toll for a U.S. air mission in Iraq; the U.S. is investigating the airstrike but acknowledged on March 28 that there was a “fair chance” it was responsible

6

TIME April 10, 2017

S O U R C E S: J A M A ; N E W YO R K T I M E S; P R O C E E D I N G S O F T H E N AT I O N A L A C A D E M Y O F S C I E N C E S

‘TURKEY HAS BECOME THE WORLD’S BIGGEST JAILER OF JOURNALISTS AS ERDOGAN CRACKS DOWN ON DISSENT.’ —PAGE 10

Trump says he will drive oil production in places like California’s Kern County, but experts are skeptical

CLIMATE CHANGE

Trump takes aim at Obama’s climate legacy
By Justin Worland

GALLERY STOCK

THROUGHOUT PRESIDENT OBAMA’S eight years in office, he slowly but surely issued environmental regulations that, taken together, positioned the U.S. as a global leader in the fight against climate change. Many of those policies may now be dismantled. On March 28, President Trump, accompanied by energy-sector executives and coal miners, arrived at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and signed an Executive Order that dramatically shifts the direction of U.S. policy and curtails some of the most significant Obama-era regulations. The order, billed by Trump as a measure to promote energy independence and create jobs, targets a slew of environmental measures,

including the centerpiece of Obama’s efforts to reduce global warming, the Clean Power Plan, which mandates a 32% reduction in carbon emissions from power plants by 2030. Under Trump’s order, the EPA will review the policy with an eye to revising or replacing it. That could take years. Without it, states can still continue to move toward clean energy—but they will lose major federal incentives to do so. “The action I’m taking today will eliminate federal overreach, restore economic freedom and allow our companies and our workers to thrive,” said Trump. “We are going to start a new energy revolution, one that celebrates American production on American soil.”
7

PHOTOGR APH BY MARK GAMBA

TheBrief

The move drew praise from energy interest groups that have long fought regulation, but it also ignited criticism from major environmental groups, the U.N. Environment Program and many lawmakers and politicians. “The Executive Order undercuts a key part of the nation’s response to climate change,” says Ken Kimmell, president of the Union of Concerned Scientists, “without offering even a hint of what will replace it.” Trump’s changes are bound to take effect in fits and starts. The President’s lift of his predecessor’s moratorium on new leases for coal mining on federal land, for instance, will take effect immediately. And any rollback of the Clean Power Plan is sure to generate a multitude of lawsuits from the likes of environmental groups and state governments. Critics of the order say that none of this should come as a surprise from a President who has called climate change a “hoax,” yet many of Trump’s supporters say it didn’t go far enough. Some had hoped that it would challenge the scientific consensus that carbon emissions contribute to climate change in the first place—the finding that underpins the Clean Power Plan. Others complained that the order does not address whether the U.S. will remain in the Paris Agreement on climate change, which commits the U.S. to working to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. A senior White House official said the global climate deal remains “under discussion.” The order’s effect on jobs likely ranks highest on the list of concerns for the coal miners invited to share the stage with Trump. “You know what it says, right?” Trump vamped with the miners onstage with him before signing the order. “You’re going back to work.” It’s not at all clear that coal jobs can come back. The industry faced headwinds even before the Clean Power Plan encouraged a move toward renewable-energy production. More than 200 coal-fired power plants have been shuttered over the past decade. In most places, coal is simply much more expensive than abundant natural gas, which is perhaps why last year, for the first time ever, natural gas unseated coal as the top source of U.S. electricity. “No matter what any elected official says, rescinding commonsense climate change regulations ... will not revive the coal industry or put thousands of miners back to work,” said former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg in a statement. Both the White House and groups that oppose the President’s plans heralded the signing as a milestone. While it certainly set American environmental policy on a new course, it’s likely to be a very long road. □
8 TIME April 10, 2017

TECH

TICKER
Terror charge for stabbing suspect
White supremacist James Harris Jackson was charged with terrorism for fatally stabbing a 66-year-old black man in Manhattan. Jackson said he attacked Timothy Caughman to deter white women from interracial relationships, and intended for the killing to be “a practice run.”

GOP rolls back online privacy rules
Congressional Republicans have voted to scrap a series of online privacy protections approved during the waning days of the Obama Administration by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The rules, which were set to take effect in December, required Internet providers to obtain customers’ permission before collecting and sharing personal data on their web-surfing habits. Without those protections, companies like Verizon, Comcast and AT&T will continue to be able to track customers’ online footprint, logging what sites they browse, what products they buy and what apps they use. Companies can then mine that sensitive data and sell it to marketers looking to deliver highly targeted ads. Tech firms like Google and Facebook already track similar data for their users. But Internet providers have a much broader ability to track what you do online. Republicans in the House and Senate, who voted in near lockstep to overturn the rules, argue that the FCC’s restrictions were an example of regulatory overreach that inhibits business. But Democrats and privacy advocates say the move transforms the legal terrain for communications. Phone companies, for instance, are not able to sell information about calls to doctors or bankruptcy attorneys, because that information is considered the property of the person making the call. Online data, however, has become a commodity consumers cannot easily keep to themselves. “Data is power,” Jeff Chester, executive director of the Center for Digital Democracy, wrote in a blog post opposing the move. “And that power should be in the hands of the people—not those that wish to financially and politically benefit by harvesting our information.” —Alex Altman

Hong Kong gets a new leader
Carrie Lam was elected Hong Kong’s chief executive, the citystate’s first ever female leader. Opinion polls had shown that her rival, John Tsang, was far more popular with residents, but Hong Kong’s small electoral college chose the candidate most likely to be approved by Beijing.

Bathroom bill’s cost to North Carolina
The controversial North Carolina law forcing transgender people to use toilets that correspond to the gender on their birth certificates will cost the state more than $3.76 billion in lost business over 12 years, an Associated Press analysis found.

D I G I T S : A N D R E A S S O L A R O — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S; A D I T YA N AT H : S A N J AY K A N O J I A — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S

Giant dinosaur footprints found
Paleontologists found some of the world’s largest dinosaur footprints in northwestern Australia. The tracks, which are up to 115 million years old, measure nearly 5 ft. 9 in. in length.

3
DIGITS

Number of days of paid leave that could be offered to female workers in Italy while they are menstruating; lawmakers are mulling a draft bill on “period leave,” but critics say employers could use it as the basis for bias

DATA

WHERE ART IS SOLD The art market achieved total sales of roughly $56.6 billion in 2016, according to the Art Basel and UBS Global Art Market Report. Here are the world’s largest art markets by industry share.

40% U.S. RUSSIAN REVOLT A woman is hauled away by riot police in Moscow as tens of thousands of demonstrators took to the streets nationwide on March 26 against government corruption. The protests were the biggest show of defiance in years against the regime of President Vladimir Putin, and police reacted by arresting hundreds. The woman in the photo, Olga Lovina, later said she was merely walking by. Photograph by Maxim Shipenkov—EPA

21% U.K.

INDIA

Modi’s turbulent priest signals change in approach
INDIA’S PRIME MINISTER NARENDRA MODI scored a stunning political victory in March when his Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) overwhelmingly won state elections in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India’s most populous and politically significant territory. But the victory sparked worries after the BJP named Hindu hard-liner Yogi Adityanath to run UP. Here’s why.
MODI’S PLEDGE Modi’s promises of promoting economic growth for all helped propel him to power in 2014. The Prime Minister presented himself as an inclusive reformer who would protect the rights of all Indians, including the country’s more than 172 million Muslims—even though many in his party back Hindutva, a political ideology that sees India as a Hindu nation.

RIGHT TURN Those promises of inclusivity were thrown into question after the BJP named the radical Hindu cleric as chief minister for the state. A five-term parliamentarian, he has a long record of divisive rhetoric targeting India’s minorities. He has faced criminal charges for attempted murder and rioting, and has called for India to become a Hindu nation. NEW PRIORITIES Adityanath’s elevation has many

20% China

wondering if Modi is shifting his approach. With economic growth set to slow, largely because of the Prime Minister’s decision to scrap some 86% of India’s currency notes, the fiery priest’s appointment suggests Modi might pursue a more aggressive, majoritarian agenda as he gears up for a reelection contest in 2019. —NIKHIL KUMAR/NEW DELHI

7% France

2% Germany

? The firebrand cleric has
been accused of stirring up anti-Muslim sentiment

1% Italy

9

TheBrief

THE RISK REPORT

TICKER
Former Penn State chief found guilty
Graham Spanier, the former president of Penn State University, was found guilty of one count of child endangerment over the mishandling of a sex-abuse complaint against Jerry Sandusky, the retired assistant football coach charged in 2012 of sexually abusing children.

Turkey’s Erdogan threatens a breakup with the E.U.
By Ian Bremmer
TURKEY’S PRESIDENT RECEP TAYYIP Erdogan is running out of insults. The Germans, he insists, are “Nazis” and the Dutch are “fascists,” all because they blocked Turkish officials from campaigning in their countries for Turkey’s upcoming referendum. More than 2 million Turks living in Europe are eligible to participate in the April 16 ballot that will determine whether Turkey should move from a parliamentary to a presidential system, giving Erdogan more power. Austria and Switzerland have also blocked Turkish rallies, angering Erdogan. The E.U. has responded with caution to Erdogan’s attacks, but its leaders might well find it ironic that these slights come from a man who rules under an extended state of emergency. More than 40,000 Turks have been arrested in response to the failed coup attempt in July 2016, and Turkey has become the world’s biggest jailer of journalists as Erdogan cracks down on dissent. Yet the E.U. continues to maintain the fiction that Turkey might one day gain membership to its club. To join, a would-be member must meet requirements in 35 areas, known as chapters. A unanimous vote of every E.U. leader is needed to open a chapter, and another to close it. In almost 18 years of formal candidacy, Turkey and the E.U. have opened 14 chapters. Just one has been closed.

Antiabortion activists charged
Two antiabortion activists who covertly recorded Planned Parenthood officials between 2013 and ’15 were charged in California with 15 felony counts of violating privacy. The heavily edited videos allegedly showed officials discussing plans to sell aborted fetal tissue.

Reptiles found dead in zoo
Thirty-three rare and endangered reptiles were found dead in Tennessee’s Zoo Knoxville. The zoo said the deaths, which are under investigation, weren’t due to disease but to an unspecified “environmental cause.”

If Turkey became a member, the E.U.’s borders would extend to Syria, Iraq and Iran. It’s not hard to see why European voters wouldn’t want that. Turkish membership would also allow 80 million Muslims to move freely across E.U. borders. That’s hardly the direction European politics is headed. Nevertheless, talks continue. E.U. Erdogan officials say they is eager to want to encourage impress reform in Turkey, but Turkish there’s little chance voters with that Germany, his defiance France, Austria or against a Greece will allow perceived it to join the bloc in the foreseeable global elite future. Knowing this, Erdogan has moved Turkey toward a more autocratic kind of reform. Now the President, eager to impress Turkish voters with his defiance against a perceived global elite, is threatening to break off political ties with the bloc, and possibly abandon the E.U. bid altogether. That should worry Europe, which has much invested in keeping the status quo. The E.U. is currently paying Turkey large sums to house Middle Eastern migrants rather than passing them along to Europe, with promises of more rapid accession to sweeten the deal. But the charade that Turkey will one day join the E.U. is becoming increasingly transparent, with populist Islamophobes making inroads across the Continent. Europe’s willingness to play this cynical game threatens to isolate further a country that E.U. leaders once hoped to reform. □

TRAVEL

What not to wear flying
Two girls were barred from a United flight on March 26 for wearing leggings because they were guests of employees, who have a dress code. Other garments have been deemed inappropriate. —Tara John FLIP-FLOPS British cricketer Kevin Pietersen was refused entry to a Qantas lounge in 2015 for wearing flip-flops, after the company tightened dress codes for Australian lounges earlier that year. OFFENSIVE SHIRTS A university student and his wife were not allowed to board a Delta flight in 2012 because his satirical T-shirt, which read “Bombs ZOMG ZOMG Terrists [sic],” made passengers “very uncomfortable.” SAGGING PANTS In 2011, Southwest Airlines kicked Green Day singer Billie Joe Armstrong off a flight for wearing pants that hung too low. The company later apologized to the musician.

$4.5M coin stolen in?Berlin heist
A giant 220-lb. solidgold coin was taken from the Bode Museum in Berlin, despite its weighing about as much as a refrigerator. Experts fear the thieves will melt the gold down and resell it.

T R AV E L : G E T T Y I M A G E S

Pre-Collision with Pedestrian Detection standard.
2

1

Pedestrians can come out of nowhere. So Pre-Collision with Pedestrian Detection can help spot them and brake for you. It’s just one of the standard Toyota Safety Sense? P (TSS-P)3 features that give you more peace of mind.
Options shown. Dramatization. 1. The TSS Pre-Collision System is designed to help avoid or reduce the crash speed and damage in certain frontal collisions only. It is not a substitute for safe and attentive driving. System effectiveness is dependent on road, weather and vehicle conditions. See Owner’s Manual for additional limitations and details. 2. The Pedestrian Detection system is designed to detect a pedestrian ahead of the vehicle, determine if impact is imminent and help reduce impact speed. It is not a substitute for safe and attentive driving. System effectiveness depends on many factors, such as speed, size and position of pedestrians, and weather, light and road conditions. See Owner’s Manual for additional limitations and details. 3. Drivers are responsible for their own safe driving. Always pay attention to your surroundings and drive safely. Depending on the conditions of roads, weather and the vehicle, the system(s) may not work as intended. See Owner’s Manual for additional limitations and details. ?2017 Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.

