Percy Bysshe Shelley 珀西· 比希· 雪莱
作者： B1002 李颖 21 李静 22
Life and experience
Shelley was born on August 4,1792, at Field Place, near Horsham in Sussex, into an aristocratic family.
? His grandfather was a wealthy businessman, received a baronetcy in 1806. ? His father, Timothy Shelley, was a Sussex squire and a member of Parliament. ? His mother Glover Elizabeth is a well – known beauty in Devonshire
? The eldest of 7 children with 5 sisters and one brother
Life and experience
he entered the Oxford University College he entered the Oxford University College he entered the Oxford University College he entered the Oxford University College
Entered the Syon House Academy Entered Eton College
Enter the Oxford University College
Expelled from the college for publishing The Necessity Of Atheism.
On 28 August 1811, at the age of nineteen, Shelley married 16-year old Harriet Westbrook, the daughter of a London tavern owner. The pair spent the following two years traveling in England and Ireland, distributing pamphlets and speaking against political injustice.
? Not long after, In 1814, he
fell in love with a girl named Mary Godwin and eloped with her They traveled abroad . During this journey Shelley wrote an unfinished novella, The Assassins.
? Mary is the daughter of the philosopher and anarchist William Godwin (1756-1836), an English Romantic novelist, biographer and editor, best known as the writer of Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus
In 1816, made a second trip to Switzerland
In 1817 Shelley published The Revolt Of Islam
In 1820, to Pisa
In 1819, went to Rome
In 1822, settled to Italy
The Shelleys moved restlessly from place to place, and they suffered financial problems. The strain of constant travelling told on his health. On July 8,1822, to welcome his friend, he sailed to Leghorn. During the stormy return voyage, his small yacht sank and Shelley drowned with Edward Williams. The bodies were cremated on the shore, and Shelley's ashes were buried next to Keats in the Protestant cemetery in Rome.
? Rich in myth, symbols and classical allusions, especially in describing fire, air, water, wind and earth; ? Strong dramatic power as shown in the rapidity of his lines; ? Style abounds in personification and metaphor and other figures
1. Shelley is one of the leading Romantic poets, an intense and original lyrical poet in the English language. 2. He stood for this social and political ideal all his life. 3. He and Byron are justifiably (justly, rightly) regarded as the two great poets of the revolutionary romanticism in England.
4. Shelley loved the people and hated their oppressors and exploiters. 5. Byron, his best friend, said of Shelley “the best and least selfish man I ever knew”. 6. Wordsworth said, “Shelley is one of the best artists of us all”.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 爱尔兰人之歌（The Irishman’s Song，1809） 战争（War，1810） 魔鬼出行（The Devil’s Walk，1812） 仙后麦布（Queen Mab，1813） 玛丽安妮的梦（Marianne’s Dream，1817） 致大法官（To The Lord Chancellor，1817） 奥西曼迭斯（Ozymandias，1817） 逝（The Past，1818） 一朵枯萎的紫罗兰（On A Faded Violet，1818） 召苦难（Invocation To Misery，1818） 致玛丽（To Mary，1818） 伊斯兰的反叛（The Revolt of Islam，1818）
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西风颂（Ode To The West Wind，1819） 饥饿的母亲（A Starving Mother，1819） 罗萨林和海伦（Rosalind and Helen，1819） 含羞草（The Sensitive Plant，1820） 云（The Cloud，1820） 致云雀（To A Skylark，1820） 自由颂（Ode To Liberty，1820） 解放的普罗米修斯（Prometheus Unbound， 1820） ? 阿多尼斯（Adonais，1821） ? 一盏破碎的明灯（Lines，1822）
To a Skylark
? ? ? ? ? ? Hail to thee, blithe Spirit! Hail to thee, blithe Spirit! Bird thou never wert, That from Heaven, or near it, Pourest thy full heart In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. Higher still and higher From the earth thou springest Like a cloud of fire;
