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美国公平信用报告法(FCRA)译本


美国公平信用报告法(FCRA)译本 译者:billtown http://billtonn.blog.163.com/ 公平信用报告法是本人于 2002 年为研究信用立法而做的基础工作,现分三篇全文送上,欢 迎批评指正。 THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT TABLE OF CONTENTS §601 Short title 小标题 §602 Congressional findings and statement of purpose 国会决定和目的说明 §603 Definitions; rules of construction 定义:法律解释规则 §604 Permissible purposes of consumer reports 消费者报告可允许达到的目的 §605 Requirements relating to information contained in consumer reports 对消费者报告有关信息的要求 §606 Disclosure of investigative consumer reports 经调查的消费者报告的披露 §607 Compliance procedures 须遵守的程序 §608 Disclosures to governmental agencies 向政府机构披露 §609 Disclosures to consumers 向消费者披露 §610 Conditions and form of disclosure to consumers 对消费者披露的条件和格式 §611 Procedure in case of disputed accuracy 准确性争议发生时的处理程序 §612 Charges for certain disclosures 对某些披露收取的费用 §613 Public record information for employment purposes 为就业目的提供公共记录信息 §614 Restrictions on investigative consumer reports 对经调查的消费者报告的限制 §615 Requirements on users of consumer reports 对消费者报告使用者的要求 §616 Civil liability for willful noncompliance 故意违法的民事责任 §617 Civil liability for negligent noncompliance 过失违法的民事责任 §618 Jurisdiction of courts; limitation of actions 法院管辖权:诉讼时效 §619 Obtaining information under false pretenses 受欺诈而获取的信息 §620 Unauthorized disclosures by officers or employees 职员或雇员未经授权的披露 §621 Administrative enforcement 行政执行 §622 Information on overdue child support obligations 未尽儿童抚养义务的有关信息 §623 Responsibilities of furnishers of information to consumer reporting agencies 向消费者报告机构提供信息的人的责任 §624 Relation to State laws 与州法律的关系 §625 Disclosures to FBI for counterintelligence purposes 为反间谍目的而向联邦调查局披露 §626 Disclosures to governmental agencies for counterterrorism purposes 为反恐怖行为目的而向政府机构披露

§601. Short title 小标题 This title may be cited as the Fair Credit Reporting Act.此小标题为“公平信用报告法” 。 §602. Congressional findings and statement of purpose [15 U.S.C. §1681]

国会决定和目的陈述 (a) Accuracy and fairness of credit reporting. The Congress makes the following findings:信用报 告的准确性和公平性。国会作出如下决定: (1) The banking system is dependent upon fair and accurate credit reporting. Inaccurate credit reports directly impair the efficiency of the banking system, and unfair credit reporting methods undermine the public confidence which is essential to the continued functioning of the banking system. 金融业系统建立在公平及准确的信用报告基础之上。 不准确的信用报告会直接影响金融系统 的效率。不公平的信用报告方法会削弱公众的信心,影响金融业持续发展的基础。 (2) An elaborate mechanism has been developed for investigating and evaluating the credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, and general reputation of consumers. 已有一套精心设计的机制用以调查及评估消费者的信用价值、信用状况、信用能力、信用品 格和一般名誉。 (3) Consumer reporting agencies have assumed a vital role in assembling and evaluating consumer credit and other information on consumers. 消费者报告机构承担了收集、 评估消费者 信用及其他有关信息的重要职责。 (4) There is a need to insure that consumer reporting agencies exercise their grave responsibilities with fairness, impartiality, and a respect for the consumer's right to privacy. 必须 确保消费者报告机构在履行其职责时是公正无私的,并尊重消费者的隐私权。 (b) Reasonable procedures. It is the purpose of this title to require that consumer reporting agencies adopt reasonable procedures for meeting the needs of commerce for consumer credit, personnel, insurance, and other information in a manner which is fair and equitable to the consumer, with regard to the confidentiality, accuracy, relevancy, and proper utilization of such information in accordance with the requirements of this title. 合理的程序。 设定这一标题的目的是要求消费者报告机构根据本标题的要求, 适用合理的程 序,用对消费者公平、公正的方法,秘密、准确、中肯而适当地使用这些信息,以满足商业 对消费者信用、个人资料、保险及其他信息的需要。 §603. Definitions; rules of construction [15 U.S.C. §1681a]定义;解释规则 (a) Definitions and rules of construction set forth in this section are applicable for the purposes of this title. 本节提出的定义及解释规则适用于本部分标题的目的。 (b) The term "person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, trust, estate, cooperative, association, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other entity. “人”一词,指任何个人,合伙,公司,信托组织,不动产组织,合作社,团体协会,政府 或政府所属部门,或其他实体。 (c) The term "consumer" means an individual.消费者一词指个人。 (d) Consumer report.消费者报告。 (1) In general. The term "consumer report" means any written, oral, or other communication of any information by a consumer reporting agency bearing on a consumer's credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living which is used or expected to be used or collected in whole or in part for the purpose of serving as a factor in establishing the consumer's eligibility for 一般规定。 消费者报告是指由信用调查机构提供的有关消费者信用价值、信用状况、信用 能力、信用品格、一般名誉、个人消费特点或生活方式的任何书面、口头及其他联系方式的 信息。它被部分或全部地用于或准备用于确定一个消费者某种资格的因素。这种资格包括

(A) credit or insurance to be used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes; 主要为 个人、家庭取得贷款或获得保险目的; (B) employment purposes; or 就业目的;或 (C) any other purpose authorized under section 604 [§1681b]. 其他由 604 节授权的任何目的 (2) Exclusions. The term "consumer report" does not include 除外事项。消费者报告不包括 (A) any 任何 (i) report containing information solely as to transactions or experiences between the consumer and the person making the report; 仅包含有关报告制作机构与消费者之间的交易或经历信息 的报告; (ii) communication of that information among persons related by common ownership or affiliated by corporate control; or 在有关的共有产权人之间或公司控制的下属机构之间传达的信息;或者 (iii) communication of other information among persons related by common ownership or affiliated by corporate control, if it is clearly and conspicuously disclosed to the consumer that the information may be communicated among such persons and the consumer is given the opportunity, before the time that the information is initially communicated, to direct that such information not be communicated among such persons; 如果明确无误地向消费者披露,在有关的共有产权人之间或公司控制的下属机构之间传达其 他信息,消费者有机会在此信息首次传达之前,指示不得在上述人员中传达。 (B) any authorization or approval of a specific extension of credit directly or indirectly by the issuer of a credit card or similar device; 由信用卡或其他类似信用工具的发卡部门直接或间接批准及授权同意的特定信用扩张; (C) any report in which a person who has been requested by a third party to make a specific extension of credit directly or indirectly to a consumer conveys his or her decision with respect to such request, if the third party advises the consumer of the name and address of the person to whom the request was made, and such person makes the disclosures to the consumer required under section 615 [§1681m]; or 某人应第三人请求对消费者直接、 间接地做出特别信用扩张, 信用报告又传达了其依该请求 所做出的决定, 而第三人如果将该被请求做出特别信用扩张的人的姓名、 地址又告诉了消费 者,其对消费者的披露是根据第 615 节[§1681m]所作的话;或者 (D) a communication described in subsection (o). 以(O)小节规定的联系方式进行传达。 (e) The term "investigative consumer report" means a consumer report or portion thereof in which information on a consumer's character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living is obtained through personal interviews with neighbors, friends, or associates of the consumer reported on or with others with whom he is acquainted or who may have knowledge concerning any such items of information. However, such information shall not include specific factual information on a consumer's credit record obtained directly from a creditor of the consumer or from a consumer reporting agency when such information was obtained directly from a creditor of the consumer or from the consumer. ”经调查的消费者报告”一词,是指报告或报告部分有关消费者品性、一般名誉、个人消费特 点或生活方式的信息,是通过对该消费者的邻居、朋友、同事或其熟人以及对他有所了解的 人进行访问而获得的。但是,当这些信息是直接从消费者债权人或消费者本人处获得的时,

它们不包括那些直接从消费者债权人或消费者信用报告机构处获得的有关消费者信用记录 的特定事实信息。 (f) The term "consumer reporting agency" means any person which, for monetary fees, dues, or on a cooperative nonprofit basis, regularly engages in whole or in part in the practice of assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other information on consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties, and which uses any means or facility of interstate commerce for the purpose of preparing or furnishing consumer reports. “信用报告机构”一词,指任何人以收费、应交之费或非盈利的合作基础,日常专职或兼职地 从事收集或评估消费者信用信息或其他有关信息, 以向第三人提供报告, 以及使用任何方式 或州际商业工具准备或提供消费者报告的任何人。 ” (g) The term "file," when used in connection with information on any consumer, means all of the information on that consumer recorded and retained by a consumer reporting agency regardless of how the information is stored. 当用于对任何消费者交流信息时, “档案” 指消费者报告机构记载的有关消费者的全部信息, 不管此信息如何记载。 (h) The term "employment purposes" when used in connection with a consumer report means a report used for the purpose of evaluating a consumer for employment, promotion, reassignment or retention as an employee. ”就业目的“一词用于消费者报告时,指该报告是用于评价消费者是否可以作为雇员就业、提 职、委派或留任。 (i) The term "medical information" means information or records obtained, with the consent of the individual to whom it relates, from licensed physicians or medical practitioners, hospitals, clinics, or other medical or medically related facilities. ”医疗信息” 一词, 指经过有关个人同意,从获得执业许可的医生或医疗从业人员、医院、 诊所或其他医疗机构得到的有关个人信息。 (j) Definitions relating to child support obligations. 有关儿童抚养义务的定义 (1) Overdue support. The term "overdue support" has the meaning given to such term in section 666(e) of title 42 [Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §666(e)]. “怠于抚养”。 ”怠于抚养”一词见第 42 编 《社会保障法》 666 节(e) , 第 美国法典第 42 编. 第 666 节(e)]节。 (2) State or local child support enforcement agency. The term "State or local child support enforcement agency" means a State or local agency which administers a State or local program for establishing and enforcing child support obligations. “州或地方儿童抚养强制实施机构”。 “州或地方儿童抚养强制实施机构” 一词, 指州或地方 管理有关确定和实施儿童抚养义务事务的机构。 (k) Adverse action.不利行动 (1) Actions included. The term "adverse action"包括的行动。 “不利行动”一词 (A) has the same meaning as in section 701(d)(6) of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act; and 含义与平等信用机会法第 701(d)(6)节的含义相同 (B) means 指 (i) a denial or cancellation of, an increase in any charge for, or a reduction or other adverse or unfavorable change in the terms of coverage or amount of, any insurance, existing or applied for, in connection with the underwriting of insurance; 根据现有的或被申请的与保险承办有关的任何保险范围或保险数额节款的拒绝或取消、 保险

费的增加,或不利改变; (ii) a denial of employment or any other decision for employment purposes that adversely affects any current or prospective employee; 任何对当前或将来的雇员有不利影响的就业否决或其他就业决定 (iii) a denial or cancellation of, an increase in any charge for, or any other adverse or unfavorable change in the terms of, any license or benefit described in section 604(a)(3)(D) [§1681b]; and 对 604(a)(3)(D) [§1681b]节规定的许可或利益的拒绝或撤销, 增加收费或任何其他不利变化; 和 (iv) an action taken or determination that is 作出的行为或决定是 (I) made in connection with an application that was made by, or a transaction that was initiated by, any consumer, or in connection with a review of an account under section 604(a)(3)(F)(ii)[§1681b]; and 与任何消费者提出的申请或交易有关, 或者根据 604(a)(3)(F)(ii)[§1681b 节与账户检查有关; 并且 (II) adverse to the interests of the consumer. 对消费者的利益不利。 (2) Applicable findings, decisions, commentary, and orders. For purposes of any determination of whether an action is an adverse action under paragraph (1)(A), all appropriate final findings, decisions, commentary, and orders issued under section 701(d)(6) of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any court shall apply. 可适用的裁决、决定、评论和命令。为了决定是否存在 1(A)段规定的不利行为,联邦储 备制度管理局或任何法院根据《平等信贷机会法》第 701(d)(6)节作出所有适当的最后裁决、 决定、评论和命令都将适用 (l) Firm offer of credit or insurance. The term "firm offer of credit or insurance" means any offer of credit or insurance to a consumer that will be honored if the consumer is determined, based on information in a consumer report on the consumer, to meet the specific criteria used to select the consumer for the offer, except that the offer may be further conditioned on one or more of the following: 信贷或保险的实盘 “信贷或保险的实盘” 指如果基于消费者报告的信息, 被决定的消费者, 符合用于为此要约而选择消费者的具体标准, 任何对消费者发出的要约将被履行, 除非要约 进一步提出下列一个或多个节件 (1) The consumer being determined, based on information in the consumer's application for the credit or insurance, to meet specific criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability, as applicable, that are established 基于消费者申请信贷或保险的信息, 被确定的消费者符合所申请的有关信贷价值或保险能 力的特定标准, (A) before selection of the consumer for the offer; and 在消费者对要约作出选择之前;和 (B) for the purpose of determining whether to extend credit or insurance pursuant to the offer. 为 决定是否依照要约提供信贷或保险 (2) Verification 查证 (A) that the consumer continues to meet the specific criteria used to select the consumer for the offer, by using information in a consumer report on the consumer, information in the consumer's application for the credit or insurance, or other information bearing on the credit worthiness or insurability of the consumer; or 通过使用消费者报告信息, 消费者申请信贷或保险的信息或者其他证明消费者信贷价值或可

保险能力的信息,消费者继续符合要约中的选择消费者的特定标准;或 (B) of the information in the consumer's application for the credit or insurance, to determine that the consumer meets the specific criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability. 以消费者申请信贷或保险的信息,来决定消费者符合证实信用价值和可保险能力的特定标 准。 (3) The consumer furnishing any collateral that is a requirement for the extension of the credit or insurance that was 消费者提供要求延展信贷或保险的任何间接材料,是 (A) established before selection of the consumer for the offer of credit or insurance; and 在消费 者对信贷或保险的要约作出选择之前已建立,并且 (B) disclosed to the consumer in the offer of credit or insurance. 在信贷或保险要约中已向消费 者披露. (m) Credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer. The term"credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer" does not include the use of a consumer report by a person with which the consumer has an account or insurance policy, for purposes of 非由消费者主动提起的信贷或保险交易。 非由消费者主动提起的信贷或保险交易”一词, “ 不包括有账户或保险单的人对消费者报告的使用,是为了 (1) reviewing the account or insurance policy; or 检查账户或保险单;或 (2) collecting the account.收债账户。 (n) State. The term "State" means any State, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and any territory or possession of the United States. 州.“州”指任何州,波多黎各,哥伦比亚地区,以及美国任何领土或领地. (o) Excluded communications. A communication is described in this subsection if it is a communication 不包括的联络。本小节规定的联络,是指 (1) that, but for subsection (d)(2)(D), would be an investigative consumer report; 如没有(d)(2)(D)小节的规定,将成为经调查的消费者报告; (2) that is made to a prospective employer for the purpose of 对将来的雇主为以下目的而联络 (A) procuring an employee for the employer; or 招聘员工,或 (B) procuring an opportunity for a natural person to work for the employer;自然人获得为雇主工 作的机会 (3) that is made by a person who regularly performs such procurement; 为定期执行此招聘的人 所进行的联络。 (4) that is not used by any person for any purpose other than a purpose described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2); and 不用于任何人为除(2)段 (A) 或(B) 小段规定目的之外的任 何目的 (5) with respect to which 针对 (A) the consumer who is the subject of the communication 作为联络对象的消费者 (i) consents orally or in writing to the nature and scope of the communication, before the collection of any information for the purpose of making the communication;在为联络而收集任何 信息之前, 口头或书面同意联络的性质和范围, (ii) consents orally or in writing to the making of the communication to a prospective employer, before the making of the communication; and 在联络前,口头或书面同意对未来的雇主进行联 络;和 (iii) in the case of consent under clause (i) or (ii) given orally, is provided written confirmation

of that consent by the person making the communication, not later than 3 business days after the receipt of the consent by that person;根据(i) 或(ii)款 ,联络者口头同意的,于收到联络者口头同 意的 3 日内,被提供同意的书面信息 (B) the person who makes the communication does not, for the purpose of making the communication, make any inquiry that if made by a prospective employer of the consumer who is the subject of the communication would violate any applicable Federal or State equal employment opportunity law or regulation; and 经联络的消费者之将来的雇主要求调查, 而进行联络的人没有为此联络而调查, 将违反联邦 或州的平等就业机构法律或法规;并且, (C) the person who makes the communication 进行联络的人 (i) discloses in writing to the consumer who is the subject of the communication, not later than 5 business days after receiving any request from the consumer for such disclosure, the nature and substance of all information in the consumer's file at the time of the request, except that the sources of any information that is acquired solely for use in making the communication and is actually used for no other purpose, need not be disclosed other than under appropriate discovery procedures in any court of competent jurisdiction in which an action is brought; and 在不迟于收到消费者任何要求披露的请求之日后 5 日内,对联络的消费者书面披露, 消费者 请求披露时其档案中所有信息的性质和内容,除了专为用于联络,且实际上不用于其他任何 目的而得到的信息材料以外,在提起诉讼的情形下,除在有管辖权的法院适当的发现程序中 披露外,没有必要披露;并且 (ii) notifies the consumer who is the subject of the communication, in writing, of the consumer's right to request the information described in clause (i). 书面通知所联络的消费者,其有权要求披露(i)款规定的信息。 (p) Consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis. The term "consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis" means a consumer reporting agency that regularly engages in the practice of assembling or evaluating, and maintaining, for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties bearing on a consumer's credit worthiness, credit standing, or credit capacity, each of the following regarding consumers residing nationwide: 消费者报告机构在全国范围汇编和保管消费者档案。 “消费者报告机构在全国范围汇编和保 管消费者档案” ,是指消费者报告机构,为向第三人提供证明该消费者的信用可靠度,或信 用状况, 信用能力的消费者报告, 固定地对居住在国内的消费者的下列信息从事收集或评估 和保管业务: (1) Public record information. 公共记录信息 (2) Credit account information from persons who furnish that information regularly and in the ordinary course of business. 以通常的商业方式,从提供定期信息的人处获得的信贷账户信息。 §604. Permissible purposes of consumer reports [15 U.S.C. §1681b] 消费者报告可允许达到的目的 (a) In general. Subject to subsection (c), any consumer reporting agency may furnish a consumer report under the following circumstances and no other: 一般规定。根据(c)款,消费者报告机构可在下列情形提供消费者报告,并在其他场合则不 得提供: (1) In response to the order of a court having jurisdiction to issue such an order, or a subpoena