TheBrief

Milestones
DIED South African antiapartheid activist Ahmed Kathrada, 87. Kathrada spent more than 26 years in prison, many of them alongside Nelson Mandela, for fighting against white minority rule. ? Cardinal William H. Keeler, 86, of Baltimore. He strove to improve Catholic-Jewish relations and was the first bishop to release the names of living and dead priests who had been credibly accused of sexual abuse. JAILED Notorious terrorist “Carlos the Jackal” for the third time over a deadly 1974 attack on a Paris shopping arcade. Carlos, whose real name is Ilyich Ramírez Sánchez, is already serving two life sentences in France and was sentenced to another. APPROVED The move of the Oakland Raiders to Nevada, by NFL owners. The team will move into a $1.7 billion stadium in Las Vegas in 2020. MOVED The arm of a quadriplegic man using thought-control technology, in a medical first. Bill Kochevar, who was paralyzed in a bicycle crash, can now drink and eat without help after electrodes were implanted in his brain and right arm.
WORLD: JOE GIDDENS — A P; MILESTONES: GE T T Y IM AGES

Muslim leaders at a Birmingham, England, rally against terrorism
WORLD

Britain keeps calm and carries on after Parliament attack
By Tara John / Birmingham
THREE DAYS AFTER KHALID MASOOD mounted the March 22 attack in London, Muslim community organizers in the British city of Birmingham held a rally to show that extremists do not represent their faith. The country’s right-wing newspapers had latched on to the fact Masood had lived most recently in the city, where 1 in 5 is a Muslim, describing it as a “hotbed of jihadism.” The people of Birmingham felt compelled to peacefully show that wasn’t the case. The low-key march was in keeping with the characteristic stoicism displayed by most Britons after the “lone wolf” rampage in the shadow of Big Ben killed four and injured around 50 in the span of 82 seconds. Lawmakers in Parliament resumed their duties the following day, as did the country’s office workers, pub landlords and hotel managers. “As I speak, millions will be boarding trains and airplanes to travel to London, and to see for themselves the greatest city on earth,” Prime Minister Theresa May told Parliament on March 23, thanking Britons for the “millions of acts of normality” that denied terrorists “their victory.” The U.K.’s robust counterterrorism agencies have long prepared for such an attack. The Houses of Parliament went into rapid lockdown after shots rang out in Westminster, and the first-response team of counter12 TIME April 10, 2017

terrorism officers and ambulance services arrived on the scene within minutes. “Spending on security services [in the U.K.] is considerably higher than their European counterparts,” says Jennifer Cole, a research fellow at defense think tank Royal United Services Institute. Officials also have nearly five decades’ worth of experience dealing with internal terrorism, dating to the Irish Republican Army campaign against British targets. Few lawmakers called for new security protocols or powers of arrest, in contrast to the emergency legislation in France following the (far more deadly) 2015 Paris attacks. Nonetheless, police will be reviewing Parliament’s security. The government is also expected to refresh its controversial Prevent antiradicalization scheme, which has become toxic among the country’s Muslim communities, who believe it encourages monitoring and informing on neighbors rather than tackling the root causes. In Birmingham, those communities took to the streets to disavow the attack and its perpetrator, who had moved to the city less than a year ago. Police have made at least nine raids and eight arrests in the city, but concluded that Masood, born Adrian Elms to a Christian mother, had no known links with ISIS—which opportunistically claimed the attack—or al-Qaeda. All signs suggest he executed the act of violence alone, something that Muslims at the Birmingham event sought to emphasize. “We feel unsafe about terrorism just like everybody else,” Naveed Ahmed, 26, a humanitarian aid officer, told TIME on the sidelines of the march. “How can you hold a whole community responsible for the actions of one individual?” □

VOTED The Scottish Parliament, to formally request a second referendum on independence from the United Kingdom. The British Parliament must approve any vote, and might be unlikely to do so while talks over withdrawal from the E.U. continue.

Singapore 2017 Summit | May 24-26
New Solutions for Global Infrastructure

Since 2012, McKinsey & Company’s Global Infrastructure Initiative has convened senior industry leaders to identify ways to improve the delivery of new projects and get more out of existing assets. Join the conversation and learn more at: globalinfrastructureinitiative.com
PA S T A N D F O RT H CO M I N G PA RT I CI PA N T S

Madeleine Albright
Chair of Albright Stonebridge Group, Former US Secretary of State

Dominic Barton
Global Managing Partner of McKinsey

Luciano Coutinho
President of Brazilian Development Bank

Kim Day
CEO of Denver International Airport

Isabel Dedring
Global Transport Leader of Arup and Former Deputy Mayor of London

Anthony Foxx
US Secretary of Transportation

His Excellency Paul Kagame
President of Republic of Rwanda

Uwe Krueger
CEO of Atkins

Liew Mun Leong
Chairman of Surbana Jurong and Changi Airport Group

Jorge Quijano
CEO of Panama Canal Authority

Judith Rodin
President of Rockefeller Foundation

Sinthya Roesly
CEO of Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund

Kevin Rudd
26th Prime Minister of Australia

Wang Wenxue
Chairman of China Fortune Land Development

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PA R T N E R I N G W I T H

LightBox

The long wait for water
Somali women queue to ?ll jerricans outside Mogadishu on March 25. The U.N. has warned of looming famines in Somalia and three other countries—Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen—but its appeal for $4.4 billion is only 10% funded. With 20 million lives at risk, of?cials call it the largest humanitarian crisis since World War II. Photograph by Maciej Moskwa— NurPhoto/Getty Images
? For more of our best photography, visit time.com/lightbox

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21

‘THE APOLLO PROGRAM WAS A TRIUMPH OF IMAGE CONTROL.’ —PAGE 19

Photos of missing kids and teens, two of whom remain unfound, released by the D.C. police department

CRIME

Why D.C.’s missing children became a political rallying cry
By Maya Rhodan
M E T R O P O L I TA N P O L I C E D E PA R T M E N T (8)

WHEN THE WASHINGTON, D.C., police department began sharing pictures of the District’s missing children on social media earlier this year, its goal was simply to spread the word. Then the faces of more than two dozen black and Latino kids and teens began circulating on Twitter in March, and people took notice in a way the city’s police may never have intended. Many in the capital’s black community were startled by the posts. Some grew infuriated, believing police had not done enough to respond to or to publicize what appeared to be a wave of disappearances. Activists saw a racial dimension to the apparent scarcity of news coverage of scores of black and brown youth vanishing, their names left unspoken. Outrage

spread virally, as it tends to on social media. On Instagram celebrities shared posts about the case. “Missing girls” began to trend in search. But the facts didn’t match. City officials say reports of missing kids in the District have actually fallen slightly from past years. Some of the children in the shared pictures have been found and many were runaways. Of the 549 missing-juveniles cases in the nation’s capital, all but 18 have been closed as of March 29. The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children says the number is on par with other major cities. “This is not new,” says Natalie Wilson of the Black and Missing Foundation, referring to the cases in D.C. “It’s happening in a lot of urban areas.” D.C.’s missing, unfortunately, merely reflect the status quo.
17

The?View

The police department’s decision to publicize missing youth may not have been an inherently political one, but it catalyzed a political response. As has been shown again and again in recent years, social media can be a vortex of outrage and commentary—sometimes well-intentioned but too infrequently fact-checked. The same impulse to spread story lines the media purportedly ignores was evident elsewhere in Washington. At the White House press secretary Sean Spicer weighed in on a March incident in nearby Rockville, Md., where a 14-year-old student alleged that two of her male classmates had raped her in a bathroom at their high school. The story had gone viral on conservative websites, which noted one of the young men is an undocumented immigrant. “Part of the reason the President has cracked down on illegal immigration,” Spicer said, “is because of tragedies like this.” It didn’t matter to the White House that data shows immigrants are less likely to commit violent crimes than American-born citizens. From the start of his campaign, Donald Trump has sold supporters on the idea that he will stamp out an epidemic of immigrant crime. One of the regular features of his campaign rallies was sharing the stories of victims. And among Trump’s first acts as President was to establish a new division in the Department of Homeland Security, the Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement office, which will produce weekly reports of crimes allegedly committed by undocumented immigrants. Providing the public with brutal stories helps Trump’s case that there is a problem his policies will solve. On any given day there is simply too much tragedy for it all to make the news. Institutions must decide what to highlight, and those decisions have consequences. While Spicer chose to elevate the Rockville case, he ducked a reporter’s question about a 28-year-old white supremacist who, by his own account, fatally stabbed a 66-year-old black man in New York City on March 20 to deter white women from dating black men. Of course, Washington’s missing children matter. Activists have legitimate grievances about the way the police often treat communities of color, and their criticism about media coverage of missing people was well founded. A recent study in Northwestern University’s Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology found that missing-persons cases involving white women receive more coverage than cases involving black women. One reason people shared the story of D.C.’s missing girls was to address that imbalance. And the outcry had consequences: Mayor Muriel Bowser announced six new programs designed to improve the District’s response to missing youth. Said Bowser: “One missing young person is one too many.” □
18 TIME April 10, 2017

BOOK IN BRIEF VERBATIM

‘It’s evil, what’s going on out there. And it’s getting worse.’
EMMA THOMPSON,

Smart cities, smarter?citizens
IN 1977 SOCIOLOGIST RICHARD Sennett’s landmark book The Fall of Public Man argued that Western societies had over the previous two centuries grown increasingly individualistic and disengaged with civic life—and were the worse for it. In an epilogue to a new 40th anniversary edition, Sennett examines how the Internet affected this phenomenon. Although social media makes our private lives more public, it also makes us more selfabsorbed and isolated from fellow citizens. Looking at this in the context of cities, he sees individuals with more ways to connect with one another as well as more reasons not to. Apps turn city navigation, once a haphazard project that often led to fortuitous encounters, into a solo project. And yet Sennett is impressed by cities in Brazil, for instance, that use big data to help communities collectively evaluate how to spend municipal dollars. “The public realm dies in the first sort of smart city,” he writes, “but revives in the second.” It’s up to us which path we take. —SARAH BEGLEY

actor, in an interview with Swedish talk show Skavlan, describing the pressure the film industry puts on people that leads them to?develop eating?disorders

CHARTOON

Work causality loop

J O H N AT K I N S O N , W R O N G H A N D S

THIS JUST IN
A roundup of new and noteworthy insights from the week’s most talked-about studies: PHOTOGRAPHY

DATA

Moon missions, imperfect and magnificent
The Apollo program was a triumph of image control, especially when it came to the photographs. Thousands of shots were taken during the 11 Apollo flights, but only the best were released. That’s a shame, because it’s the outtakes—astronauts posing awkwardly, the sun’s blinding flares—that capture the missions as the half-improvised camping trips they were. Now a group of European designers have assembled 225 of the least-seen images in the book Apollo VII–XVII. You may have seen the views captured through the spacecraft windows, but you’ve never seen how dirty those windows got. You’ve heard about the scientific instruments left behind, but you’ve never seen the makeshift contraptions they really were. The Apollo missions were flown by fallible humans just trying to put in a week or two of work and come home alive. That realization only makes their journeys more remarkable. —Jeffrey Kluger
? For more photos, visit time.com/unseen-apollo

1 ALCOHOL IS USUALLY GOOD FOR THE HEART A new study in the BMJ of almost 2 million people found that moderate alcohol consumption was linked with lower risk for at least seven heart conditions than nondrinking. But it didn’t lower the risk of four less-common heart problems, including certain mild strokes. 2 HAVING ONE NUT ALLERGY MAY CAUSE FALSE POSITIVE TESTS FOR OTHERS A study in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology found that people with allergies to one nut often have positive allergy tests to other tree nuts. And yet, more than half those people didn’t actually have an allergic reaction after eating those other nuts.

T H O M P S O N : F R E D D U VA L— G E T T Y I M A G E S; P H O T O G R A P H Y: A P O L L O V I I - X V I I / N A S A

3 BREASTFEEDING MAY NOT MAKE KIDS ANY SMARTER A new study in Pediatrics found that babies who were breastfed didn’t score significantly better on cognitive tests when they were ages 3 to 5 than those who weren’t breastfed. This runs contrary to what previous research has suggested. —Julia Zorthian

The?View Smart Home

Sleep, thy name is gadget
By Lisa Eadicicco
BRINGING TECH INTO THE BEDROOM CAN BE MORE HARMFUL THAN HELPFUL. GLANCING AT YOUR phone before hitting the sack may be distracting and, more important, the blue light its screen emits is known to make falling asleep more difficult. But that’s not true for all gadgets. These smart-home devices want to invade your bedroom with the aim of improving your slumber.

Helps you fall asleep
MUSE HEADBAND, $249 Falling asleep can be more difficult than staying asleep. With its headband, Muse hopes to train the brain to handle stress more efficiently, making it easier to relax. The gadget uses sensors to measure brain activity and then feeds that data to an app that guides you through meditation exercises. A number of less expensive or free meditation apps attempt to do much of the same without the headband. HERE ONE SMART EARBUDS, $299.99 Sometimes earplugs or the sound of the TV isn’t enough to drown out a partner’s snoring. Earbuds like these can help by allowing you to progressively drown out the volume of the world around you. And if you typically need white noise to fall asleep, you can turn on a filter for that type of sound through the accompanying app. APPLE IPHONE, $399–$769 Staring at the blue light coming from your phone before bed can make it harder for your body to produce melatonin, the hormone that affects circadian rhythms. Apple’s Night Shift feature lessens this effect by making the display colors look warmer to reduce blue light. It can also remind you to get to bed at the same time to even out your sleep habits.

Helps you sleep better
S+ SLEEP MONITOR, $129.99 Many devices that track sleep require special sensors worn on the body or embedded in a mattress. ResMed’s S+ claims to monitor without making physical contact. Instead, it uses motion-detection technology to pick up your tosses and turns throughout the night. It can also assess whether the temperature and lighting conditions in your room are preventing you from sleeping better. SLEEP NUMBER IT BED, $1,099 The firmness of this mattress can be adjusted via a smartphone app. Built-in sensors can also track your heart rate, breathing and movement to relay insights about how you sleep. There’s no remote, though, which means you’ll have to reach for your phone each time you want to adjust the bed. SMART NORA, $279 Snoring isn’t only disturbing for those sharing a bed with you. It can disrupt your own sleep and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To prevent snoring, Nora activates a small pump that sits under your pillow when it detects snores, which moves your head to stimulate the throat muscles. It might not work for fidgety sleepers who don’t always stay put.

Helps you wake up
BEDDI SMART ALARM CLOCK, $99.99 Beddi is the Swiss Army knife of alarm clocks. In addition to shining a warm light and streaming Spotify tunes to wake you up, it can charge your smartphone, control your other connected devices and read you the weather and traffic updates when you wake. PHILIPS HUE WAKE-UP LIGHT, $169.99 A dark room can make it difficult to get out of bed, while strong sunlight may be too harsh on the eyes early in the morning. Philips’ lamp aims to mimic natural sunlight, its intensity gradually increasing within 30 minutes of waking up. And while it does let you choose one of five sounds or an FM radio for your wake-up call, it doesn’t connect to your Spotify account like the Beddi or Withings Aura can.
I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y D A N Z A K R O C Z E M S K I F O R T I M E

FITBIT CHARGE 2, $149.95 If waking up to an audio alarm isn’t effective (or endurable) for you, try a fitness tracker such as the Charge 2. The wristband can wake you up with a gentle buzz as well as provide data about your sleep duration and quality. This spring the company promises it will be able to distinguish between deep, light and REM sleep, a feature that some competing smart wristbands have had for years.