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? 你好,欢乐的精灵! ? 你压根儿不像飞鸟 , ? 你从天堂或天堂附 近 ? 毫不吝惜地倾倒 ? 如同行云流水一般 的心灵的曲调。 ? 你就像一朵火云, ? 从地面升腾而起, ? 上升呵又复上升,
? The blue deep thou wingest, ? And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest. ? In the golden lightning ? Of the sunken sun ? O'er which clouds are bright'ning, ? Thou dost float and run, ? Like an unbodied joy whose race is just begun. ? The pale purple even ? Melts around thy flight; ? Like a star of Heaven ? In the broad daylight ? Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight:
? 飞到蓝色的天际, ? 歌唱中不断翱翔, 翱翔中歌声不止. ? 沉入西山的夕阳, ? 喷散金色的光焰, ? 把朵朵云霞映亮, ? 你像无形的欢颜, ? 刚刚踏上征途,飘 浮而又飞旋。 ? 淡淡的紫色的暮 云 ? 在你航程周围消 溶,
? Keen as are the arrows ? Of that silver sphere, ? Whose intense lamp narrows ? In the white dawn clear ? Until we hardly see--we feel that it is there. ? All the earth and air ? With thy voice is loud. ? As, when night is bare, ? From one lonely cloud ? The moon rains out her beams, and heaven is overflowed
? 你像天空的一颗星 辰, ? 在明亮的白昼之中 , ? 虽然隐形,我却听 到你强烈的欢腾, ? 就像银色的天体 ? 射出一支支利箭, ? 在清朗的曙色里, ? 它的明灯渐渐变暗 , ? 直至看不见,可我 们感到它就在眼前
? What thou art we know not; ? What is most like thee? ? From rainbow clouds there flow not ? Drops so bright to see ? As from thy presence showers a rain of melody. ? Like a poet hidden ? In the light of thought, ? Singing hymns unbidden, ? Till the world is wrought ? To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not: ? Like a high-born maiden ? In a palace tower,
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整个天空和大地 响彻着你的歌声, 恰似夜空明净之时, 月亮透过一片孤云, 洒下银光,让清辉漫 溢于整个天庭。 我们不知你是什么; 什么东西最像你? 从彩虹般的云朵 泻出的晶莹雨滴, 也比不上你的甘霖 一般的旋律。 就像是一位诗人
? Soothing her love-laden ? Soul in secret hour ? With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower: ? Like a glow-worm golden ? In a dell of dew, ? Scattering unbeholden ? Its aerial hue ? Among the flowers and grass, which screen it from the view: ? Like a rose embowered ? In its own green leaves, ? By warm winds deflowered, ? Till the scent it gives
? 以心甘情愿的歌吟, ? 来把世界激荡, ? 让它去同情它未曾 注意的忧患和希望 ? 就像是名门闺秀 ? 居住在深宫高阁, ? 为排遣爱的忧愁, ? 一到幽静的时刻, ? 便让闺阁荡漾着甜 如爱情的音乐。 ? 就像金色的萤火虫 ? 栖身凝露的山谷, ? 它在花草丛中,
? Makes faint with too much sweet these heavy-winged thieves. ? Sound of vernal showers ? On the twinkling grass, ? Rain-awakened flowers, ? All that ever was ? Joyous, and clear, and fresh, thy music doth surpass. ? Teach us, sprite or bird, ? What sweet thoughts are thine: ? I have never heard ? Praise of love or wine That panted forth a flood of
? 无论你是精灵还是 鸟雀 ? 都请你把美妙的思 想 ? 教给我们;我从未领 略: ? 对爱情或美酒的赞 扬 ? 会倾泻出潮水般的 心荡神驰的欢畅。 ? 无论婚歌的欢快, ? 或凯旋曲的豪放, ? 比起你的歌来, ? 不过是空洞的夸张,
? Or triumphal chaunt ? Matched with thine, would be all ? But an empty vaunt– ? A thing wherein we feel there is some hidden want. ? What objects are the fountains ? Of thy happy strain? ? What fields, or waves, or mountains? ? What shapes of sky or plain? ? What love of thine own kind? what ignorance of pain?
? 只让人们感到,其中 缺乏真情实感 ? 什么样儿的物体 ? 是你欢歌的源泉? ? 何种波涛、山峦、 田地 ? 怎样的天空或平原? ? 是出自独特的爱情, 还是与痛苦无缘? ? 有你清朗的欢欣,
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With thy clear keen joyance Languor cannot be: Shadow of annoyance Never came near thee: Thou lovest, but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. Waking or asleep, Thou of death must deem Things more true and deep Than we mortals dream, Or how could thy notes flow in such a crystal stream? We look before and after, And pine for what is not: Our sincerest laughter With some pain is fraught;
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不会再有倦怠, 烦恼郁闷的阴影 决不会向你袭来; 你爱,但永不知道令 人厌腻的爱的悲哀 无论沉睡还是苏醒, 你对死的理解, 比我们这些凡人 更加透彻、真切, 否则,你的歌怎会流 得这般晶莹清澈?
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With thy clear keen joyance Languor cannot be: Shadow of annoyance Never came near thee: Thou lovest, but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. Waking or asleep, Thou of death must deem Things more true and deep Than we mortals dream, Or how could thy notes flow in such a crystal stream? We look before and after, And pine for what is not: Our sincerest laughter
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我们左顾右盼, 渴求虚无之物, 我们最真诚的笑颜 也包含几分凄楚, 我们最甜美的歌曲 倾诉最悲哀的思绪 。 纵然我们能够摈斥 仇恨、傲慢和恐惧, 纵然从出生之日, 就不曾抛洒泪滴,
? With some pain is fraught; ? Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. ? Yet if we could scorn ? Hate, and pride, and fear; ? If we were things born ? Not to shed a tear, ? I know not how thy joy we ever should come near. ? Better than all measures ? Of delightful sound, ? Better than all treasures ? That in books are found, ? Thy skill to poet were, thou scorner of the ground!
? 我也不知怎样才能 够贴近你的欢愉。 ? 一切诗歌的韵律 ? 都比不上你的音响, ? 一切书本的知识 ? 都比不上你的宝藏, ? 地面的蔑视者啊,你 的诗艺举世无双。
? Teach me half the gladness ? That thy brain must know, ? Such harmonious madness ? From my lips would flow ? The world should listen then, as I am listening now!
? 你必定熟知的欢 愉 ? 哪怕教给我一半, ? 那么,和谐的狂喜 ? 就会在我唇边弥 漫, ? 世界将会侧耳细 听,就像我现在这 般
To a Skylark
? Form ? The work consists of five-line stanzas, all twenty-one following the same pattern. The first four lines are in the meter of trochaic trimeter. The fifth is in iambic hexameter, also known as an Alexandrine. The rhyme scheme of each stanza is in the form ABABB.
? This poem, with his unique artistic conception, fresh and full of musical language, vividly depicts the lark and its song, at the same time, also with full of passion to write his own spiritual realm and aesthetic ideal artistic ambitions. ? To a Skylark" is another famous immortal work in the world's lyrical art treasure , is poet's Lyric masterpiece. Poems by means of romanticism, enthusiastically praise the lark. Under the poet's pen, lark is a joy, bright, beautiful symbol. The poet uses the way of metaphor, analogy and asking to depict lark. He puts the lark as poet, as the boudoir maidens, as firefly, makes the lark's beautiful image vividly present to readers.
? Poetry, always uses the parable. In" to a Skylark", there are total 21 sections and 105 lines of the poem, Shelley uses a lot of parallelism. However, without a parable of excess, every parable more plump shape image, also more fully express his feelings, his thoughts and emotions. The whole poem starts with praise and ends with sigh, structure is clear, structure is compact. ? " To a Skylark" as the model that content and form perfectly unite, can be called fresh and elegance, extraordinary.
? A skylark soars into the sky singing happily. As it flies upward, the clouds of evening make it invisible, but its song enables the poet to follow its flight. All the earth and air is filled with its song. The unseen but still singing skylark is compared to a poet composing, a maiden in love, a glowworm throwing out its beams of light, a rose in bloom diffusing its scent, and the sound of rain on twinkling grass. Songs sung in praise of love or wine or music played for a wedding or a celebration cannot compare in loveliness with the song of the skylark.
? If winter comes , can spring be far behind ? 冬天来了，春天还会远吗？ ? A great poem is a fountain forever overflowing with the waters of wisdom and delight ? 伟大的诗篇即是永远喷出智慧和欢欣之水的喷泉 ? Beware O man—for knowledge must to thee, like the great flood to Egypt, ever be. ? 记取吧人类，因为只是对于你，正如广阔的河水 至于埃及。
Ode to the West Wind
? O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being ? 哦，狂暴的西风，秋之生命的呼吸！ ? Thou from whose unseen presence the leaves dead ? 你无形，但枯死的落叶被你横扫， ? Are driven like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, ? 有如鬼魅碰到了巫师，纷纷逃避： ? Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, ? 黄的，黑的，灰的，红得像患肺痨，
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Pestilence-stricken multitudes! O thou 呵，重染疫疠的一群：西风呵，是你 Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed 以车驾把有翼的种子催送到 The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low, 黑暗的冬床上，它们就躺在那里， Each like a corpse within its grave, until 像是墓中的死穴，冰冷，深藏，低贱， Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow 直等到春天，你碧空的姊妹吹起 Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill 她的喇叭，在沉睡的大地上响遍，
