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Social interactionism


Social interactionism
Constructivism Humanism

In sociology, interactionism is a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It is the study of individuals and how they act within society. Interactionist theory has grown in the latter half of the twentieth century and has become one of the dominant sociological perspectives in the world today.

Interactionism is micro-sociological and believes that meaning is produced through the interactions of individuals. The social interaction is a face-to-face process consisting of actions, reactions, and mutual adaptation between two or more individuals. The interaction includes all language (including body language) and mannerisms. The goal of the social interaction is to communicate with others.

Constructivism is a theory of knowledge argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas Social constructivism has been criticized for being a kind of behaviorism, which reduces the individual to his or her social environment.

Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructionism into social settings, where in groups construct knowledge for one another, collaboratively creating a small culture of shared artifacts with shared meanings. When one is immersed within a culture of this sort, one is learning all the time about how to be a part of that culture on many levels.

Social constructivism and social constructionism Social constructivism is closely related to social constructionism in the sense that people are working together to construct artifacts. However, there is an important difference: social constructionism focuses on the artifacts that are created through the social interactions of a group, while social constructivism focuses on an individual's learning that takes place because of their interactions in a group.

Social constructivism and education Social constructivism has been studied by many educational psychologists, who are concerned with its implications for teaching and learning. Constructivism forms one of the major theories (behaviourism, social learning, constructivism and social constructivism) of child development, arising from the work of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. He believed children needed to construct an understanding of the world for themselves. This contrasts with behaviourism (learning theory) in which the development arises from specific forms of learning, the child being seen as a passive recipient of environmental influences that shape its behaviour. Piaget's theory saw children as possessing active agency rather than being passive receptacles. Social constructivism extends constructivism by incorporating the role of other actors and culture in development. In this sense it can also be contrasted with social learning theory by stressing interaction over observation.

Educational humanism Humanism, as a current in education, began to dominate U.S. school systems in the 17th century. It held that the studies that develop human intellect are those that make humans "most truly human." The practical basis for this was faculty psychology, or the belief in distinct intellectual faculties, such as the analytical, the mathematical, the linguistic, etc.

Humanistic education is an alternative approach to education based on the work of humanistic psychologists, in humanistic education, the whole person, not just the intellect, is engaged in the growth and development that are the signs of real learning. The emotions, the social being, the mind, and the skills needed for a career direction are all focuses of humanistic education. "Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem. It would be important for children to feel good about themselves and to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals."

Principles of Humanistic Education Choice or Control The humanistic approach focuses a great deal on student choice and control over the course of their education. Students are encouraged to make choices that range from day-to-day activities to periodically setting future life goals. This allows for students to focus on a specific subject of interest for any amount of time they choose, within reason. Humanistic teachers believe it is important for students to be motivated and engaged in the material they are learning, and this happens when the topic is something the students need and want to know.

Felt Concern Humanistic education tends to focus on the felt concerns and interests of the students intertwining with the intellect. It is believed that the overall mood and feeling of the students can either hinder or foster the process of learning.

The Whole Person Humanistic educators believe that both feelings and knowledge are important to the learning process. Unlike traditional educators, humanistic teachers do not separate the cognitive and affective domains. This aspect also relates to the curriculum in the sense that lessons and activities provided focus on various aspects of the student and not just rote memorization through note taking and lecturing.

Self Evaluation Humanistic educators believe that grades are irrelevant and that only selfevaluation is meaningful. Grading encourages students to work for a grade and not for intrinsic satisfaction. Humanistic educators disagree with routine testing because they teach students rote memorization as opposed to meaningful learning. They also believe testing doesn't provide sufficient educational feedback to the teacher.

Teacher as a Facilitator "The tutor or lecturer tends to be more supportive than critical, more understanding than judgmental, more genuine than playing a role." Their job is to foster a engaging environment for the students and ask inquiry based questions that promote meaningful learning.

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制作人: 制作人:宋旋


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