20

TIME April 10, 2017

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I U
ILLUSTR ATION BY PETER GREEN WOOD FOR TIME

INFR NFR ASTR UC T
W HAT I T W I LL TA K E TO R E BUI LD AMERICA
BY DAV ID VO N DR EH L E

plus

A BLUE PRINT FOR TODAY

MOONS HOTS FOR TOMORROW

AND A PLAN FOR GE TTING IT RIGHT

W
BUILDING A NATION
America has been creating the architecture of national life since before it was a nation. —Merrill Fabry

INFRASTRUCTURE ? SPECIAL REPORT

WHEN PRESIDENT TRUMP DECLARED, IN his first speech to Congress, “The time has come for a new program of national rebuilding,” the applause was loud and long. This pledge to spend what it takes to fix roads and bridges, rails and broadband, dams and airports—a staple of his campaign speeches—struck a chord with public opinion. The legacy of past generations that sustained the world’s largest economy is aging and needs repair. Some 34 million Americans still lack access to broadband. The electrical grid can’t keep up with advances in renewable energy. People understand this: a recent poll for CNN found that 79% of Americans want the President to increase spending on infrastructure, including 72% of people who say they don’t support Donald Trump. His commitment was music to the ears of Wall Street and Main Street, and charmed labor as well as management. State and local officials from Hartford to Honolulu had scrambled in the weeks after Trump’s victory to compile wish lists of worthy projects, hoping to catch his eye. “America is suffering from a massive infrastructure deficit—crumbling and dilapidated roads, bridges, airports, and tunnels,” Trump said in a statement to TIME. “We need members of both parties—partnering with industry and workers—to join together to repair, rebuild and renew the infrastructure of the United States.” So if everyone agrees, if the need is great and the will is there, if America’s very

quality of life is at stake, as well as safety, jobs and economic competitiveness, then one would think that this is where all of Washington has a chance to step up. An embattled President could prove whether his record as a developer is relevant; Republicans in Congress could practice governing; Democrats could deliver longpromised results. Everyone wins—unless Bismarck’s advice that “Politics is the art of the possible” no longer holds. After the failure by Trump and congressional Republicans to deliver on their pledge to repeal Obamacare, the questions were written across Washington in neon. Does the President actually have a plan, and can he persuade even people who may agree with him to go along with it? Although Trump often spoke during the campaign of unlocking $1 trillion in infrastructure investments, the pledge may prove as hollow as his promised mastery of the health care muddle. Ten weeks after Trump’s Inauguration, key House and Senate leaders say they are not in talks with the White House on a plan. And the reason is that there is no blueprint to discuss one. Only in early March did White House economic adviser Gary

ELECTRICITY
CURRENT FUNDING PROJECTED NEED*

$757 $177
BILLION BILLION

Cohn convene a meeting to create a framework for drafting a proposal. According to a White House official, Cohn put them to work on a six-lane process for moving forward, with the expectation that infrastructure would be handled after health care and tax reform. Lanes one and two were devoted to finding new and existing projects worthy of a federal boost. But the rest of the lanes were devoted to issues of regulation and finance—on the theory that streamlining the approval of infrastructure projects will unleash a tornado of pent-up energy. “If we were to take our 10-year process and shrink it down to a two-year process, that in and of itself would create trillions of dollars of economic activity,” the official said. “Trillions.” Trump’s staff has identified a few priorities, like broadband and the electrical grid, that require significant federal investment. His $1 trillion plan will include, officials say, between $100 billion and $200 billion of actual taxpayer money for projects like these. But the bulk of Trump’s promise is contained in the theoretical tsunami of money in private hands supposedly waiting for regulatory reform. While nonpartisan experts agree that America’s permitting process is too cumbersome, Trump’s team is an outlier in thinking that faster approvals will have such a staggering effect. You might ask: How much of this plan has to do with infrastructure, and how much is part of the war—as White House strategist Steve Bannon calls it— on the “administrative state”? Which in turn undercuts Trump’s

1673
The route of the Post Road or King’s Highway is first traveled to deliver mail from NYC to Boston. Eventually stretching from Boston to Charleston, S.C., it was used by George Washington and General Cornwallis in the Revolutionary War.

1788
The U.S. Constitution is ratified, giving Congress the power to establish post offices and post roads, along with the authority to regulate interstate commerce and provide for common defense and welfare.

1806
Congress authorizes the first federally funded roadway: National Road. By 1818, mail coaches travel it between Maryland and Wheeling, W.Va., which is on the Ohio River, and by the 1830s it reaches Illinois.

1817
Work begins on the Erie Canal. Completed two years ahead of schedule, in 1825, its 363 miles link western waterways to the Hudson River and Atlantic Ocean, allowing the movement of heavy loads at a tenth of the cost of going by road.

*S O U R C E : A M E R I C A N S O C I E T Y O F C I V I L E N G I N E E R S . N O T E : F U N D I N G S H O R T F A L L S E S T I M AT E T H E I N V E S T M E N T N E E D E D T O M A I N TA I N A G O O D S TAT E O F R E PA I R T H R O U G H 2 0 2 5 . C U R R E N T F U N D I N G R E F L E C T S F U N D S T H AT A R E A L L O C AT E D A N D

invocation of bipartisan cooperation. It comes as he is gutting the Democrats’ climate-change policies, charging ahead with his controversial border wall and Twitter-bashing Hillary Clinton. It’s hard to take seriously a hand extended across the aisle when the middle finger is so prominent. The renegade Republicans who scotched the health care bill want to cut spending, not increase it. And the tax reforms that might free up some money for infrastructure are locked inside a fortress guarded by fire-breathing special interests. Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel is one of the local officials who has discussed projects with the Trump White House, including plans to alleviate rail congestion through one of the world’s busiest transit hubs. A Democrat, he has been known to strike bipartisan deals, but he doesn’t see much hope for this one. “I don’t think the federal government is going to step up, to be honest,” Emanuel says. “I’ve been honest with his Administration. You can’t get from here to there—there’s no fairy dust that’s going to figure this out. You’re going to have to invest in it.” But with his approval rating in the Gallup poll sinking to an abysmal 35%, Trump may soon find he needs something broadly popular to anchor his policy pivot. Infrastructure is his best and most worthy prospect. His name on the side of skyscrapers around the world gives him credibility as a builder. And his past history as a New York Democrat could give him space to tone down his antigovernment gospel. He knows what

WATER AND WASTEWATER
CURRENT FUNDING PROJECTED NEED

$45 $105
BILLION BILLION
the problems are. Younger economies around the world have leapfrogged us in building state-of-the-art works, while our infrastructure is showing its age. Trump frames the issue with his characteristic colorful hyperbole. “You come in from Dubai and Qatar and you see these incredible—you come in from China, you see these incredible airports,” he says, “we’ve become a third-world country.” As a younger nation, we built on a heroic scale, creating instantly recognizable monuments to dynamism and energy. Grand Central Terminal. The Chicago “L.” The TWA terminal at Kennedy International Airport. The endless ribbon of interstate highway. The Golden Gate Bridge. Sadly, we’ve discovered that building such projects is more glorious than maintaining them, even as we’ve made new projects too difficult to build. Admirable goals, like environmental protection and worker safety, are mummied in red tape. All the while, more and more of our national income has been diverted into other priorities: the safety net, the Social Security system, our health care, infrastructure and the costs of the world’s most dominant military.

WHILE AMERICA WAITS for the White House proposal, and the battles that will erupt when it lands in Congress, we should think harder about how much to spend and how to spend it. The best infrastructure investments begin in the imagination. They are bold bets on tomorrow. Their essence isn’t found in an engineering textbook. It’s found in W.P. Kinsella’s novel Shoeless Joe, in which a ghostly voice promises an Iowa farmer: “If you build it, he will come.” Like the farmer’s baseball diamond in a cornfield, a visionary project changes a culture and creates its own demand. Two hundred years ago, the governor of New York convinced the state legislature to dig a canal from the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. A boondoggle, people scoffed. But DeWitt Clinton could imagine the impact of such a direct waterway linking the unsettled heartland to the port of New York City. The Erie Canal ignited settlement of the frontier and soon carried a brisk trade in crops and goods that ensured New York’s place as America’s leading city. A vision leads to a project, which leads to the future. Another example: among the settlers in the booming Midwest was a young man whose ambition was to be “the DeWitt Clinton of Illinois.” Instead, Abraham Lincoln wound up in the White House, where his vision of a stronger Union found expression in infrastructure. Amid the chaos of the Civil War, Lincoln carved out time to push for approval of the Transcontinental Railroad. Today’s transformative infrastructure projects might not look like the broad-

1827
New York City’s horsedrawn omnibuses begin service, one of the first mass-transit routes. In 1832 a different NYC omnibus route uses rails in the street, making it an early kind of streetcar.

1856
Chicago’s municipal sewer system was one of the first, along with those in Brooklyn and Jersey City, N.J., built in the same decade. But the major surge in sewer construction came 40 years later.

1869
The transcontinental railroad is completed in Promontory, Utah, made possible by congressional grants of land right-of-ways. Cross-country travel time is greatly reduced—for those who can afford it.

1876
Alexander Graham Bell’s first telephone transmission heralds the arrival of a technology that would be ubiquitous a century later, when 90% of U.S. households had a landline.

1882
Lower Manhattan gets the nation’s first electricity system, from Thomas Edison’s company. The six jumbo dynamos served about 1 sq. mile. By 1896 alternating current expanded the range of service.

T H O S E T H AT W I L L L I K E LY C O N T I N U E T O B E A L L O C AT E D I N T H E N E X T 1 0 Y E A R S .

25

INFRASTRUCTURE ? SPECIAL REPORT

shouldered undertakings of the past. The best ones must harness efficiency and brainpower, not just concrete and steel. Tomorrow’s version of the Tennessee Valley Authority, which brought light to darkness in the mid–20th century, could be powered by sunlight and batteries in the 21st. A storm of lucrative contracts for new infrastructure projects could demand a productivity renaissance in the construction industry. Perhaps the monuments of a new age of infrastructure will be the invisible ones that shape a nation able to do more while consuming less. Which is every bit as mind-boggling. AFTER THE IRON RAILS of the Transcontinental Railroad were laid across trackless prairies and over the daunting Sierra Nevada, it seemed that nothing could stop the rise of California—except water. Then as now, the state was parched in some years and flooded in others. California needed water that it could depend on. A man from Lincoln’s Illinois, Arthur Powell Davis, made the case for a towering wall of concrete in a narrow canyon near what is now Las Vegas. His vision became the Hoover Dam, which tamed the capricious Colorado River and created a reliable reservoir. Recently, I asked an executive at one of America’s leading engineering firms why we don’t build Hoover Dams anymore. Where’s our ambition? Where’s the moxie that conjured a city from nothing in a remote desert, in the depths of the Depression, and put nearly the whole population to work on a structure able to hold back Lake Mead?

I thought he might point to such large undertakings as the high-speed rail project in California, the mass-transit system that is transforming Denver or the tunneling of a major downtown highway in Seattle. Instead, he directed my attention to an unimpressive cluster of buildings in the suburbs of southern Los Angeles— and, much more important, to what goes on inside. One group of structures, nothing to look at, houses an Orange County Sanitation District water-treatment facility. Each day some 185 million gallons of raw sewage flows in, and eventually the treated water flows out—not toxic, but not potable either. This wastewater used to be pumped through long pipes to disperse in the Pacific Ocean. But now more than half of the treated product goes next door, to nondescript facilities operated by the Orange County Water District. The OCWD strains the water through microscopic filters, then forces it by reverse osmosis through superfine membranes, and finally bombards it with high-intensity ultraviolet light. What flows out of the facility, in volumes sufficient to meet the daily de-

mands of roughly 850,000 people, is as pure as a sparkling glass of premium ice water. Pumping stations return it to the Orange County aquifer to percolate into wells for future drinking. The process costs less, and consumes less energy, than importing water from the Colorado River. So the next Hoover Dam is no dam at all. It’s technology, invention, efficiency. Take a look at Singapore—one of the world’s infrastructure leaders, according to Germany’s respected Kiel Institute for the World Economy. Using the technology pioneered in Orange County, the island nation has replaced 40% of its freshwater consumption with recycled NEWater, as they call it. Infrastructure is shrinking even as it grows more powerful. Like DeWitt Clinton and Arthur Powell Davis, the leaders of Orange County had to let go of the past to reach for the future. In the mid-1990s, the sanitation district was faced with a need to upgrade existing infrastructure. But instead of doubling down on what they already had, they built something completely different. CAN TRUMP HARNESS that spirit? Groundbreakings and ribbon cuttings have been staples of his existence for four decades. Can a man whose name is synonymous with gold and glitz become a champion of small and smart? America may not need many more interstate flyovers or massive dams. It does need a huge investment in embedded, but invisible, technology to prepare our highways and streets for driverless cars and trucks. Such innovations will allow more vehicles to run on existing roads, reducing the

R O AD S A ND BR IDGE S
CURRENT FUNDING PROJECTED NEED

$941 $1.1
BILLION TRILLION

1890s
Chicago’s “L” train is the first electric elevated rail line and becomes one of the first rapid-transit systems in the U.S. In 1897 Boston’s underground rail tunnel was the nation’s first subway.

1900
The Sanitary District of Chicago reverses the flow of the Chicago River to carry wastewater away from Lake Michigan, a source of the city’s drinking water.

1908
Jersey City, N.J., is the first city to routinely disinfect its drinking water. In the decade that followed, other cities also implemented chlorination, filtration and purification systems.

