当前位置:首页 >> 信息与通信 >>

8-D Problem Solving Process


8-D Problem Solving Process

8-D Problem Solving Process
Objectives
1. Provides participants with hand-on experience using a systematic process for resolving complex cause unknown situations

2. The problem solving process is composed of 8 systematic
steps with decision analysis and problem definition techniques are featured. It emphasizes on utilization of cross function teams and provides appropriate composition of those teams

3. The business impact the achievement of six sigma quality
and ultimately total customer satisfaction by utilizing a problem solving process to find root causes and achieve permanent solutions

8-D Problem Solving Process
Course Outline
1. Apply 8 step systematic process in identifying, correction and resolving complex problem 2. Choose the appropriate analytical and systematic team through the 8 steps 3. Practice using the 8 steps reporting system including preparation of a concern analysis report 4. Working as a team

8-D Problem Solving Process
TABLE OF CONTENTS
? Overview ? Step 1 : Team Formation ? Step 2 : Describe the Issue ? Step 3 : Containment Plan ? Step 4 : Root Cause Analysis ? Step 5 : Corrective Action Plan ? Step 6 : Preventive Action ? Step 7 : Verification ? Step 8 : Congratulations

8-D Problem Solving Process—Overview
Structured Team Problem Solving
Objective
--To use efficient, data-based approach for problem solving & corrective action

Strategies
? Learn the systematic steps for effective team-oriented problem solving ? Use the approach as framework for applying statistical & qualitative methods to your organization’s priority concern ? Report the results of your problem-solving efforts for documentation & future reference ? Continue to improve your organization by applying these methods, project by project to each concern on priority list

8-D Problem Solving Process

Use the 8 STEP PROBLEM SOLVING process only when the cause is unknown!!!

8-D Problem Solving Process Inhibitors
1. Problem Described Incorrectly - problem description was not clear enough in scope for the
team to handle

2. Problem-Solving Effort Rushed - to obtain a quick solution, steps in the problem-solving process were
skipped

3. Poor Team Participation - team member did not participate effectively 4. No Logical Process - a disciplined system to prioritize, analyze & review problem was not
available

8-D Problem Solving Process Inhibitors
5. Lack of Technical Skills - statistics & problem-solving methods were not know by team members 6. Management’s Impatience - all levels of management demand to know exactly when a problem will
be solved.

7. Mis-identified Root Cause - a potential cause is cause identified as a root cause, concluding the
problem investigation

8. Permanent Corrective Action Not Implemented - a root cause may be identified, but no action taken to implement the
permanent corrective actions

8-D Problem Solving Process
Provide a structure Systematic, yet flexible Superior usual methods Efficient interdepartmental communication Widespread familiarity Effective management evaluation & control More skills & creativity Buy-in eases implementation Good data is indisputable Eliminates personal biases Tied Demming philosophy Powerful & commonly available statistical tools - STEPS provides framework for application of methods- Standard format for reporting all action - Later reference provides insight to problem solution

Common approach Team work Fact based

Quality method

Documentation

8-D Problem Solving Process ---Applying Steps
Predicated on team approach Use for a cause unknown situation where you are concern Must be driven top-down to provide adequate resources Management by fact and data Require action planning and documentation for each step Focus on effectively using the process not on writing the report No preconceptions!!!

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Step 1 - Initiate Project Team Objective
To establish a team of group of people with product & process knowledge, skill in the appropriate technical disciplines and allocated time and authority to take needed action to solve the problem

Supporting Concepts and Methods
Employee involvement / participative, management Team Leadership skill for group dynamic Meeting facilitation skills

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Step 1 - Action & Issue
Management must determine if the initial statement of concern is worth further problem solving investigation Management will designate their staff to sponsor the team as a “champion” Team member shall be designated, representing all departments that may be concerned with the problem Management shall identify the expected time commitment from team member and make arrangement for peoples time availability Team member must reach consensus on a mission statement & goals, and document it in writing

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Step 1 - Team Composition Members
Good team member are persons who are : willing to contribute capable of diagnosing problem trainable in the use of improvement methods team players, rather than go-it-alone

Team Size
5 - 9 member is optimum

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Step 1 - Use Team Approach
Determine the problem needs an 8D Establish a team Leader Select individuals for the team Are all the needed areas of knowledge & experience represented ?

