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初一初二语法阅读汇总


初一初二 100 课时课程计划 学习目标: 鉴于小学和初中应试方式和应试内容的不同,初一阶段的英语学习是 英语学习的第二个起跑线,要有一个学习方法的改变,也就是入门学习,而入门 学习从课本, 词汇, 语法体系, 阅读理解四个方面入手, 让学生会学习, 学得会, 会考试,考试得高分。经过一年的教学尝试,把这些课程掌握的好的学生,一年 之后能力达到中考水平, 而没有经过这个系统学习的

中等生或差生,初中阶段的 英语学习会很吃力或者一直处于及格边缘。 学习内容:1.初一初二课本(词汇+课文) (差生以学习课本词汇与句式为主) 2.语法(冠词,代词,介词,情态动词,五大时态,被动语态,两大 从句,连词,简单句,主谓一致) (其中除了五大时态需要 6 个课时 外,其他语法均为 2 个课时,语法共需 30 个课时) 3.阅读理解(教授方法为主,共需 10 个课时) 学习大纲:1.初一二课本的学习每节课涵盖单词应用和课文知识点,以 5.3 为辅 助练习巩固 2 语法第一阶段学习涵盖代词,冠词,介词,情态动词,动词五大时 态,辅导书为锦囊妙解语法词汇为主,优等生另加 5.3 语法练习。 3 阅读理解学习涵盖主旨大意类,细节题类,猜词类,判断推理类, 以中考题为辅助练习巩固

学习时间明细: 1.课本词汇+中考大纲词学习大概需要 50 个课时。 初一课本含 12 个单元, 初二课本上含 10 个单元。 初一 课本以检测为主, 初二课本词汇以讲解为主, 词汇与语 法穿插学习效果更好。 2.语法学习需要 30 个课时。冠词,代词,介词,情 态动词,被动语态,连词,简单句,主谓一致各 2 个小 时(16 个课时) ,五大时态 6 个课时,两大从句 4 个课 时,留 4 个课时巩固练习。 3.阅读理解需 10 个课时。主旨大意,细节题,猜词, 判断推理各需 2 个课时,留 2 个课时巩固练习。

冠词 定冠词 the,不定冠词 a\an,零冠词\ 一.不定冠词(a\an) 1.泛指,表示“一”这个数量概念,或某一类人或物。(1+1from one group) I will do it in a week or two. Even a child can answer this question. 2.用于单数可数名词前,表示某人或某事物,但不说明是哪一个。 (some) This poem was written by a student. 3. 和表示时间或度量衡的名词连用,每日,每斤 I eat an egg a day. 4.固定词组 Take a shower take a walk give a lecture have a headache

二.定冠词(the)(上文题到的双方都知道的世界上独一无二的一类人) 第一类记忆: 1 双方都知道的事物或人.(特指) Is the book yours.? 2 特指上文提到的人或事 (特指)the girl in the car is my sister. 3 世界上独一无二的事物,包括发明物(特指) the sun the moon the Great Wall the Yellow River Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 4 与某些形容词连用,表示一类人。 (特指) The poor the rich the old 5 序数词,形容词最高级或者 only, very, same 等前面。 (特指) He is the first to come. He is the oldest. You are the only good student. The same to you 第二类记忆:1.在姓氏复数前表示一家人或夫妻俩 the Smiths (史密斯夫妇和乐器) 2.乐器前要加 the 三.零冠词 第一大类记忆:1.泛指不可数名词,复数名词的人或事物(一类人或物)。

Knowledge is power. Cats have sharp eyes. 注意:特指是要加 the. The news is exciting. 2.名词前已经有修饰词。 This is my book. 3.固定词组 At school in class in bed at work in town At night by bike on foot in hospital

at home

第二大类记忆:1.三餐球棋牌,四季日(公共节日和日期)月星(具体特指某一年的四季日 月星和 The Spring Festival 除外. The winter of the year 2009 was very cold. ) 2. 职位头衔,学科语言。 He was made head of his class. I like English.\ science 3.洲国省路桥公园广场。Europe chnag ’an Street Beihai Park Tian;an men Square 四.a\an 用法 区分元辅音因素。 A university

an hour

五、疑难拓展 (特殊归类) 1. a+序数词 表示“又一,再一” a third time(一般都是 the+序数词) 2.the+身体部位 hit you on the head 3.the 在单数可数名词前,表示某一类人或事物。 The horse is a useful animal. 3.固定词组意义不同 go to school(上学) go to the school In hospital(住院) in the hospital At table(吃饭) at the table

介词
介词的含义: 介词(虚词),不能在句子中独立充当成分。它总是用于名词、代词、或相当于名词的其它词类或短语活 从句前.中考需要掌握的 11 个介词:in、on、at、to、from、by、with、for、about、after、before