1909
College Park Airport in Maryland is one of the first airports. Created to train Army pilots, it remains in service.

1932
The first federal gas tax is levied, of 1? per gallon, among a range of new taxes amid the Great Depression.

need for new pavement. A modernized air-traffic control system would permit existing airports to handle more traffic without the need for more runways. One test will come when the President weighs his priorities for energy infrastructure. Trump’s campaign promises to revitalize coal mining may have won votes, but they lacked vision. While politicians have been arguing about the relative merits of coal, gas and nuclear, in the real world, the energy story is suddenly about efficiency. U.S. demand for electricity has gone flat. Few saw it coming. But Energy Department statistics show that total sales of electricity from all sources, measured in gigawatt hours, have been unchanged for nearly a decade. Between 2007—the last year before the economic crash—and 2015, demand actually fell very slightly. In the same period, the U.S. economy grew by an inflation-adjusted 10%. In other words, without much fanfare, the U.S. is figuring out how to produce economic growth without consuming more energy. That might be a first in human history. Smart infrastructure investments would seize on this breakthrough and pull it forward. We would build smaller, scattered power plants to reduce wastage of electricity by shortening the distance between generator and customer. We would invest in rapidly improving batteries to make solar energy more practical for running individual homes and small businesses. We would continue to push high-efficiency appliances and lighting to drive down demand for electricity. According to Energy

P O R T S A ND S HIP P ING
CURRENT FUNDING PROJECTED NEED

$22
BILLION

$15
BILLION

Department estimates, if the conversion to LED lightbulbs continues at its current pace, demand for electricity will be cut by an amount equal to 44 large power plants 10 years from now. Maybe you don’t think of lightbulbs as infrastructure, but they are. DUCTS AND CONCRETE and asphalt and wire may look mundane, but they have revolutionized the where and the how of human life. The world of freeways and jets has a radically different geography from the world of small towns and rural homesteads that it replaced. Electrified life has a culture different from the culture of lives lit by oil lamps. Investment in infrastructure is investment in change. It represents a people’s belief in something better yet to come, and the willingness to help it along. Across the U.S., local and state governments are reflecting this optimism. Los Angeles voters in November approved a ballot initiative that will raise an estimated $120 billion for transportation infrastructure over the next four decades. Seattle’s voters said yes to a $54 billion mass-transit investment. Denver-area

voters have chosen to shoulder the cost of their light-rail network, which could reach $8 billion. Atlanta residents have kicked in for a $2.5 billion transit expansion. In Rhode Island, voters have approved $70 million in bonds to improve the ports of Providence and Davisville. In light of all this, some experts question whether the Trump plan will rely too much on private investors. Private money is attracted to projects that have a dependable return of revenue. Private money can learn to love toll roads and even airports, but not every bridge or storm sewer is likely to generate a profit for investors. Ultimately, if the President wants to stake his revival on infrastructure, he will need to bring more than deregulation to the table. He must bring daring. As grand as his $1 trillion promise may appear, he has a chance at something real that is even bigger. He can use his experience as a salesman to bring budget hawks around to the idea of investing in America’s tomorrow. He can turn his knowledge of construction to streamlining the building industry and bringing it into the new century. He can turn his gift for promotion to renewing America’s confidence in the strides we are already making. This is a harder, more substantive, mission than the one that took Trump to the White House. But the wreckage of his health care failure is proof that leadership is not always easy. And doing the hard thing has always been what makes America great. —With reporting by BEN GOLDBERGER and JOSH SANBURN/NEW YORK; and PHILIP ELLIOTT, SAM FRIZELL AND ZEKE J. MILLER/WASHINGTON □

1933
FDR’s New Deal provides $3.3 billion for the Public Works Administration. Other projects include the Rural Electrification Administration, wiring 288,000 homes by 1939 and the Tennessee Valley Authority.

1935
The Hoover Dam—built by 21,000 people working for four years, at a total cost of $49 million—creates the largest man-made lake in the U.S. and provides power for Southern California, Nevada and Arizona— as well as a tourist lure.

1956
The Interstate Highway System is established by Congress, which allocated $25 billion to build a 41,000-mile system over the next decade. Freeways were seen as a nationalsecurity issue, so U.S. forces could move swiftly cross-country.

1980s
The word infrastructure begins to be used to describe large-scale public projects. They were previously termed public works, but advocates worried the phrase had acquired a negative connotation of pork-barrel politics and corruption.

2017
First segment of NYC’s Second Avenue subway opens to the public, almost a century after the project was proposed and decades after excavation began in the 1970s. The final cost was roughly $4.5 billion—far more than the projected budget.

27

I NFR AS T R UCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

BLUEPRIN
HIGH UP IN AIRPORT CONTROL towers and in darkened tracking facilities, a technological revolution is set to take your next flight into the 21st century. Known as NextGen, the joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and aviation-community program to modernize the skies is sidelining radio technology, which has been largely unchanged since the 1940s, and replacing it with GPS. The $30 billion–plus, multidecade program marks a hightech leap for the National Airspace System, the network of people, procedures and equipment that takes your plane from gate to gate. The fixes aren’t sexy. They are measured in seconds and gallons of jet fuel saved and CO2 emissions prevented. But they add up to the most comprehensive investment in the backbone of the nation’s skies in history. For decades air-traffic controllers have had to leave miles-long spacing between airliners, trading a level of efficiency for safety and technical reasons. The old radar system works only within line of sight, updates only every 5 to 12 sec. (a lifetime for planes flying at over 500 m.p.h.) and suffers from increasing ambiguity the farther a plane gets from the ground-based antennas. Aviation-grade GPS, augmented by the FAA’s groundbased sensors, provides planes with positional certainty within a 5-m box, and the new system gives controllers updates every second. This means flights can be safely spaced more closely together. Another component will begin in 2020: planes flying in highly congested airspace around major airports will be required to use Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast, which supplements traditional radar with a far-moreaccurate satellite-based position. The shift to GPS also allows the use of more direct flight paths, in many cases replacing complex or circuitous routings. Approach and landing procedures, which help guide planes to runways, have been updated to use GPS waypoints that shave minutes off flights. It’s also the technology that will clear the way for autonomous flights, keeping the latest drones out of the way of passenger aircraft and one another. In 2015 the FAA reached full

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MODERNIZE THE SKIES
Replacing technology dating from the 1940s saves fuel, money—and your time
BY ZEKE J. MILLER

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WHAT I WOULD BUILD
TIME asked leading experts to share their big infrastructure ideas

AMERICA
deployment of en route automation modernization (ERAM)—the foundation of all NextGen programs— which enables controllers to precisely guide planes on descent using minimal fuel and eliminating many of the frustrating “racetrack” holds loathed by travelers. ERAM also allows controllers to more accurately predict future traffic and the effect of inclement weather, which is why planes are now more likely to hold on the ground—where they burn less fuel and pollute less—than in the air. The FAA estimates that NextGen programs saved 170,000 tons of CO2 emissions in 2014 alone. From the start, the FAA knew it couldn’t singlehandedly fund the cost of the program, which it estimates to be $35.8 billion through 2030 (of which about $20 billion will come from the government). Planes need to be updated, airports modernized, and controllers, dispatchers and pilots trained. Still, there is a reason it’s hard to find critics of the program. (The most serious are those who live under the new, shorter flight paths.) One FAA study puts the estimated benefits of NextGen at $160.6 billion through 2030, including a reduction of 2.8 billion gal. of fuel. “For our operations, NextGen means less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air,” FedEx CEO Fred Smith testified before Congress on Feb. 1. “NextGen procedures can shave minutes off flight time, which translate into money saved.” And it works for passengers too. □

MAYA LIN
My dream project is to rethink what a landfill could be. If you recycled all that you could––and made sure nothing toxic was allowed in––you could recoup billions in resources and make the most beautiful landscaped earthworks. Lin is a designer, an architect and an environmentalist

Better batteries
A SIMPLE SOLUTION THAT COULD TRANSFORM CLEAN POWER
In an otherwise empty lot near San Diego, two dozen trailers jammed with 400,000 batteries are part of an experiment that could revolutionize clean energy. If it works, the batteries would solve a key problem with wind and solar power—namely, that one works only on blustery days and the other when the sun is out. Developers say the batteries will store excess energy for later use, allowing power providers to rely less on fossil fuels as a backup. Energy experts are optimistic, as are the many investors with a stake in the sector. “Networks care about reliability,” says Logan Goldie-Scot, an energy-storage analyst at Bloomberg New Energy Finance. “Energy storage is being viewed by network operators as a potential tool in their toolbox, and that hasn’t been the case up until now.” This kind of energy storage would be a game changer for the growing list of cities that have pledged to source all their electricity from wind and solar in the coming decades. Until now, that goal was considered not only lofty but also practically unattainable. Now all eyes are on San Diego’s pilot program, the most expansive one to date. It’s operated by San Diego Gas & Electric, which already gets more than one-third of the electricity it provides from renewable sources like wind and solar. The batteries store enough electricity to power 20,000 homes for four hours. If all goes according to plan, the program will show utilities that going 100% renewable can be more than a pipe dream. —Justin Worland

STEVE CASE
Building high-speed fiber networks nationwide will not only democratize Internet access, bringing affordable connections to rural and underserved areas, but also foster the economic development of cities and unleash enormous innovation. Faster Internet speeds and capacity will give engineers and entrepreneurs in cities across the country— not just in Silicon Valley and New York City—the edge they need to solve real-world problems and compete in the global economy. Case, a co-founder of AOL, is the CEO of Revolution

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INFRASTRUCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

A safer, smarter grid
THE THREAT OF CYBERATTACK CALLS FOR A MANUAL BACKUP
BY BRYAN WALSH

UNLESS YOU THINK TREES ARE secretly waging war on humans, the great Northeastern blackout of Aug. 14, 2003, wasn’t caused by an attack. When a transmission line in northern Ohio began to sag because of the intense summer heat, it tangled with the branches of a nearby tree, causing the wire to trip offline. One thing led to another in a perfect storm of equipment and human failure, and in barely four hours, more than 50 million people in the northeastern U.S. and Canada had lost power, including New York City. Power wasn’t fully restored for days, and the blackout, the biggest in North American history, would cost some $10 billion. That accident showed the U.S. grid for what it was: an antiquated piece of 20th century technology struggling to power the 21st century. Most utilities didn’t know their customers had lost power until they picked up the phone and heard from irate customers. Regulations on utility reliability amounted to little more than industry peer pressure. The grid, in a word, was dumb. That’s changed in the nearly 14 years since the big blackout as the smart technology we were already using in computers and phones has migrated to the machines that power the grid. Thanks in part to billions of dollars in federal funding from the 2009 stimulus package, utilities have significantly upgraded the intelligence of the grid, making it smarter, more efficient and more responsive to threats and disruptions. About
A power station in Moapa, Nev. Cyberattacks on the U.S. grid have become more frequent 30 TIME April 10, 2017

PHOTOGR APH BY JAMEY STILLINGS FOR TIME

INFRASTRUCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

one-third of American consumers are now connected to power with smart meters that can send data back to control systems, enabling utilities to do things remotely—including connecting and disconnecting power—that used to require sending a worker out in a truck. Deepening these investments is important. Smart infrastructure has already made a difference in the face of the weather-related disruptions that are still the biggest threat to grid reliability. During Superstorm Sandy in 2012, for example, smart meters let the Pennsylvania utility PECO reduce its restoration time by two to three days. And as more energy comes from cleaner but intermittent

ponents, said at a 2016 utility conference. “But reliance on software and the Internet of things means it gives more points of entry for people who want to harm us.” Just how harmful became clear on Dec. 23, 2015, when cyberattackers struck power centers in Ukraine and, with a few clicks, shut down dozens of substations, eventually cutting off electricity to some 230,000 residents in the dead of an East European winter. Power was restored after a few hours, but 2016 saw another hack, this one caused by malware sent to utility workers via email. Both attacks were blamed on Russia, which has been in

A snapshot of the nearly 4,000 blackouts recorded in the U.S. last year

POWER, INTERRUPTED

17.9M 1 in 3 $150B
Number of Americans affected Outages caused by weather or trees Damage to the economy
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renewable sources, like solar, a smarter grid will be needed to handle a more unpredictable power supply. THE SMART GRID’S very intelligence makes it vulnerable to a new kind of attack, one that has the potential to be far more destructive than even the worst hurricane—and that’s the challenge to address in the next round of investment. Cyberattacks on the power grid have become increasingly common—one estimate found that the grid comes under physical or cyberattack once every four days on average—and utility officials fear that a more connected grid is one that can be more easily hacked. “A smarter grid will help prevent blackouts,” Eric Spiegel, CEO of Siemens USA, a major developer of grid com-

conflict with Ukraine since 2014. Analysts warn that a Ukraine-style cyberattack would have been even worse in the U.S., because American utilities often lack the kind of manual backups that Ukrainian operators relied on after they were locked out of their computer systems. In the second installment of its Quadrennial Energy Review, released in January, the U.S. Energy Department warned that the electricity system “faces imminent danger” from cyberattacks. How devastating could an effective, coordinated cyberattack against the U.S. grid be? Very. Outages from extreme weather can usually be resolved in hours or days. A report by the National Academy of Sciences considered

an intelligent, multisite hack by experienced attackers that targeted key components like power transformers. The conclusion: expect widespread, long-term power outages that could take several weeks to recover from, causing enormous economic damage. In their own report, the University of Cambridge Centre for Risk Studies and the insurer Lloyd’s of London concluded that an attack from an organized group of hackers to knock off power across major cities like New York and Washington could cost from $243 billion to $1 trillion. There’s no going back to a dumb grid, not when the U.S. needs to improve energy efficiency and smooth the adoption of renewable power. But utilities must consider how the complexity they’re introducing into the grid can be used against them. The smart grid “works well for reliability but will not stop skilled, adaptive adversaries,” write energy experts Michael Assante, Tim Roxey and Andy Bochman in a paper titled “The Case for Simplicity in Energy Infrastructure.” It turns out that the best way for utilities to protect against the threats of the future is by looking to the past. That means contingency plans for the manual operation of grid equipment, like the 1960s-era gear that saved the Ukrainians. “You want to have smart infrastructure, but you want to have backup planning for a day when you need manual operating capacity,” says Scott Aaronson, executive director of security and business continuity at the Edison Electric Institute, a utility trade group. That would give utilities what Aaronson calls an “all-hazards approach” to grid security, providing a reliable backup plan whatever the cause of a blackout. Recognizing the grid as a vital part of national security may require amending the Federal Power Act to give the Energy Department greater authority to prepare utilities for an attack—and respond to one after it happens. But cyberwarfare almost always favors offense over defense— and the grid is no different than other battlefields. Rogue hackers, however, make for a much more challenging adversary than a rogue tree. □