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(Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air) (唤出嫩芽，像羊群一样，觅食空中) With living hues and odours plain and hill; 将色和香充满了山峰和平原。 Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere; 不羁的精灵呵，你无处不远行；
? Destroyer and preserver; hear, O hear! ? 破坏者兼保护者：听吧，你且聆听！ ? Thou on whose stream, 'mid the steep sky's commotion, ? 没入你的急流，当高空一片混乱，
? Loose clouds like earth's decaying leaves are shed, ? 流云象大地的枯叶一样被撕扯 ? Shook from the tangled boughs of heaven and ocean, ? 脱离天空和海洋的纠缠的枝干。 ? Angels of rain and lightning! there are spread ? 成为雨和电的使者：它们飘落 ? On the blue surface of thine airy surge, ? 在你的磅礴之气的蔚蓝的波面， ? Like the bright hair uplifted from the head ? 有如狂女的飘扬的头发在闪烁，
? Of some fierce Maenad, even from the dim verge ? 从天穹的最遥远而模糊的边沿 ? Of the horizon to the zenith's height, ? 直抵九霄的中天，到处都在摇曳 ? The locks of the approaching storm. Thou dirge ? 欲来雷雨的卷发，对濒死的一年 ? Of the dying year, to which this closing night ? 你唱出了葬歌，而这密集的黑夜 ? Will be the dome of a vast sepulchre, ? 将成为它广大墓陵的一座圆顶，
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Vaulted with all thy congregated might 里面正有你的万钧之力的凝结； Of vapours, from whose solid atmosphere 那是你的浑然之气，从它会迸涌 Black rain, and fire, and hail, will burst: O hear! 黑色的雨，冰雹和火焰：哦，你听！ If I were a dead leaf thou mightest bear 哎，假如我是一片枯叶被你浮起 If I were a swift cloud to fly with thee 假如我是能和你飞跑的云雾
? A wave to pant beneath thy power , and share ? 是一个波浪，和你的威力同喘息 ? The impulse of thy strength, only less free ? 假如我分有你的脉搏，仅仅不如 ? Than thou, O uncontrollable! If even ? 你那么自由，哦，无法约束的生命！ ? I were as in my boyhood, and could be ? 假如我能像在少年时，凌风而舞 ? The comrade of thy wanderings over Heaven, ? 便成了你的伴侣，悠游天空
? As then, when to outstrip thy skiey speed ? 陪伴着你在那天国里任意翱游, ? Scarce seem'd a vision; I would ne'er have striven ? 即使比你飞得更快也并非幻想 ? As thus with thee in prayer in my sore need. ? 这样焦躁地要和你争相祈祷。 ? Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! ? 哦，举起我吧，当我是水波、树叶、浮云 ? I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed! ? 我跌在生活底荆棘上，我流血了！
? A heavy weight of hours has chain'd and bow'd ? 这被岁月的重轭所制服的生命 ? One too like thee: tameless, and swift, and proud. ? 原是和你一样：骄傲、轻捷而不驯 ? Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: ? 把我当作你的竖琴吧，有如树林： ? What if my leaves are falling like its own! ? 尽管我的叶落了，那有什么关系！ ? The tumult of thy mighty harmonies ? 你巨大的合奏所振起的音乐
? Will take from both a deep, autumnal tone, ? 将染有树林和我的深邃的秋意： ? Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, Spirit fierce, ? 虽忧伤而甜蜜。呵，但愿你给予我 ? My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one! ? 狂暴的精神！奋勇者呵，让我们合一！ ? Drive my dead thoughts over the universe ? 请把我枯死的思想向世界吹落， ? Like wither'd leaves to quicken a new birth! ? 让它像枯叶一样促成新的生命！ ? And, by the incantation of this verse, ? 哦，请听从这一篇符咒似的诗歌，
? Scatter, as from an unextinguish'd hearth ? 就把我的话语，像是灰烬和火星 ? Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind! ? 从还未熄灭的炉火向人间播散！ ? Be through my lips to unawaken'd earth ? 让预言的喇叭通过我的嘴唇 ? The trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind, ? 把昏睡的大地唤醒吧！要是冬天 ? If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? ? 已经来了，西风呵，春日怎能遥远？
Background of the Poem
? The poem was composed in 1819 when European labor movement and the revolutionary movement surged. To fight for their right, British working class began to struggle with the bourgeoisie. At August of that year, 80,000 workers in Manchester held a massive demonstration. Of course, the reactionary authorities had dispatched troops to suppress. That was well-known as the Bideilei Massacre. Shelley was in favor of British revolution, so he was expelled from the United Kingdom.
Theme of the Poem
? Ode to the West Wind is the most representative of Shelley’s feelings and thoughts at that time. It is a mixture of death and rebirth. ? In the first three stanzas, the dynamic force of the west wind is manifested in its power on the land, in the air, and in the sea in different seasons. It is both the destroyer aIt will destroy the old world and herald in a new one. In the fourth stanza Shelley wishes that he were a leaf, a cloud, and a wave, so that he could feel the power of the west wind; nd preserver.
? but he is aware of his age and his sufferings in life, which have bent him down. Finally, he appeals to the wind, the wind of aspiration and change, to reinvigorate him and to give force and persuasiveness to his poetry.