介词的用法 一.时间介词的用法 1. at, on, in(在) at 表示具体某时刻。at 7:30 on 具体的某一天或某一天的上午,下午或晚上。On a rainy evening in 月季年,上下晚。 In the morning 2. since, for since(自从)+具体时间 I have lived here since 3 years ago. For+时间段 (有。 。 。时间了) I have lived here for 3 years. 3. after, in after+时间(。 。 。之后) after 3 days after 7:00 in+时间段(。 。 。时间之内) in 2 days 4. by by+具体时间(在。 。 。之前)

on Monday

supper will be ready by 6:00. we had learnt 2000 words by the end of last year. 5. until, before until(直到。 。 。为止) I will work here until 6:00. Not…until(直到。 。 。才) I can’t go home until I finish my homework. Before+具体时间点(在。 。 。之前) ,用法同 after 二.表示地点和方位的介词 1. in, on, to

In 在某一地区内的方位,属于该范围。 Shanghai is in the east of China. On 表示与某一地区接壤的某方位,不属于该范围。 to 表示在某一范围之外的某方位,不属于该范围 2. over, above, on, under, below over(正上方,不接触)a bridge over the river above(上方,但不一定垂直) the clouds above my house on(正上方,两物体接触) a book on the desk under(某一物体的正下方,与 over 相对) a cat under the table below(下方,但不一定垂直,也可指温度,海拔)

above over

on

under below

3. in front of, in the front of, before, behind, opposite

In the front of In front of\ before behind 4. at, in, on(在…) at 在小地点,in 在大地点,on 在一个平面上 at home, at a shop, in china, on the wall 5. near\nearby, by\beside near\nearby(在。 。 。附近,有一段距离)by\beside(在。 。旁边,甚至能触摸到) park house A park is near\nearby my house.

opposite

by\beside

I stand by/beside the fire. 6. between, among, round\around\about

betwe en

among

round\around\about

between 两者之间,among 三者或更多这之间,round、around,about 围绕,在。 。 。周围, 指时间时表示“大约”round\around\about the school round\around\about 6:00 7. across, through, past, along\down across 强调穿过某一平面 go across the street through 强调从某一空间内穿过 go through the forest past 强调从某一事物一旁经过 The car drove past my house along\down 沿着 go along|down the street

across

through

8.into, out of, onto, off into 进入,out of 出来,onto 到另一个平面上,off 脱离 into out of

go into the house go out of the house jump onto the desk, get off the car 三. 表示工具,手段和材料的介词 with, by, in We see things with eyes(with 用。 。 。 ,还有“和某人”的意思)

We study English by reading. by bike in English 四.表示属性的介词 of of 属于。 。 。的 a book of mine 五.表示来源的介词 from from 来自。 。 。 疑难拓展 介词的省略 1. 表示时间的短语中如果有 next, last, one, this, every, each, some, any, all 等单词时, 不用介 词。 I will see you next week. You can come any day 2.在不定冠词 a\an 的短语中,不用介词 three time a day an apple a day

代词 人称代词,物主代词,反身代词,疑问代词,不定代词,指示代词 一.人称代词
人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 主格 I you(你) he she it 宾格 me you him her it they them 主格 we You(你们) 宾格 us you

主格:I am a teacher. You are a student. He is a driver. She is a doctor. It is a cat. They are students. 总结:我用 am,你用 are, is 用于他她它。 She ___ my sister. He___ my father. It___ my favorite food. They____ my students. I___ fine. Li Ming___ from China. 宾格:The teacher likes me\us\you|\him\her\them\it. Give it to me\us\you|\him\her\them\it. Happy birthday to___( i\me) (we/us)___ need help, please help___(we\us)

二.物主代词(名词性物主代词,形容词性物主代词)
. 汉语 形容词 性物主 代词 名 词性物 主代词 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs my your his her its our yours 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他(她、 它) 们的 their

Is this your book? No, it isn’t. it’s hers ( her book) 一.选词填空。 1.This is___(my\i) mother. 3.____(He\His) name is Mark. 5.Excuse____(me\my\i)

2. Nice to meet___(your\you) 4.what is ____(she\her) name. 6.Are____(you\your) Miss Li?

二.用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空。 1.These are____(he) brothers. 2.That is____(she) sister. 3.Tom, this is____(me) cousin. 4.Now______(she parent) are in America. 5.Do you know____(it) name? 6. Thanks for helping_____(i) 7.Today____(its\it) is my birthday. ____(i\me) wake up very early. There ____(is\are) no friends in ____(my\i\mine) house. I feel lonely. I call my friends. But ____(they\them\their) do not answer. I try to smile and say happy birthday to____(me\i\mine). In the night, ____(they\them\their) call me to go to ____(their\theirs) house. When I come there, I see ____(my\mine) name on the wall and a big cake. 反身代词
myself 我自己 ourselves 我们自 己 yourself 你自己 yourselves 你们自 己 himself 他自己 herself 她自己 itself 它自己