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TIME April 10, 2017

WHAT I WOULD BUILD

Pick a lock
FIXING OUTMODED LOCKS AND DAMS TO UNCLOG THE WATER HIGHWAY
The worst bottleneck along America’s 25,000 miles of inland waterways is in a stretch of southern Illinois where the Ohio River meets the Mississippi and the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers splinter off. There, boats carrying thousands of tons of grain, coal and steel can sit idle for days, a floating traffic jam that stretches for miles. The culprit: Lock and Dam 52, one of the 239 critical—and in many cases crumbling—structures that move vessels along the rivers mythologized by Mark Twain. These inland waterways are one of the most overlooked and vital parts of the nation’s infrastructure, a water highway that accounts for 14% of all domestic freight per year, according to the American Society of Civil Engineers. But the system is aging. Most of the locks and dams—which raise and lower boats to help them travel along rivers of different elevation—have far exceeded their 50-year life span. As a result, the average delay across the system has doubled, to 121 minutes, over the past 15 years. Nowhere is the problem starker than Lock 52, through which 90 million tons of cargo worth some $10 billion passes annually. Crumbling concrete, rusted metal and outmoded design mean that 52, which was finished in 1928, and nearby Lock and Dam 53, opened a year later, now have average delays of 15 to 20 hours. “They’re basically falling apart,” says Carol Labashosky, a spokeswoman for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Louisville District. The dam at 52 is so old, she says, that it’s hard to find parts for the frequent repairs. “We don’t get any attention until they break down,” Labashosky says. “There’s just not enough visibility for this type of infrastructure.” Longer transport times increase costs for everything from bread to gas. If the problem gets worse, suppliers may turn to rail or trucking, more expensive modes that could further raise prices for consumers and increase traffic on already congested roads and rail lines. There is some hope on the Ohio. The $3 billion Olmsted Locks and Dam, an ambitious project to replace 52 and 53 that has been in the works since the 1980s and promises to get tows through in less than an hour, is finally slated to open in 2018. Its completion is critical to keeping America’s water highway moving. —Josh Sanburn

MICHAEL BLOOMBERG
The boldest idea in infrastructure is also the oldest: bipartisanship. For generations, Democrats and Republicans supported transformative projects, from great canals and dams to the transcontinental railroad and the interstate highway system. But for over a decade, bipartisanship has been missing from Washington—and our economy is paying the price. Bloomberg, CEO of Bloomberg LP, is the former mayor of New York City

B L O O M B E R G A N D H E AT H E R W I C K I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y A L E X F I N E F O R T I M E ; I N L A N D I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y P E T E R G R E E N W O O D F O R T I M E

THOMAS HEATHERWICK
At my studio we try to design at whatever scale is necessary to solve a problem. The question is how you can radically improve something for which society has unbelievably low expectations. So, dream project? Giving some unexpected love to America’s next public school, hospital, nursing home, subway or even prison. Heatherwick is a British designer

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INFRASTRUCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

Internet for all
ONE-QUARTER OF THE NATION DOES NOT HAVE BROADBAND. IT’S TIME TO FINALLY CLOSE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
BY KARL VICK

APPALACHIA IS NOT WHAT IT USED TO be. Hunger no longer stalks the hollows and ridges of a region once emblematic of American poverty, and no one lacks electricity. “Except for that one guy who comes in for car batteries,” says Tim Groves, from behind the counter at Advance Auto Parts in Woodsfield, Ohio. “That’s because he doesn’t want electricity,” explains Jason Covert, the store manager. “He wants to be off the grid.” So, progress. Yet when it comes to the Internet, the region remains as backward and stunted as its stereotype. Decades into the information age, folks in these parts continue to make do with dial-up. Across much of America, a generation has come of age without even once hearing the stutter, squeal and shhhhhh of a home computer’s modem shaking hands with an Internet server. In Woodsfield—and hundreds of thousands of other overlooked pockets of the nation—there are people who have never heard anything else. “Hell, it’s barely fast enough to check your email,” says Covert. “You hit the button and you wait five minutes. Then you hit it again and get a snack ...” America’s digital divide is not only a matter of geography. Among the quarter of Americans without broadband— basically, a connection fast enough to stream video—are many who simply cannot afford the monthly bill for service. Less than half of households living on under $20,000 are connected. The collective deficit in opportunity, education and prospects—everything implied in “being connected”—further separates us into haves and have-nots. On that much, both parties agree. The chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) under President Obama called a 25-megabits-persecond download speed—the minimum technical parameter of broadband— the “table stakes” for participation in
34 TIME April 10, 2017

21st century life. And on his very first day in office, Ajit Pai, the FCC chairman appointed by President Trump, vowed to close the divide “between those who can use cutting-edge communications services and those who do not.” Trump’s Commerce Secretary agrees, and 48 Senators have signed a letter urging a broadband expansion that, if it were up to Democrats, would account for $20 billion of their proposed $1 trillion infrastructure bill. Yet no master plan exists to bring broadband to every home, at least not the way the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1940s brought electrical power to Appalachia. In fact, many believe that the public-utility model does not quite work for high-tech. “Universal telephone service has been around for a hundred years, maybe more. It’s a well-established social principle that everybody ought to have the ability to communicate,” says Mark Cooper, research director for the Consumer Federation of America, a pro-consumer advocacy group. “But electricity or water, those are services that are static, they’re not dynamic. You buy electricity, it’s the same kilowatt everywhere. Not so with Internet access. “The communications system, however, has proven to be extremely dynamic,” says Cooper. “You want to make sure everyone gets it, but you also don’t want to strangle innovation.” What if, for example, Washington had mandated that every home get DSL—the level of service that came after dial-up but was soon overtaken by broadband? Companies will not constantly rebuild networks. So instead of mandating Internet for all, the FCC has fallen back on the slack offered by its founding legislation, which calls for communications to all people “so far as possible.” The result is a patchwork of programs that has left vast portions of the country unserved.

One is the Lifeline program, which subsidizes service to low-income households but is viewed skeptically by Pai. It is funded by the “universal service” fee that shows up on the monthly bill for telephone landlines, a pool evaporating fast. The same fee funds the E-Rate program, which provides broadband to libraries and schools, like Conotton Valley High School, over 60 miles south of Youngstown, Ohio. There, every student gets a Chromebook laptop, low-cost computers having essentially replaced textbooks in many schools. But learning stops at the classroom door for students who can’t get online at home. “And the kids who live in a rural area are often ones who are socioeconomically challenged,” says school counselor Kelli Edwards. For many, phones become a substitute. Pew surveys from 2016 found more people have smartphones (77%) than have broadband (73%). But depending on a phone has drawbacks. Policymakers trade stories of kids’ completing assignments by cadging wi-fi outside closed libraries or camping out in McDonald’s. “A lot of kids will try to

JOEL MICAH MILLER FOTOGR AF IE

Calaveras Telephone Company received federal funds to expand broadband in the Sierra Nevada foothills in 2011

do things on the phone, but they run out of data,” says Edwards. IN CONOTTON VALLEY—pronounced like Forgotten Valley, as it gets called— some households access the Internet by satellite dish, which is slower and more expensive than terrestrial service. “And by the middle of the month, it goes to nothing” as data limits are reached, says resident Jean Siedel. Social-studies teacher Danielle Caldwell exults after trading up for DSL. Satellite “was truly horrifying,” she says. “One person can use it fully at a time. If a kid is looking at a video, I can’t even see a photo on Facebook.” Rob Blick, who teaches math at Conotton Valley, is the most tech-savvy teacher in the building but had no idea that the cartoon frog a student has posted on his classroom bulletin board was Pepe, an Internet meme appropriated by white nationalists. “Good to know,” Blick says with a nod. “I better take that down.” The trouble is he has a master’s in computer programing but no Internet at home. His mother’s house has DSL, and people arrive an hour

early for Sunday dinner so they can get their online banking done before the meal. The local provider said it isn’t worth it to wire his neck of the woods. “I can understand why cable companies don’t want to do it,” says Blick. “But then I also know power companies don’t want to do it. But they do. It just seems to me it’s the modern-day equivalent of the interstate highway system.” Politically, the persistence of the digital gap defies logic. Rural areas, after all, punch way above their weight in Washington. But government responds to more than constituents. The consolidation of communications giants has decreased competition and grown the industry’s clout in Washington. Consumer advocates note that FCC

‘Seems to me it’s the modern-day equivalent of the interstate highway?system.’

chairman Pai, formerly a lawyer for Verizon, has voted against expansions of E-Rate and Lifeline and places his faith in a marketplace that has not provided anywhere near universal access to what is now an essential service. “I respectfully disagree. The public is our client,” Pai told TIME in an interview conducted by phone as he was being driven across Ohio. After he had delivered a speech in Youngstown celebrating small-market entrepreneurship, his next stop was Cleveland, where the poky speeds of inner-city servers had produced headlines about “digital redlining.” Pai’s proposed fix for neglected urban areas is “Gigabit Opportunity Zones” meant to coax service providers into low-income areas. Critics say access is less an issue there than affordability. “From my perspective, I don’t really care what technology or business model or sector of the community is trying to deliver full-spectrum communications services to consumers,” Pai insists. He notes that the FCC’s first action under him was a $170 million outlay to encourage broadband in upstate New York. And he calls Trump’s promised $1 trillion infrastructure program an opportunity to rescue the Universal Service Fund from the sinking landline. Other small-bore remedies are common sense, like requiring companies to share poles—which would solve Blick’s problem—or a “dig once” policy of laying cable during road building. Competition would also help— yet exists in only a quarter of areas wired for broadband. Some frustrated municipalities have responded by building their own servers, or “selfprovisioning.” But in some 20 states, cable companies have persuaded legislatures to outlaw the practice. What’s the fix? “We’re kind of for all of the above,” says Phillip Berenbroick of the consumer advocacy group Public Knowledge. But all of the above requires a unity of purpose not yet seen from a President who ran as a populist and arrived in Washington surrounded by captains of industry. □
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The waterworks
FLINT SHOWED THE DANGER OF TAKING AN ESSENTIAL FOR GRANTED
Clean water is as vital to the nation as roads and bridges, but it’s a piece of infrastructure Americans tend to take for granted—until something goes wrong. The latest reminder came in the form of the water crisis in Flint, Mich., in 2015, during which thousands of residents were exposed to lead and other dangerous toxins. Plenty of cities rely on an aging network of lead pipes, however. The disaster in Flint emerged only after officials failed to properly treat the water supply itself. While Flint may be a tragic outlier, water- and wastewatertreatment systems across the nation are far beyond their expiration dates and failing. East Coast cities like Philadelphia and Newark, N.J., routinely struggle with watermain breaks that disrupt the local economy, snarl traffic and leave residents without potable water. Regions in farm-heavy states like Iowa are grappling with how to prevent fertilizer runoff from leaching into municipal water supplies. And on the West Coast, states are staring down a future that could include both droughts and floods. The Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies estimates that it would take more than $600 billion to properly fund dozens of water and wastewater projects across the U.S., including rehabbing existing systems and building new ones. The most urgent project may be in Miami-Dade County, Florida, where rising sea levels threaten to flood the 50-yearold wastewater systems that are already prone to large-scale breaks. Fixing the facilities, including replacing a treatment plant that dates from 1924, could cost as much as $13.5 billion. Miami’s troubled system has plenty of company. Baltimore is still using a water-treatment plant that is more than 100 years old. In the Rust Belt, a region that tipped the Electoral College to Donald Trump, cities like Harrisburg, Pa., and Detroit need upgrades to sewer collection systems and treatment plants in order to stop sewage from overflowing during heavy rainstorms. Others are dealing with an unpredictable climate. In Northern California, officials are trying to build a $3.5 billion reservoir project to provide water stability during both wet and dry years. Nationwide, more than 100 cities are under federal or state environmental mandates to upgrade their water systems, but many lack both the funding and the political will for projects that are never glamorous and sometimes not even visible. “It’s very hard to have a ribbon-cutting ceremony for a sewer,” says Adam Krantz of the National Association of Clean Water Agencies. Fixing the nation’s water systems demands finding a way. —Josh Sanburn

WHAT I WOULD BUILD

T. BOONE PICKENS
We have to fundamentally rethink how we look at transportation in this country. And a key governmental objective should be the implementation of programs and policies that advance the use of domestic natural gas in place of foreign oil in our heavy-duty truck arena. Natural gas is cleaner. It’s cheaper. And it’s ours. Pickens is founder and chairman of BP Capital
P I C K E N S A N D D O C T O R O F F I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y A L E X F I N E F O R T I M E ; T U N N E L I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y P E T E R G R E E N W O O D F O R T I M E ; P H O T O : S T E P H A N Z I R W E S

DAN DOCTOROFF
Advances in autonomous vehicles, ubiquitous connectivity, construction and clean energy have the potential to make cities more affordable and sustainable. To accelerate these innovations, we should create an urban district as a living laboratory to improve quality of life. The district would offer a vision for other cities to follow, and a foundation for people to build on.

An estimated $600 billion is needed to upgrade aging waterand wastewater-treatment plants across the nation 36 TIME April 10, 2017

Doctoroff is the CEO of Sidewalk Labs

TUNNEL OUT OF DANGER
A critical train artery depends on century-old tubes
BY SEAN GREGORY

NEW YORK CITY IS CONnected to New Jersey by two decrepit single-track train tunnels running beneath the Hudson River, each 106 years old and in desperate need of an overhaul. Their concrete is cracking. Both tunnels flooded during Superstorm Sandy, and chlorides from the seawater further damaged walls, tracks and electric cables, resulting in frequent delays. If either of the tubes were to be shut down for an extended period—a distinct possibility, given their age and compromised condition—some 75% fewer Amtrak and New Jersey Transit trains would run between New York and New Jersey. The increased gridlock in Manhattan alone, according to one transportation economist,

would result in $300 million in lost productivity per year. But the harm would ripple far beyond the Big Apple. The tunnels are a critical artery for the most used stretch of passenger rail in the nation, key to shuttling people from Boston to Washington, D.C. “A tunnel shutdown is an existential threat to the economy of New York, the Northeast and by extension the whole country,” says Tom Wright, president of the Regional Plan Association. Luckily, a solution is in the works. The Gateway Program calls for a series of

improvements to the rail infrastructure between Newark, N.J., and Manhattan’s Penn Station, costing about $24 billion. Federal and local entities would split the cost 50-50. The most crucial component: a plan to build two new tunnels under the Hudson. Once they’re in service, the old tunnels can finally be shut down for renovation. When all construction is completed, the four tunnels under the river—plus new tracks at Penn Station—will double train capacity, easing congestion on the tracks and in waiting areas, where com-

‘A tunnel shutdown is an existential threat to the economy of New York ... and the whole country.’

muters chafe at frequent delays, routine bottlenecks and an air of uncertainty that carries costs both economic and emotional. According to an analysis prepared for Amtrak, for every dollar invested in the Gateway project, the New York metro area will see $2.20 to $3.90 in economic benefit. Excuse some New Yorkers for scoffing while they wait. After all, the first phase of the infamous Second Avenue subway line just opened— a cool 97 years after it was first proposed. But Gateway, a truly arterial project, has some momentum. The new tunnels are already under environmental review. Governors and Senators from New York and New Jersey want it. And the project’s board includes federal and local stakeholders. Barring hiccups, tunnel construction could begin in 2019 and be completed by 2025. “We have been living off the infrastructure investments of our parents and grandparents, and in this case, our greatgrandparents,” says John Porcari, executive director of the Gateway Program Development Corporation. “The challenge for Gateway is to make sure we are paying it forward to the next generations.” No one’s rooting harder for the project than those harried commuters in claustrophobic Penn Station, where passengers funnel into thin stairwells like an ocean squeezing into a straw. One recent day, a train was so crowded that the conductor encouraged passengers to email railroad officials to complain. That drew a laugh. “Oh, it has its days,” Terri Jackson, a hospital administrator from East Orange, N.J., said of her commute. Better days may be ahead. □
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Making trains run on time
DETANGLING CHICAGO’S RAIL MESS WOULD BE A WIN FOR BOTH C O M M U T E R S A N D C O M PA N I E S
BY JOSH SANBURN

THE MOST CONGESTED CHOKE POINT for train traffic in North America is here in Chicago. It’s where trains carrying Iowa corn meet black tankers full of North Dakota oil, where railcars with Wyoming coal rattle past others with Michigan SUVs. One-quarter of all rail traffic in the U.S.—1,300 trains a day—transit this city, including six of the seven biggest railroads in the country. Almost anything traveling from coast to coast comes through here, where train traffic has become so tangled that old railroad hands like to joke it takes trains three days to get from Los Angeles to Chicago—and three more to get through Chicago. The massive traffic jam is made worse by the fact that the region’s busy commuter rail systems must compete for limited track space with the nation’s largest freight lines. Chicago operates 750 Metra trains a day that shuttle hundreds of thousands of passengers to and from the city alongside dozens of Amtrak trains carrying thousands more. An agreement hashed out between the city and the railroads gives commuter trains the right-of-way at morning and evening rush hour. Those commuter trains, says Don Orseno, Metra’s CEO, all but shut down freight movement around the city during rush hour. “Things come to a standstill,” he says. Problems here have far-reaching effects elsewhere, adding costly delays.

More than 8,400 rail cars a day run through lines operated by the Belt Railway Company of Chicago 38 TIME April 10, 2017

PHOTOGR APH BY JAMEY STILLINGS FOR TIME

INFRASTRUCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

“If we were able to separate commercial and commuter rail traffic, everything across the country would run more smoothly,” says Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel. The mayor says he’s met with the Trump Administration and discussed addressing Chicago’s railroad issues in any potential infrastructure package but is skeptical a comprehensive bill will pass. The city’s train traffic is also an annoyance for residents. Russell Bartmes, 66, who lives on the north side of Chicago, says one of the worst congestion points he sees is in nearby Schaumburg, where cars can sit for 10 minutes to let trains pass. “That

freight trains to travel through the city’s rail network in the next few decades while saving thousands of hours in motorist and commuter delays each year. And because of Chicago’s vital role in sending goods around the country, a more efficient rail system could have salutary effects around the U.S. “The public’s probably not going to see 95% of what we do,” says Bill Thompson, the CREATE program manager for the Association of American Railroads. FIXING INFRASTRUCTURE IS often less about flashy projects and more about ensuring that the nation’s internal

The U.S. has 140,000 miles of freight railways. Annually, they carry 40 tons of goods per person. Goods travel more miles on trains than on any other mode: Rail Truck Pipeline Water Air

MAKING TRACKS

40% 29% 20% 12% <1%
S O U R C E : D O T; N O T E : F I G U R E S D O N O T A D D U P T O 10 0 % B E C A U S E O F R O U N D I N G

shouldn’t happen,” Bartmes says. “It’s really a situation that cries out for some dollars.” A major fix is already under way. An ongoing project—Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE), a $4.4 billion public-private partnership—is designed to untie the train lines and allow the rail network to operate more efficiently. So far, 28 completed projects have increased capacity by adding rail lines, removing tracks from street level by creating overpasses and underpasses, and separating freight and commuter trains. Officials say the project—an alliance of federal, state and local governments along with the railroads—could generate $31.5 billion in economic benefits and allow 50,000 additional
40 TIME April 10, 2017

mechanics are functioning. That’s clear at the 75th Street Corridor, a section on Chicago’s southwest side through which 90 freight trains and 32 commuter trains pass along a stretch of rail that crosses, splinters and converges. It’s the city’s most congested area of track and the top priority for CREATE officials. There, the Belt Railway of Chicago (BRC)—a switching-terminal railroad co-owned by several larger rail companies—is responsible for making sure the trains don’t tie themselves in knots. Inside the railroad’s dispatch center, a small, two-story brick building that sits among the high-pitched squeal of train cars entering the company rail yard, dispatchers monitor dozens of screens. One displays a digital version

of BRC’s 28-mile rail line, showing white track lines superimposed with stopped trains in red and moving trains in green. On a recent day, a 100-car train of black tankers almost 6,700 ft. long and weighing 5,000 tons sat waiting for the BRC go-ahead, which came only after dispatchers picked up the phone and called CSX, a railroad that crosses BRC’s lines. “There has to be that handshake and agreement on the phone,” says Frank Izzo, BRC’s superintendent of transportation. On average, up to 30 CSX trains cross the BRC daily, and BRC’s dispatchers are routinely forced to hold their trains back from an area called Belt Junction—a particularly sticky stretch of track where five lines become two. If BRC trains can’t successfully get past CSX’s line, those trains could then block Metra, the Chicago commuter service, which sends dozens of trains through Belt Junction every day. To alleviate the congestion, transportation officials have proposed creating a “flyover” for the CSX line that would elevate freight above street level, allowing it to pass over the BRC. They also want to create dedicated rail lines for the commuter trains through Belt Junction, freeing up the BRC lines for freight only. But improving the 75th Street Corridor, along with dozens of other CREATE projects, is currently stalled, largely because officials don’t have the money. 75th Street alone will take about $1 billion to complete. The Chicago program can point to some visible successes, including the Englewood flyover, a $142 million project completed in 2014. Before the fix, the Metra commuter rail crossed the Norfolk Southern train line, causing delays for both commuters and goods trying to get across the country, making it one of the worst chokepoints in the U.S. at the time. Instead, Thompson showed me a Metra train at Englewood barreling 70 m.p.h. above a passing freight train that would’ve previously sat idle for hours until rush hour ended. “This is exactly what we want to do,” Thompson said as the commuter train passed overhead at full speed. □

WHAT I WOULD BUILD

Beat back the sea
CLIMATE-CHANGE DEFENSES WILL HELP KEEP COASTAL CITIES AFLOAT
The names—Andrew, Katrina, Sandy—are reminders of the devastating storms that hit U.S. shores every few years, claiming lives and causing billions in damage. But in many coastal cities, they can also serve as lessons in the crucial effort to guard against the increasing threat of climate change. New Orleans finally made a long overdue investment in its flooding defenses after Katrina hit in 2005. The result is a new $15 billion, 130-mile levee system that allows the city to close 220-ton gates along waterways and pump water from the sewage system. In New York City, after Sandy paralyzed the nation’s economic capital, officials approved a project known as the Big U to protect the southern half of Manhattan. The barrier serves as a sea wall, keeping water out of the city during storms, but its integrated, parklike design will also enhance the urban environment. The critical defense system has secured more than $500 million to begin construction in 2018—but much more will be needed to finish. Up the coast in Boston, officials are considering a more straightforward barrier that could close off the city from dangerous swells in the wide Massachusetts Bay. A wall would be futile in Miami, which rests on porous limestone and is filled with high-rise towers built at water’s edge. In any given year, there’s an approximately 1-in-125 chance that Miami will face a storm that causes at least $15 billion in damage. By 2100, the chances will grow to 1 in 30. The solution in South Florida may require a wholesale rethinking of the region’s urban planning. Buildings need to be built on higher ground, systems relocated and some places abandoned entirely. It’s a strategic approach that requires reconciling current needs with future risks— and could serve as a longterm planning template for the rest of the nation. —Justin Worland

JOHN ZIMMER
Let’s end traffic in America. Doing this would drive economic growth and enhance quality of life. Every year congestion leads to $160 billion in lost productivity and added fuel costs. This can be fixed by implementing smart lanes with a universal free carpool and dynamic pricing, freeing money for parks, road repair and making our streets more bike- and pedestrian-friendly. Zimmer is the co-founder and president of Lyft

Z I M M E R A N D R O S S I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y A L E X F I N E F O R T I M E ; C L I M AT E I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y P E T E R G R E E N W O O D F O R T I M E

STEPHEN ROSS
Too many regions have increasingly antiquated—even nonexistent—transit. America needs highspeed rail connecting regional centers, as well as reliable metro systems that reduce traffic on clogged roadways and improve urban living. And by reducing barriers to employment, efficient and convenient regional transit can stimulate economic opportunity. Ross is chairman and founder of Related Companies

41

INFRASTRUCTURE ? WHAT TO BUILD

Bridge to the future
BRIDGES ARE SHOWING THEIR AGE—AND THEIR HAZARDS
BY EMILY BARONE

COMMUTERS WHO CROSS THE OHIO River between Cincinnati and Covington, Ky., know to expect traffic jams on the Brent Spence Bridge. Constructed in 1963, the span was built to accommodate 80,000 vehicles a day. As a critical link in the trade corridor running from Michigan to Florida, it now carries twice as many. In its age and overuse, the Brent Spence aptly reflects the overall state of bridges throughout the U.S. There are 614,000 of them, and about 40% are more than 50 years old. About 9% need significant maintenance or replacement, a figure that has steadily decreased over the past quarter-century, as governments put limited resources into bridges most at risk of collapse. The thing is, falling down isn’t the only way a bridge can fail. Older spans like the Brent Spence are structurally sound but often fall short of modern safety standards, taking lives one and two at a time. To ease crowding on the Brent Spence, shoulders became driving lanes in 1986, leaving stopped motorists exposed to traffic. The span has averaged two collisions per week since 2011, up from 1.3 before, a Cincinnati Enquirer analysis found. One proposed solution, estimated to cost $2.6 billion, is to add a second span next to the existing bridge. Local planners and politicians are at odds over how to pay for such a fix. But congestion is costly as well. The bottleneck at the Brent Spence ranks as the fifth worst in the U.S., says the American Transportation Research Institute. Other studies calculate the cost of delays to commuters ($9 a day in time and gas) and to the $1 billion in goods that cross it daily. Harder to quantify is the feeling that we are not moving as fast as we’d like. □
42 TIME April 10, 2017

Most bridges built midcentury have a 50-year design life; the Brent Spence Bridge over the Ohio River will turn 54 this year

PHOTOGR APH BY JAMEY STILLINGS FOR TIME

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INFRASTRUCTURE ? VIEWPOINT

How to get it right
BY MICHAEL DELLA ROCCA, TYLER DUVALL AND ROBERT PALTER

3. EMPOWER STATE AND LOCAL EXPERIMENTS

WHAT I WOULD BUILD

AMERICA IS RIPE FOR MAJOR INVESTMENT IN infrastructure. But making it pay off will require not just addressing the funding gaps but also fundamentally redesigning the country’s approach. McKinsey’s research suggests that every well-spent dollar of infrastructure investment would raise GDP by 20? in the long run—if deployed correctly. These four steps could help:
1. FOCUS ON THE OUTCOMES

U.S. infrastructure strategy almost exclusively emphasizes inputs, such as planning, procurement and construction requirements, rather than the desired outcomes. It should focus on impacts: Will a road project reduce travel times or make it safer? Will a project promote economic development, create jobs and support interstate commerce? Large-scale, multistate projects often bring the biggest payoff. But these can also be the most difficult to deliver. Take, for example, the Gateway Program in New York and New Jersey. By replacing century-old rail assets critical to the Northeast, it has the potential to improve citizens’ mobility and foster enormous economic benefits for the region. Metropolitan congestion is a national imperative. Oil- and gas-pipeline capacity, particularly at the regional level, shapes manufacturing location decisions, national competitiveness and job creation.
2. ESTABLISH A CLEAR POINT OF ACCOUNTABILITY WITHIN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

In our experience, many of the most successful and innovative recent projects were delivered by mayors or governors. While these projects are city- or state-owned and -operated, the federal government typically funds, finances and regulates the vast majority of water, wastewater and transportation projects. Washington can learn from cities and states, collecting and sharing innovations from across the country. For existing infrastructure, the federal government could provide incentives for cities and states to more rapidly deploy smart solutions like demand-based pricing and Internet of Things technology to evaluate problems and manage performance in real time.
4. ATTRACT MORE PRIVATESECTOR FUNDING

KATE ASCHER
Instead of a quasiprivatized, superefficient national rail network, we have an unreliable patchwork system that defeats the federal government’s anemic attempts to revive it and forces Americans onto congested, heavily subsidized highways. If we can send humans to the moon, how come we can’t make trains run as fast or as punctually as Japan? Ascher is the author of The Works: Anatomy of a City

When it comes to approving and managing projects, federal agencies often have conflicting mandates and priorities. No one agency or entity is truly empowered to break ties. Protecting the environment is rightly a cornerstone of the U.S. evaluation process. But other democracies suggest it is possible to properly review projects and mitigate risks while also moving them forward in as little as half the time. Australia created an accountable body specifically to improve the permitting process and eliminate decision paralysis. In Canada, the Infrastructure Ontario program built more than 30 hospitals on time and on budget. The federal government could also help catalyze better performance from the construction industry. U.S. construction-labor productivity is lower today than it was in 1968, while all other major industrial sectors have experienced impressive gains. We need a national effort to systematically unlock productivity-enhancing innovations.