issued in connection with proceedings before a Federal grand jury. 应有管辖权的法院发出的命令,或应联邦大陪审团审理诉讼而发出的传票; (2) In accordance with the written instructions of the consumer to whom it relates. 根据与报告涉及消费者的书面指示; (3) To a person which it has reason to believe 向有理由相信的下列人员: (A) intends to use the information in connection with a credit transaction involving the consumer on whom the information is to be furnished and involving the extension of credit to, or review or collection of an account of, the consumer; or 试图使用这些有该消费者参与的信用交易的信息, 该信息将向消费者发出并涉及对消费者的 信用扩张、检查或账户收集等;或 (B) intends to use the information for employment purposes; or 试图为就业目的使用该信息;或 (C) intends to use the information in connection with the underwriting of insurance involving the consumer; or 试图使用与签署涉及该消费者的保险协议有关的信息;或 (D) intends to use the information in connection with a determination of the consumer's eligibility for a license or other benefit granted by a governmental instrumentality required by law to consider an applicant's financial responsibility or status; or 试图使用有关决定消费者按法律要求取得政府机构许可或授予其他利益的相应资格的信息, 以考虑申请人的金融责任或地位;或 (E) intends to use the information, as a potential investor or servicer, or current insurer, in connection with a valuation of, or an assessment of the credit or prepayment risks associated with, an existing credit obligation; or 作为潜在的投资者、 服务商或作为当前的保险人, 意在使用与现存信贷责任有关的信贷评估, 或估价,或预支风险的信息; (F) otherwise has a legitimate business need for the information 其他对信息有合法商业需要的规定。 (i) in connection with a business transaction that is initiated by the consumer; or 与由消费者提出的商务交易有关的信息;或 (ii) to review an account to determine whether the consumer continues to meet the terms of the account. 检查账户以决定消费者是否继续符合账户节件。 (4) In response to a request by the head of a State or local child support enforcement agency (or a State or local government official authorized by the head of such an agency), if the person making the request certifies to the consumer reporting agency that 应州或地方儿童抚养执行机构(或此机构首长授权的州或地方政府的官员)的要求,如果提出 要求的人证明消费者报告机构 (A) the consumer report is needed for the purpose of establishing an individual's capacity to make child support payments or determining the appropriate level of such payments; 消费者报告为建立儿童抚养的个人支付能力或决定适当的支付水平所必须; (B) the paternity of the consumer for the child to which the obligation relates has been established or acknowledged by the consumer in accordance with State laws under which the obligation arises (if required by those laws); 根据州的法律, 消费者与儿童的父子关系已经确立的或被公认,并据此关系对消费者产生责 任(如果这些法律提出了要求)

(C) the person has provided at least 10 days' prior notice to the consumer whose report is requested, by certified or registered mail to the last known address of the consumer, that the report will be requested; and 对被要求的消费者至少提前 10 天提出通知,以确认的或挂号的邮件方式寄至消费者最新的地 址. (D) the consumer report will be kept confidential, will be used solely for a purpose described in subparagraph (A), and will not be used in connection with any other civil, administrative, or criminal proceeding, or for any other purpose. 消费者报告应保守秘密,并专用于 subparagraph (A)所规定的目的,不得用于有关其他任何民 事,行政或刑事诉讼程序,或用于其他任何目的. (5) To an agency administering a State plan under Section 454 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. §654) for use to set an initial or modified child support award. 根据社会保障法第 454(美国法典第 42 卷第 654 节)项,管理州的计划的机构,为确立一份初审 的或经修改过的儿童抚养裁决而使用. (b) Conditions for furnishing and using consumer reports for employment purposes. 为就业目的提供和使用消费者报告的节件 (1) Certification from user. A consumer reporting agency may furnish a consumer report for employment purposes only if 使用者证明。消费者报告机构仅在如下场合,可以为就业目的而提供消费者报告, (A) the person who obtains such report from the agency certifies to the agency that 从机构获得 报告的人对机构证明 (i) the person has complied with paragraph (2) with respect to the consumer report, and the person will comply with paragraph (3) with respect to the consumer report if paragraph (3) becomes applicable; and 其已遵守 paragraph (2)有关消费者报告的规定,如适用 paragraph (3),并将遵守 paragraph (3)有关消费者报告的规定;并且 (ii) information from the consumer report will not be used in violation of any applicable Federal or State equal employment opportunity law or regulation; and 消费者报告的信息将不用于违反联邦或州的平等就业机会法律或法规,并且 (B) the consumer reporting agency provides with the report, or has previously provided, a summary of the consumer's rights under this title, as prescribed by the Federal Trade Commission under section 609(c)(3) [§1681g]. 按联邦贸易委员会依 609(c)(3) [§1681g].的指示, 消费者报告机构随报告提供或已预先提 供本编所规定的消费者权利摘要 (2) Disclosure to consumer. 向消费者的披露 (A) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person may not procure a consumer report, or cause a consumer report to be procured, for employment purposes with respect to any consumer, unless-一般规定. 除如(B)段规定以外,个人不可为了就业目的获取或招致获取消费者报告,除 非 (i) a clear and conspicuous disclosure has been made in writing to the consumer at any time before the report is procured or caused to be procured, in a document that consists solely of the disclosure, that a consumer report may be obtained for employment purposes; and 在获取或招致获取报告之前的任何时间内,已经以书面形式明确对消费者作出披露,且文

件仅披露为就业目的而取得消费者报告;并且 (ii) the consumer has authorized in writing (which authorization may be made on the document referred to in clause (i)) the procurement of the report by that person. 消费者已书面授权[ (1)项所指文件规定的授权]获取报告 (B) Application by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means. If a consumer described in subparagraph (C) applies for employment by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means, at any time before a consumer report is procured or caused to be procured in connection with that application-以邮寄、电话、计算机或其他类似方式提出申请。如(C)小段规定的消费者以邮政、电话 的、计算机或其他类似方式,提出就业申请,有关此就业申请在获取或招致获取消费者报告 之前的任何时间提出。 (i) the person who procures the consumer report on the consumer for employment purposes shall provide to the consumer, by oral, written, or electronic means, notice that a consumer report may be obtained for employment purposes, and a summary of the consumer's rights under section 615(a)(3); and 为就业目的而获取消费者报告的人应当以口头、书面或电子方式,通知消费者提供,为就业 目的可以获得消费者报告和 615(a)(3)规定的消费者权利摘要,并且 (ii) the consumer shall have consented, orally, in writing, or electronically to the procurement of the report by that person. 消费者应以口头、书面或电子方式表示已经同意,由该人取得报告 (C) Scope. Subparagraph (B) shall apply to a person procuring a consumer report on a consumer in connection with the consumer's application for employment only if-范围。Subparagraph (B)适用于与消费者申请就业有关而取得消费者报告的人 (i) the consumer is applying for a position over which the Secretary of Transportation has the power to establish qualifications and maximum hours of service pursuant to the provisions of section 31502 of title 49, or a position subject to safety regulation by a State transportation agency; and 消费者正在申请属于运输部长根据第 49 编第 31502 节的规定有权限定资格和最长工作时 间的岗位,或州的运输部门安全法规限定的岗位;并且 (ii) as of the time at which the person procures the report or causes the report to be procured the only interaction between the consumer and the person in connection with that employment application has been by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means. 至取得报告或招致取得报告时,仅在消费者与该人之间,已经通过邮寄、电话、电脑或其 他相似方式传递有关就业申请。 (3) Conditions on use for adverse actions. 为不利行动而使用的节件 (A) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in using a consumer report for employment purposes, before taking any adverse action based in whole or in part on the report, the person intending to take such adverse action shall provide to the consumer to whom the report relates-一般规定。除 subparagraph (B)已作规定外,为就业目的使用消费者报告,在全部或部分根 据报告内容采取不利行动前,打算采取行动的人应当对报告的消费者提供 (i) a copy of the report; and 报告的副本;和

(ii) a description in writing of the rights of the consumer under this title, as prescribed by the Federal Trade Commission under section 609(c)(3). 根据 609(c)(3)节,按联邦贸易委员会的规定,对本编项下的消费者权利作书面记载, (B) Application by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means. 通过邮寄、电话、计算机或其他类似方式提出申请。 (i) If a consumer described in subparagraph (C) applies for employment by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means, and if a person who has procured a consumer report on the consumer for employment purposes takes adverse action on the employment application based in whole or in part on the report, then the person must provide to the consumer to whom the report relates, in lieu of the notices required under subparagraph (A) of this section and under section 615(a), within 3 business days of taking such action, an oral, written or electronic notification-如果(C)小段下的消费者通过邮寄、电话、计算机或其他类似方式提出就业申请,如果获得消 费者报告的人全部或部分地根据消费者报告中的信息, 为就业目的而对申请人采取不利行动, 必须在行动后的 3 个工作日内,将与报告有关的人告知消费者,以替代根据 (A)小段和 615(a) 节要求的通知, 以口头、书面或电子方式通知。 (I) that adverse action has been taken based in whole or in part on a consumer report received from a consumer reporting agency; 已经全部或部分地基于从消费者报告机构处获得的消费者报告而做出不利行动; (II) of the name, address and telephone number of the consumer reporting agency that furnished the consumer report (including a toll-free telephone number established by the agency if the agency compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis); 消费者报告的消费者报告机构的名称、地址、电话号码(如机构在全国范围内汇编和保管消 费者档案,包括机构设立的免费电话号码) ; (III) that the consumer reporting agency did not make the decision to take the adverse action and is unable to provide to the consumer the specific reasons why the adverse action was taken; and 消费者报告机构没有做出采取不利行动的决定, 不能对消费者提供特定的理由解释为何要 采取不利行动;并且 (IV) that the consumer may, upon providing proper identification, request a free copy of a report and may dispute with the consumer reporting agency the accuracy or completeness of any information in a report. 消费者可凭提交适当的身份证明,要求免费获得报告副本,并可就报告中信息的准确性和 完整性向消费者报告机构提出异议。 (ii) If, under clause (B)(i)(IV), the consumer requests a copy of a consumer report from the person who procured the report, then, within 3 business days of receiving the consumer's request, together with proper identification, the person must send or provide to the consumer a copy of a report and a copy of the consumer's rights as prescribed by the Federal Trade Commission under section 609(c)(3). 如果,根据(B)(i)(IV)款,消费者有权要求获取消费者报告的人提供消费者报告副本,该被 要求的人则在收到消费者请求和适当的身份证明后的 3 个工作日内, 应当送达或提供消费者 报告的副本一份和联邦贸易委员会依 609(c)(3)所规定的消费者权利的副本一份 (C) Scope. Subparagraph (B) shall apply to a person procuring a consumer report on a consumer in connection with the consumer's application for employment only if-范围。仅在下列情况下,Subparagraph (B)适用于与消费者为就业目的提出申请相关,而取 得消费者报告的人,

(i) the consumer is applying for a position over which the Secretary of Transportation has the power to establish qualifications and maximum hours of service pursuant to the provisions of section 31502 of title 49, or a position subject to safety regulation by a State transportation agency; and 消费者正在申请的工作岗位,属于运输部长根据 31502 of title 49,的规定,有权认定资格和 最长工作时间的工作岗位,或属于州的运输部门安全法规管制的工作岗位;并且 (ii) as of the time at which the person procures the report or causes the report to be procured the only interaction between the consumer and the person in connection with that employment application has been by mail, telephone, computer, or other similar means. 仅在消费者与该人为有关就业申请已经通过邮寄、电话、计算机或其他方式相互联系,从 获得报告或引起报告被获得的时间起 (4) Exception for national security investigations. 国家安全调查除外。 (A) In general. In the case of an agency or department of the United States Government which seeks to obtain and use a consumer report for employment purposes, paragraph (3) shall not apply to any adverse action by such agency or department which is based in part on such consumer report, if the head of such agency or department makes a written finding that-一般规定。美国政府部门为就业目的寻求获得和使用消费者报告,其全部或部分地基于消 费者报告采取不利行动的,不适用第 3 段的规定,如果该部门长官作出书面决定—— (i) the consumer report is relevant to a national security investigation of such agency or department; 消费者报告与该部门的国家安全调查有关; (ii) the investigation is within the jurisdiction of such agency or department; 此调查属于该部门管辖; (iii) there is reason to believe that compliance with paragraph (3) will-有理由相信遵守第 3 段规定将会 (I) endanger the life or physical safety of any person; 危及任何人的生命或身体健康 (II) result in flight from prosecution; 导致逃避起诉; (III) result in the destruction of, or tampering with, evidence relevant to the investigation; 导致与调查有关证据的毁灭或篡改; (IV) result in the intimidation of a potential witness relevant to the investigation; 导致与调查有关的证人受到胁迫 (V) result in the compromise of classified information; or 导致危及机密信息的安全;或 (VI) otherwise seriously jeopardize or unduly delay the investigation or another official proceeding.严重损害或不适当地拖延调查或其他官方程序的其他情形。 (B) Notification of consumer upon conclusion of investigation. Upon the conclusion of a national security investigation described in subparagraph (A), or upon the determination that the exception under subparagraph (A) is no longer required for the reasons set forth in such subparagraph, the official exercising the authority in such subparagraph shall provide to the consumer who is the subject of the consumer report with regard to which such finding was made-将调查结论通知消费者。 根据 subparagraph (A)的国家安全调查结论, 或根据因 subparagraph

(A) 规定的理由不再要求例外的决定,subparagraph 项下行使权力的官员应对作为消费者报 告对象的消费者提供所做出的决定-(i) a copy of such consumer report with any classified information redacted as necessary; 载有经过必要编辑的消费者机密信息的报告副本; (ii) notice of any adverse action which is based, in part, on the consumer report; and 全部或部分基于消费者报告而采取不利行动的通知;和 (iii) the identification with reasonable specificity of the nature of the investigation for which the consumer report was sought. 对被收寻的消费者报告进行调查的性质以合理的特性进行标识。 (C) Delegation by head of agency or department. For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the head of any agency or department of the United States Government may delegate his or her authorities under this paragraph to an official of such agency or department who has personnel security responsibilities and is a member of the Senior Executive Service or equivalent civilian or military rank. 部门长官的授权。为 subparagraphs (A) and (B)目的,任何美国政府部门的长官可根据本段 的规定, 将其权力授予本部门负有个人安全职责的, 并且是高级行政业务官员或具有相等文 职或军衔的官员, (D) Report to the congress. Not later than January 31 of each year, the head of each agency and department of the United States Government that exercised authority under this paragraph during the preceding year shall submit a report to the Congress on the number of times the department or agency exercised such authority during the year. 向国会报告.依本段行使权力的各政府部门长官应不迟于每年 1 月 31 日, 就政府部门在上 一年度行使权力的次数.向国会提交报告. (E) Definitions. For purposes of this paragraph, the following definitions shall apply: 定义。下 列定义为本段目的而适用: (i) Classified information. The term `classified information' means information that is protected from unauthorized disclosure under Executive Order No. 12958 or successor orders. 机密信息。 “机密信息”一词,是指依 12958 号总统令或后续的总统令,未经授权披露并受到保护的信 息 (ii) National security investigation. The term `national security investigation' means any official inquiry by an agency or department of the United States Government to determine the eligibility of a consumer to receive access or continued access to classified information or to determine whether classified information has been lost or compromised. 国家安全调查。 “国家安全调查” 一词, 指由美国政府部门或机构为确定消费者是否有合适得到或持续得到机密信息, 或确定 机密信息是否已经丢失或受到危害而进行的任何官方调查。 (c) Furnishing reports in connection with credit or insurance transactions that are not initiated by the consumer. 提供有关非由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交易的报告。 (1) In general. A consumer reporting agency may furnish a consumer report relating to any consumer pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (C) of subsection (a)(3) in connection with any credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer only if 一般规定。 仅在下列情况下, 根据 subparagraph (A) or (C) of subsection (a)(3)的规定, 消费者报告机构可以提供有关任何非 由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交易的消费者报告, (A) the consumer authorizes the agency to provide such report to such person; or 消费者授权机 构对该人提供此报告。或

(B) (i) the transaction consists of a firm offer of credit or insurance; 交易由信贷或保险的实盘组成; (ii) the consumer reporting agency has complied with subsection (e); and 消费者报告机构已遵守 subsection (e)的规定;并且 (iii) there is not in effect an election by the consumer, made in accordance with subsection (e), to have the consumer's name and address excluded from lists of names provided by the agency pursuant to this paragraph. 依照 (e)小节,从机构按本段提供的名单表上,消费者做出将消费者姓名和住址剔出的决定 没有生效。 (2) Limits on information received under paragraph (1)(B). A person may receive pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) only 依 (1)(B)段收到的信息之限制。根据(1)(B)段,仅可收到 (A) the name and address of a consumer; 消费者的姓名和住址 (B) an identifier that is not unique to the consumer and that is used by the person solely for the purpose of verifying the identity of the consumer; and 并非消费者唯一特征的标识,且仅用于证明消费者的身份, (C) other information pertaining to a consumer that does not identify the relationship or experience of the consumer with respect to a particular creditor or other entity. 消费者的有关其他信息,这些信息不确定消费者与有关特定信贷人或其他实体的关系或经 历。 (3) Information regarding inquiries. Except as provided in section 609(a)(5) [§1681g], a consumer reporting agency shall not furnish to any person a record of inquiries in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by a consumer. 有关调查的信息。 609(a)(5) 除 [§1681g]规定外, 消费者报告机构不得向任何人提供与非由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交 易有关的调查记录。 (d) Reserved.保留。 (e) Election of consumer to be excluded from lists. 消费者被剔出名单的决定。 (1) In general. A consumer may elect to have the consumer's name and address excluded from any list provided by a consumer reporting agency under subsection (c)(1)(B) in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer, by notifying the agency in accordance with paragraph (2) that the consumer does not consent to any use of a consumer report relating to the consumer in connection with any credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer. 一般规定。依 subsection (c)(1)(B)提供的与非由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交易,可决定 将消费者的姓名和住址从消费者报告机构名单中剔出。根据 paragraph (2) 消费者可通知机 构,消费者不同意在与非由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交易中使用消费者报告。 (2) Manner of notification. A consumer shall notify a consumer reporting agency under paragraph (1) 通知的方式。消费者应当依照 paragraph (1)通知消费者报告机构 (A) through the notification system maintained by the agency under paragraph (5); or 通过机构依 paragraph (5)维护的系统进行通知 (B) by submitting to the agency a signed notice of election form issued by the agency for purposes of this subparagraph.