NO
Team size correct? (5/9 member)

YES

A

Establish time & authority to work on problem

NO

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
A
Establish team advisors

Step 1 - Use Team Approach

NO Are all areas of technical expertise represented? YES Team establish working relationships

NO

Is team members clear on going & roles

- action plan established - agenda written for next meeting - Minutes of previous meeting available

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Power of the Team Approach
Step 1 - Use Team Approach

Commitment from many disciplines (expertise) breaks down inherent barriers diversity of knowledge & expertise high morale wide range of ideas & observations open ,honest communication positive confrontation - “no right answer” everyone has something to contribute

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Team Formation
Why Teams May Fail
Step 1 - Use Team Approach

No leader empowered to implement ideas personality conflicts, domination, by one member, negative attitudes excessive management expectations, not enough time insufficient problem solving skills by members undefined progress - no sense of urgency, no goals lack of data/facts, not shared by all

8-D Problem Solving Process -STEP 1 Requirements for Success
Step 1 - Use Team Approach Direction Time Training Resource Space Leadership
team discussion to clarify & ensure understanding &commitment by all adequate time required from all participants to perform the task provide people skills needed to approach the situation technical expertise may be needed work area for data collection or interaction Facilitator; coordinate the resources; meetings & reporting the program

8-D Problem Solving Process -

Hints for Problem Solving

Priorities Participation Focused Activity Causal Analysis Leadership

8-D Problem Solving Process -Teamwork for Problem Solving
Advantages of Teams Skills
more more more more talents experience knowledge technical competence

Communication

- cross departmental lines - increased productivity - increased dignity morale - consensus decision-making - ”buy in” to change - job enrichment

Participation

Effectiveness

-better solution -solutions more likely to be accepted -response to complete stated mission

8-D Problem Solving Process
LEADER

Step 1 - Teamwork Roles

- Empowered to hold meeting & test theories - spokesperson for the team - has the day-to-day authority & responsible for overall coordination

PARTICIPANTS
diverse backgrounds/responsibilities; experts from the floor responsible for carrying out assignments’ receptive to the consensus decision making process keeps open mind on possibilities

8-D Problem Solving Process
Step 1 - Teamwork Building
COMMITMENT COMMUNICATION LEADERSHIP MEETING EFFECTIVESS RECOGNITION & FEEBACK CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONSENSUAL DECISION MAKING

8-D Problem Solving Process Objective

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

To determine the extent of the problem & its effects in quantifiable terms resulting in a narrower focus for containment and cause-finding efforts

Supporting Concepts and Methods
Process flowcharts is/is not analysis check sheets pareto diagrams control charts

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

“A problem well defined is a problem halfsolved”

8-D Problem Solving Process
Procedure
1. Customer Complaint 3. Subdivide
- include benchmark - decide on team to address

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem
2. 5W,2H 4. Deviations Statement
- prioritize - one deviation per statement

5. Data Collection Define
flow diagram collect stratify summarize

6. Operational
- wording - four dimensions

7. Comparative Analysis
- is/is not - table of known facts

8. Revise Problem
- STATEMENT

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
1. CUSTOMER COMPLAINT

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

describe the symptoms experienced by the customer (user) in their terms make sure the customer complaint is clearly understood - from the customers’ viewpoint search for comparative situations

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
2. 5W , 2H
Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

Identify the customers who are complaining What is the problem in operational definitions Identify defect locations Identify the time when the problem started State any known explanations of the problem Identify the situations or mode of operation problem occurred problem

How many? Quantify the extent & severity of the

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
3. SUBDIVIDE

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

ASK SOME SEPARATION QUESTIONS - what is really troubling us? - will one action correct our problem? - how many things are we discussing? Etc? PRIORITIZE

- probable customer impact
- probable negative growth - impact on people, productivity, resources DECIDE ON TEAM

- if subdivided problem are very diverse, be appropriate to form
additional teams

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
4. Develop Deviation Statement

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

the expression of the difference between what should have happened (what was expected to happen) & what actual happened includes the benchmark for good performance to provide a basis of comparison contains reference to one deviation only. Write as many deviation statements as are needed

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
5. DATA COLLECTION
Flow Chart

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

- process flow chart that details all alternative process paths

Collect the data
anticipate the type of knowledge to be gained decide what data will be collected decide who will collect the data decide when, where & how data will be collected decide who will analysis the data collect the data as soon as possible

Stratify
- stratify the data into separate process stream

Summarize
- summarize the evidence of the problem to establish baseline

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
6. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

Be Specific!!! Be Concise!!! BE Precise!!!

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
6. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION SEARCH

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

- what is the defect in question? - need to know what the defect could be but is not - where was the discrepancy observed? - where could the discrepancy have been observed but was not? - where on the part is the defect? - where on the part could the defect be but is not? - when was the non conformance observed? - when could the non conformance observed? Observed but was not?