I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y A L E X F I N E F O R T I M E

Private investors have some $120 trillion in assets under management, and they are looking for solid long-term investments. As the head of one U.S. pension fund told us, “In theory, the U.S. would be the greatest infrastructure investment market in the world. In reality, it isn’t worth the headache, and the pipeline of projects is pitiful.” Multibillion-dollar federal credit programs such as TIFIA, WIFIA and RRIF can be powerful tools to attract capital and increase the project pipeline. Lastly, the federal government could consider providing incentives to the states to monetize existing assets and redeploy the income into new projects. Australia has spurred significant increases in infrastructure investment since its federal government implemented a program that offers a 15% premium to any state that monetizes an asset, as long as the proceeds go to new infrastructure. The writers are partners at McKinsey & Company, specializing in infrastructure

DAVID ROCKWELL OC
Many cities and towns have abandoned factories, railways and even malls that can be brought back to life with visionary ideas that create new, mixed uses for offices, schools, business incubators, theaters and even housing. This could transform sites that were meant for only one use into places that blend commerce and culture in exciting new ways. Rockwell is an architect and a designer

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‘IT’S A LESSON APT FOR A BOOK ABOUT FAITH: THINGS HAPPEN FOR A REASON.’ —PAGE 53

A painting by Henry Taylor depicts Philando Castile the moment he was killed by a Minnesota police officer

ART

Art in the age of Trump: the Whitney Biennial takes a first crack
By Eliza Berman

THERE ARE A LOT OF FIRSTS AT THIS year’s Whitney Biennial, the Whitney Museum of American Art’s survey of contemporary art in the U.S. every two years. It’s the first Biennial at the museum’s new downtown New York City location, the capacious Renzo Piano–designed quarters it moved into in 2015. It’s the first time both curators are people of color—Mia Locks and Christopher Y. Lew are Asian American—and, at 34 and 36, they’re possibly the youngest pair to hold the job. It’s also the first Biennial under Donald Trump’s presidency. It’s this last first that has most clearly shaped the response to the work of the show’s 63 artists and collectives, on display until June 11. Though the pieces were conceived and selected before the election, they are

being shown together at a moment of intense yearning for art that can help us process current events. Not since 1993—when depictions of racial tension and the AIDS epidemic earned that divisive show the nickname “the political one”—has a Biennial seemed to so thoroughly take up ideas beyond the tapered edges of the art world. Politics at the Whitney hasn’t always gone over well. (This magazine called the ’93 show “a fiesta of whining.”) But this year is different. The critical response has been overwhelmingly favorable. The New York Times’ Roberta Smith wrote that, in the face of the Trump Administration’s proposed elimination of the National Endowment for the Arts, “this exhibition makes an exciting, powerful case for art.” Another critic declared making
47

PAINTING BY HENRY TAYLOR

Time?Off Art

fun of the Biennial “obsolete.” Why? For one, the show makes clever use of the museum’s highceilinged, industrial spaces. Raúl de Nieves’ faux stainedglass installation takes up a wall of windows, morphing as the sun crawls across the sky. In Ajay Kurian’s Childermass, mythical creatures appear to ascend an open stairwell. Several pieces are interactive: one recent afternoon, a woman with blond curls spilling out from either side of a VR headset playing Jordan Wolfson’s Real Violence abruptly stopped chewing her gum—presumably at the moment one simulated man took a bat to another’s head. And then there’s the work, in which Trump is directly named only a few times. Celeste Dupuy-Spencer’s Trump Rally (And some of them I assume are good people) features MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN hats, for example. Other pieces echo last year’s divisive campaign, like Postcommodity’s dizzying video installation of fences on the U.S.-Mexico border. Two paintings have attracted particular attention: one of Henry Taylor’s canvases shows Philando Castile being fatally shot by a Minnesota police officer last year. And Dana Schutz’s portrait of Emmett Till’s mutilated face has been criticized as a case of a white artist profiting from a black child’s murder. This show may not be a chronicle of the art world’s response to the Age of Trump exactly. But since viewers need only a working knowledge of recent headlines rather than a graduate degree to access the exhibit, this Biennial is less alienating than in years past. And the issues here— immigration, civil rights, climate change—are not going away anytime soon. So if this work seems political, just wait another two years. □
48 TIME April 10, 2017

ABOVE: Open Casket, Dana

Schutz. Schutz’s painting is based on David Jackson’s photograph from the 1955 funeral of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old black boy brutally murdered by white men in Mississippi. Some protesters have called for its removal— and even destruction. Schutz has said that she does not plan to sell the painting.
RIGHT: Trump Rally

(And some of them I assume are good people), Celeste Dupuy-Spencer. This drawing offers a tilted view of the then candidate’s supporters.

? For a video interview of the curators, visit time.com/whitney2017

LEFT: MOIA’s NYC Women’s Cabinet, Aliza Nisenbaum. This brightly colored canvas depicts a cohort of immigrant women recognized by New York City’s Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs as emerging leaders in their communities. BELOW: beginning & the end neither & the otherwise betwixt & between the end is the beginning & the end, Raúl de Nieves. A cathedral-worthy wall-size installation looks like stained glass but is actually constructed from simple materials like paper and glue.

ABOVE: Censorship Now!!, Frances Stark. Annotated spreads based on Ian F. Svenonius’ 2015 book consider the effects of censorship on artistic expression. LEFT: The Silent General, An-My Lê. Including photos from the Louisiana set of a Civil War movie, this work explores the state’s history and war documentation.

C E L E S T E D U P U Y- S P E N C E R : M I E R G A L L E R Y; D A N A S C H U T Z , A L I Z A N I S E N B A U M , R A ? L D E ? N I E V E S , F R A N C E S S TA R K , A N - M Y L ? : W H I T N E Y M U S E U M

49

Time?Off Reviews

Before he made It’s a Wonderful Life, Capra bore witness to war

Zookeeper’s Wife: bravery in a whisper
THE ZOOKEEPER’S WIFE MAY be based on a true story—as recounted in Diane Ackerman’s 2007 book of the same name—but at heart, it’s all movie. That’s both good and bad. Jessica Chastain plays Antonina Zabinski, who, with her husband Jan (Johan Heldenbergh), saved more than 300 Jewish residents of the Warsaw ghetto during the German invasion of Poland. In better times, the couple had run the Warsaw Zoo, a vibrant place filled with healthy, well-loved animals. When the Nazis moved in, the Zabinskis fought back. Director Niki Caro (Whale Rider; McFarland, USA) depicts their bravery as simple human decency, a series of small gestures that never aspire to greatness. But deeply earnest pictures aren’t always great ones, and this movie’s plot mechanics sometimes grind it down. The actors, at least, keep it breathing. Heldenbergh’s face has the gravity of a solid, steady heartbeat. And Chastain is so radiant, it’s as if her character has somehow captured and retained light to be dispersed gradually in darker times. That’s a kind of bravery too. —S.Z. S.Z.

MOVIES

DOCUMENTARY

When the film greats went to war
WHEN THE GREAT CLASSIC HOLLYCoppola among others, Five Came Back wood filmmaker George Stevens put brings the wartime work of these filmhis career on hold to enter the service makers into sharp focus. For example, in 1943, he left behind a treasure box clips from William Wyler’s extraordiof entertainments like the luminous nary 1944 documentary The Memphis Astaire-Rogers musical Swing Time and Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress, which Woman of the Year, the gingery comrecorded the 25th and final bombing edy that united Katharine Hepburn and mission of a group of young B-17 pilots, Spencer Tracy. Upon his return, Stevens drives home just how entwined these made some of the findirectors became with est films of his career, their real-life subjects. A Place in the Sun and As for Stevens, he Giant among them. headed a U.S. Army But for very specific Signal Corps film reasons, he no lonunit that recorded the ger had the heart to Normandy invasion. make the light comHe was also among edies he’d become the first on the scene known for. at Dachau, and the Ford’s wartime filmmaking Five Came Back, devastating footage he unit at work Laurent Bouzereau’s shot there was screened superb documentary, adapted by Mark at the Nuremburg trials as evidence. Harris from his 2014 book, streaming After that, Stevens locked it away in a now on Netflix, shows us why. The picwarehouse and didn’t retrieve it until ture focuses on five directors—Frank 1959, as he prepared to adapt The Diary Capra, William Wyler, John Ford, John of Anne Frank. Five Came Back tells us Huston and Stevens—who left thrivthat he went alone to a screening room ing careers to join the war effort, using to watch the footage, but could get their skills to make propaganda films through little more than a minute of for the U.S. government. Narrated by it: “He drove it back to the warehouse, Meryl Streep and featuring commentary locked it up and never looked at it from Steven Spielberg and Francis Ford again.” —STEPHANIE ZACHAREK
50 TIME April 10, 2017

1 3 R E A S O N S W H Y, B O R D E R T O W N , F I V E C A M E B A C K (2) : N E T F L I X ; T H E Z O O K E E P E R ’S W I F E : F O C U S F E AT U R E S

TELEVISION

TIME PICKS

Darkness visible in 13 Reasons Why
THE HUNGER GAMES AND Divergent film series have ended, and yet 13 Reasons Why, a new show on Netflix adapted from Jay Asher’s hit young-adult novel, proves that dystopia remains as compelling as ever. Its characters may not be fighting a repressive regime or discovering new powers within, but they are struggling to find their place on a scorched earth of sorts. The 13-episode series has a familiar conceit: its narrator is dead, having committed suicide. The late Hannah (Katherine Langford) left behind a set of cassette tapes discovered by a sympathetic classmate, Clay (Dylan Minnette). Hannah is at once a born storyteller, conveying her grudges with a raconteur’s flair and endless self-aggrandizement. These tapes are full of narrative hairpin turns. As a result, there’s a toxic thrill to 13 Reasons Why. The show depicts Hannah as taunted and isolated, only finally saying in death what she’d been too constrained to say in life. One sees easily how her shift in voice— troubled introvert giving way to avenging angel—worked for so many readers and appealed to show creator Brian Yorkey, a Pulitzer-winning playwright (for the mentalhealth-themed musical Next to Normal). 13 Reasons also gets brutally right the empty sympathy, tinged with driveby curiosity, that bystanders to tragedy often demonstrate. Hannah’s classmates loudly mourn her once she’s gone, but their kindness

MOVIES Lee Morgan was one of the most important hard-bop jazzmen of the ’60s—until his girlfriend fatally shot him when he was 33. In I?Called Him Morgan (out?now), his dramatic life finally gets the documentary it deserves.



Minnette and Langford play theater co-workers whose time runs short

MUSIC Following several warmly received EPs, Argentine-born singer Tei Shi releases her debut album Crawl Space (March?31). The title and her songs refer to the safe place she retreated to in her youth to overcome anxiety.

might have saved her. This may leave parents a bit queasy, though. Hannah’s death is portrayed as the ultimate revenge, a message that seems ill-advised. Her pain, with its themes of slutshaming, feels contemporary. But the cruelty of her world, populated by clueless adults and nasty kids, can be gratuitous. If this was really Hannah’s life, she may be well rid of it—a chilling thought.
BEHIND THE CAMERA The series’ first two episodes are directed by Spotlight’s Tom McCarthy; the show is also executiveproduced by actor-singer Selena Gomez.

Amid all the rancor, 13 Reasons’ performances stand out. Minnette manages to beautifully portray a young man’s growing awareness of other people’s humanity. And Kate Walsh and Brian d’Arcy James are heartbreaking as Hannah’s parents coming to terms with how little they knew about their daughter’s inner life. This story is sure to be devoured by teens who respond to its dark themes. But it could use a bit more leavening, acknowledging the reasons why life can be something more than apocalyptic. —DANIEL D’ADDARIO
13 REASONS WHY streams on Netflix starting March 31



TELEVISION The latest must-see “Nordic noir” is Bordertown (March 31) on Netflix. The Scandinavian series, , a hybrid family drama and crime procedural, follows the grisly misdeeds of a serial killer. BOOKS Mary Gaitskill’s new collection of essays, Somebody With a Little Hammer (April 4), takes on topics from date rape to political adultery and writers such as John Updike and Gillian Flynn.

Time?Off Audio

The podcast finder

THE PODCAST RENAISSANCE SHOWS NO SIGN OF LETTING UP: the impulse to retreat into downloadable radio shows appears to be more appealing than ever. S-Town (March 28), a trueBy Eliana crime story from the producers of 2014’s blockbuster Serial, is Dockterman the next hotly anticipated series. But whatever your tastes— and wherever you like to listen—there’s no shortage of options.

You strongly agree with these statements MAKING A MURDERER WAS BINGETASTIC Serial The first (and best) season of the This American Life spin-off re-examined the case of a young man convicted of murdering his ex LONG TALKS WITH FRIENDS ARE THE BEST Still Processing Two New York Times writers “process” issues like Kanye West’s crises and artificial intelligence with help from brilliant guests DOCUMENTARY IS THE TRUE CINEMATIC FORM Hardcore History Host Dan Carlin poses questions like, “Was Alexander the Great as bad as Hitler?,” and uses history to try to find an answer NORMAL PEOPLE ARE INTERESTING I SELF-IDENTIFY AS A POPCULTURE NERD Pop Culture Happy Hour This roundtable breaks down what you should (or shouldn’t) be watching, reading and listening to MSNBC IS INFORMATIVE

Death, Sex & Money An investigation of taboo topics, from prostitution to poverty, through real people’s stories

Pod Save America Former Obama staffers invite D.C. insiders to talk about how they might fight the right

I PREFER MY MISSING PERSONS IN SHORT-SHORTS Missing Richard Simmons Why did the ebullient fitness mogul suddenly and inexplicably become a hermit in his mansion?