在机构为本小段目的而发出的决定通知函上签字,并对对机构提交。 (3) Response of agency after notification through system. Upon receipt of notification of the election of a consumer under paragraph (1) through the notification system maintained by the agency under paragraph (5), a consumer reporting agency shall 通过系统通知后机构的回应。 通过机构依第 5 段维护的通知系统提交决定通知的, 消费者报 告机构一旦收到消费者的通知,应当 (A) inform the consumer that the election is effective only for the 2-year period following the election if the consumer does not submit to the agency a signed notice of election form issued by the agency for purposes of paragraph (2)(B); and 告知消费者,机构为(2)(B)小段目的而发出决定通知函,如消费者在作出决定后,但没有 对机构提交有其签名的决定通知的,决定仅在 2 年的期限内有效;并且 (B) provide to the consumer a notice of election form, if requested by the consumer, not later than 5 business days after receipt of the notification of the election through the system established under paragraph (5), in the case of a request made at the time the consumer provides notification through the system. 在消费者通过系统提交通知时提出要求的情况下 ,如经消费者要求,在不迟于通过依段 5 设置的系统收到决定通知后的 5 个工作日内,对消费者提供一份决定通知, 。 (4) Effectiveness of election. An election of a consumer under paragraph (1) 决定的效力。消费者依第 1 段的决定 (A) shall be effective with respect to a consumer reporting agency beginning 5 business days after the date on which the consumer notifies the agency in accordance with paragraph (2); 在消费者报告机构始于消费者根据 paragraph (2)通知机构之日的 5 个工作日后有效。 (B) shall be effective with respect to a consumer reporting agency 对消费者报告机构有效 (i) subject to subparagraph (C), during the 2-year period beginning 5 business days after the date on which the consumer notifies the agency of the election, in the case of an election for which a consumer notifies the agency only in accordance with paragraph (2)(A); or 按照 subparagraph (C)的规定, 消费者只依据 paragraph (2)(A)的规定对机构通知其决定的, 在 始于消费者根据 paragraph (2)通知机构之日 5 个工作日后的 2 年期限,或者 (ii) until the consumer notifies the agency under subparagraph (C), in the case of an election for which a consumer notifies the agency in accordance with paragraph (2)(B); 在消费者根据 paragraph (2)(B 对机构作出决定通知的情况下, 直至消费者依 subparagraph (C) 通知机构前; (C) shall not be effective after the date on which the consumer notifies the agency, through the notification system established by the agency under paragraph (5), that the election is no longer effective; and 消费者通过机构依 paragraph (5)设置的通知系统,通知机构其决定在不再有效之日后无效 (D) shall be effective with respect to each affiliate of the agency. 对机构的各附属机构有效。 (5) Notification system. 通知系统。 (A) In general. Each consumer reporting agency that, under subsection (c)(1)(B), furnishes a consumer report in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by a consumer, shall 一般规定。各消费者报告机构,依 subsection (c)(1)(B),提供与非由消费者主动提出的信贷

或保险交易有关消费者报告,应当 (i) establish and maintain a notification system, including a toll-free telephone number, which permits any consumer whose consumer report is maintained by the agency to notify the agency, with appropriate identification, of the consumer's election to have the consumer's name and address excluded from any such list of names and addresses provided by the agency for such a transaction; and 设置并维护通知系统,包括免费电话号码,允许被机构保管消费者报告的任何消费者,以 适当的身份做出消费者决定, 通知机构将其姓名和地址从机构为此交易而提供的姓名和住址 名单中剔出;并且 (ii) publish by not later than 365 days after the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996, and not less than annually thereafter, in a publication of general circulation in the area served by the agency 在不迟于 《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》 通过之日后的 365 日在机构服务区域内的循环 出版物上出版,并在此后每年不少于一次。 (I) a notification that information in consumer files maintained by the agency may be used in connection with such transactions; and 由机构保管的消费者档案中信息的通知,可以在与此有关的交易中使用;并且 (II) the address and toll-free telephone number for consumers to use to notify the agency of the consumer's election under clause (I).消费者用于通知机构其依 clause (I)作出选择的地址和免费 电话号码 (B) Establishment and maintenance as compliance. Establishment and maintenance of a notification system (including a toll-free telephone number) and publication by a consumer reporting agency on the agency's own behalf and on behalf of any of its affiliates in accordance with this paragraph is deemed to be compliance with this paragraph by each of those affiliates. 按 照遵守程序进行设置和维护。 消费者报告机构以自己名义和以其下属机构的名义根据本段落按遵守程序设置和维护通 知系统(包括免费电话号码)及出版物,视为其下属机构遵守了本段。 (6) Notification system by agencies that operate nationwide. Each consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis shall establish and maintain a notification system for purposes of paragraph (5) jointly with other such consumer reporting agencies. 机构动作的在国内通知系统。各消费者报告机构为第 paragraph (5)目的,在全国范 围内汇编和保管消费者档案的,应当与其他消费者报告机构共同设置和维护通知系统。 (f) Certain use or obtaining of information prohibited. A person shall not use or obtain a consumer report for any purpose unless 获得和使用被禁止的信息。个人不得为任何目的使用和获得消 费者报告,除非 (1) the consumer report is obtained for a purpose for which the consumer report is authorized to be furnished under this section; and 为根据本节规定经授权而提供的目的,获得消费者报告;并 且 (2) the purpose is certified in accordance with section 607 [§1681e] by a prospective user of the report through a general or specific certification.将来使用报告的人根据 607 [§1681e]的规定,通 过通常或专门的证明,证实了此目的。 (g) Furnishing reports containing medical information. A consumer reporting agency shall not furnish for employment purposes, or in connection with a credit or insurance transaction, a consumer report that contains medical information about a consumer, unless the consumer

consents to the furnishing of the report.提供含有医疗卫生信息的报告。 消费者报告机构不得为 就业目的或在有关信贷或保险交易中,提供含有消费者医疗信息的消费者报告。但是,消费 者同意提供的除外。 §605. Requirements relating to information contained in consumer reports [15 U.S.C. §1681c]对 消费者报告有关信息的要求 (a) Information excluded from consumer reports. Except as authorized under subsection (b) of this section, no consumer reporting agency may make any consumer report containing any of the following items of information: 从消费者报告中排除的信息。 除经过基于(B)小节的授权, 消 费者报告机构不得做出含有以下信息的消费者报告: (1) Cases under title 11 [United States Code] or under the Bankruptcy Act that, from the date of entry of the order for relief or the date of adjudication, as the case may be, antedate the report by more than 10 years. 美国法典第 11 编项下的案件或破产法项下的案件,自发出救济令或破产宣告之日起,在 报告之前超过 10 年。 (2) Civil suits, civil judgments, and records of arrest that from date of entry, antedate the report by more than seven years or until the governing statute of limitations has expired, whichever is the longer period. 民事诉讼,民事判决或被捕记录,自登记之日起超过报告之前 7 年或管理时效规定的时限 届满,取其时间长者, (3) Paid tax liens which, from date of payment, antedate the report by more than seven years. 税 收留置,自完税之日起已超过 7 年的。 (4) Accounts placed for collection or charged to profit and loss which antedate the report by more than seven years.(1) 设置收集和掌管收益或损失的账户已经超过 7 年的; (5) Any other adverse item of information, other than records of convictions of crimes which antedates the report by more than seven years.1 任何其他不利事项的信息,除定罪记录 自报告之日起超过 7 年 (b) Exempted cases. The provisions of subsection (a) of this section are not applicable in the case of any consumer credit report to be used in connection with 免除情形。A 小节的规定不适用于与以下情形有关的任何消费者信用报告 (1) a credit transaction involving, or which may reasonably be expected to involve, a principal amount of $150,000 or more; 涉及或被合理地预期将涉及 150,000 及以上美元的信贷交易; (2) the underwriting of life insurance involving, or which may reasonably be expected to involve, a face amount of $150,000 or more; or 签订涉及或被合理地预期将涉及 150,000 元及以上美元的人寿保险;或者 (3) the employment of any individual at an annual salary which equals, or which may reasonably be expected to equal $75,000, or more. 年薪相当于或被合理地预期将相当于 75,000 元及以上美元的个人职业 (c) Running of reporting period. 报告期间的管理 (1) In general. The 7-year period referred to in paragraphs (4) and (6)(2) of subsection (a) shall begin, with respect to any delinquent account that is placed for collection (internally or by referral

to a third party, whichever is earlier), charged to profit and loss, or subjected to any similar action, upon the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the commencement of the delinquency which immediately preceded the collection activity, charge to profit and loss, or similar action. 一般规定。为结算、记载盈亏账目或类似行为而设立的账户(不管是内部使用或是介绍给第 三方,以时间先者为准)拖欠债务的, (A)小节第(4)和(6)项所指的 7 年期限,自结 算、记载盈亏账目或类似行为之前就发生的拖欠债务之日后的 180 日届满之日起计算。 (2) Effective date. Paragraph (1) shall apply only to items of information added to the file of a consumer on or after the date that is 455 days after the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996. 生效日期。第(1)段仅适用于 1996 年消费者信用报告改革法制定后的第 455 日当天及其以 后在消费者档案中添加信息的情形 (d) Information required to be disclosed. Any consumer reporting agency that furnishes a consumer report that contains information regarding any case involving the consumer that arises under title 11, United States Code, shall include in the report an identification of the chapter of such title 11 under which such case arises if provided by the source of the information. If any case arising or filed under title 11, United States Code, is withdrawn by the consumer before a final judgment, the consumer reporting agency shall include in the report that such case or filing was withdrawn upon receipt of documentation certifying such withdrawal. 要求被披露的信息.消费者报告机构提供的消费者报告中含有根据美国法典第 11 篇产生的消 费者案件的信息,如果信息来源所提供的案件系根据美国法典第 11 篇所引起或起诉,应在 报告中包括对该法典章节的确认。 如依美国法典第 11 篇引起或起诉的案件在终审前由消 费者撤诉,消费者报告机构应当报告此案件依据撤诉确认文件而撤诉。 (e) Indication of closure of account by consumer. If a consumer reporting agency is notified pursuant to section 623(a)(4) [§1681s-2] that a credit account of a consumer was voluntarily closed by the consumer, the agency shall indicate that fact in any consumer report that includes information related to the account. 消费者关闭账户的标明。如消费者报告机构依 623(A) (4)[§1681s-2]节得到通知,消费 者关闭了信用账户,消费者报告机构应对消费者报告中有关该帐户的事实加以标明。 (f) Indication of dispute by consumer. If a consumer reporting agency is notified pursuant to section 623(a)(3) [§1681s-2] that information regarding a consumer who was furnished to the agency is disputed by the consumer, the agency shall indicate that fact in each consumer report that includes the disputed information. 消费者争议的标明。如果消费者报告机构根据 623(a)(3) [§1681s-2]节得到通知,消费者就消 费者报告机构提供的有关其本人的信息提出争议, 机构应当标明在每一件消费者报告中所包 括的争议信息的事实。 §606. Disclosure of investigative consumer reports [15 U.S.C. §1681d] 经调查的消费者报告的披露 (a) Disclosure of fact of preparation. A person may not procure or cause to be prepared an investigative consumer report on any consumer unless 除以下情况,个人不得招致或导致一份 关于任何消费者的经过调查的消费者报告被准备: (1) it is clearly and accurately disclosed to the consumer that an investigative consumer report including information as to his character, general reputation, personal characteristics and mode of living, whichever are applicable, may be made, and such disclosure

该报告清楚、 准确地向消费者披露, 被制作的经调查的消费者报告会包括有关消费者品格、 一般名誉、个人消费者特点或生活方式的信息,以能适用的报告为准,并且该披露 (A) is made in a writing mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer, not later than three days after the date on which the report was first requested, and 在收到关于报告的首次请求后 3 日内以书面邮寄或其他方式送达消费者; (B) includes a statement informing the consumer of his right to request the additional disclosures provided for under subsection (b) of this section and the written summary of the rights of the consumer prepared pursuant to section 609(c) [§1681g]; and 包括一个告知消费者享有按(b)小节规定的请求获得附随披露和根据 609(c) [§1681g]节准 备的消费者权利的书面摘要的权利。 (2) the person certifies or has certified to the consumer reporting agency that 该人证明或已对消 费者报告机构证明 (A) the person has made the disclosures to the consumer required by paragraph (1); and 他已对消 费者做出第 1 段的要求的披露,并且 (B) the person will comply with subsection (b). 将遵守(b)小节。 (b) Disclosure on request of nature and scope of investigation.对调查的性质、范围请求的披露。 Any person who procures or causes to be prepared an investigative consumer report on any consumer shall, upon written request made by the consumer within a reasonable period of time after the receipt by him of the disclosure required by subsection (a)(1) of this section, make a complete and accurate disclosure of the nature and scope of the investigation requested. 任何招 致或导致一份关于任何消费者的经调查的消费者报告被准备的人, 应基于消费者在收到其按 (a)(1) 小节要求的披露后合理的期限内的书面请求, 做出有关被请求之调查的性质及范围的 准确而完整的披露。This disclosure shall be made in a writing mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer not later than five days after the date on which the request for such disclosure was received from the consumer or such report was first requested, whichever is the later. 该披露应在 收到消费者的披露请求或第一次被请求做该报告之日(以时间后者为准)起 5 日内以邮寄或其 他书面方式送达消费者。 (c) Limitation on liability upon showing of reasonable procedures for compliance with provisions. No person may be held liable for any violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section if he shows by a preponderance of the evidence that at the time of the violation he maintained reasonable procedures to assure compliance with subsection (a) or (b) of this section.证明遵循合理程序以遵 守规定情况下的责任限制。违反了(a) 或(b)小节时,如果行为人证明他的违反是在遵循合理 的程序以确保遵守(a) 或(b)小节的情况下发生的,则可不承担责任。 (d) Prohibitions. 禁止规定。 (1) Certification. A consumer reporting agency shall not prepare or furnish investigative consumer report unless the agency has received a certification under subsection (a)(2) from the person who requested the report. 证明。消费者报告机构不得准备或提供调查性消费者报告,除非机构已 根据(a)(2)小节收到来自要求报告者的证明。 (2) Inquiries. A consumer reporting agency shall not make an inquiry for the purpose of preparing an investigative consumer report on a consumer for employment purposes if the making of the inquiry by an employer or prospective employer of the consumer would violate any applicable Federal or State equal employment opportunity law or regulation.查询。消费者报告机构不得为 准备调查性消费者报告而对消费者就业目的进行查询, 如果消费者的雇主或未来的雇主进行 查询,则违反了联邦或州的平等就业机会法律或法规

(3) Certain public record information. Except as otherwise provided in section 613 [§1681k], a consumer reporting agency shall not furnish an investigative consumer report that includes information that is a matter of public record and that relates to an arrest, indictment, conviction, civil judicial action, tax lien, or outstanding judgment, unless the agency has verified the accuracy of the information during the 30-day period ending on the date on which the report is furnished. 某些公开记载的信息。除 613[§1681k]节另有规定外,消费者报告机构不得提供含有公开记 载事项的信息及有关拘捕、检控、有罪判决,民事诉讼,税务留置,或未决判决内容的调查 性消费者报告,除非机构在报告完成之日起 30 日内已对信息的准确性加以核实。 (4) Certain adverse information. A consumer reporting agency shall not prepare or furnish an investigative consumer report on a consumer that contains information that is adverse to the interest of the consumer and that is obtained through a personal interview with a neighbor, friend, or associate of the consumer or with another person with whom the consumer is acquainted or who has knowledge of such item of information, unless 某些不利的信息。 消费者报告机构不得准备或提供含有对消费者不利信息的调查性消费者报 告。这些不利信息通过与消费者邻居、朋友或同事,以及与其他了解该消费者或知悉其不利 信息事项的人进行个别访谈而获得。除非 (A)the agency has followed reasonable procedures to obtain confirmation of the information, from an additional source that has independent and direct knowledge of the information; or 机构已按照合理程序从另外渠道独立而直接地知悉此信息并获得对信息的确认;或者 (B ) the person interviewed is the best possible source of the information. 接受访谈人是此信息之最大可能的来源。 §607. Compliance procedures [15 U.S.C. §1681e]须遵守的程序 (a) Identity and purposes of credit users. Every consumer reporting agency shall maintain reasonable procedures designed to avoid violations of section 605 [§1681c] and to limit the furnishing of consumer reports to the purposes listed under section 604 [§1681b] of this title. These procedures shall require that prospective users of the information identify themselves, certify the purposes for which the information is sought, and certify that the information will be used for no other purpose. Every consumer reporting agency shall make a reasonable effort to verify the identity of a new prospective user and the uses certified by such prospective user prior to furnishing such user a consumer report. No consumer reporting agency may furnish a consumer report to any person if it has reasonable grounds for believing that the consumer report will not be used for a purpose listed in section 604 [§1681b] of this title. 信用使用者的身份和目的。 每个消费者报告机构都要遵守合理的程序, 设定这些程序是为了 避免违反第 605 [§1681c]节规定,并对 604 [§1681b]节所列目的提供消费者报告加以限制。 这些程序要求信息使用者证实他们的身份, 证明信息使用的目的, 并证明不会用于其他目的。 每个消费者报告机构要在向新用户提供报告之前最大程度证实每个新用户的身份及其使用 目的。 如果消费者报告机构有理由相信报告不会被用于第 604 节所列之目的, 将不会向任何 人提供报告。 (b) Accuracy of report. Whenever a consumer reporting agency prepares a consumer report it shall follow reasonable procedures to assure maximum possible accuracy of the information concerning the individual about whom the report relates. 消费者报告机构不论何时准备消费者调查报告, 必须遵守合理的程序以最大限度地保证报告 所涉之人信息的准确性。 (c) Disclosure of consumer reports by users allowed. A consumer reporting agency may not

prohibit a user of a consumer report furnished by the agency on a consumer from disclosing the contents of the report to the consumer, if adverse action against the consumer has been taken by the user based in whole or in part on the report. 使用者允许的消费者报告的披露。 如果由机构提供的消费者报告信用使用者全部或部分地基 于报告而已经针对消费者采取不利行动, 消费者报告机构不可禁止其提供的报告使用人对消 费者本人披露报告的的内容。 (d) Notice to users and furnishers of information. 通知信息使用人和信息提供人 (1) Notice requirement. A consumer reporting agency shall provide to any person 通知的要求。消费者报告机构应当对任何人提供 (A) who regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to the agency with respect to any consumer; or 固定地和以通常的商业方式向机构提供了有关任何消费者的信息者,或 (B) to whom a consumer report is provided by the agency; 机构提供消费者报告的对象 a notice of such person's responsibilities under this title. 对本编规定的责任的通知。 (2) Content of notice. The Federal Trade Commission shall prescribe the content of notices under paragraph (1), and a consumer reporting agency shall be in compliance with this subsection if it provides a notice under paragraph (1) that is substantially similar to the Federal Trade Commission prescription under this paragraph. 通知的内容。联邦贸易委员会应当根据 (1)段规定通知的内容,消费者报告机构如果提供 通知,应当遵守本小节规定,其内容与联邦贸易委员会依本段的规定在实质上相类似。 (e) Procurement of consumer report for resale. 为再出售而取得消费者报告。 (1) Disclosure. A person may not procure a consumer report for purposes of reselling the report (or any information in the report) unless the person discloses to the consumer reporting agency that originally furnishes the report 披露。任何人不可为再出售报告(或任何报告信息)的目的,而取得消费者报告,除非是 向首次提供报告的消费者报告机构披露。 (A) the identity of the end-user of the report (or information); and 报告(或信息)最终使用者的确认;并且 (B) each permissible purpose under section 604 [§1681b] for which the report is furnished to the end-user of the report (or information). 依 604 [§1681b]节各可允许的目的被提供给报告(或信息)的最终使用者。 (2) Responsibilities of procurers for resale. A person who procures a consumer report for purposes of reselling the report (or any information in the report) shall 为再出售而取得报告的责任。为再出售(报告或报告中的任何信息)目的而取得消费者报告 的,应当 (A) establish and comply with reasonable procedures designed to ensure that the report (or information) is resold by the person only for a purpose for which the report may be furnished under section 604 [§1681b], including by requiring that each person to which the report (or information) is resold and that resells or provides the report (or information) to any other person 确立并遵守合理的程序,以确保仅为根据 604 [§1681b]可被提供报告的目的而再次出售报 告(或信息) ,包括对各再出售报告或信息的对象和对任何其他人再售或提供报告(或信息) 的人的调查

(i) identifies each end user of the resold report (or information); 再次出售报告(或信息)各最终使用者的确认; (ii) certifies each purpose for which the report (or information) will be used; and 报告或信息将用于的各个目的的确认;和 (iii) certifies that the report (or information) will be used for no other purpose; and 报告或信息将不得用于的其他目的的确认;和 (B) before reselling the report, make reasonable efforts to verify the identifications and certifications made under subparagraph (A). 在再售之前,作出合理的努力以确认 (A)小段规定的身份和证明 (3) Resale of consumer report to a federal agency or department. Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or (2), a person who procures a consumer report for purposes of reselling the report (or any information in the report) shall not disclose the identity of the end-user of the report under paragraph (1) or (2) if-对联邦政府机构再出售消费者报告。尽管有(1) 或 (2)段的规定,为再出售报告或信息目的 而取得消费者报告不得依(1) 或 (2)段披露报告最终使用者的身份,如果---(A) the end user is an agency or department of the United States Government which procures the report from the person for purposes of determining the eligibility of the consumer concerned to receive access or continued access to classified information (as defined in section 604(b)(4)(E)(i)); and 最终使用者是美国政府部门机构,其取得报告是为了确定有关消费者获得或持续获得机密 信息的资格(如 604(b)(4)(E)(i)节界定的) ;和 (B) the agency or department certifies in writing to the person reselling the report that nondisclosure is necessary to protect classified information or the safety of persons employed by or contracting with, or undergoing investigation for work or contracting with the agency or department. 部门或机构书面对再出售报告的人证明,为了保护机密信息或被政府部门或机 构雇用或与之订有合同的个人, 或为工作而接受政府部门或机构调查或与之订有合同的个人 的安全,有不披露的必要。 §608. Disclosures to governmental agencies [15 U.S.C. §1681f]向政府机构的披露 Notwithstanding the provisions of section 604 [§1681b] of this title, a consumer reporting agency may furnish identifying information respecting any consumer, limited to his name, address, former addresses, places of employment, or former places of employment, to a governmental agency.除第 604 [§1681b]节规定外,消费者报告机构可以向政府机构提供有关消费者姓名、住址、原住 址、工作地点或原工作地点的身份确认信息。

§609. Disclosures to consumers [15 U.S.C. §1681g]向消费者的披露 (a) Information on file; sources; report recipients. Every consumer reporting agency shall, upon request, and subject to 610(a)(1) [§1681h], clearly and accurately disclose to the consumer: 档案中的信息;来源;报告接受人。每个消费者报告机构须经消费者的请求,按照 610(a)(1) [§1681h]节的规定,清楚、准确地向消费者披露。 (1) All information in the consumer's file at the time of the request, except that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require a consumer reporting agency to disclose to a consumer any information concerning credit scores or any other risk scores or predictors relating to the consumer.

消费者档案中有关消费者在提出请求之时的所有信息, 除了本段不得被解释为要求消费者报 告机构对消费者披露任何有关其信用评分或其他风险评分或预测的信息。 (2) The sources of the information; except that the sources of information acquired solely for use in preparing an investigative consumer report and actually used for no other purpose need not be disclosed: Provided, That in the event an action is brought under this title, such sources shall be available to the plaintiff under appropriate discovery procedures in the court in which the action is brought. 信息的来源;除以下情况外,仅为用于准备经过调查的消费者报告的信息来源,若在根据 本编规定的提起诉讼的事件中, 原告可以通过正当的发现程序在法庭上获得信息的来源, 而 该信息来源确实未为其他目的使用不必被披露; (3)(A) Identification of each person (including each end-user identified under section 607(e)(1) [§1681e]) that procured a consumer report 每个获得消费者报告的人(包括按 607(e)(1) [§1681e]节确认的最终使用者)的身份 (i) for employment purposes, during the 2-year period preceding the date on which the request is made; or 提出申请之前 2 年内为达到就业目的的;或者 (ii) for any other purpose, during the 1-year period preceding the date on which the request is made. 提出申请之前 1 年内为达到任何其他目的的。 (B) An identification of a person under subparagraph (A) shall include 依(A)小段, 个人的身份 应当包括 (i) the name of the person or, if applicable, the trade name (written in full) under which such person conducts business; and 该人的姓名,或该人经商使用的商号(书面,用全称) ;和 (ii) upon request of the consumer, the address and telephone number of the person. 应消费者要 求,该人的住址及电话号码。 (C) Subparagraph (A) does not apply if-- 如有下列情形, (A)小段则不适用: (i) the end user is an agency or department of the United States Government that procures the report from the person for purposes of determining the eligibility of the consumer to whom the report relates to receive access or continued access to classified information (as defined in section 604(b)(4)(E)(i)); and 美国政府机构或部门为决定消费者报告对象的消费者是否有资格获取 或继续获取有关机密信息,作为 从该人获取报告的最终用户的(如在 604(b)(4)(E)(i))节所界 定;并且 (ii) the head of the agency or department makes a written finding as prescribed under section 604(b)(4)(A). 政府机构或部门的长官依 604(b)(4)(A)节作出书面裁决。 (4) The dates, original payees, and amounts of any checks upon which is based any adverse characterization of the consumer, included in the file at the time of the disclosure. 基于披露时档案所包括的对消费者不利定性的支票的日期、最初收款人和数额。 (5) A record of all inquiries received by the agency during the 1-year period preceding the request that identified the consumer in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that was not initiated by the consumer.在要求确认消费者有关非由其主动发起的信贷或保险交易前 1 年期 间,机构收到的全部查询纪录。 (b) Exempt information. The requirements of subsection (a) of this section respecting the disclosure of sources of information and the recipients of consumer reports do not apply to information received or consumer reports furnished prior to the effective date of this title except to

the extent that the matter involved is contained in the files of the consumer reporting agency on that date. 豁免信息。有关对信息来源和消费者报告接受者进行披露的(a)小节要求,不适用于本编生 效之前收到的信息或消费者报告发布的信息, 除非信息所涉之事宜被包含在消费者报告机构 在该日期的消费者档案之内。 (c) Summary of rights required to be included with disclosure. 披露所包括的权利摘要的要求。 (1) Summary of rights. A consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer, with each written disclosure by the agency to the consumer under this section 权利摘要。消费者报告机构应当对消费者提供依本节作出的各书面披露。 (A) a written summary of all of the rights that the consumer has under this title; and 消费者依本编享有的全部权利的书面概述;并且 (B) in the case of a consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis, a toll-free telephone number established by the agency, at which personnel are accessible to consumers during normal business hours. 在消费者报告机构编辑和保管全国范围内的消费者档案情形下,机构设置的免费电话的号 码,职员可以此在通常工作时间与消费者联系。 (2) Specific items required to be included. The summary of rights required under paragraph (1) shall include 被要求披露的特定事项。 (1)段要求的权利摘要应当包括 (A) a brief description of this title and all rights of consumers under this title; 对本编和消费者依本编的全部权利的一份简要说明; (B) an explanation of how the consumer may exercise the rights of the consumer under this title; 消费者如何行使本编规定的权利的一个释例 (C) a list of all Federal agencies responsible for enforcing any provision of this title and the address and any appropriate phone number of each such agency, in a form that will assist the consumer in selecting the appropriate agency; 以有助于消费者选择适当的部门的形式, 提供一份所有负责执行本编的联邦机构及其地址和 各部门公开的电话号码的名单; (D) a statement that the consumer may have additional rights under State law and that the consumer may wish to contact a State or local consumer protection agency or a State attorney general to learn of those rights; and 消费者拥有州的法律规定的其他权利,和消费者可以联系的州或地方消费者保护机构或州 总检察长以了解这些权利的陈述说明;和 (E) a statement that a consumer reporting agency is not required to remove accurate derogatory information from a consumer's file, unless the information is outdated under section 605 [§1681c] or cannot be verified. 消费者报告机构不被要求从消费者档案中删除贬损信息,除非此信息依 605 [§1681c] 过 期或不能证实; (3) Form of summary of rights. For purposes of this subsection and any disclosure by a consumer reporting agency required under this title with respect to consumers' rights, the Federal Trade Commission (after consultation with each Federal agency referred to in section 621(b) [§1681s]) shall prescribe the form and content of any such disclosure of the rights of consumers required under this title. A consumer reporting agency shall be in compliance with this subsection if it

provides disclosures under paragraph (1) that are substantially similar to the Federal Trade Commission prescription under this paragraph. 权利摘要的形式。消费者报告机构为本小段目的和根据本编有关消费者权利的要求而作出 的披露, 联邦贸易委员会 (在与 621(b) [§1681s]节规定的联邦机构协商后) 应当依本编要求, 规定披露消费者权利的形式和内容。消费者报告机构应当遵守本小节规定,如其按 (1)段所 提供的披露与联邦贸易委员会依本段所作的规定在实质上相似。 (4) Effectiveness. No disclosures shall be required under this subsection until the date on which the Federal Trade Commission prescribes the form and content of such disclosures under paragraph (3). 效力。在联邦贸易委员会为 (3)段下的披露规定格式和内容之日以前,不得根 据本小节要求任何披露。 §610. Conditions and form of disclosure to consumers [15 U.S.C. §1681h]向消费者披露的条件 和形式 (a) In general. 一般规定. (1) Proper identification. A consumer reporting agency shall require, as a condition of making the disclosures required under section 609 [§1681g], that the consumer furnish proper identification. 适当的身份。 消费者报告机构应要求消费者提供适当证明, 作为按第 609 节要求披露的节件。 (2) Disclosure in writing. Except as provided in subsection (b), the disclosures required to be made under section 609 [§1681g] shall be provided under that section in writing. 书面形式披 露。除 subsection (b)规定外,按 609 [§1681g]要求作的披露,应采用书面形式。 (b) Other forms of disclosure. 其他披露形式。 (1) In general. If authorized by a consumer, a consumer reporting agency may make the disclosures required under 609 [§1681g] 一般规定。如经消费者授权,消费者报告机构可作 609 [§1681g]项下要求的披露。 (A) other than in writing; and 书面以外的形式;和 (B) in such form as may be 披露的形式可以是 (i) specified by the consumer in accordance with paragraph (2); and 由消费者按(2)段规定提出,并 (ii) available from the agency. 可从机构得到 (2) Form. A consumer may specify pursuant to paragraph (1) that disclosures under section 609 [§1681g] shall be made 形式。消费者可以下列方式,根据 paragraph (1)对 609 [§1681g]提出披露可以采取 (A) in person, upon the appearance of the consumer at the place of business of the consumer reporting agency where disclosures are regularly provided, during normal business hours, and on reasonable notice; 采取亲自到场方式,消费者于正常的工作时间并以合理的通知,到达消费者报告机构固定 地提供披露的工作场所, (B) by telephone, if the consumer has made a written request for disclosure by telephone; 电话方式,消费者通过电话提出书披露的要求, (C) by electronic means, if available from the agency; or 电子方式,如可从机构获得的话;或 (D) by any other reasonable means that is available from the agency. 可从机构获得的其他任何合理方式。 (c) Trained personnel. Any consumer reporting agency shall provide trained personnel to explain

to the consumer any information furnished to him pursuant to section 609 [§1681g] of this title. 经过训练的职员。 任何消费者报告机构应当提供经过训练的职员向消费者解释向其提供的信 息。 (d) Persons accompanying consumer. The consumer shall be permitted to be accompanied by one other person of his choosing, who shall furnish reasonable identification. A consumer reporting agency may require the consumer to furnish a written statement granting permission to the consumer reporting agency to discuss the consumer's file in such person's presence. 消费者的陪同人员。消费者应被允许挑选一名他人陪同,该人应提供合理的身份证明。消费 者报告机构可以要求消费者向其提供一份书面声明, 授权许可消费者报告机构在有该陪同者 在场的情况下讨论消费者的档案。 (e) Limitation of liability. Except as provided in sections 616 and 617 [§ 1681n and 1681o] of § this title, no consumer may bring any action or proceeding in the nature of defamation, invasion of privacy, or negligence with respect to the reporting of information against any consumer reporting agency, any user of information, or any person who furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency, based on information disclosed pursuant to section 609, 610, or 615 [§ 1681g, 1681h, or § 1681m] of this title or based on information disclosed by a user of a consumer report to or for a consumer against whom the user has taken adverse action, based in whole or in part on the report, except as to false information furnished with malice or willful intent to injure such consumer. 责任的限制。 除如第 616、617 节所指以外,消费者不得基于根据第 609、610 或 615 节规 定披露的信息, 或基于消费者报告的使用人全部或部分地根据报告而对其披露或采取不利行 动,对消费者报告机构、任何信息的使用者,或任何向消费者报告机构提供信息的人,提起 涉及信息报告的诽谤、 侵犯隐私或过失侵权的诉讼, 除非是有恶意或为故意损害消费者而提 供的虚假信息。 §611. Procedure in case of disputed accuracy [15 U.S.C. §1681i] 发生准确性争议时的处理程序 (a) Reinvestigations of disputed information. 争议信息的重新调查。 (1) Reinvestigation required. 要求重新调查。 (A) In general. If the completeness or accuracy of any item of information contained in a consumer's file at a consumer reporting agency is disputed by the consumer and the consumer notifies the agency directly of such dispute, the agency shall reinvestigate free of charge and record the current status of the disputed information, or delete the item from the file in accordance with paragraph (5), before the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date on which the agency receives the notice of the dispute from the consumer. 一般规定。 如果消费者就与其有关的档案中任一条款的完整性或准确性提出异议, 且该异议 被其直接向消费者报告机构提出,消费者报告机构应当免费重新调查并记录信息的当前状 况,或在始于收到消费者争议通知后的 30 日内,根据(5)段从档案中删除则除。 (B) Extension of period to reinvestigate. Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the 30-day period described in subparagraph (A) may be extended for not more than 15 additional days if the consumer reporting agency receives information from the consumer during that 30-day period that is relevant to the reinvestigation. 重新调查期限的延长。除(C)小段规定外,如果消费者报告机构在重新调查的 30 天内从消费 者处收到信息, (A) 小段规定的 30 天期限可再延长,延长的期限不得超过 15 天。 (C) Limitations on extension of period to reinvestigate. Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any

reinvestigation in which, during the 30-day period described in subparagraph (A), the information that is the subject of the reinvestigation is found to be inaccurate or incomplete or the consumer reporting agency determines that the information cannot be verified. 重新调查期限延长的限制。在(A) 小段规定的 30 日内,重新调查事项的信息被发现是不准 确或不完整的或者消费者报告机构决定此信息是不可证实的,则此任何重新调查不适用(B) 小段。 (2) Prompt notice of dispute to furnisher of information. 及时向信息提供人通知争议。 (A) In general. Before the expiration of the 5-business-day period beginning on the date on which a consumer reporting agency receives notice of a dispute from any consumer in accordance with paragraph (1), the agency shall provide notification of the dispute to any person who provided any item of information in dispute, at the address and in the manner established with the person. The notice shall include all relevant information regarding the dispute that the agency has received from the consumer. 一般规定。在始于消费者报告机构收到任何消费者依 (1)段提出异议通知之日的 5 个工作 日的期限届满前, 消费者报告机构应当提供异议事项信息的人确定的地址和方式, 以将异议 通知到该人,通知应包括所有机构收自消费者的与异议有关的信息。 (B) Provision of other information from consumer. The consumer reporting agency shall promptly provide to the person who provided the information in dispute all relevant information regarding the dispute that is received by the agency from the consumer after the period referred to in subparagraph (A) and before the end of the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A). 消费者的其他信息规定。消费者报告机构应当在 (A)次段规定的限期后和(1)(A)段规定的期 限前,对提供争议信息的人及时提供机构得自消费者的全部有关争议的信息。 (3) Determination that dispute is frivolous or irrelevant. 无意义的或无关的异议之决定 (A) In general. Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a consumer reporting agency may terminate a reinvestigation of information disputed by a consumer under that paragraph if the agency reasonably determines that the dispute by the consumer is frivolous or irrelevant, including by reason of a failure by a consumer to provide sufficient information to investigate the disputed information. 一般规定。除(1)段的规定外,消费者报告机构可终止对消费者提出的异议的重新调查,当 机构合理地决定消费者提出的异议是无意义的或无关的, 包括由于消费者没有对争议信息的 调查提供允分的信息 (B) Notice of determination. Upon making any determination in accordance with subparagraph (A) that a dispute is frivolous or irrelevant, a consumer reporting agency shall notify the consumer of such determination not later than 5 business days after making such determination, by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by any other means available to the agency. 决定的通知。一旦根据(A)小段做出决定,异议是无意义或无关的,消费者报告机构应当 在不迟于作出决定后的 5 个工作日内,以邮寄、或如消费者对此有授权,通过任何可行使用 的方式,将此决定通知消费者。 (C) Contents of notice. A notice under subparagraph (B) shall include 通知的内容。(B)小段的通知应当包括 (i) the reasons for the determination under subparagraph (A); and 依(A) 小段作出决定的理由;和

(ii) identification of any information required to investigate the disputed information, which may consist of a standardized form describing the general nature of such information. 对任何要求调查异议信息进行的识别,可由描述此信息的一般属性的标准格式构成 (4) Consideration of consumer information. In conducting any reinvestigation under paragraph (1) with respect to disputed information in the file of any consumer, the consumer reporting agency shall review and consider all relevant information submitted by the consumer in the period described in paragraph (1)(A) with respect to such disputed information. 对消费者信息的评判。 消费者报告机构在依(1)段对有关消费者档案的异议信息进行任何重 新调查,应当检查和评判消费者在 (1)(A)段规定的期间内就有关异议信息提交的全部相关 信息。 (5) Treatment of inaccurate or unverifiable information. 对不准确的或无法核实的信息的处理 (A) In general. If, after any reinvestigation under paragraph (1) of any information disputed by a consumer, an item of the information is found to be inaccurate or incomplete or cannot be verified, the consumer reporting agency shall promptly delete that item of information from the consumer's file or modify that item of information, as appropriate, based on the results of the reinvestigation. 一般规定。如果,在按(1) 段对消费者异议的任何信息进行重新调查之后,信息事项被发 现是不准确的或不完整的或不能被核实, 消费者报告机构应当及时从消费者档案中删除此项 信息, 或根据重新调查的结果,适当更正此项信息。 (B) Requirements relating to reinsertion of previously deleted material. 要求重新加入有关先前删除的信息 (i) Certification of accuracy of information. If any information is deleted from a consumer's file pursuant to subparagraph (A), the information may not be reinserted in the file by the consumer reporting agency unless the person who furnishes the information certifies that the information is complete and accurate. 信息准确性的证明。如按照(A)小段的规定,从消费者档案中删除信息,消费者报告机构 不得将此信息重新加入到档案中,除非提供信息的人证明此信息是完整的和准确的。 (ii) Notice to consumer. If any information that has been deleted from a consumer's file pursuant to subparagraph (A) is reinserted in the file, the consumer reporting agency shall notify the consumer of the reinsertion in writing not later than 5 business days after the reinsertion or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by any other means available to the agency. 通知消费者。如根据(A) 小段,任何已从消费者档案中删除的信息重新加入到档案中,消 费者报告机构应当在重新加入后的 5 个工作日内以书面形式, 或如经消费者为此授权, 以任 何其他可行使的方式,通知消费者。 (iii) Additional information. As part of, or in addition to, the notice under clause (ii), a consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer in writing not later than 5 business days after the date of the reinsertion 附加的信息。另外,作为第 (ii)款通知的一部分,消费者报告机构应当在不迟于重新加入 之日起的 5 个工作日内,以书面形式对消费者提供 (I) a statement that the disputed information has been reinserted;异议信息已被重新加入的陈述; (II) the business name and address of any furnisher of information contacted and the telephone number of such furnisher, if reasonably available, or of any furnisher of information that contacted the consumer reporting agency, in connection with the reinsertion of such information; and 消费者报告机构联系的任何信息提供人的正式名称和地址及电话号码,或如果可以合理地

得到的话,消费者报告机构就有关重新调查信息所联系的任何信息提供人的电话号码;和 (III) a notice that the consumer has the right to add a statement to the consumer's file disputing the accuracy or completeness of the disputed information. 消费者有权增加一份陈述到消费者档案,对信息之准确性和完整性提出异议。 C) Procedures to prevent reappearance. A consumer reporting agency shall maintain reasonable procedures designed to prevent the reappearance in a consumer's file, and in consumer reports on the consumer, of information that is deleted pursuant to this paragraph (other than information that is reinserted in accordance with subparagraph (B)(i)). 防止删除的信息再出现的程序。消费者报告机构应当遵循合理的程序,以防止在消费者档 案或消费者报告中,根据本段(按(B)(i) 小段)重新加入的信息除外)被删除的信息再次出 现。 D) Automated reinvestigation system. Any consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis shall implement an automated system through which furnishers of information to that consumer reporting agency may report the results of a reinvestigation that finds incomplete or inaccurate information in a consumer's file to other such consumer reporting agencies. 自动的重新调查系统。消费者报告机构在全国范围内编纂和维护消费者档案的,应当设置 自动系统, 向消费者报告机构提供信息的人可通过系统, 将消费者档案中不准确或不完整信 息重新调查发现的结果告知其他消费者报告机构。 (6) Notice of results of reinvestigation. 重新调查结果的通知。 (A) In general. A consumer reporting agency shall provide written notice to a consumer of the results of a reinvestigation under this subsection not later than 5 business days after the completion of the reinvestigation, by mail or, if authorized by the consumer for that purpose, by other means available to the agency. 一般规定。消费者报告机构应当提供将按本小节重新调查的结果,在不迟于重新调查完成 之日后的 5 个工作日内,以邮寄,或者经消费者授权,以其他可使用的方式,书面通知消费 者。 (B) Contents. As part of, or in addition to, the notice under subparagraph (A), a consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer in writing before the expiration of the 5-day period referred to in subparagraph (A) 内容。另外,作为 (A)小段通知的一部分,消费者报告机构应当,在 (A) 小段所规定的期 限的五日届满前,以书面形式向消费者提供 (i) a statement that the reinvestigation is completed; 完成重新调查的陈述一份 (ii) a consumer report that is based upon the consumer's file as that file is revised as a result of the reinvestigation; 消费者档案根据重新调查结果修正,以此为基础的消费者报告一份。 (iii) a notice that, if requested by the consumer, a description of the procedure used to determine the accuracy and completeness of the information shall be provided to the consumer by the agency, including the business name and address of any furnisher of information contacted in connection with such information and the telephone number of such furnisher, if reasonably available; 如经消费者要求,消费者报告机构对消费者提供用于说明信息的准确性和完整性的程序通 知,包括与此信息有关的任何信息提供人的商业名称和地址,以及如可合理地得到的话,信

息提供人的电话号码, (iv) a notice that the consumer has the right to add a statement to the consumer's file disputing the accuracy or completeness of the information; and 消费者有权增加一份陈述到消费者档案,对异议的信息之准确性和完整性提出异议。 (v) a notice that the consumer has the right to request under subsection (d) that the consumer reporting agency furnish notifications under that subsection. 消费者有权依 (d)小节要求消费者报告机构依该小节提供通知的通知 (7) Description of reinvestigation procedure. A consumer reporting agency shall provide to a consumer a description referred to in paragraph (6)(B)(iii) by not later than 15 days after receiving a request from the consumer for that description. 重新调查程序的说明书。消费者报告机构应当在不迟于收到 消费者要求说明的请求后的 15 日内,对消费者提供 (6)(B)(iii) 段所规定的说明书, (8) Expedited dispute resolution. If a dispute regarding an item of information in a consumer's file at a consumer reporting agency is resolved in accordance with paragraph (5)(A) by the deletion of the disputed information by not later than 3 business days after the date on which the agency receives notice of the dispute from the consumer in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), then the agency shall not be required to comply with paragraphs (2), (6), and (7) with respect to that dispute if the agency 快速解决争议。如消费者报告机构的有关消费者档案的信息事项的异议,经机构根据(5)(A) 段,在不迟于收到消费者依 (1)(A) 段提出异议通知之日后 3 个工作日内删除异议信息,而 得到解决,机构不得被要求就此异议而执行(2), (6),和 (7) 段,如果机构 (A) provides prompt notice of the deletion to the consumer by telephone;及时将删除信息通过电 话通知消费者; (B) includes in that notice, or in a written notice that accompanies a confirmation and consumer report provided in accordance with subparagraph (C), a statement of the consumer's right to request under subsection (d) that the agency furnish notifications under that subsection; and 包括以上述通知,或书面通知,连同按 (C) 小段提供的确认文件和消费者报告,以及要 求机构依 (d)小节提供通知的消费者权利的陈述;和 (C) provides written confirmation of the deletion and a copy of a consumer report on the consumer that is based on the consumer's file after the deletion, not later than 5 business days after making the deletion. 在不迟于作出删除之日后的 5 个工作日内, 提供删除的书面确认文件和基于删除信息后消费 者档案的消费者报告副本。 (b) Statement of dispute. If the reinvestigation does not resolve the dispute, the consumer may file a brief statement setting forth the nature of the dispute. The consumer reporting agency may limit such statements to not more than one hundred words if it provides the consumer with assistance in writing a clear summary of the dispute. 异议陈述。如重新调查不能解决异议。消费者可提交简要陈述,陈述异议的性质。如果消费 者报告机构向消费者提供书面的明确的异议摘要帮助,可将此陈述限制在百字以内。 (c) Notification of consumer dispute in subsequent consumer reports. Whenever a statement of a dispute is filed, unless there is reasonable grounds to believe that it is frivolous or irrelevant, the consumer reporting agency shall, in any subsequent consumer report containing the information in question, clearly note that it is disputed by the consumer and provide either the consumer's statement or a clear and accurate codification or summary thereof.

消费者对后续的消费者报告异议的通知。 无论异议的陈述何时提交, 除非有合理的理由相信, 它是无意义或无关的, 消费者报告机构应当在含有提及信息的后续消费者报告中, 明确地告 知,异议由消费者提出并提供消费者陈述,或一份明准确无误的汇编或摘要。 (d) Notification of deletion of disputed information. Following any deletion of information which is found to be inaccurate or whose accuracy can no longer be verified or any notation as to disputed information, the consumer reporting agency shall, at the request of the consumer, furnish notification that the item has been deleted or the statement, codification or summary pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) of this section to any person specifically designated by the consumer who has within two years prior thereto received a consumer report for employment purposes, or within six months prior thereto received a consumer report for any other purpose, which contained the deleted or disputed information. 异议信息删除的通知。信息删除后,被发现是不准确或其准确性不再能证实,或就异议信息 存有代号, 消费者报告机构应当对在消费者为就业目的收到含有删除的或异议的信息的消费 者报告之前的 2 年内, 或在专门指定的任何人含有删除的或异议的信息的消费者报告为任何 其他目的在收到报告前的 6 个月内,应消费者的请求,通知该信息项目已被删除,或提供本 节(b) 或 (c) 小节规定的陈述、汇编或摘要 §612. Charges for certain disclosures [15 U.S.C. §1681j]对某些披露收取的费用 (a) Reasonable charges allowed for certain disclosures. 对某些披露允许收取的合理费用 (1) In general. Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (d), a consumer reporting agency may impose a reasonable charge on a consumer 一般规定。除了(b), (c)和 (d)小节规定的以外, 消费者报告机构可向消费者收取合理的费用 (A) for making a disclosure to the consumer pursuant to section 609 [§1681g], which charge 根 据 609 节规定披露的收费 (i) shall not exceed $8;(3) and 不得超过 8 美元, 并且 (ii) shall be indicated to the consumer before making the disclosure; and 在披露前向消费者说明,并且 (B) for furnishing, pursuant to 611(d) [§1681i], following a reinvestigation under section 611(a) [§1681i], a statement, codification, or summary to a person designated by the consumer under that section after the 30-day period beginning on the date of notification of the consumer under paragraph (6) or (8) of section 611(a) [§1681i] with respect to the reinvestigation, which charge 根据 611(d) [§1681i]节规定, 以及根据 611(A) [§1681i]节进行重新调查后, 在消费者依 611(a) [§1681i]节第(6) or (8)段发出通知之日起的 30 日后, 就重新调查而对消费者依该节指定的人 提供陈述、汇编或摘要,其收费, (i) shall not exceed the charge that the agency would impose on each designated recipient for a consumer report; and 不得超过机构对每个消费者报告的指定接受人收取的费用;并且 (ii) shall be indicated to the consumer before furnishing such information. 在提供此信息前向消费者说明。 (2) Modification of amount. The Federal Trade Commission shall increase the amount referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(I) on January 1 of each year, based proportionally on changes in the Consumer Price Index, with fractional changes rounded to the nearest fifty cents. 数额的更改。联邦贸易委员会应当于每年的 1 月 1 日,根据消费者价格指数的变化,零头最 小位数以 50 美分计,按比例增加(1)(A)(I)段所涉事项的收费数额, (b) Free disclosure after adverse notice to consumer. Each consumer reporting agency that

maintains a file on a consumer shall make all disclosures pursuant to section 609 [§1681g] without charge to the consumer if, not later than 60 days after receipt by such consumer of a notification pursuant to section 615 [§1681m], or of a notification from a debt collection agency affiliated with that consumer reporting agency stating that the consumer's credit rating may be or has been adversely affected, the consumer makes a request under section 609 [§1681g]. 对消费者不利通知后的免费披露,如根据 615 [§1681m]节通知的,或者隶属于消费者报告 机构的收债机构通知,消费者的信用等级会或已经受到负面影响,消费者在收到通知的 60 日内依 609 [§1681g]节提出要求,各保管消费者档案的消费者报告机构,应当根据 609 [§1681g]节规定,对消费者免费全部披露。 (c) Free disclosure under certain other circumstances. Upon the request of the consumer, a consumer reporting agency shall make all disclosures pursuant to section 609 [§1681g] once during any 12-month period without charge to that consumer if the consumer certifies in writing that the consumer 其他情形下的免费披露。应消费者的要求,消费者报告机构应当根据 609 [§1681g 节,在任 何 12 个月的期间,免费全部披露,如果消费者以书面证明其 (1) is unemployed and intends to apply for employment in the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the certification is made; 在始于证明之日的 60 日内失业并打算申请就业, (2) is a recipient of public welfare assistance; or 为公共福利救援对象;或 (3) has reason to believe that the file on the consumer at the agency contains inaccurate information due to fraud. 有理由相信存于机构的消费者档案因虚假而含有不准确的信息 (d) Other charges prohibited. A consumer reporting agency shall not impose any charge on a consumer for providing any notification required by this title or making any disclosure required by this title, except as authorized by subsection (a). 禁止收费的其他情形。 消费者报告机构不得为提供任何本编要求的通知或任何披露而对消费 者收取任何费用。但(a)小节已授权的除外。 §613. Public record information for employment purposes [15 U.S.C. §1681k] 为就业目的提供公共记录信息 (a) In general. A consumer reporting agency which furnishes a consumer report for employment purposes and which for that purpose compiles and reports items of information on consumers which are matters of public record and are likely to have an adverse effect upon a consumer's ability to obtain employment shall 一般规定。 消费者报告机构为就业目的提供消费者报告或为此目的编纂并报告有关消费者 的信息事项, 而该信息属于公共记录事项并可能对消费者获得就业的能力产生负面影响, 则 消费者报告机构应 (1) at the time such public record information is reported to the user of such consumer report, notify the consumer of the fact that public record information is being reported by the consumer reporting agency, together with the name and address of the person to whom such information is being reported; or 在向消费者报告的使用者报告这些公共纪录信息时, 应当将该信息正在被消费者报告机构报 告以及该报告人的姓名、住址的事实,告知消费者;或 (2) maintain strict procedures designed to insure that whenever public record information which is likely to have an adverse effect on a consumer's ability to obtain employment is reported it is

complete and up to date. For purposes of this paragraph, items of public record relating to arrests, indictments, convictions, suits, tax liens, and outstanding judgments shall be considered up to date if the current public record status of the item at the time of the report is reported. 遵循严格的程序以确保那些可能对消费者获得就业的能力产生负面影响的公共记录信息在 任何时候都是完整的和最新的。为达到此目的,有关逮捕、起诉、被判有罪、诉讼、税收留 置以及未执行判决的信息在提供报告时应被认为是最新的。 (b) Exemption for national security investigations. Subsection (a) does not apply in the case of an agency or department of the United States Government that seeks to obtain and use a consumer report for employment purposes, if the head of the agency or department makes a written finding as prescribed under section 604(b)(4)(A). 对国家安全调查的豁免。如果政府部门首长签发 604(b)(4)(A)节中规定的书面决定,美国政 府部门为就业目的寻求获得和利用消费者报告的,不适用于 A 小节。 §614. Restrictions on investigative consumer reports [15 U.S.C. §1681l] 对经调查的消费者报告的限制 Whenever a consumer reporting agency prepares an investigative consumer report, no adverse information in the consumer report (other than information which is a matter of public record) may be included in a subsequent consumer report unless such adverse information has been verified in the process of making such subsequent consumer report, or the adverse information was received within the three-month period preceding the date the subsequent report is furnished. 消费者报告机构在任何时候准备一份经调查的消费者报告,消费者报告中的负面信息(该信 息涉及公共记录除外)不得被包含在其后续的消费者报告中,除非该负面信息在后续的消费 者报告的制作过程中已经被证实,或该负面信息是在发出后续报告之日前 3 个月之内收到。 §615. Requirements on users of consumer reports [15 U.S.C. §1681m] 对消费者报告使用者的要求 (a) Duties of users taking adverse actions on the basis of information contained in consumer reports. If any person takes any adverse action with respect to any consumer that is based in whole or in part on any information contained in a consumer report, the person shall 基于消费者报告所含信息而对消费者采取不利行动的使用者的义务。 任何人全部或部分地基 于包含在消费者报告中的任何信息,对消费者采取不利行动的,应当 (1) provide oral, written, or electronic notice of the adverse action to the consumer; 对消费者提供不利行动的口头、书面或电子形式的通知 (2) provide to the consumer orally, in writing, or electronically 以口头,书面或电子方式对消费者提供 (A) the name, address, and telephone number of the consumer reporting agency (including a toll-free telephone number established by the agency if the agency compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis) that furnished the report to the person; and 对该人提供报告的消费者报告机构的名称、地址和电话号码(如其在全国范围内编纂和维护 消费者档案,包括机构确定的免费电话号码);和 (B) a statement that the consumer reporting agency did not make the decision to take the adverse action and is unable to provide the consumer the specific reasons why the adverse action was taken; and 消费者报告机构没有决定采取不利行动陈述, 并不能说明消费者为何采取不利行动的特定 理由;和 (3) provide to the consumer an oral, written, or electronic notice of the consumer's right

以口头的、书面的或电子形式向消费者提供消费者权利通知 (A) to obtain, under section 612 [§1681j], a free copy of a consumer report on the consumer from the consumer reporting agency referred to in paragraph (2), which notice shall include an indication of the 60-day period under that section for obtaining such a copy; and 依 612 [§1681j]节,消费者从第 (2)段所称的消费者报告机构免费获得其本人的消费者报 告副本,其通知应包括在该节规定的在 60 日的期限内获得报告副本的说明;和 (B) to dispute, under section 611 [§1681i], with a consumer reporting agency the accuracy or completeness of any information in a consumer report furnished by the agency. 依 611 [§1681i]节,就消费者报告机构提供的消费者报告的任何信息之准确性或完整性,向 其提出异议。 (b) Adverse action based on information obtained from third parties other than consumer reporting agencies. 基于从消费者报告机构以外的第三方获得的信息的不利行动 (1) In general. Whenever credit for personal, family, or household purposes involving a consumer is denied or the charge for such credit is increased either wholly or partly because of information obtained from a person other than a consumer reporting agency bearing upon the consumer's credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living, the user of such information shall, within a reasonable period of time, upon the consumer's written request for the reasons for such adverse action received within sixty days after learning of such adverse action, disclose the nature of the information to the consumer. 一般规定。无论何时,消费者全部或部分地因为从消费者报告机构以外的人获得的,有关 消费者的信用价值、信用状况、信用能力、一般名誉、个人消费特点或生活方式的信息,而 致其为个人、家庭或家用目的信贷被拒绝或信贷收费增加,消费者在知悉不利行动后 60 日 内要求解释不利行动原因的,此信息的使用人应当根据收到的书面请求,在合理的期限内, 向消费者披露信息的性质。The user of such information shall clearly and accurately disclose to the consumer his right to make such written request at the time such adverse action is communicated to the consumer. 此信息使用人应当在不利行动被传达到消费者的时候, 明白准确地向消费者披露提出书面请 求的权利。 (2) Duties of person taking certain actions based on information provided by affiliate. 行为人基于其附属机构提供信息采取某种行动的责任。 (A) Duties, generally. If a person takes an action described in subparagraph (B) with respect to a consumer, based in whole or in part on information described in subparagraph (C), the person shall 一般责任。如行为人对消费者采取(B)小段规定的行动,是全部或部分基于 (C)小段所称的 信息,应当 (i) notify the consumer of the action, including a statement that the consumer may obtain the information in accordance with clause (ii); and 将行动通知消费者,包括消费者可根据第 (ii)款可获得信息的陈述;并且 (ii) upon a written request from the consumer received within 60 days after transmittal of the notice required by clause (I), disclose to the consumer the nature of the information upon which the action is based by not later than 30 days after receipt of the request. 在传达第(I)款下的通知后的 60 日内收到消费者书面请求,在不迟于收到请求后的 30 日内, 向消费者披露行动所依据的信息的性质。

(B) Action described. An action referred to in subparagraph (A) is an adverse action described in section 603(k)(1)(A) [§1681a], taken in connection with a transaction initiated by the consumer, or any adverse action described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 603(k)(1)(B) [§1681a]. 规定的行动。 (A)小段所称的行动, 是指 603(k)(1)(A) [§1681a]节规定的对由消费者主动提出 的交易采取的任何不利行动,或 603(k)(1)(B) [§1681a] 节第(i)款 或 (ii) 款规定的任何不利 行动。 (C) Information described. Information referred to in subparagraph (A) 规定的信息。 (A)小段规定的信息 (i) except as provided in clause (ii), is information that 不包括正如第(ii)款规定的,信息是 (I) is furnished to the person taking the action by a person related by common ownership or affiliated by common corporate control to the person taking the action; and 由有关共有产权人或与附属于普通控股公司的人对采取行动的人提供的信息;并且 (II) bears on the credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living of the consumer; and 证明消费者的信用价值、信用状况、信用能力、品格、一般名誉。个人消费者特点或生活方 式;并且 (ii) does not include 不包括 (I) information solely as to transactions or experiences between the consumer and the person furnishing the information; or 仅与消费者与提供信息的人之间的交易或经历有关的信息;或 (II) information in a consumer report. 消费者报告中的信息 (c) Reasonable procedures to assure compliance. No person shall be held liable for any violation of this section if he shows by a preponderance of the evidence that at the time of the alleged violation he maintained reasonable procedures to assure compliance with the provisions of this section. 确保遵守的合理程序。 任何人如果其在被指控违反本节时以优势证据表明其按照合理的程序 以保证对本节规定的遵守,则不得以任何违反本节的规定而承担责任, (d) Duties of users making written credit or insurance solicitations on the basis of information contained in consumer files. 使用者基于消费者档案所含信息而书面招揽信贷或保险的责任。 (1) In general. Any person who uses a consumer report on any consumer in connection with any credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer, that is provided to that person under section 604(c)(1)(B) [§1681b], shall provide with each written solicitation made to the consumer regarding the transaction a clear and conspicuous statement that 一般规定。在非由消费者主动提出的,而是对 604(c)(1)(B) [§1681b]节规定的人提供的信 贷或保险交易中使用消费者报告的任何人, 应当向交易有关的消费者提供书面招揽和明白无 误的陈述 (A) information contained in the consumer's consumer report was used in connection with the transaction; 消费者的消费者报告所含信息在有关交易中使用; (B) the consumer received the offer of credit or insurance because the consumer satisfied the criteria for credit worthiness or insurability under which the consumer was selected for the offer; 由于消费者满足了信用价值或保险能力的节件, 而被选出作为要约对象, 消费者收到信贷或

保险的要约; (C) if applicable, the credit or insurance may not be extended if, after the consumer responds to the offer, the consumer does not meet the criteria used to select the consumer for the offer or any applicable criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability or does not furnish any required collateral; 消费者如果对要约作出回应之后, 不符合为此要约而选择消费者的节件或任何可用于证明信 用价值或保险能力的节件,或没有提供任何要求的抵押,如果可适用的话,则信贷或保险不 得被延长; (D) the consumer has a right to prohibit information contained in the consumer's file with any consumer reporting agency from being used in connection with any credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer; and 消费者有权禁止任何消费者报告机构在从任何非由消费者主动提出的有关信贷或保险交 易中使用消费者档案所含信息;并且 (E) the consumer may exercise the right referred to in subparagraph (D) by notifying a notification system established under section 604(e) [§1681b]. 消费者可以 604(e) [§1681b].节通知系统方式,行使(D)小段规定的权利, (2) Disclosure of address and telephone number. A statement under paragraph (1) shall include the address and toll-free telephone number of the appropriate notification system established under section 604(e) [§1681b]. 地址和电话号码的披露。 (1)段的陈述应当包括依 604(e) [§1681b]节所确定的适合使用的 通知系统的地址和免费的电话号码。 (3) Maintaining criteria on file. A person who makes an offer of credit or insurance to a consumer under a credit or insurance transaction described in paragraph (1) shall maintain on file the criteria used to select the consumer to receive the offer, all criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability, as applicable, that are the basis for determining whether or not to extend credit or insurance pursuant to the offer, and any requirement for the furnishing of collateral as a condition of the extension of credit or insurance, until the expiration of the 3-year period beginning on the date on which the offer is made to the consumer. 档案的保持节件。在(1)段规定的信贷或保险交易中,对消费者提出信贷或保险要约的人, 应当保持用于选择接受要约的消费者、 证明信用价值或保险能力的全部节件。 在决定是否依 照要约或者为提供抵押作为延长信贷或保险的任何要求, 延长信贷或保险时, 这些节件都是 适用的基础,直至要约对消费者作出之日起 3 年期限届满。 (4) Authority of federal agencies regarding unfair or deceptive acts or practices not affected. This section is not intended to affect the authority of any Federal or State agency to enforce a prohibition against unfair or deceptive acts or practices, including the making of false or misleading statements in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer. 联邦机构有关不公正的或欺诈的行为或做法的权力不受影响。 联邦或州机构禁止不公正的或 欺诈的行为或做法, 包括禁止在非由消费者主动提出的信贷或保险交易中作出虚假或或误导 性的陈述,本节无意影响任何联邦或州的机构执行此权力。 §616. Civil liability for willful noncompliance [15 U.S.C. §1681n]故意违法的民事责任 (a) In general. Any person who willfully fails to comply with any requirement imposed under this title with respect to any consumer is liable to that consumer in an amount equal to the sum of 一般规定。 任何人故意不遵守本编对消费者规定的任何要求的, 对消费者承担以下等额的责

任 (1)(A) any actual damages sustained by the consumer as a result of the failure or damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000; or 消费者遭受的违法结果或损害不少于 100 不超过 1000 美元的实际损失;或者 (B) in the case of liability of a natural person for obtaining a consumer report under false pretenses or knowingly without a permissible purpose, actual damages sustained by the consumer as a result of the failure or $1,000, whichever is greater; 在自然人因欺诈或明知不符合允许使用的目的, 为获得消费者报告而承担责任情形下, 消费 者因违法所受的实际损失或 1000 美元,以较大者为准; (2) such amount of punitive damages as the court may allow; and 法院允许的惩罚性损害赔偿额;和 (3) in the case of any successful action to enforce any liability under this section, the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court. 在根据本节胜诉予以 执行的情况下,法院所确定的诉讼费及合理的律师费。 (b) Civil liability for knowing noncompliance. Any person who obtains a consumer report from a consumer reporting agency under false pretenses or knowingly without a permissible purpose shall be liable to the consumer reporting agency for actual damages sustained by the consumer reporting agency or $1,000, whichever is greater. 明知而不遵守的民事责任。任何人,因欺诈或明知不符合允许使用的目的,而从消费者报告 机构获得消费者报告的,应对消费者报告机构承担所受的实际损失或 1000 美元,以较大者 为准。 (c) Attorney's fees. Upon a finding by the court that an unsuccessful pleading, motion, or other paper filed in connection with an action under this section was filed in bad faith or for purposes of harassment, the court shall award to the prevailing party attorney's fees reasonable in relation to the work expended in responding to the pleading, motion, or other paper. 律师费。 根据法院对败诉的诉状、 动议或依据本节其他因恶意或滋扰目在诉讼中提交的有关 书面文件的裁决, 法院应当判决败诉方承担胜诉方为应对此诉状、 动议或其他书面文件而花 费的合理的律师费。 §617. Civil liability for negligent noncompliance [15 U.S.C. §1681o] 过失违法的民事责任 (a) In general. Any person who is negligent in failing to comply with any requirement imposed under this title with respect to any consumer is liable to that consumer in an amount equal to the sum of 一般规定。 任何人因疏忽而违反本编对消费者提出的要求, 应对消费者承担以下等额的责任 (1) any actual damages sustained by the consumer as a result of the failure; 因违法而致消费者遭受的实际损失 (2) in the case of any successful action to enforce any liability under this section, the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court. 在根据本节胜诉予以执行的情况下,法院所确定的诉讼费及合理的律师费。 (b) Attorney's fees. On a finding by the court that an unsuccessful pleading, motion, or other paper filed in connection with an action under this section was filed in bad faith or for purposes of harassment, the court shall award to the prevailing party attorney's fees reasonable in relation to the work expended in responding to the pleading, motion, or other paper. 律师费。根据法院的决定,不成功的诉状、动议或依据本节其他在诉讼中提交的有关书面文

件,系出于恶意或滋扰目的而提交,法院应当判决败诉方承担胜诉方为应对此诉状、动议或 其他书面文件而花费的合理的律师费。 §618. Jurisdiction of courts; limitation of actions [15 U.S.C. §1681p] 法院管辖权;诉讼时效 An action to enforce any liability created under this title may be brought in any appropriate United States district court without regard to the amount in controversy, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, within two years from the date on which the liability arises, except that where a defendant has materially and willfully misrepresented any information required under this title to be disclosed to an individual and the information so misrepresented is material to the establishment of the defendant's liability to that individual under this title, the action may be brought at any time within two years after discovery by the individual of the misrepresentation. 为追究根据本编产生的责任而起诉的, 可以于该责任产生之日起 2 年内, 不考虑争议的数额 在任何合适的美国联邦地区法院提起, 或在其他任何有管辖权的法院提起; 但如果被告重大 并故意地不正确表述按本编规定应被向个人披露的信息, 或者该不正确表述的信息对于确立 被告根据本法对该个人所负的责任是重要的, 则诉讼可以于发现该个人不正确表述后 2 年内 的任何时间提起。 §619. Obtaining information under false pretenses [15 U.S.C. §1681q] 因受欺诈获得的信息 Any person who knowingly and willfully obtains information on a consumer from a consumer reporting agency under false pretenses shall be fined under title 18, United States Code, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both. 任何人明知和故意地借欺诈手段从消费者报告机构获得有关消费者的信息, 应根据 《美国法 典》第 18 编的规定,处以罚款或处不超过 2 年的监禁,或并处罚款和监禁。 §620. Unauthorized disclosures by officers or employees [15 U.S.C. §1681r] 职员或雇员未经授权的披露 Any officer or employee of a consumer reporting agency who knowingly and willfully provides information concerning an individual from the agency's files to a person not authorized to receive that information shall be fined under title 18, United States Code, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both. 消费者报告机构的职员或雇员明知和故意地向未被授权接收该信息的人提供本机构档案中 的信息,应根据《美国法典》第 18 编的规定,单处罚款或 2 年以下监禁,或并处罚款和监 禁。 。 §621. Administrative enforcement [15 U.S.C. §1681s] 行政执行 (a) (1) Enforcement by Federal Trade Commission. Compliance with the requirements imposed under this title shall be enforced under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. § 41 et seq.] § by the Federal Trade Commission with respect to consumer reporting agencies and all other persons subject thereto, except to the extent that enforcement of the requirements imposed under this title is specifically committed to some other government agency under subsection (b) hereof. For the purpose of the exercise by the Federal Trade Commission of its functions and powers under the Federal Trade Commission Act, a violation of any requirement or prohibition imposed under this title shall constitute an unfair or deceptive act or practice in commerce in violation of section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. § 45(a)] and shall be subject to enforcement by the Federal Trade Commission under section 5(b) thereof [15 U.S.C. §45(b)] with respect to any consumer reporting agency or person subject to enforcement by the Federal Trade

Commission pursuant to this subsection, irrespective of whether that person is engaged in commerce or meets any other jurisdictional tests in the Federal Trade Commission Act. The Federal Trade Commission shall have such procedural, investigative, and enforcement powers, including the power to issue procedural rules in enforcing compliance with the requirements imposed under this title and to require the filing of reports, the production of documents, and the appearance of witnesses as though the applicable terms and conditions of the Federal Trade Commission Act were part of this title. Any person violating any of the provisions of this title shall be subject to the penalties and entitled to the privileges and immunities provided in the Federal Trade Commission Act as though the applicable terms and provisions thereof were part of this title. 联邦贸易委员会根据联邦贸易委员会法的规定可以强制有关消费者报告机构和所有其他人 遵守本编规定的要求,但对本编规定的要求所进行的强制已经根据 B 小节规定在此明确地 转授由其他政府机构进行的除外。 为了联邦贸易委员会执行联邦贸易委员会法赋予其的职权 的目的,违反本编的要求和禁止性规定的行为应构成 一个违反《联邦贸易委员会法》第 5A 节规定的不公平行为或欺诈行为或商业活动, 并且应接受联邦贸易委员会根据 《联邦贸易委 员会法》第 5B 节规定所进行的强制,不考虑该人是否在从事商业活动或符合联邦贸易委员 会法的其他管辖条件。联邦贸易委员会应享有程序上的、调查的和强制执行的权力,包括发 布有关强制他人遵守本编规定的要求的程序规则的权力和要求报告档案、 文件制作和证人出 庭的权力, 如同联邦贸易委员会法中可以适用的条款和条件就是本编中的一部分。 任何人违 反本编的规定都应接受联邦贸易委员会法所规定的惩罚和获得联邦贸易委员会法赋予的特 权与豁免,如同联邦贸易委员会法中可适用的条款和条件就是本编的一部分。 (2)(A) In the event of a knowing violation, which constitutes a pattern or practice of violations of this title, the Commission may commence a civil action to recover a civil penalty in a district court of the United States against any person that violates this title. In such action, such person shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $2,500 per violation. 在构成故意违反本编的行为或做法的情况下,委员会可在美国地区法院启动民事诉讼,对 任何违反本编的人主张民事罚款。在此诉讼中,违法者每次违法承担的民事罚款将不超过 2500 美元。 (B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under subparagraph (A), the court shall take into account the degree of culpability, any history of prior such conduct, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, and such other matters as justice may require. 在依(A)小段确定民事罚款数额时,法院应当考虑违法者的过失程度,违法行为发生以前 的情况,支付能力,承担责任对继续经营的效果,和审判要求的其他事项。 (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), a court may not impose any civil penalty on a person for a violation of section 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2] unless the person has been enjoined from committing the violation, or ordered not to commit the violation, in an action or proceeding brought by or on behalf of the Federal Trade Commission, and has violated the injunction or order, and the court may not impose any civil penalty for any violation occurring before the date of the violation of the injunction or order. 除(2)段规定外, 法院不得对个人因违反 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2]节的规定而强加任何民事罚款, 除非此人已被禁止做出违法行为,或被责令不得违法,在由联邦贸易委员会提起诉讼中,法 院不得对在违反此禁令或命令之日前发生的任何违法行为处以任何民事罚款。 (b) Enforcement by other agencies. Compliance with the requirements imposed under this title with respect to consumer reporting agencies, persons who use consumer reports from such

agencies, persons who furnish information to such agencies, and users of information that are subject to subsection (d) of section 615 [§1681m] shall be enforced under 其他机构的执行。为遵守本编对消费者报告机构和那些使用从该机构获得报告之人的规定, 按照 615 [§1681m]节(d)小节规定,使用机构提供的报告的个人、向机构提供报告的个人以 及信息的使用者应接受以下法律规定项下的强制执行 (1) section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. §1818], in the case of 依《联邦储 蓄保险法》第 8 节,如果有以下情形 (A) national banks, and Federal branches and Federal agencies of foreign banks, by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency; 国民银行、外国银行的联邦分支机构和联邦代理机构,由货币监管署负责; (B) member banks of the Federal Reserve System (other than national banks), branches and agencies of foreign banks (other than Federal branches, Federal agencies, and insured State branches of foreign banks), commercial lending companies owned or controlled by foreign banks, and organizations operating under section 25 or 25(a) [25A] of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. § 601 et seq., § 611 et seq], by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and § § 联邦储蓄系统成员银行(不同于国民银行)、 外国银行的分支机构和代理机构(不同于外国银行 的联邦分支 机构或联邦代理机构,以及已经投保的外国银行的州分支机构),由外国银行所 有或控股的商业租赁公司,以及按照《联邦储备法》第 25 节或第 25(a)节运作的组织,由联 邦储备制度管理局负责;和 (C) banks insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (other than members of the Federal Reserve System) and insured State branches of foreign banks, by the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; 由联邦储蓄保险公司(FDIC)保险的银行(不同于联邦储备系统成员),已经投保的外国银行的 州分支机构,由联邦储蓄保险公司董事会负责; (2) section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. § 1818], by the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, in the case of a savings association the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; 依《联邦储蓄保险法》第 8 节,在储蓄协会的存款由联邦储蓄保险公司保险的情形下,由储 蓄机构监管办公室主管人负责; (3) the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. § 1751 et seq.], by the Administrator of the National § Credit Union Administration [National Credit Union Administration Board] with respect to any Federal credit union; 依《联邦信用联盟法》 ,有关任何国家信用联盟事宜,由国家信用联盟管理局 NCUA 管理人 负责 ; (4) subtitle IV of title 49 [49 U.S.C. § 10101 et seq.], by the Secretary of Transportation, with § respect to all carriers subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board; 依《美国法 典》第 49 编第 4 分编的规定,受该分编规定的所有运输工具由地面运输局负责; (5) the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 [49 U.S.C. Appx § 1301 et seq.], by the Secretary of § Transportation with respect to any air carrier or foreign air carrier subject to that Act [49 U.S.C. Appx § 1301 et seq.]; and § 依《1958 年联邦航空法》 ,受该法规定的飞行器和外国飞行器由运输部长负责;和 (6) the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921 [7 U.S.C. § 181 et seq.] (except as provided in § section 406 of that Act [7 U.S.C. § 226 and 227]), by the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to § any activities subject to that Act.

依《1921 年打包者与围栏者法》(该法中第 406 节除外),受该法规范的有关行为由农业部长 负责。 The terms used in paragraph (1) that are not defined in this title or otherwise defined in section 3(s) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. § 1813(s)) shall have the meaning given to them in section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. §3101). 在(1)段使用但未在本编定义或在《联邦储蓄保险法》第 3(s)节另有定义的术语,包含《1978 年国际银行法》第 1(b)节所给予的含义。 (c) State action for violations. 州对违法的行动。 (1) Authority of states. In addition to such other remedies as are provided under State law, if the chief law enforcement officer of a State, or an official or agency designated by a State, has reason to believe that any person has violated or is violating this title, the State 州的权力。 除了根据州的法律规定的其他补救措施外, 如州的首席执法官或州指定的机构或 官员 ,对有理由相信违反或正在违反本编的任何人,州 (A) may bring an action to enjoin such violation in any appropriate United States district court or in any other court of competent jurisdiction; 可在合适的美国地区法院或其他有管辖权的法院提出诉讼来制止此违法行为; (B) subject to paragraph (5), may bring an action on behalf of the paragraph (5) 根据 paragraph (5),以该段名义,提起诉讼, (i) damages for which the person is liable to such residents under sections 616 and 617 [§ 1681n § and 1681o] as a result of the violation; 根据 616 节和 617 [§ 1681n and 1681o]节,要求责任人就违法后果对居民赔偿损失 § (ii) in the case of a violation of section 623(a) [§1681s-2], damages for which the person would, but for section 623(c) [§1681s-2], be liable to such residents as a result of the violation; or 在违反 623(a) [§1681s-2]节的情形下,若非 623(c) [§1681s-2]节规定情形,要求责任人就违 法后果对居民赔偿损失。 (iii) dam ages of not more than $1,000 for each willful or negligent violation; and 各故意或过失违法行为之不超过 1000 美元的赔偿;和 (C) in the case of any successful action under subparagraph (A) or (B), shall be awarded the costs of the action and reasonable attorney fees as determined by the court. 在依 (A) 或 (B)小段胜诉的情形下,将由法院判决的诉讼费和合理的律师费。 (2) Rights of federal regulators. The State shall serve prior written notice of any action under paragraph (1) upon the Federal Trade Commission or the appropriate Federal regulator determined under subsection (b) and provide the Commission or appropriate Federal regulator with a copy of its complaint, except in any case in which such prior notice is not feasible, in which case the State shall serve such notice immediately upon instituting such action. The Federal Trade Commission or appropriate Federal regulator shall have the right 联邦管理者的权利。州应当事先就 (1)段的任何诉讼向联邦贸易委员会或(b)小节确定的有 关联邦管理机构发出书面通知,并提供诉状副本,除了在事先通知不可行的情况外,州一俟 起诉,应当立即通知。联邦贸易委员会或有关联邦机构有权 (A) to intervene in the action; 干预诉讼; (B) upon so intervening, to be heard on all matters arising therein; 根据此种干预,对由此引起的所有事项进行审理; (C) to remove the action to the appropriate United States district court; and 向有关美国地区法院移交诉讼;并

(D) to file petitions for appeal. 提出上诉。 (3) Investigatory powers. For purposes of bringing any action under this subsection, nothing in this subsection shall prevent the chief law enforcement officer, or an official or agency designated by a State, from exercising the powers conferred on the chief law enforcement officer or such official by the laws of such State to conduct investigations or to administer oaths or affirmations or to compel the attendance of witnesses or the production of documentary and other evidence. 调查权。为依本节规定提起诉讼,本小节的任何规定都用于防止首席法律执行官,或州指 定的机构或官员行使首席执法官或州的法律赋予的官员转交的权力, 以进行调查或管理宣誓 或确认,或强制证人出庭或出示书面证据及其他证明。 (4) Limitation on state action while federal action pending. If the Federal Trade Commission or the appropriate Federal regulator has instituted a civil action or an administrative action under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act for a violation of this title, no State may, during the pendency of such action, bring an action under this section against any defendant named in the complaint of the Commission or the appropriate Federal regulator for any violation of this title that is alleged in that complaint. 联邦诉讼未决时对州的诉讼的限制。如联邦贸易委员会或有 关联邦管理机构根据《联邦存储保险法》第 8 节的规定,已对违反本编的行为提起民事诉讼 或行政诉讼, 任何州不得对此诉讼未决期间, 对联邦贸易委员会或有关联邦机构针对违反本 编而在起诉状中所列的被告提起本节规定的诉讼。 (5) Limitations on state actions for violation of section 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2]. 对违反 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2].规定州提起诉讼的限制 。 (A) Violation of injunction required. A State may not bring an action against a person under paragraph (1)(B) for a violation of section 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2], unless 对要求的禁令的违反。州不得根据 (1)(B)段对针对违反 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2]节的人提出诉 讼,除非是对 (i) the person has been enjoined from committing the violation, in an action brought by the State under paragraph (1)(A); and 已被州依(1)(A)段对其起诉,制止其违法的人;和 (ii) the person has violated the injunction. 已违反禁令的人。 (B) Limitation on damages recoverable. In an action against a person under paragraph (1)(B) for a violation of section 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2], a State may not recover any damages incurred before the date of the violation of an injunction on which the action is based. 对可获得的赔偿的限制。在依(1)(B)对违反 623(a)(1) [§1681s-2]节的人提起诉讼的,州不得 要求对在违反作为诉讼基础的禁令之前发生的损失主张赔偿。 (d) Enforcement under other authority. For the purpose of the exercise by any agency referred to in subsection (b) of this section of its powers under any Act referred to in that subsection, a violation of any requirement imposed under this title shall be deemed to be a violation of a requirement imposed under that Act. In addition to its powers under any provision of law specifically referred to in subsection (b) of this section, each of the agencies referred to in that subsection may exercise, for the purpose of enforcing compliance with any requirement imposed under this title any other authority conferred on it by law. 其他机关的执行。本节(b)小节所称的任何机构为行使该小节所指的法律授予的权力,任何 违反本编要求的行为,将被视为对上述法律要求的违反。除此之外,本节(b)小节所称的任 何机构为了强制他人遵守本编规定的各种规定, 可以根据本编行使由其他机构依法授予的其

他任何权力。 (e) Regulatory authority 管制当局 (1) The Federal banking agencies referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) shall jointly prescribe such regulations as necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act with respect to any persons identified under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b), and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall have authority to prescribe regulations consistent with such joint regulations with respect to bank holding companies and affiliates (other than depository institutions and consumer reporting agencies) of such holding companies. 为实现本法的目的, (b)小节(1) 和(2) 段所列的各联邦银行机构应当对依该段确定的任何 人,联合制定必要的法规,联邦储备制度管理局有权就银行持股公司及其下属机构(除存储 机构和消费者报告机构以外)制定与上述法规相一致的法规。 (2) The Board of the National Credit Union Administration shall prescribe such regulations as necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act with respect to any persons identified under paragraph (3) of subsection (b). 国家信用联盟管理局有权对(b)小节(3)段项下确定的人制定必要的法规, 以实现本法的目的。 §622. Information on overdue child support obligations [15 U.S.C. §1681s-1] 未尽儿童抚养义务的有关信息 Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a consumer reporting agency shall include in any consumer report furnished by the agency in accordance with section 604 [§1681b] of this title, any information on the failure of the consumer to pay overdue support which 除本法其他规定 外, 消费者报告机构根据第 604 规定提供的报告中必须包括消费者未对怠于抚养支付费用的 信息,该信息 (1) is provided 被提供于 (A) to the consumer reporting agency by a State or local child support enforcement agency; or 消费者报告机构,由州或地方儿童抚养强制实施机构提供; (B) to the consumer reporting agency and verified by any local, State, or Federal government agency; and 消费者报告机构并经过地方、州或联邦政府机构确认;并且 (2) antedates the report by 7 years or less. 在该报告前 7 年以内。 § 623. Responsibilities of furnishers of information to consumer reporting agencies [15 U.S.C. §1681s-2]向消费者报告机构提供信息者的责任 (a) Duty of furnishers of information to provide accurate information. 信息提供人提供准确信息的义务 (1) Prohibition. 禁止性规定 (A) Reporting information with actual knowledge of errors. A person shall not furnish any information relating to a consumer to any consumer reporting agency if the person knows or consciously avoids knowing that the information is inaccurate. 报告已知错误的信息。 个人如果知道或故意不去了解此信息是准确的, 不得向消费报告机构 提供任何有关消费者的信息, 。 (B) Reporting information after notice and confirmation of errors. A person shall not furnish information relating to a consumer to any consumer reporting agency if 在错误的确认通知后报告信息。个人不得对任何消费者报告机构提供消费者的信息,如果 (i) the person has been notified by the consumer, at the address specified by the person for such notices, that specific information is inaccurate; and 其已获消费者通知,按其确定的地址,此特定信息是不准确的,并且

(ii) the information is, in fact, inaccurate. 信息在事实上不准确。 (C) No address requirement. A person who clearly and conspicuously specifies to the consumer an address for notices referred to in subparagraph (B) shall not be subject to subparagraph (A); however, nothing in subparagraph (B) shall require a person to specify such an address. 无地址要求。如对消费者明确 B 小段规定通知的地址,则不受 A 小段的限制;但是,B 小 段没作规定的,不得要求确定地址。 (2) Duty to correct and update information. A person who 更正和更新信息的义务。 (A) regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to one or more consumer reporting agencies about the person's transactions or experiences with any consumer; and 个人以正常的和常规商务方式对一个或一个以上消费者报告机构提供其与任何消费者的交 易或经历,并且 (B) has furnished to a consumer reporting agency information that the person determines is not complete or accurate, shall promptly notify the consumer reporting agency of that determination and provide to the agency any corrections to that information, or any additional information, that is necessary to make the information provided by the person to the agency complete and accurate, and shall not thereafter furnish to the agency any of the information that remains not complete or accurate. 已对消费者报告机构提供信息,其决定并非完整或准确,提供人应当及时将决定通知消费 者报告机构,并提供决定对此信息或补充信息进行更正,这对于提供完整、准确的信息是必 要的,不得在此之后对消费者报告机构提供仍不完整或准确的信息。 (3) Duty to provide notice of dispute. If the completeness or accuracy of any information furnished by any person to any consumer reporting agency is disputed to such person by a consumer, the person may not furnish the information to any consumer reporting agency without notice that such information is disputed by the consumer. 提供争议通知的义务。 如任何人所提供的信息之完整性和准确性遭到消费者争议, 提供人未 通知此信息有争议的,则不得提供给消费者报告机构。 (4) Duty to provide notice of closed accounts. A person who regularly and in the ordinary course of business furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency regarding a consumer who has a credit account with that person shall notify the agency of the voluntary closure of the account by the consumer, in information regularly furnished for the period in which the account is closed. 提供关闭的账户通知的义务。个人定期地和以通常商业方式对消费者报告机构提供有关消 费者已开设信用账户的信息的, 应当在账户关闭期间定期地提供的信息中, 将消费者自愿披 露的账户通知机构。 (5) Duty to provide notice of delinquency of accounts. A person who furnishes information to a consumer reporting agency regarding a delinquent account being placed for collection, charged to profit or loss, or subjected to any similar action shall, not later than 90 days after furnishing the information, notify the agency of the month and year of the commencement of the delinquency that immediately preceded the action. 欠债账户的通知义务。 对消费者报告机构提供为收债和掌管收益或损失, 或从事类似行为而 设立的有关欠债账户信息的,应当在不迟于提供信息后的 90 日内,在诉讼前立即将发生欠 债的年份和月份通知机构。 (b) Duties of furnishers of information upon notice of dispute.异议通知的信息提供人的义务。 (1) In general. After receiving notice pursuant to section 611(a)(2) [§1681i] of a dispute with

regard to the completeness or accuracy of any information provided by a person to a consumer reporting agency, the person shall 一般规定。根据 611(a)(2) [§1681i]节,信息提供人在收到有关向消费者报告机构提供的信 息之完整性或准确性的异议通知后,应当 (A) conduct an investigation with respect to the disputed information; 就有关异议信息进行调查; (B) review all relevant information provided by the consumer reporting agency pursuant to section 611(a)(2) [§1681i]; 检查消费者报告机构依 611(a)(2) [§1681i]节所提供的所有信息; (C) report the results of the investigation to the consumer reporting agency; and 向消费者报告机构报告调查结果;并且 (D) if the investigation finds that the information is incomplete or inaccurate, report those results to all other consumer reporting agencies to which the person furnished the information and that compile and maintain files on consumers on a nationwide basis. 如果调查发现信息不完整或不准确,向所有其他接受其提供该信息的、并在全国范围内编 纂和保管消费者档案的消费者报告机构报告这些结果, (2) Deadline. A person shall complete all investigations, reviews, and reports required under paragraph (1) regarding information provided by the person to a consumer reporting agency, before the expiration of the period under section 611(a)(1) [§1681i] within which the consumer reporting agency is required to complete actions required by that section regarding that information. 最后期限。个人对消费者报告机构提供有关信息的,根据(1)段对其向消费者报告机构提供 的信息,在 611(a)(1) [§1681i]节规定的期限届满之前,应当完成全部调查,检查和(1)段要 求的报告,消费者报告机构在此期限内被要求就有关信息完成由该节要求的行动。 (c) Limitation on liability. Sections 616 and 617 [§ 1681n and 1681o] do not apply to any failure § to comply with subsection (a), except as provided in section 621(c)(1)(B) [§1681s].责任限制。 616 and 617 [§ 1681n and 1681o]节不适用于任何不遵守 subsection (a)规定的情形, § 621(c)(1)(B) [§1681s].节中规定的情形除外。 (d) Limitation on enforcement. Subsection (a) shall be enforced exclusively under section 621 [§1681s] by the Federal agencies and officials and the State officials identified in that section. 对执行的限制。根据 621 [§1681s 规定,Subsection (a)由联邦机构和官员及该节明确的州的 官员专门执行。 美国.公平信用报告法(3) 2008-01-03 14:44:01| 分类: 法律英语 | 标签: |字号大 中 小 订阅