Themselves 他(她、它)们自己

I did my homework myself. 1.The little boy is too young to look after____(him\his\himself) 2.i hope all of you can enjoy_____(yours\yourselves) at the party. 3.The children did the washing____(himself\themselves) 疑问代词 who\whom, whose ,what ,which (举例区分) 不定代词

兄弟组合 some---any, many--- much, either—neither, both---all, each---every, none—no one, other, others, the other, another, few, a few, little, a little. 1. some---any(要联想到 something, somebody, anything, anybody, nothing, nobody) Some 多用于肯定句,用于疑问句表征求询问意见。也有“某个”意思。 Would you like some soup? I’m looking for some doctor.(某个医生,不是一些医生) any 用于否疑,肯定句中表任何。 If you have any questions, please ask me.(任何问题) 2.many--- much Many 修代可数名词, much,修代不可数名词。 Many of his classmates like pop music. Much of his homework has been done. 3.either---neither either 两者中的任何一个, neither 两者中的任何一个都不 Either of my parents is a teacher. Neither of them can come today. 4.both---all(都) Both 两者都,黄金搭档是 and。All 三个或三个以上都,黄金搭档 of. Both Mary and Jim are my friends. They both are my friends=Both of them are my friends. All of them are my friends. 5.each---every(每个) each 两个或两个以上的每个(大于等于 2) ,与 of 搭用。every 三个或三个以上的每个,不 得与 of 搭配 Each of us likes watching TV. Every student needs to be careful when crossing the street. 6.none—no one none(一个也没有,指人或物)通常与 of 连用 none of them are \is my friends. no one(没人。就指人) No one works hard.(谓语动词用单数) 6.other---the other, “另一个” The other 两者中的一个。 other 不独立使用。修饰名词复数。Other students the other 两者中的另一个。 I have two brothers. One is a doctor, the other is a teacher. 7.others---the others 代指其他的人或事物 other students=others(泛指) the other students=the others(特指全部其余的人或事物) he is always ready to help others. Five of them are in the classroom. What about the others? 8.another,另外一个,再一个。 (不知数量的情况下) 。 Don’t lose heart. Have another try.

9. few—a few little---a little 10.that-those, this-those That 指代可数名词单数或不可数名词, those 只能指代名词复数 it 的用法 1. 指代前面事物。I saw a movie yesterday. It was interesting. 2. 指代婴儿或不明身份的人。 Who might it be? 3. 表示天气,时间或距离。It is rainy today. 4. 形式主语。 It’s hard for me to sing. It seems that he has been ill for a long time. 5. 作形式宾语。I feel necessary to practice speaking everyday. 情态动词 情态动词重点词:can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, need, had better, will, would, have to 情态动词使用特点:1.无人称和数变化 2.后跟动词原形 3.变疑问句时,把情态动词直接提前。 一.常见情态动词的用法及功能

can(能,会,可以)
1. 2. 3. 4. 表示能力, “能,会” 。 He can swim, but I can’t. 表示请求允许, “可以,能够” 。 You can use my book.

5. 用于判断,表示可能,通常用于否定或疑问句。 6. The coat can’t be hers. Hers is white.

could(能)
Can 的过去式。代替 can,语气更加客气委婉。 Could you help me?

may(也许,能够)
1. 表示可能,但不肯定,通常用于肯定陈述句,暗含不确定(记住 may be) She may be there tomorrow. 2. 用于肯定火疑问句,表示允许或征求同意。 May I come in?

might(也许,能够)
1.是 may 的过去式。 2. 代替 may,比 may 更可气,更婉转一些。 Might I have a word with you?

must(必须)
1. 表示义务或劝告。 “必须”(口气强硬,没得商量) You must finish your homework.

You must wear a musk. 2. 表示推测。 “一定,准是” The lady must be a doctor. 可能性 must 大于 may, may 大于 might

have to(不得不)
有人称,数和事态的变化。He has to do your homework, does he?