LONG-DISTANCE FRIENDS ARE THE BEST Call Your Girlfriend Long-distance besties chat about the world and interview the likes of Huma Abedin and Tavi Gevinson

I WAS A PSYCH MAJOR

I COULD SPEND HOURS READING REDDIT Reply All The creators dig deep into message boards and social media to find stories about how the Internet affects individuals

I READ THE DAILY MAIL EVERY DAY Who? Weekly E Everything to know about D-list celebs, like Rita Ora, whom you recognize but can’t recall why

I LOVE MICROSOFT EXCEL FiveThirtyEight Politics Stats guru Nate Silver and his coterie of data geeks analyze the latest political news by the numbers

Invisibilia A look at the invisible forces that guide us, like our impulses to join groups or change our personalities

ACTUALLY, I PREFER JOURNALISTIC RIGOR Criminal Each episode examines a true story about people who commit crimes ... or those who are unwitting victims

FRIENDS WHO MAKE YOU LAUGH ARE THE E BEST BES 2 Dope Queens Jessica s Williams nd (right) and e Phoebe on Robinso nds to invite friends share stories and do stand-up

BUT I ALWAYS WANTED TO BE AN ECON MAJOR F Freakonomics A Author Stephen J. Dubner explains everything from infidelity to the middle class using social science

EVERYONE BENEFITS FROM THERAPY Heavyweight Radio producer Jonathan Goldstein helps people confront the moment when their lives went wrong so they can move on

I JUST CANNOT RIGHT NOW

I CAN’T KEEP UP WITH TRUMP’S TWEETS Trumpcast Slate’s weekly digest of the President’s activity, featuring an ace Trump imitator reading real tweets

The Read A no-holds-barred dressing-down of celebrities and pop culture hosted by bloggers Kid Fury and Crissle

52

TIME April 10, 2017

? For the 50 best podcasts right now, visit time.com/podcasts2017

Key: This podcast is highly compatible with the following activity .. .

COMMUTING Shorter, snackable podcasts CHARLIE ROSE HAS STILL GOT IT

EXERCISING Energizing listening LIFE WAS BETTER BEFORE THE INTERNET Making Oprah A behind-thescenes look at Oprah’s iconic show, including, yes, the famous “You get a car!” moment

RELAXING Concentration required

SHOWERING Concentration not required

DOING CHORES Spice up the routine

ROAD TRIPPING Long or bingeable episodes

LISTENING WITH A LOVED ONE Inspirational

MY COPY OF PRIDE AND PREJUDICE IS WELL WORN Modern Love Actors like Colin Farrell read essays from the Times column, and listeners get updates on how the authors’ love lives have fared

ORSON WELLES WAS A GENIUS

I PREFER TO LAUGH THROUGH THE TEARS How Did This Get Made? Comedians C like Jason Mantzoukas skewer movies that are so bad, they’re good, like Grease 2

I READ ARTICLES BASED ON THE BYLINE The Bill Simmons Podcast The Sports Guy chats with NBA players, latenight hosts and his dad about sports, culture and . . . Boston

Fresh Air Since 1975, NPR’s Terry Gross has interviewed the world’s most interesting people, from all walks of life

Welcome to Night Vale This surreal, fictitious radio show chronicles the goings-on in the nightmarish town of Night Vale

EXTREME INSECURITY IS CHARMING WTF With Marc Maron The comedian has a knack for asking disarming questions of his frequently highprofile guests

LIFE WAS BETTER BEFORE SHORT-FORM Gilmore Guys A diehard fan and a neophyte dissect every episode of the series, starring Lauren Graham

SO IS MY COPY OF DR. SPOCK

AND SO IS GILLIAN FLYNN

DUNGEONS & DRAGONS, FOREVER Nerdist Podcast Comedian and famed nerd Chris Hardwick and his friends geek out with guests like Lena Dunham and Bryan Cranston

I LIKE TO LEARN WHEN I READ

The Longest Shortest Time Parents share how they handled family issues, including race, gender, sexuality and disability

Homecoming Actors Oscar Isaac (left) and Catherine Keener lend their voices to this scripted psychological thriller

Revisionist History As in his books, Malcolm Gladwell draws lessons from history, like when satire achieves its opposite intent

IN VINO VERITAS

LIFE WAS BETTER BEFORE COLOR TELEVISION You Must Remember This Long-lost stories from Hollywood that, for example, demystify Charles Manson and humanize Marilyn Monroe

I HIDE 50?SHADES ON MY KINDLE

AND SO WAS ALFRED HITCHCOCK Rabbits What’s real? What’s fiction? It’s hard to tell— but fascinating to listen to—as the host tries to find a friend who vanished

CLEARLY, I AM NOT EASILY EMBARRASSED My Dad Wrote a Porno Jamie Morton and his friends read (and mercilessly lampoon) his father’s erotic novel

OR NOT

G E T T Y I M A G E S (10)

Another Round Over drinks writers Tracy Clayton and Heben Nigatu chat culture, race and gender with guests like LinManuel Miranda

Savage Lovecast Author and columnist Dan Savage offers nonjudgmental, unorthodox advice to the lovesick and confused

Anna Faris Is Unqualified The actor invites celebrities on her podcast to offer not-so-great relationship advice to listeners

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Time?Off Books

Graham, here in 1957, brought together disparate groups of Protestants under his brand of evangelism

HISTORY

Take me to church
By Lily Rothman
IT’S A LESSON APT FOR A BOOK ABOUT FAITH: THINGS happen for a reason. The waves of conservative Protestant influence that have swept American life at various points in history have often seemed to come out of nowhere. The emergence of the Christian right’s political influence in the 1970s, for example, just as experts said religion was losing its place in U.S. culture, was shocking. But in her new major work on the subject, The Evangelicals: The Struggle to Shape America, historian Frances FitzGerald (who won a Pulitzer in 1973 for Fire in the Lake) shows how the origins of these booms are discernible from afar. Her book makes the case so well, it leaves readers with the feeling that we should all be paying closer attention. The Evangelicals, as zippy as a 752-page history can be, starts in the 18th century with a new style of worship spreading in a new nation. But it’s not until the turn of the 20th century, as evangelicals make a concerted effort to apply their specifically American faith to the reform of a secular country, that things heat up. If you remember the Scopes monkey trial from high school and are tempted to skim FitzGerald’s bit on that 1920s dispute, don’t. It was never as simple as how or whether to teach evolution in public schools, and FitzGerald’s examination of why is a highlight. Understanding the mechanisms that shift evangelical ideas into secular politics sheds insight beyond the church—from the post–World War II years when men like Billy Graham came
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THE EVANGELICALS FitzGerald goes deep, zeroing in on an idea’s American impact

PROTESTANTS Ryrie goes wide, surveying 500 years of Luther’s global reach

on the scene at just the right moment to spread the good word, and on to the post-’60s backlash that created the modern Christian right, with its nostalgia for a “quasi-mythological past” when “America was a (white) Christian nation.” Which brings us to today. Although FitzGerald’s coda on Donald Trump’s victory has a tacked-on feel in an otherwise masterful narrative, her explanation of evangelical support for his campaign—which puzzled many—reads as essential. FitzGerald illuminates how a decades-long relationship between the Christian right and the Republican Party (later joined by the Tea Party) coalesced into what looks like a mutually inextricable bloc. That intersection of divine belief and the earthly fact of politics is also at play in another new book, Alec Ryrie’s Protestants: The Faith That Made the Modern World. Five hundred years ago this October, Martin Luther posted his 95 theses in protest of the Catholic Church’s practices, so there is ample material for Ryrie’s broad-strokes look at the many ways the many versions of Protestantism have made a difference in the world—and how the world has made a difference to them, evangelicalism included. Luther was a special man, but his global context was the reason he was able to survive what could have been seen as execution-worthy heresy, and why Protestantism endured. Ryrie is a historian but also a preacher—his faith at times peeks out, and he has a homilistic knack for keeping all his threads woven together, even when individual elements threaten to get away. One moral of Protestants is that attachment to political issues has tended to leave Protestant movements “running out of steam” religiously. That may be true, but it’s more clear than ever that they leave their mark. □

GRAHAM: HARVE Y LIPPMAN — AP

Essay The Amateur

How I learned to stop worrying and love the?Roomba
By Kristin van Ogtrop
THERE IS A UNIQUE KIND OF MODERN-ERA RAGE THAT erupts when you call your credit-card company because you don’t recognize a charge on your bill. Maybe it’s true that your spouse made the charge, but the fact that your spouse wasn’t listening when you asked about it is not the reason for the rage. The rage—and it’s not anger or frustration; it’s rage—comes when you have to have a “conversation” with a machine, or press 585 buttons on your phone in order to reach a real human in Sioux Falls or Bangalore. There is something about talking to a machine that has replaced a person that is simply ... enraging. Unless that machine is my vacuum robot, a.k.a. Roomba. I can talk to my Roomba all day. Our conversations, while short, are always meaningful. For example, I might tell Roomba that it’s the best thing that has ever happened to me, and Roomba will reply, “Error 18, please open the iRobot app for help.” Spring cleaning season is upon us, which means this is the time of year when my love for Roomba reaches its peak. But this year, frankly, I’m struggling. I’m a patriotic human being who knows that the disappearance of American jobs has less to do with trade deals, as our new President claims, than automation—and so I am supposed to be angry and scared about robots that can do my job. I’m also a lazy human being, however, and am very, very grateful for the cute little round guy with the Gatsby-esque green light who knows not to vacuum over the towel I dropped on the floor the day before yesterday. OUR WORLD is going on autopilot, people, and the sooner you come to grips with that, the sooner you can get comfortable with the fact that Alexa—the personal assistant in Amazon’s Echo speaker that already can make your to-do list, order you a ride from Uber and tell you a joke—is one day going to be your boss. Two researchers at the University of Oxford analyzed 702 occupations in the U.S. and determined that half of them have a high risk of being automated in the next couple of decades. (Realtors, accountants, telemarketers: Don’t panic, but have you considered, say, education or dentistry?) Consulting firm McKinsey conducted research to show that certain professions are headed for a future of near 100% automation. I’m just waiting for “wife and mother” to appear on that McKinsey list, because I’ve got a bag packed and am ready to hop in my driverless car and hit the road. I’m not sure where I’ll eventually end up, just someplace where my family will never find me. In the meantime, I will continue to explore my

relationship with Roomba. What began as an experiment in domestic codependent coexistence between woman and robot has turned into something that resembles love. It’s not just me. I once worked with a woman who was having a secret affair with her Roomba. Every morning she would take Roomba out of the box while her husband took the kids to school, let Roomba clean her apartment floor and then put Roomba back in the box before her husband returned. I never got to the bottom of why she did this, and while I pretended to find her story vaguely disturbing, let’s just say there’s a reason I made her tell it to me so many times. APPARENTLY RESEARCHERS at institutions of higher learning are developing robots that can decipher human emotion. When I am replaced by a wife/ mother robot in my own household, I’m taking my suitcase straight up to Cambridge to ask the folks at MIT exactly why I fell in love with Roomba. There are other bigger, fancier domestic robots that would seem to deliver more. LG has a new smart refrigerator with a door that turns transparent when you touch it, not to mention the ability (thanks, Alexa!) to give a weather report and order products from Amazon Prime. But I don’t need a refrigerator to buy stuff for me. Call me when it can make veal Marsala. Until the researchers at MIT have it figured out, I will just have to guess at the logic behind my devotion to Roomba. Maybe I’ve done so much vacuuming in my life that I’m happy to be replaced. Maybe it was the video I saw online of the Roomba that whirred its way around Gauge the puppy lying on the kitchen floor, which I have now watched about 12 times. Or maybe it’s the way Roomba sometimes seems to go around and around in circles, with no clear purpose, looking directionless and confused but always getting the job done in the end. Which makes it seem almost human. Van Ogtrop is the author of Just Let Me Lie Down: Necessary Terms for the Half-Insane Working Mom
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I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y L U C I G U T I ? R R E Z F O R T I M E

10 Questions

John Lewis The Georgia Congressman and veteran of
the civil rights movement discusses the health care vote, a?Russia investigation and why he’s hopeful for the future
You called the GOP health?care overhaul bill “a shame” in a speech from the House floor shortly before that bill was withdrawn. What went through your mind the moment you heard there’d be no vote? I was very, very pleased that the core of what President Obama attempted to do was still very much alive. Together we can fix and strengthen the Affordable Care Act. We invested so much, and it’s been so good for so many people. President Trump’s time in office has inspired many protests even though it hasn’t been 100 days. As an expert protester, how does a resistance sustain long term? In a movement involving protest, you must be able to give people a victory. You accept that victory, and then you go on to something else. You’ve long been a champion of nonviolence, but some of TIME’s coverage of your work in the 1960s was about how “aggressive” you were. Why do you think we got it so wrong? What we did, and I’m not just saying this, it was new. I think [it was called aggressive] because we were persistent, we were insistent. You go to jail one day, they let you out the next day, you get arrested, and you go back to jail. What do you think is the next big civil?rights issue in the U.S.? Comprehensive immigration reform. It doesn’t make sense for us to have millions of people living in fear, especially children. You’ve described feeling the “spirit of history” tell you when you’re meant to be doing something. What does that actually feel like? It’s more than physical. It’s maybe psychological, but I think spiritual. It’s saying that the moment is right, that the time is right. What do you think history demands of Americans now? We used to sing an old labor song on the buses during the Freedom Rides. We would sing, “Which
56 TIME April 10, 2017

side are you on, boys? Which side are you on?” I think history is saying to us today, not just in America but around the world, Which side are we on? Are we going to be on the right side or the wrong side? Are you going to stand up for those who have been left out and left behind? Or are you going to give billions of dollars of tax breaks to the top and forget about the people at the bottom?
How do you feel about race relations in the U.S. today? In spite of all the problems that we still must confront, I am very hopeful. I tell young people, if you don’t believe there’ve been some great changes, come walk in my shoes. How has Trump compared with your expectations? I’m troubled by President Trump. As Dr. King and others would say, you have to be a headlight for what is right, for what is fair, for what is just. I’m troubled that he is not leading the way. Is there anything you would see yourself working on with the White House? I don’t know what is going to be his proposal on rebuilding infrastructure, but when I first came to Congress, I was on the Public Works and Transportation Committee. How do you feel about continuing to be seen as a face of the opposition? Well, I still believe there was a deliberate, systematic effort to subvert the political process, and I think it was a foreign power—the Russians— involved with the Trump campaign. I strongly feel that we need an independent commission to find out what happened and how it happened, so it will never happen again. I will not be satisfied until we get the truth.—LILY ROTHMAN

‘I think history is saying to us today, not just in America but around the world, Which side are we on? Are we going to be on the right side or the wrong side?’

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