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure

-STEP 2 Describe The
Application

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

- To allow a team identify the actual flow or sequence of events in a process that any product or service follows

- Flowcharts can be applied to anything from the travels of an invoice or flow of materials, to the steps in a making sale or servicing a product

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
Flow Chart : Purpose

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

- Show unexpected complexity, problem areas, redundancy, unnecessary loops, and where simplification and standardization may be possible. - Compare and contrasts the actual versus the ideal flow of a process to identify improvement opportunities. - Allow the team to come to agreement on the steps of the process and to examiner which activities may impact the process performance - Identifies locations where additional data can be collected and investigated - Serves as a training aid to understand the complete process

8-D Problem Solving Process Procedure
Flow Chart : Construction

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Step 2 - Define the Problem

1. Determine the frame or boundary of the process 2. Determine the steps in the process 3. Sequence the steps 4. Draw the flowchart for completeness 5. Test the flowchart for completeness 6. Finalize the flowchart

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 2 Describe The

Issue

Procedure

Step 2 - Define the Problem
An oval is used to show the material, information or action (inputs) to start the process or to show the results at the end (output) or the process A box or rectangle is used to show a task or activity performed in the process. Although multiple arrows may come into each box, usually only one output or arrow leaves each activity box. A diamond shows those points in the process where a yes/no question is being asked or a decision required A circle with either a letter or a number identifies a break in the flowchart and continued elsewhere on the same page another page Arrow show the direction of flow of the process

A

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 3 Containment Action

Step 3 - Implement Containment Action

Objective
to define, implement & verify effectiveness of temporary actions to isolate process customer from the effects of the problem

Supporting Concepts and Methods
?check sheets ? histograms ? control charts

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 3 Containment Action

Step 3 - Implement Containment Action Takes time before the team identifies the root cause (s) Actions should be immediate, once the problem has been defined Containment actions are quick fixes designed only to address the effect Containment actions add cost to the product Containment actions are temporary until corrective actions are implemented

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 3 Containment Action

Step 3 - Implement Containment Action 100% inspection to sort out defects stop production from a know source of the problem purchase subject parts rather than make in-house single source to one rather than multiple suppliers change tooling more frequently

8-D Problem Solving Process

-STEP 3 Containment Follow-Up

Containment actions must last until the root cause is identified & corrective action is implemented Decision making tools are used - when choosing the action needed Risk assessment is an important step during the decision - making process The effectiveness of the containment action must be monitor

8-D Problem Solving Process
Define Possible Action Avoid Ripple Implement CA Document

-

Step 3 - The Process

Define possible actions Choose CA’s that will not create more problem

Implements the chosen actions
Document all actions taken

Plan Tests

Plan test to verify the effectiveness of the actions Perform the experiments to quantitatively prove that the problem effects are contained Address all aspects of the problem Inform customer

Experiment Address All Aspects Inform

8-D Problem Solving Process
Objective

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

to identify & test all potential cause using the problem description & test data to isolate & verify the root cause

Supporting Concepts and Methods
brainstorming cause & effect diagrams check sheets histogram control charts capability studies Gage R&R scatter diagram design of experiments FMEA’s

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Two Sources of Root Cause :
the specific local cause that resulted in the problem the systematic cause that is part of the existing design / manufacturing system that allowed the specific local cause to occur

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Systematic Procedure for this step :
Review problem definition & existing data, looking for clues to potential cause Ask “What changed when?” AND ASK. “Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Brainstorm all potential cause using a cause and-effect diagram

Select the most likely cause, compare them to the problem definition

Conduct parallel, fact-based investigations of the most likely cause

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Ask, “What Changed” No Changes, No New Problem! Review problem statement to find differences between what the problem is & what it is not

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - ASK 5 WHY’s

Review symptoms or effects of the problem To drive team’s understanding from the effect to the cause, ask, “WHY?” FIVE TIMES!!!”

ASK “WHY?” until you can no longer ask “WHY?”…then proceed with the process

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - BRAINSTORM POTENTIALCAUSE

all possible cause of the problem should be identified best way to produce a maximum amount of idea is to conduct a brainstorming session cause-and-effect diagram is an excellent tool to assist in brainstorming for causes

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - Cause & Effect Diagram

METHODS

MACHINE

EFFECT

MATERIAL

MAN

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - SELECT Select
Choose Potential Cause To Investigate - investigate several cause at the same time - cause are chosen via routine group Compare Selected Cause To Is/Is Not Data - investigate several cause at the same time - true cause of the problem should explain resulting is & is not data Arrange For Technical Assistance - make arrangement for them to help plan the data collection, conduct the experiments & analyze the data Data Collection Tools - data collection tool must be matched to the data - example of tools: check sheet, design of experiments

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - CONDUCT PARALLEL INVESTIGATIONS

Potential Cause 1

Potentia2 Cause 2

Potentia3 Cause 3

Root Cause

Root Cause

Root Cause

Problem Solved

8-D Problem Solving Process Step 4 - VERIFICATION

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

TURN IT ON…..