Shall
1. 用于第一人称疑问句,表示征求询问意见。 Shall we go out? 2. 用于第二人称,表示警告,允诺或命令。 You shall not go out.(你不能出去)

Should(应该)
1. 表示义务责任“应该” You should do your homework. 2. “建议” You should go to see a doctor.

need(需要)
1.“需要” I need water. 2.用于否疑表示必要。 You needn’t come if you are busy.

had better(最好,应该)
1. had better+do, 给人提出建议,否定形式是 had better not You’d better go to school early next time.

will
表示一致或意愿。 Will you be there tomorrow?

would
1.是 will 的过去式。 2.用于疑问句第二人称,表示礼貌,婉转的请求。 Would you like some soup?

used to(过去常常)
1.used to+do 否定形式是 didn’t use to 或 usedn’t to. he used to live in a small town. Did he use to live in a small town? 2. be used to(被用来) , be used to doing(习惯于) 二.疑难拓展 1.can\could 和 be able to 的区别

can 仅表示具备的能力,不一定能做到。be able to 是通过努力成功做到的能力。 He can type 100 words in one minute. The child is able to talk. 2. 以 may 开头的疑问句的回答,肯定用 may,否定用 mustn’t, can’t 或 had better not May I use your book? No, you mustn’t. 3.must 开头的疑问句的回答。肯定句用 must,否定句要用 needn’t, don’t 或 doesn’t have to 动词时态 动词时态共有 16 种,但常用的有 8 种。它们是一般现在时,现在进行时,一般将来时,现 在完成时,一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时。

现在进行时

现在完成时 过去 一般过去时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去将来时 一般现在时 现在 一般将来时来

一.

一般现在时 一 般 现 在 时 常 用 的 时 间 状 语 有 0ften, sometimes, always, usually, every day\week\month\year

1. 表示经常性的,习惯性的动作或经常存在的状态。 My mother works in a hospital. 2. 表示客观真理,客观存在或自然现象。 Metal expands when heated. 3. 表示按时间表, 规定, 计划或安排将要安排的动作。 谓语动词通常为 go, come,leave, arrive 等起始动词。 The train leaves at 8:00. 4. 用于时间,条件等状语从句中,代替一般将来时。 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will have a picnic. 二.一般过去时 1.表示在过去某一时刻或某一时间段内所发生的动作或情况。通常,一般过去时带有表 示动作发生的时间的词, 词组或从句。 一般过去时常用的时间状语有 last year, yesterday, just now, a few years ago, then 等。

三.一般将来时 一般将来时常用的时间状语有 next time, tomorrow, before long, this afternoon, in the future, in+时间段等。 1.will(shall) do, be going to do, be to do (计划约定或按职责, 义务和要求必须去做的事或 即将发生的事), be about to do(客观上马上要发生的事) 2.shall 表示征求意见时用于第一人称。 Shall I open the door? 用于第二人称表示警告,命令。 You shall not go out. 四.过去将来时 表示在过去看来将要发生的动作或状态,一般用于宾语从句中。 would do, was\were going to do, was\ were to do, was\were about to do I thought they would have a meeting. 五.现在进行时 现在进行时常用的时间状语有 now, right now, at this moment 等。be+doing 1.表示现在正在发生的动作。或现阶段正在发生的动作,说话时该动作未必正在进行。 He is writing a novel recently. 2.现在进行表将来,谓语动词常为 go, come, arrive 等短暂性动词。 I’m coming. 六.过去进行时 表示过去某一时刻,某段时间正在进行的状态或动作。 I was watching TV when she came in. 七.现在完成时 现在完成时常用的时间状语有 just, already, ever, never, so far, recently, since+时间点\从 句, for+时间段等。have\has+过去分词 1.表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在产生的而结果或影响。 2.表示从过去开始一直持续到现在,而且还可能持续下去的动作或状态。 I have lived here for ten years. 八.过去完成时 过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态。常和 by, before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。had+过去分词 We had learnt 2000words by the end of last year. When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than 20minutes.

初中阅读理解细节题 细节题是用来进一步表达主题,体现中心思想的,往往针对短文某个细节来设题。做此 类题时,应快速捕捉信息,可能是一些事例、数字等,阅读时要有针对性。利用关键词迅速 定位(关注文章具体实词),定位原词(同义词转述,反义词转述,其他相关词) 1.设题方式 此类题型多数以特殊疑问词设问,设问的检测点针对某一具体行为、地点、时间、原因、 方式、数量等。 其主要提问方式是: 1)True or NOT true 是非判断类型 Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage? Which of the following statements is NOT true? Which of the following is NOT considered as ?? According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the reasons for ??? 2)特殊疑问词提问类型 How many ???What/who/when/where/how/why ??? 3)排序题类型 Which of the orders is correct according to the passage ? 4)例证题类型 The author gives the example in ??paragraph in order to ?? 5) 表唯一细节概念题类型: ??the most / ~est ????the only ?? 2.技巧点拨 做这类题的一般方法是先要找出题干或是选项中的关键字,一般为数字、大写或人名地 名,再通过 scanning 快速确定该细节在文中的出处(信息源) ,仔细对照题干要求,排除或 选择。 读题干、找关键、回文章、寻定位、同意替换即答案 划(划关键词) 定(答题区间) 照(选项)

划关键词:大写+数字+名词+动词+形容词(按照先后顺序) 一划题干中的关键词,用关键词去文中定位答案 二划文章中的关键词(通读文章时,一边读一边划)
The Olympic flame (火焰)will be lit in Greece on March 25,2008. From March 25 to 30, the torch will travel across Greece. On March 31, it will arrive in Beijing. Then it will travel around the world. 52. When will Beijing 2008 Olympic Games begin? A. ON March 30. B. ON March 31. C. On August 8. D. On August 25. The opening ceremony of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo was held at 8:10p.m. on April 30th. The Expo is first hosted by a developing country. It is also the first time that cities participate (参加)in a World Expo independently

41.The Expo is first hosted by _______. A. a developed country B. a developing country C. a rich country D. a small country Besides China, more than 70 countries have offered Japan help after the earthquake. Two US search and rescue teams, with 144 stuff and 12 dogs, have begun work. 42. Two search and rescue teams from _________have begun work in Japan. A. Australia B. the US C. the UK D. Afghanistan When the three high school gifts entered a singing contest in Taiwan in 2000, none of them even dreamed of being a superstar. Ella and Hebe entered simply for the 10,000 yuan prize, while Selina was encouraged by her young sister, who was then too young to take part. 56. When the three girls entered the singing competition in 2000, A. they had known each other before B. they had released a hit album C. they were not well-know D. they all had won some prizes Knitting is called the ‘new yoga’. It is very relaxing and is the perfect hobby for people who live a busy, stressful(紧张的)life. It slows down their heart and lowers their blood pressure. 52. Why is knitting called the new yoga? A. Because mainly men do it. B. Because it relaxes your body and mind C. Because it comes from India. D. Because it Carl shape your body. Hot sun will dry out a snail’s body. So at the least sign of hot sun, a snail draws its body into its shell and closes the opening with a thin cover. Then it goes to sleep. A snail will die in a heavy rain. So whenever it rains, it goes inside snails shell house and goes to sleep. A snail can sleep as long as it needs to. And it spends all the winter months in its shell, asleep 63. A snail goes to sleep when A. spring is coming . .

B. it feels hungry

C. it rains heavily

D. it is at night

The plan says the money collected from companies will be spent on research into recycling(回 收利用)waste. It also encourages companies to use Fie~&,ways to turn waste into useful products. 63.What are companies encouraged to do? A. To turn waste into useful things. B. To leak waste when transporting waste C. To mix industrial waste with daily waste D . To be freed. Next, Charles’father sent him to school to become a minister(牧师).This time he made it to graduation, But he didn’t want to do the work of a minister. His friends encouraged him to follow his interest in science. 36.Darwin was very interested in____________. A.attending medical classes B. the work of a minister C.sailing around the world D.science

? 命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴”的手法来迷惑考生,即对原句细 微处做改动,截取原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置,把 A 的观点说成 B 的观点 等。所以正确理解题干和信息句的意义是关键。细节事实题还要十分注意句子的非 主干成分,如定语、状语、补语等,这些成分都是出题者常进行误导的落脚点。 ? 正确选项特征 Ⅰ 完全对应 Ⅱ 同义替换 ? 错误选项特征 Ⅰ过于绝对 Ⅱ偷换概念 Ⅲ正误并存

特别需要提醒的是,选项中出现有 most (最高级) 、the only(唯一) 、all(所有) 、none

(全否)修饰的细节,都具有绝对性,选择判断时要慎选。 3.细节题的解题步骤

一.完全对应类题型 Tiana is a waitress. She has a dream of owning a restaurant. In order to realize the dream, she works hard. She knows that it is useless to wish on a star. She never sits in a castle waiting for a prince to come and save her. 1. Tiana’s dream is to ________. A. kiss a frog B. own a restaurant C. sit in a castle D. find a prince Besides, there’s a great lesson here: you should look for a way to make your dream come true. If there is any problem with the movie, it’s only that it doesn’t feel as splendid as some of Disney’s other films. 2. The lesson we can learn from “The Princess and the Frog” is that _______. A. we should not kiss a frog B. we should believe ourselves C. wishing on a star will be helpful D. we should look for a way to make our dream come true. 二.同意替换类题型 词与词的替换 He liked playing soccer and spent much time on it, so he was sometimes late for work. His boss was so angry that he fired Mr. King. Mr. King couldn’t find another job. Finally he got into trouble and lived a difficult life. 1. Mr. King couldn’t find another job and his life was ________. A. happy C. relaxing B. hard D. free

短语与词的替换 Mr. King began to teach the school children to swim. He wasn’t a good coach. Two months later, the children learned nothing. Few of them could swim. 1. Two months later, the children learned nothing because ________. A. Mr. King taught them to play soccer

B. they didn’t like swimming at all C. they were afraid of water D. Mr. King was a poor coach 短语与短语的替换 It's not true any more that only old women knit(编织). Knitting has now become a fashionable hobby among women in their 20s and 30s and even among teenagers. Young women can be seen knitting in coffee shops, hairdressers, bookstores, and at bus stops. 1. What has changed about knitting? A. More women than men are knitting. B. More men than women are knitting. C. Old women have stopped knitting. D. Young women have started knitting, 句子与句子的替换 When you work on a computer, you leave the microbes from your hands on the keyboard. The scientists can easily tell the owner of the keyboard by looking at the microbes on it. 1. When you work on a computer, the microbes ______. A. just stay on your hands B. also stay on the keyboard C. will do harm to you D. will disappear

三.过于绝对类题型 45. Visitors to the Shenzhen Pavilion ________. A. don’t like the Shenzhen Pavilion B. can sing and dance in the Shenzhen Pavilion C. can only watch the exhibition D. are fond of the Shenzhen Pavilion 注:当属于客观真理或者符合文章表达的时候,表述是正确的。 四.偷换概念 张三说:“一加一不等于二。” 李四不信。 张三说:“我会用事实来说话。” 张三拿来一篮子苹果,问:“这是一篮子苹果吧?”

李四说“是。” 张三又拿来一个苹果,问:“这是一个苹果吧?” 李四又说“是。” 张三问:“现在,一和一都在这里呢,加一起等于二吗?” China's world number seven Li Na became the first Chinese tennis player to reach a Grand Slam final at this year's Australian Open. "It was the first match easy or tough? Nothing between." said Li, who has defeated Zahlavpva Strycova on her way to the Australian Open final. 1. Li Na _________. A. is one of the top table tennis players in the world B. is the first player to reach a Grand Slam final C. didn’t say anything about the match D. beat Zahlavaya Strycova on her way to the Australian Open final 六.正误并存 一天,甲同学跟乙同学炫耀说:“我买了一件很贵的衣服。” 乙同学随口道:“那应该很漂亮吧。” 甲同学真以为自己捡到宝了,“肯定啦,质量还很好呢。”随手就拿出衣服来。怎料,纽扣 突然掉了。 乙同学顿时哑口无言。

When asked about the secret to their success, the boyish Ella says, “The not-so-expensive dress style keeps us close to our fans. We are happy to be the girls next door, your singing sisters.” 2. Which of the following is correct according to the passage? A. They are not happy together B. They have three albums in all C. They are very simple and ordinary, so many fans like them D. All of us are their neighbors.

初中英语阅读理解猜词题 猜词题可以大致分为四类: 1、猜测某个单词的意思,这个单词有可能是超纲词汇,也有可能是一个熟悉单词的不熟悉 用法; 2、猜测某个词组的意思,这个词组中可能包含了某个超纲词汇,或者是一个熟悉单词的特 殊搭配; 3、猜测某个句子的含义,这个句子一般结构不会非常复杂,不是长难句,但是其中可能包 含了一些超纲词汇或者特殊的词组、习语、典故、成语等,此外这个句子也可能是引自文中 某个人的话; 4、猜测某个词语的指代含义,如 it, this , that, which, these, those 等,或者是一个意思笼统 的抑或是某个集体名词在文中的具体含义, 考生需要注意的是在做这种题时要把握答案与题 干的单词在性、数、格上的一致。 猜词题常见表达方式 1、考查某个单词意思的猜词题: The word “mania” (line 4, paragraph 2) most probably means \denotes\refers to … 2、猜测某个词组意思的猜词题: What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (last line, paragraph 4)?... The expression phrase“tip service” (line 3, paragraph 3) most probably means … In paragraph 5, “the powerless” probably refers to… 3、猜测某个句子含义的猜词题: The sentence “This is no flash in the pan” (the last sentence, paragraph 3) means that 4、猜测某个词语指代含义的猜词题: The word “it” (line 3, para 2) most probably refers to … 猜词方法: 一..通过因果关系猜词 通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。有时文章借 助关联词(如 because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,of course,therefore 等等)表示 前因后果。例如: You shouldn't have blamed him for that,for it wasn't his fault.通过 for 引出的句子所表示的原 因(那不是他的错),可猜出 blame 的词义是"责备"。

1.The clock is so accurate that it will never lose a second in more than 200 million years.