§ 624. Relation to State laws [15 U.S.C. §1681t] 与州法律的关系 (a) In general. Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), this title does not annul, alter, affect, or exempt any person subject to the provisions of this title from complying with the laws of any

State with respect to the collection, distribution, or use of any information on consumers, except to the extent that those laws are inconsistent with any provision of this title, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency. 本编不废止、修改、影响或免除受本编规范之人按任何州法律所进行之收集、公布和使用消 费者信息的活动,除非这些法律与本编的规定不一致,则仅就此不一致部分除外。 (b) General exceptions. No requirement or prohibition may be imposed under the laws of any State 一般例外。不得根据任何州的法律要求或禁止 (1) with respect to any subject matter regulated under 下列规定的任何事项 (A) subsection (c) or (e) of section 604 [§ 1681b], relating to the prescreening of consumer reports; 依 604 [§ 1681b]节(c) 或 (e)小节,对有关消费者报告进行预筛选; (B) section 611 [§ 1681i], relating to the time by which a consumer reporting agency must take any action, including the provision of notification to a consumer or other person, in any procedure related to the disputed accuracy of information in a consumer's file, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to any State law in effect on the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996; 依 611 [§ 1681i]节,有关消费者报告机构必须采取行动的时间,包括在任何有关消费者 档案信息准确性异议的程序中,对消费者或他人通知的规定,但是,本小段不适用在《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通过之日生效的任何州的法律。 (C) subsections (a) and (b) of section 615 [§1681m], relating to the duties of a person who takes any adverse action with respect to a consumer; 依 615 [§ 1681m 节的(a) 和 (b)小节,有关对消费者采取不利行动的人的责任; (D) section 615(d) [§ 1681m], relating to the duties of persons who use a consumer report of a consumer in connection with any credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer and that consists of a firm offer of credit or insurance;

依 615(d) [§ 1681m]节,在任何非由消费者主动提出的并由实盘构成的信贷或保险交易中 使用消费者的消费者报告的人的义务; (E) section 605 [§ 1681c], relating to information contained in consumer reports, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to any State law in effect on the date of enactment of the

Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996; or 依 605 [§ 1681c]节,除了本小段不适用任何在《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通过之 日生效的任何州的法律以外,有关消费者报告中所含的信息;或者 (F) section 623 [§1681s-2], relating to the responsibilities of persons who furnish information to consumer reporting agencies, except that this paragraph shall not apply 依 623 [§ 1681s-2]节,有关向消费者报告机构提供信息的人的义务,除以下本段不适用的 情形以外 (i) with respect to section 54A(a) of chapter 93 of the Massachusetts Annotated Laws (as in effect on the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996); or 马萨诸塞州注解法律第 93 章第 54A(a)节(于《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通过之日生 效)的有关规定;或者 (ii) with respect to section 1785.25(a) of the California Civil Code (as in effect on the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996); 加利福尼亚州民法典第 1785.25(a)节(在《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通过之日生效) 的有关规定 (2) with respect to the exchange of information among persons affiliated by common ownership or common corporate control, except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to subsection (a) or (c)(1) of section 2480e of title 9, Vermont Statutes Annotated (as in effect on the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996); or 在共有产权人或普通控股公司隶属的人之间交换信息的规定, 本段不适用佛蒙特州注释法 规第 9 编第 2480e 节第(a) 或(c)(1)小节(在《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通过之日生效) 的有关规定除外;或者 (3) with respect to the form and content of any disclosure required to be made under section 609(c) [§1681g]. 依 609(c) [§ 1681g]节被要求作出的任何披露的内容和格式的有关规定。 (c) Definition of firm offer of credit or insurance. Notwithstanding any definition of the term "firm offer of credit or insurance" (or any equivalent term) under the laws of any State, the definition of that term contained in section 603(l) [§1681a] shall be construed to apply in the enforcement and interpretation of the laws of any State governing consumer reports.信贷或保险交易的实质要约 的定义。 除州的法律对信贷或保险交易的实盘(或类似术语)定义外, 603(l) [§ 1681a]节包含 的术语定义将被解释为适用于执行和解释任何规范消费者报告的州的法律。

(d) Limitations. Subsections (b) and (c) 限制。(b) 和 (c)小节 (1) do not affect any settlement, agreement, or consent judgment between any State Attorney General and any consumer reporting agency in effect on the date of enactment of the Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996; and 不影响任何州的总检察长与任何消费者报告机构间《1996 年消费者信用报告改革法》通 过之日生效的任何和解、协议或赞同判断;和 (2) do not apply to any provision of State law (including any provision of a State constitution) that 不适用州的法律(包括州的宪法)的任何规定 (A) is enacted after January 1, 2004; 于 2004 年之后制定的 (B) states explicitly that the provision is intended to supplement this title; and 明确用于补充本编的规定;并且 (C) gives greater protection to consumers than is provided under this title. 对消费者提供了比本 编更好的保护。 § 625. Disclosures to FBI for counterintelligence purposes [15 U.S.C. §1681u] 为反间谍目的向联邦调查局的披露 (a) Identity of financial institutions. Notwithstanding section 604 [§1681b] or any other provision of this title, a consumer reporting agency shall furnish to the Federal Bureau of Investigation the names and addresses of all financial institutions (as that term is defined in section 1101 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. §3401]) at which a consumer maintains or has maintained an account, to the extent that information is in the files of the agency, when presented with a written request for that information, signed by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or the Director's designee in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge of a Bureau field office designated by the Director, which certifies compliance with this section. The Director or the Director's designee may make such a certification only if the Director or the Director's designee has determined in writing, that such information is sought for the conduct of an authorized investigation to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 金融机构身份的确认。除第 604 节[§ 1681b 或本编任何其他规定外,如果美国人的调查并 不是专门以美国宪法第一修正案所保护的活动为基础而行动, 当为获取信息而出示由联邦调 查局局长签发的书面请求, 或出示经证明遵守本节的规定, 由局长指定的职位不低于局总部

副助理局长的人或局长指派的负责局现场调查办公室的特别机构签发的书面请求, 消费者报 告机构应当对联邦调查局提供所有金融机构(术语为 《1978 年金融隐私权利法》 1101 节[12 第 U.S.C. § 3401]所界定)的名称和地址,消费者在该处保留或已经保留账户,将这些信息存 于机构的档案。 在局长或局长的指派人员已以书面作出决定的情形下, 局长或局长的指派人 仅可以证明,此信息用于经过授权的为反对国际恐怖行为而开展的调查或秘密情报活动。 (b) Identifying information. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 604 [§1681b] or any other provision of this title, a consumer reporting agency shall furnish identifying information respecting a consumer, limited to name, address, former addresses, places of employment, or former places of employment, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation when presented with a written request, signed by the Director or the Director's designee, which certifies compliance with this subsection. The Director or the Director's designee in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge of a Bureau field office designated by the Director may make such a certification only if the Director or the Director's designee has determined in writing that such information is sought for the conduct of an authorized investigation to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 身份识别信息。除 604 [§ 1681b]节或本编其他规定外,如果美国人的调查不仅仅以美国宪 法第一修正案所保护的活动为基础而开展, 当联邦调查局经证明遵守本小节的规定, 出示由 局长或局长指派的人员签名的书面请求文件, 消费者报告机构应当对其提供有关消费者限于 姓名、地址、前住址、工作地点,或前工作地点的身份信息。只有在局长或局长的指派人员 已经以书面作出决定的情形下, 局长或职位不低于局总部副助理局长的局长指派人员, 或局 长指定的负责现场调查办公室的特别机构可以作出证明, 搜寻此信息是为了履行经过授权的 反国际恐怖行为的调查或秘密情报活动。 (c) Court order for disclosure of consumer reports. Notwithstanding section 604 [§1681b] or any other provision of this title, if requested in writing by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a designee of the Director in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge of a Bureau field office designated by the Director, a court may issue an order ex parte directing a consumer reporting agency to furnish a consumer report to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, upon a showing in camera that the consumer report is sought for the conduct of an authorized investigation to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 要求披露消费者报告的法院命令。除 604 [§ 1681b]节或本编其他规定外,如果美国人的调 查不仅仅以美国宪法第一修正案所保护的活动为基础而开展, 如果联邦调查局长或职位不低 于局总部副助理局长的局长指派人员, 或局长指定的负责实地调查办公室的特别机构以书面 提出请求,法院可发出命令,要求消费者报告机构向联邦调查局提供消费者报告,根据照片 显示,搜寻消费者报告是为了进行经过授权的反国际恐怖行为的调查或秘密情报活动,

The terms of an order issued under this subsection shall not disclose that the order is issued for purposes of a counterintelligence investigation. 依本小节签发的命令措词不得暴露为进行反情报调查目的而签发此命令。 (d) Confidentiality. No consumer reporting agency or officer, employee, or agent of a consumer reporting agency shall disclose to any person, other than those officers, employees, or agents of a consumer reporting agency necessary to fulfill the requirement to disclose information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation under this section, that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained the identity of financial institutions or a consumer report respecting any consumer under subsection (a), (b), or (c), and no consumer reporting agency or officer, employee, or agent of a consumer reporting agency shall include in any consumer report any information that would indicate that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained such information or a consumer report. 保密。 除依本节消费者报告机构或职员、 雇员或消费者报告机构的代理人对联邦调查局履行 必要的披露信息要求以外,消费者报告机构或职员、雇员或消费者报告机构的代理人,不得 对任何人披露, 联邦调查局依(a), (b), or (c)小节对任何消费者已经寻求到和获得了金融机构 或消费者报告机构的确认,消费者报告机构或官员、雇员或消费者报告机构的代理人,不得 在消费者报告中包含任何显示联邦调查局已经寻求到和获得了此类信息或消费者报告。 (e) Payment of fees. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, pay to the consumer reporting agency assembling or providing report or information in accordance with procedures established under this section a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been directly incurred in searching, reproducing, or transporting books, papers, records, or other data required or requested to be produced under this section. 支付费用。 联邦调查局应当根据其获得的拨款, 对消费者报告机构根据本节确立的程序收集 或提供报告或信息支付合理的必要的费用。这些费用为收集,再作或送达账册、文件、记录 或其他需要或依本节要求制作的数据而直接发生的成本。 (f) Limit on dissemination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation may not disseminate information obtained pursuant to this section outside of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, except to other Federal agencies as may be necessary for the approval or conduct of a foreign counterintelligence investigation, or, where the information concerns a person subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, to appropriate investigative authorities within the military department concerned as may be necessary for the conduct of a joint foreign counterintelligence investigation. 传播的限制。联邦调查局不得传播根据本节从联邦调查局以外获取的信息,但是,其他联邦 机构经过必要的批准或从事涉外反情报调查, 或者, 在信息涉及统一军事审判法规范的人的 情形下,有必要与军事部门内部有关调查机构联合进行涉外反情报调查时除外。

(g) Rules of construction. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit information from being furnished by the Federal Bureau of Investigation pursuant to a subpoena or court order, in connection with a judicial or administrative proceeding to enforce the provisions of this Act. Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize or permit the withholding of information from the Congress. 解释规则。本节规定不得被解释为,在有关司法或行政程序中,根据传票或法院命令禁止联 邦调查局提供信息,以执行本法的规定。本节不得解释为授权或许可对国会扣留信息。 (h) Reports to Congress. On a semiannual basis, the Attorney General shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate concerning all requests made pursuant to subsections (a), (b), and (c).向国会报告。 总检察长应当每半年一次, (a), (b), and 就 (c)小节所有要求的事项,向众议院有关的情报常设专门委员会和有关银行、金融和城市事 务的委员会, 并向参议院有关的情报专门委员会和有关银行、 住宅和城市事务的委员会全面 通报, (i) Damages. Any agency or department of the United States obtaining or disclosing any consumer reports, records, or information contained therein in violation of this section is liable to the consumer to whom such consumer reports, records, or information relate in an amount equal to the sum of 赔偿。任何获得或披露消费者报告、记录 或其中所含信息美国机构或部门,违反本 节规定的,应对消费者报告、记录或相关信息涉及的消费者承担下列等额的赔偿责任 (1) $100, without regard to the volume of consumer reports, records, or information involved; 100 美元,不管消费者报告、记录或有关信息的数量; (2) any actual damages sustained by the consumer as a result of the disclosure; 消费者因披露而受到的任何实际损失; (3) if the violation is found to have been willful or intentional, such punitive damages as a court may allow; and 如发现属于故意或有意违法,法院允许的惩罚性赔偿金;和 (4) in the case of any successful action to enforce liability under this subsection, the costs of the action, together with reasonable attorney fees, as determined by the court. 在任何胜诉并按本小 节予以执行的情形下,法院确定的诉讼费和合理的律师费。 (j) Disciplinary actions for violations. If a court determines that any agency or department of the United States has violated any provision of this section and the court finds that the circumstances surrounding the violation raise questions of whether or not an officer or employee of the agency or

department acted willfully or intentionally with respect to the violation, the agency or department shall promptly initiate a proceeding to determine whether or not disciplinary action is warranted against the officer or employee who was responsible for the violation. 对违法者惩戒行为。 如果法院判决美国机构或部门违反本节规定, 并且法院发现违法引出了 机构或部门的官员或雇员是否故意或有意违法的问题, 在这种情况下, 机构应当及时启动程 序来决定是否要对违法负有责任的官员或雇员采取惩戒行为。 (k) Good-faith exception. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, any consumer reporting agency or agent or employee thereof making disclosure of consumer reports or identifying information pursuant to this subsection in good-faith reliance upon a certification of the Federal Bureau of Investigation pursuant to provisions of this section shall not be liable to any person for such disclosure under this title, the constitution of any State, or any law or regulation of any State or any political subdivision of any State. 诚实例外。 除本编有其他规定外, 任何消费者报告机构或其代理人或员工因此披露消费者报 告,或根据本小节规定以诚实信赖联邦调查局依本节的规定的证明而确定信息,依本编、州 的宪法或州的任何法律或法规,或任何州的政府区分,则不对任何人承担披露的责任。 (l) Limitation of remedies. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the remedies and sanctions set forth in this section shall be the only judicial remedies and sanctions for violation of this section. 救济的限制。 除有本编其他规定外, 本节规定的救济和制裁将只用于违反本节的司法救济和 制裁。 (m) Injunctive relief. In addition to any other remedy contained in this section, injunctive relief shall be available to require compliance with the procedures of this section. In the event of any successful action under this subsection, costs together with reasonable attorney fees, as determined by the court, may be recovered. 禁令救济。除了本节规定的其他救济外,还可要求遵守本节程序获得禁令救济。在任何依本 小节胜诉的情形下,可以得到法院确定的诉讼费和合理的律师费。 § 626. Disclosures to governmental agencies for counterterrorism purposes [15 U.S.C. §1681v] 为反恐怖行为目的而向政府机构的披露 (a) Disclosure. Notwithstanding section 604 or any other provision of this title, a consumer reporting agency shall furnish a consumer report of a consumer and all other information in a consumer's file to a government agency authorized to conduct investigations of, or intelligence or counterintelligence activities or analysis related to, international terrorism when presented with a written certification by such government agency that such information is necessary for the agency's conduct or such investigation, activity or analysis.

披露。除 604 节或本编其他规定外,当政府机构出示书面证明,这些信息为政府部门行为或 调查、活动或分析所必须时,消费者报告机构应当对被授权从事有关国际恐怖行为调查,情 报或反情报活动或分析的政府机构,提供消费者报告和消费者档案中的消费者其他所有信 息。 (b) Form of certification. The certification described in subsection (a) shall be signed by a supervisory official designated by the head of a Federal agency or an officer of a Federal agency whose appointment to office is required to be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 证明的格式。(a)小段规定的证明,须由联邦部门首长指派的监督官员或联邦部门的官员签 字,其被要求由总统任命,并经过参议院的建议和同意。 (c) Confidentiality. No consumer reporting agency, or officer, employee, or agent of such consumer reporting agency, shall disclose to any person, or specify in any consumer report, that a government agency has sought or obtained access to information under subsection (a). 保密。消费者报告机构或官员、雇员,或消费者报告机构的代理人,不得向任何人披露或详 细说明任何消费者报告,政府部门依(a)小节已发现或获得的信息使用方法 (d) Rule of construction. Nothing in section 625 shall be construed to limit the authority of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation under this section. 解释规则。625 节不得被解释为限制本节规定的联邦调查局局长的权力 (e) Safe harbor. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, any consumer reporting agency or agent or employee thereof making disclosure of consumer reports or other information pursuant to this section in good-faith reliance upon a certification of a governmental agency pursuant to the provisions of this section shall not be liable to any person for such disclosure under this subchapter, the constitution of any State, or any law or regulation of any State or any political subdivision of any State.

安全港。除本编任何其他规定外,任何消费者报告机构或代理人或雇员对消费者报告 依本 法所作的披露,或根据本节的规定诚实信赖政府按本节规定出具的证明,而披露其他信息, 依据本次章、任何州的宪法,或任何州的法律或法规,或任何州的任何政治区分单位,不对 任何人为此披露而承担责任
英文来源:http://www.ftc.gov/os/statutes/fcra.htm


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