….TURN OFF

The true root cause should be able to explain all of the data & facts collected up to this time

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 4 Root Cause Analysis

Step 4 - IDENTIFY & VERIFY SUMMARY
Problem Solving Steps provide concise problem definition describe problem in detail (is/is not) identify differences, changes & dates develop list of possible causes select most likely causes & test verify root cause (turn it on …….turn it off)

8-D Problem Solving Process
Objective

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

Step 5 - Permanent Corrective action
to select from alternative solutions to the problem & quantitatively confirm through test programs that the problem cause are eliminated, without undesirable side effects

Supporting Concepts and Methods
checklist sheets histograms capability studies control charts scatter diagram design of experiments Weibull Analysis FMEA’s

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

Team must quantitatively confirm that the action will resolve the problem for the CUSTOMER

MOST CRITICAL STEP

8-D Problem Solving Process
Generate Alternative Solution

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

remedies for the root cause (s) use brainstorming and/or a cause-and-effect diagram to generate the alternative solution

Select An Appropriate Solution
an appropriate solution must consider : - cost - implementation issue - timing - effectiveness - potential side effects - any other elements important to you or the customer

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

Step 5 - Take action Planning
state the objectives of the plan & define the standards to achieve identify & list in chronological order the action plan steps

Problem Prevention
identify key steps in the plan identify the potential problem in the execution/completion identify possible cause of potential problems identify the optimum method to prevent or control these cause identify protection action (s) if problem still occur develop cues to initiate the protection actions (s) designate who is responsible for initiating the protection action review, revise & communicate the final plan - identify assessment points

8-D Problem Solving Process
Track Indicators

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

Step 5 - Take action
track statistical indicators to verify effectiveness with data

Correct Defectives Already Produced
rework / scrap inventory address service aspects correct product design, tooling, equipment
Plan Contingency Action If Permanent Actions Cannot Be Implemented Remove Containment Actions After Verifying Corrective Action Notify All Personnel Affected By The Changes

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 5 Corrective Action Plan

Step 5 - Take action
Wrong way right way

Implement solution & determine the problem goes away

- evaluate each possible action against a predetermined decision criteria - prove that the corrective action will eliminate the problem (during these test, containment action must be removed temporarily) - focus should be placed on establishing proper indicators - corrective action decision criteria is established though the decision making process

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 6 PREVENT PROBLEM RECURRENCE

Objective
to modify the methods, equipment, material, process procedures & management system & practices to prevent this & related problem from occurring

Supporting Concepts and Methods
process flowcharts operational definitions FMEA’s control plans

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 6 PREVENT PROBLEM RECURRENCE

Modify management system, operating system, practices & procedures to prevent recurrence of the problem!
create new process flow diagram update forms & procedures make changes to the system standardize new practices discourage replication of effort

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 6 PREVENT PROBLEM RECURRENCE

Identify what system, practices, procedures allowed the problem to occur

Identify changes, reinforcements, and improvements

Develop plans to coordinate necessary actions

Implement the improvement plan

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 6 PREVENT PROBLEM RECURRENCE

Identify Impact Items
team should identify system which have an impact on the problem & take into consideration that : The existing management system, practices and procedures may need to be modified to support the corrective action The engineering, production and design process may also need to be changed & improved, which may require the initiation of a process improvement study

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 6 PREVENT PROBLEM RECURRENCE

Team must modify the necessary system, practices & procedure to prevent recurrence of the problem problem solving returns the process to the standard operating condition process improvement develops process, practices and procedure that establish a higher performance level implementing systematic improvements not only fixes the cause (s) of a problem, but prevents similar problem from arising

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 7 Verification

Verification
important sub-step that must be performed on an going basis : Use indicators such as scrap report, etc. Perform capability studies & designed experiments Monitor control charts as on ongoing means of controlling the process

8-D Problem Solving Process Verification Approaches

-

STEP 7 Verification

design verification testing production validation testing bench / lab testing short & long term capability studies in-plant indicators (scrap report, audits, etc.)

Verification Action Plan
verification action plan should specify : - who will be taking what actions by when - what data will be collected & analyzed - who will track actual progress & scheduled completion bench mark or standard for comparison - pilot program to “pull” changes in to the organization

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 8 Recognize Project Team

Objective
to congratulate all the team members for their collective efforts & develop a climate for ongoing improvements

Support Concepts and Methods
employee involvement/participate management interpersonal communication skills

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 8 Recognize Project Team

be specific on facts of each individual’s input sincerity in both public & private recognition is required to make it acceptable to the recipient don’t overlook any opportunity to recognize the team or individual keep a proper balance between praise & constructive criticism management, champions, and leaders must be encouraged to provide consistent, enthusiastic recognition at every available recognize the team’s collective efforts in solving the problem show appreciation for the individual contributions

8-D Problem Solving Process

-

STEP 8 Recognize Project Team


相关文章:
更多相关标签: