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高一英语必修一定语从句总结


定语从句 一、三个概念 1.定语从句: 2.先行词: 3.关系词: 例:The boy who is singing at the stage is only nine years old. 先行词 关系词 定语从句

Anyone that is willing to help others is welcome to our group. 先行词 定语从句 关系词 二、关系词的用法 关系代词: who/whom/that/which/whose whose:表所有格,先行词既可以是人,也可以是物 The worker whose arm was broken was sent to hospital. The river whose banks are covered with trees is very long. 关系副词:when/where/why 1. when: 指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。 例:This was the time when he arrived. I will never forget the day when I met my favorite star. 2. where 指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。 例:This is the factory where he works. Nanjing is the place where I was born. 3. why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。 例:Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. Is this the reason why he refused our offer? 注意:关系副词 when, where, why, 的含义相当于“介词+which”结构,因此常常和“介 词+which“结构交替使用。 例:I will never forget the day on which I met my favorite star.【when】 Nanjing is the place in which I was born.【where】 Is this the reason for which he refused our offer?【why】 四、关系代词 that 的特殊用法 只用 that 的情况 1.先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只 能用 that,而不用 which. 例如:He was the first person that passed the exam. 2. 被 修 饰 的 先 行 词 为 all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one 等不定代词时,只能用 that,而不用 which. 例如:Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 3.先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时, 只能用 that,而不用 which. 例如:This is the same bike that I lost. 4.先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用 that,而不用 which.

例 如 : I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room. 5..以 who 或 which 引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用 that. 例如:Who is the girl that is crying? 6.主句是 there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用 that,而不用 which.例如: There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 7.先行词在主句和从句中都作表语时,只能用 that. 例如:He is not the man that he once was. 8.先行词是 the way 时,只用 that 不用 that 的情况 1.先行词为 that, those 时,用 which,而不用 that. 例如:What’s that which is under the desk? 2.关系代词前有介词时,一般用 which,而不用 that. 例如:This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。 3.引导非限制性定语从句,用 which,而不用 that. 例如:Tom came back, which made us happy. 五、判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语, 就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 我永远不会忘记与你 共事的日子。 判断改错: (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关 系词的误用上。 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状) ,也能正确选择出 关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案:例 1 D,例 2 A。 例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中,所缺部分为宾语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只有 the one 既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选 D。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因

in the museum 词组,可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词 on 用的不对, 所以选 A。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系 代词( who, whom, that, which, whose ) ; 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

非限制性定语从句 非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明, 通常是引导词和先行词之间 用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立。但是限制性定语从句不能被省略,否则句意 就不完整。 1.which 引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分 2.当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性 的,例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 3.非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第 三人称单数,例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 4.有时 as 也可用作关系代词 5.在非限定性定语从句中,不能用关系副词 why 和关系代词 that,而用 who, whom 代表人, 用 which, whose 代表事物。 as, which 引导的非限制性定语从句 1.由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this 或 and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 2.as 和 which 在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思, 且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 (2)as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为 动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which.。 (3) 当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用 which。 Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. (4) as 的用法例 the same… as;such…as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。 I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 例 2. as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. As is known, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As 是关系代词。例 1 中的 as 作 know 的宾语; 例 2 中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词 know 要用被动式。

定语从句的难点 1.限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况 2.关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句, 有相同之处也 有不同之处。具体情况是: (1) As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。 He married her, as/which was natural. He was honest, as/which we can see. (2) as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句; which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as 有“正如……,正像……”的 意思 As is known to all, China is a developing country. He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe. 注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用 which。 Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. (3) 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时,常用 as I have never heard such a story as he tells. 注意:当先行词由 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但是和由 as 所引导的 定语从句意思不同 She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 注意:定语从句 such…as …与结果状语从句 such… that…的区别:as 在所引导的定语从 句中作主语,宾语;that 在结果状语从句中不做成分 He has such a good laptop as I want to buy. He has such a good laptop that I want to by one. 3.以 the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, that 引导,而且通常可以省略。 The way in which/ that/./ he answered the question was surprising. 4. but 有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句 There are very few but understand his idea. (but= who don’t ) 5. 区分定语从句和同位语从句 (1)定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是 补充说明的关系 The plane that has just taken off is for London. 定语从句 The fact that he has been dead is clear. 同位语从句 (2)定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导,关系词在句中充当成分,有时可以省略;同位 语从句主要由 that 引导,在句中一般不做成分;句子也可以由 when, where, how, why,

whether, what 等词引导,充当成分 The news he told me is true. The news that he has just died is true. The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. 定语 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. (3)同位语从句和先行词一般可以用 be 动词发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句不可以发展 成一个完整的句子, The idea that we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. 同位语 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. The fact that the earth moves around the earth is known to all. The fact is that the earth moves around the earth.


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