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英语周报牛津模块九 Unit 4 Grammar


牛津版 高三 Module 9
Unit 4

Unit 4 Grammar and usage

Analysis of complicated sentence

You are as wise as Solomon. What does the sentence mean?

---Very clever. ‘as wise as Solomon’ is an
idiom in Bible, and in it Solomon was

the third king of Israel who was known
for his wisdom.

What is an idiom? An idiom is a group of words or an expression whose meaning often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it.

In the reading text ‘Biblical idiom in English’, we learnt something about idioms. Can you recite the first paragraph of ? There are three sentences in it. 1. An idiom is a group of words or an 。 expression whose meaning often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it.

2. In other words, its meaning can be completely different from the meanings of its components. 3. Idioms often use a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept, among other things, and unless you recognize when an idiom is being used, you can easily misunderstand what you read or hear spoken. Can you analyze the sentence above?

the first sentence
The sentence is a Complex sentence. It is made up of a main clause and one subordinate (Attribute) clause. A Complex sentence is made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. They are linked by subordinators(从属连词) such as because, when, where, if, since, that, unless, whereas, whose, while and although.

Discuss What kinds of Complex sentence do you know? 一、名词性从句 1、包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从 句、同位语从句 2、引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三 类:

连接词: that, whether, if(不充当从句的任 何成分) 连接代词: what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which 连接副词: when, where, how, why It is a pity that you didn't go to see the film. She did not know what had happened. The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.

二、定语从句
定语从句中的所有关系词不但有具体 意义而且都在从句中担当一定的成分。 关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that等。 关系副词:when, where, why等。 在定语从句中,关系副词=介词 +which

e.g. Those who /that are in their forties are required to have a physical examination this afternoon. He has found a good job for which he is qualified. There are lots of examples of idioms where animals are used to create an image. 有许多习语源于用动物来创造形象。

三、状语从句 1、时间状语从句 1)由as, while引导时,表示主句和从句 的动作同时发生,或一个动作发生在 另一个动作或过程中。 2)由after, when引导时, 表示主句动作 在从句后。 3)由before, when引导时,表示主句动 作发生在从句动作前。

4) 由whenever, every/each time引导时, 表示主句动作以从句动作为条件而发生。 5)由as soon as引导时, 表示主句动作发 生在从句动作的一瞬间后。 6)由just/hardly…when, no sooner…than 引导时, 表示主句动作发生在从句动 作的一瞬间之前。 We can leave when you are ready. After she packed up her things, Mary went to book her ticket.

2. 原因状语从句 由 because, as, since或复合连词now that, in that 等引导 3. 地点状语从句: 由where, wherever引导。 4. 条件状语从句 由 if, as (so) long as, unless 引导。 5. 目的状语从句 由 so that, in order that, in case等引导。

六、 结果状语从句 由 so that, so …that, such …that 引导。 七、让步状语从句 由 though, even though, however, no matter how/what/who等引导。 八、比较状语从句 由 than, the more…the more, as…as引 导。 九、方式状语从句 由in the same way, as 等引导。

As the sun rose the fog dispersed. Whenever she had a cold, she ate only fruit. Now that we have decorated the house, we can move in. The thread breaks where it is weakest. Robbie didn’t feel as she did. She ought to come down just in case anything happened. If necessary, ring me at home.

the second sentence
In other words, its meaning can be completely different from the meanings of its components.

The sentence is a long simple sentence.
Every sentence of this type contains a subject and a predicate. In these sentences, it is useful to identify the subject and the predicate.

The subject is what the sentence is about and the predicate tells us something about the subject and always includes a verb. e.g. Islam was started about 1,400 years ago by a man called Muhammad.

the third sentence
Idioms often use a number of words to

represent a single object, person or
concept, among other things, and unless

you recognize when an idiom is being
used, you can easily misunderstand what you read or hear spoken.

The sentence is a Complex-compound sentence. This happens when coordination(并列关系) and subordination(从属关系) occur in the same sentence. In compound sentences, there are two or more clauses. They are usually linked by coordinators such as and, or and but. Each clause can stand on its own.

e.g. People who follow this religion study Buddhist sutras and they follow the teachings of Buddha. She is a funny girl, yet I cannot help liking her. You must hurry, or you won’t make it for the train.

Summary
the simple sentence subject + predicate subject + predicate the compound +and/or/but+ subject sentence + predicate the complex main clause + sentence subordinate clause the simple sentence+ the complexand/or/but+ the compound complex sentence sentence

Notes: The purpose of analyzing sentences This will help students better understand the meaning of a long and complicated sentence, thus, they will read articles faster and understand them better as well as learn to use complicated sentences to express their views. Use the knowledge to solve the problems correctly.

Part A on Page 57

Look at the text below and decide if each
sentence is (a) a long sentence ,(b) a

compound sentence, (c) a complex
sentence or (d) a compound-complex

sentence. (to check if they master the
important points of the knowledge)

Analyze long and complicated sentences.
Answers:

1c

2a

3d

4c 5c

6c

7b

Part B on Page 57 Look at each group of sentences and combine them to form one complicated sentence, using words in brackets to help you. Keys: 1. One English proverb is ‘the early bird catches the worm’, which is frequently used to talk about hard work being the key to success.

2. The proverb ‘great minds think alike, but fools seldom differ’ is very famous although it is usually shortened to ‘ great minds think alike’. 3. The proverb ‘don’t count your chickens until they are hatched’ means ‘don’t count on something going well until it happens’, and this proverb is very popular.

4. The proverb ‘ make hay while the sun
shines’ is very old, and it comes from

the old days when people all worked
on farms.

Consolidation
Have a try: (2006湖南) We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us,______ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which

(2005山东) He was educated at a local grammar school, ______ he went on to Cambridge. A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this (2005江苏) The place ______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be _____ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which

Find the mistake in the following
sentences and try to correct then give the

reason.
1. Autumn comes, leaves turn yellow. comes --- coming; or: Autumn comes, and leaves turn yellow. 2. Have you ever asked him the reason why may explain his being late? why that/which

3. If a man goes to work goes without breakfast, he may easily feel tired. If a man who goes without breakfast 4. It was early morning that we reached the coast of that city. that when 5. The worker went on with the work which he had left it yesterday. where which

Fill in the blanks with appropriate subordinators. 1.In the autumn, leaves can be seen falling from the tree_____ a strong wind blows. when This kind of scene is often used to express sad feeling in films. 2.______ all successful people have in What common is ____ they have perseverance. that

3. The problem with _______ we are now which faced is that there are not enough desks in the classroom. 4. Our bad living habits, such as polling the air and water, have already destroyed much of the Earth. Only by changing how we live can we save our ____ planet.

Let’s enjoy ( Pay attention to long complicated sentences ) The Wonderful Wizard of Oz[绿野仙踪] Dorothy lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies, with Uncle Henry, who was a farmer, and Aunt Em, who was the farmer's wife. Their house was small, for the lumber to build it had to be carried by wagon many miles.

There were four walls, a floor and a roof,
which made one room; and this room

contained a rusty looking cook stove, a
cupboard for the dishes, a table, three or four chairs, and the beds. Uncle Henry and Aunt Em had a big bed in one corner, and Dorothy a little bed in another corner.

There was no garret at all, and no cellar— except a small hole dug in the ground, called a cyclone cellar, where the family could go in case one of those great whirlwinds arose, mighty enough to crush any building in its path. It was reached by a trap door in the middle of the floor, from which a ladder led down into the small, dark hole.

When Dorothy stood in the doorway and looked around, she could see nothing but the great gray prairie on every side. Not a tree or a house broke the broad sweep of flat country that reached to the edge of the sky in all directions. The sun had baked the plowed land into a gray mass, with little cracks running through it.

Homework
1. Read the content on Page 56 and Page 57 after class. 2.Finish the exercises on Page 128 in Wb.


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