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分词


分 词
一.概念: 分词分为现在分词和过去分 词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式

现在分词的形式
语态
时态

主动语态

被动语态

一般式
完成式

doing
having done

being done
having been done

其否定形式是在doing之前加上not。

二、分词的用法

1.现在分词的用法:
1) 做表语: 3) 作状语: 2) 作定语: 4) 作宾补:

1) 做表语
很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语: exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling. He was very amusing. That book was rather boring.

2) 作定语:
分词前置
We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日

分词后置

i分词词组; ii修饰不定代词 something等

There are a few boys swimming in the river. There is nothing interesting.

完成体的分词一般不作定语,若要表达完成意义 最好用定语从句。
我们不说:The girl having won the race is my deskmate.
而说:The girl who has won the race is my deskmate.

但在非限制性定语从句中,则没有这个限制。如:
Anyone, having passed the test ,has got a prize. 任何通过考试的人都能得到一份奖品。

3) 作状语:动作和主语之间是主动关系
A、表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句

Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. =As soon as they heard the news, they all jumped with joy. Having finished her work, she went home.

having done 表示动作发生在谓语动词之前, 强调有先后顺序。

B、表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句
Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. =As we didn’t know her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.

C、表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句
Being more careful, you can make fewer mistakes. =If you are more careful, you can make fewer mistakes.

D、 表示伴随状况或方式
He sat at the table, reading a newspaper. The fire lasted nearly a month, leaving nothing valuable.

E、表示结果

4、作补语
现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语: 例如, see, hear, catch, find, keep , have 等. I see him passing my house every day. I caught him stealing things in that shop.

2、过去分词的用法: 1) 做表语: 3) 作状语: 2) 作定语: 4) 作宾补:

1) 做表语:
She felt confused, and even frightened. They were very pleased with the girl.

2) 作定语:
前置定语 She has a pleased look on her face.

cooked food a written report fried eggs boiled water frozen food armed forces required courses fallen leaves finished products a forced smile the risen sun new arrived visitors

后置定语 I 分词词组; ii 个别分词如given, left; iii 修饰不定代词

This is the question given. What’s the language spoken in that country? They’re problems left over by history.

过去分词作定语在意义上有两种可能:1、表示被动和 完成; 2、只表完成。如: the question discussed yesterday 昨天讨论的问题 (既表示被动也表示完成) the fallen leaves 落下的树叶 (只表示完成不表示被动) 在英语中只表完成不表被动的往往是一些不及物 动词的过去分词,常见的有: the changed situation, a newly returned student a retired worker, an escaped prisoner 等。

3)作状语:动作和主语是被动关系。
Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. Tired out, they stopped to have a rest. He came into the room, supported by them.

Being ill, he is absent today.
注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的 主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用 现在分词,反之就用过去分词。
.

Used for a long time, the book looks old. Using the book, I find it useful.

连词+分词(短语)
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连 词。 连词有: when,while,if ,though,after, before, as. unless 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为 同一个,如: While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. waiting 和saw 的主语相同。

I will go to his birthday party if I am invited. Some famous proverbs will never be forgotten once they are learned by heart. He can speak Chinese fluently though he was born in America. I have to get some information about the subject before writing the article. He came to help us as he was expected. He will not come unless he is invited.

4)作宾补:
过去分词也同样可以作宾语的补语, 接在某些 动词后面 I will have the clothes washed tomorrow. When they got back home, they found the room broken into.

在分词作状语时,其逻辑主语一般 应与句子的主语一致。如果不一致 的话,分词前面可以带有自己的逻 辑主语(名词或代词),构成分词的独 立结构(或称为带逻辑主语的分词结 构)。分词独立结构可表示伴随情况、 陪衬动作、附加说明以及表示时间、 原因、条件等。

The moon has no light of its own, only sunlight shining on it. (附加说明)
She rushed out the room, the little baby carried in her arms. (伴随动作) Maggie ran back to the kitchen, eggs held carefully in her hand. (伴随动作) They being blind men, how could they see the elephants? ( =As they were blind men... ) (表示原因)

there be句型和it也能引出分词独立结构,作状语修饰主 句,there和it相当于分词的逻辑主语。
There being nothing else to do, we went home.

It being impossible for most students to turn in their papers as scheduled, the teacher decided to give them another two days.

表示独立主格结构中的being常省略。如:

The football match (being) over, crowds of people poured out into the street.

Nobody (being) in, I didn’t enter the hall.

表示伴随方式的独立主格结构,有时可用“with +宾语+宾语补足语”的结构来替换。 He lay there thinking, his hands behind his head (with his hands behind his head). The river looks more beautiful, flowers and grass growing on both sides(=with flowers and grass growing on both sides).

with+宾语+宾语补足语的结构是英语中常见常用的 结构,其宾语补足语可以是现在分词、过去分词、不 定式、形容词、副词、介词短语等,在句中可作定语, 也可作状语,表示原因、方式等。如:

The children looked at us, with their eyes opening wide. I would miss the train, with no one to wake me up.

有些惯用的分词短语在句里可以没有逻辑上的主语而 独立存在,它们往往作为句子的独立成分来修饰全句。 如: generally/strictly/roughly/broadly/narrowly speaking, judging from/by, considering, supposing, providing, provided等。 Talking of the computer, I like it very much. Considering the time, we have decided to start early tomorrow morning.

分词作插入语 其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration

全面看来

Judging from his face, he must be ill. Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.

Considering his old age, he is still active.

Conclusion:

现在分词通常表示主动、进行,而过 去分词往往表示被动、完成。

巩固练习:
1.

_____ with the best students, I still have a long way to go. C A. Having compared B. To compare C. Compared D. Compare

2. The music of the film ____ by him sounds so _____ . D A. playing, exciting B. played, excited C. playing, excited D. played, exciting A 3. ____ against the coming hurricane, they dared not leave home. A. Warned B. Having warned C. To warn D. Warn

4. In C countries, you can’t always make yourself __ __ by speaking English. A. English-speaking, understand B. English-spoken, understand C. English-spoken, understood D. English-speaking, understood C 5.After __ the old man, the doctor suggested that he ___ a bad cold A. examining, should catch B. examined, had caugh C. examining, had caught D. examined, catch

B 6. __ , Tom jumped into the river and had a good time in it. A. Be a good swimmer B. Being a good swimmer C. Having been good swimmer D. To be a good swimmer
D 7. ____ how to read the new words, I often look them up in the dictionary A. Having not known B. Not to know C. Don’t know D. Not knowing C 8. As his parent, you shouldn’t have your child ____ such a book. A. read B. to read C. reading D. be reading


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