2. All his attempts to unlock the door was

futile, because she was using the wrong key.

二..通过同义词猜词 关键连词:and , or , such as, like, for example, for instance 常连接同义词组 通过同义词猜词,一是要看由 and 或 or 连接的同义词词组,如 happy and gay,即使我们不 认识 gay 这个词, 也可以知道它是愉快的意思; 二是看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词,

如 Man has known something about the planets Venus , Mars , and Jupiter with the help of spaceships.此句中的 Venus(金星)、Mars(火星)、Jupiter(木星)均为 生词,但只要知道 planets 就可猜出这几个词都属于"行星"这一义域。 1.He replied quickly, but after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision. 2. Your ideas are so nebulous that they are not clear to me. 3.Bananas,oranges,pineapples,coconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas. 三.通过对比和转折关系(反义词)猜词 关键词: 表转折关系的词常有 but, while, however, instead of , rather than , unlike, yet, though 等。 一是看表转折关系的连词或副词,如 but,while,however 等;二是看与 not 搭配的或表示 否 定 意 义 的 词 语 , 如 : He is so homely , not at all as handsome as his brother. 根 据 not at all...handsome 我们不难推测出 homely 的意思,即不英俊、不漂亮的意思 .通过构词法猜词

1. Although the early morning had been very cool, the noonday sun was tropical. 2. He had been getting better but during the night his condition deteriorated. 四.通过定义或释义关系来推测词义 关键词: 释义常由定语从句或由…is, or, that is (to say), in other words, be called, be known as 等词汇或破折号来表示。 But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time. Then there is a dry period,or drought. 从 drought 所在句子的上文我们得知很久不下雨,于是便有一段干旱的时期,即 drought, 由此可见 drought 意思为"久旱","旱灾"。而 a dry period 和 drought 是同义语。 1. It will be very hard but also very

brittle—— that is , it will break easily.

2. A calendar is a list of the days, weeks, months of a particular year. 3.

Students are persons who study at school every day.

4.The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole.It is fat and walks in a f

unny way. Although it cannot fly. it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.
五.根据构词法猜词

关键词:首先要熟悉基本的构词法及其规律 , 其次要掌握一定的词根和词缀。 如:un-, im-, in-, mis-, -less, -ness, ex-, dis-, co-, com-, con-等。

1. I will not make friends with a dishonest person. 2. When the little boy finished, his father was speechless. 3. If some athletes use drugs, it is unfair to the others.
六.根据生活常识或经验判断 1. In the old days, when girls from rich families were married to their husbands, they expected to bring with themselves plenty of dowry. 2. The snake slithered through the grass.

阅读理解推断题

进行合理推断。所谓推断,就是根据阅读材料中所提供的信息,推断出未知的信息。即把有关的文字 作为已知部分,从中推断出未知部分。需要推断的有关文字可能是词或句子,也可能是若干句子,甚至是 全文。 一.初中英语阅读试题中的推断题很多,包括的面也很大。其类型主要有以下几种: 事实推断 这种推断常常针对某一个或几个具体细节,是比较简单的推断。进行这种推断,要首先在文章中找出 据以推断的有关文字,然后加以分析,尤其要悟出字里行间的意思。 指代推断 确定指代词的含义和指代对象是阅读理解题常见的题目。要确定指代词所指代的对象,关键在于对所 在上下文的正确理解。指代名词的指代词,其单复数形式英语被指代的词一致,因此数的形式可作为识别 指代对象第一个辅助标志。 逻辑推断 这类题目往往是要求根据文章所提供的背景,人物的表情,动作和语言来推断出人物的态度或感觉。 对作者的意图和态度的推断

二.推断题也是阅读客观题中比较难的一类题型,它难主要是在对于推断二字的把握上。也就是说如何 才能做到合适推断,适度推断并来做题目,这个火候是很难拿捏的。首先,什么样的题叫做推断题呢?一 般说来, 包含 infer, suggest, imply, conclude, intend, purpose, be likely to 等字眼的题目就是我们所说的推断题。 其中最常见的就是 infer,imply 以及 suggest 三种。先介绍常见的推断题的提问形式:

1. it can be inferred/concluded/seen from the passage that ______________. 2. which of the following conclusions can we draw according to the passage? 3. in which of the following publications would this passage most likely be printed? 4. the passage implies, but doesn’t directly state that ___________. 5. the writer suggests that __________. 6.the author probably feels that__________. 7.the author uses the example of...to show that_________. 8.what’ the author’s attitude toward _________________?
三.解题技巧 1. 结合全文信息进行推断。很多学生就说:“我觉得……”或者是“我认为……”等之类的话。推断不是一 个独立的手段,也不是靠学生的主观的无根据的想象。它需要借助文章具体信息,具体事实,真实语境, 根据上下文进行推断。因此要正确理解字面意思,就要结合实际语境,上下文的逻辑关系为条件和依据。 离开文章中的事实,曲解文章的事实,或者缺乏对文章的全面理解都可能会做出不合理的推论。在这一方 法中可采取哥得曼提出的阅读理论模式“自上而下”的模式,这个模式强调的是篇章的整体理解。那么在阅 读中可采取快速阅读,跳读,扫读,等方法,分析题目,寻找关键词,主题句,理清文章脉络,掌握上下 文的逻辑关系,在有限时间里能对全文作全面把握。

2. 利用细节进行推断。利用细节进行推断首先要对细节进行正确的理解。这必须要求在正确掌握全 文大意的基础上进行。细节理解包括词和句的理解。有些关键词有多种意思,这时就要正确选用其在文中 的意义,要避免粗心大意或理解不准确造成曲解或误解。尤其是连接词,副词,代词,介词短语,关系词, 插入语等要特别注意,比如: if, because, though, as, it ,and, but, however, therefore, so, besides, in

addition, moreover, what’s more, that is to say, in other words, entirely, neither, seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly, in short, in brief 等,这些关系着句子含义,邻句之间,上下段之间甚至是全文之间的逻
辑关系。其次就是要准确把握关键句子结构,阅读文章难句增多、句子类型多变,很多关键句以复杂句出 现,最少都包含有一个从句,正确分析句子结构直接影响对句子意义的正确理解。 3. 根据文章措词推断作者的态度和意图。在全文中,作者会借助措词,通过文体表明自己的态度和 观点。有时比较明确,有时就需要进行推测。作者在陈述事实的过程中难免会流露出感情色彩,或尖刻, 或揶揄,或诙谐,或赞同什么,反对什么,要领会作者的弦外之音。针对这,可通过一些形容词副词动词 等来推测作者的态度,也可根据文体来判断。 五.解题原则

推断题的做题策略我把它总结为如下十二个字,叫做是立足主旨,忠于原文,只推一步

第一点,立足主旨。这个比较好理解,细节推断题往往是对某个长难句子或者重点段落的理解,所以 出题点往往和主旨有着千丝万缕的联系。我们看看真题大家会了解,所有的推断题都是这样的重要句或者 重点段。既然这样,那么违背文章主旨的推断就一定不对了。另外,与主旨有关联的句子或段落,那么它 的含义就肯定不会简单,那么所以选项中一旦出现了细节的描写或者是故事的复述就一定是错误选项。

第二点, 尊重原文也很好理解。 任何一类的题目, 无论是细节题, 主旨题还是现在我们看到的推断题, 与原文意思相左的选项一定是错误选项。连意思都是不对的,那就我所谓推断不推断了。

第三点也就是最难理解的,究竟什么叫做是"只推一步"。"只推一步"的意思就是要适度推测。首先你 不能不推,既然是推断题不是细节题,那就不能照抄原文。我们在讲细节题时说过,与原文一致的一定是 正确选项,但是在推断题中就恰好相反了,因为既然是推断题,那还是要推理的,直接照抄就不符合推断 二字的意思了。除了不能照抄原文以外,也不能二次推测或者随意推测,这个就更难理解了

What can you do about stress? First, you can try to find ways to change things so you aren't under so much stress. You can set up a plan to finish homework or go to a doctor or a psychologist to try to work things out with your family or your friends. But sometimes you can't change a stressful situation. Sometimes you don't even want to. A big change might be a good change, but it will still be stressful. 57. From the last sentence of Paragraph 5 we can infer that ________. A. it's difficult to change a stressful situation B. it's not stressful when a good change takes place

C. a big change will cause another stressful situation D. a stressful situation can't be changed without any effort
首先由题干的"infer"一词知道这是一道推断题,而且明显的,是关于文章核心概念 stress(压力)的一 个长难句。A big change might be a good change, but it will still be stressful. 字面上理解为"一个变化可能是好 的变化,但它仍然是有压力的。"看选项:

A. it's difficult to change a stressful situation,此项明显与原文 But sometimes you can't change a stressful situation.的意思相左,一个是 difficult to change,一个是 cannot change。属于没有尊重原文。

B. it's not stressful when a good change takes place. 此项也是明显与原文 but it will still be stressful.意思 相左。属于没有尊重原文。

D. a stressful situation can't be changed without any effort. 是最容易错的一个选项,原文虽然说了很多改 变压力的方法,虽然看似也很麻烦,但是注意,下划线的句子中并没有直接说改变需要很多努力的问题, 这就是一个典型的"二次推测"。

所以正确答案选 C 项。


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