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安徽省2009届高三英语专项复习——任务型阅读


安徽省 2009 届高三英语专项复习——任务型阅读
1 Fairview Elementary School, Modesto, California, with some 1,000 student s from kindergarten through sixth grade (about 80 percent of them Latino), has long suffered from discipline(纪律) problems, poor test scores, and a near tota l lack of parental involvement. The difficulties aren't surprising given that man y of the parents --- immigrants who work on farms or in factories --- speak li ttle or no English. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Since 2002, Fairview Elementary School has been a First Amendment Sch ool, one of 97 developed across the country by the First Amendment Center. The idea behind the five-year-old program: To keep America strong, children must be trained to respect many points of view, weigh complex issues, and un derstand the freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution(宪法). As students learn good citizenship, the theory goes, they'll develop the skills and attitude to do well academically. Fairview students enjoy "freedoms" other kids might envy (they voted to a bolish school uniforms, for example). But the children don't just exercise rights. They also accept such responsibilities as speaking up during class discussions, and keeping the school clean and safe (Fairview is rated the cleanest of 33 s chools in its district). In one departure from tradition, there's no hand-raising i n class. "Instead," says teacher Deborah Supnet, "we teach them to listen for when the other child stops talking." Call it an exercise in respect. Last year, the number of students evaluated advanced in math increased, f rom 15 to 30 percent. And Fairview graduates in their first middle-school midterm exam averaged B grades; 96 percent passed all subjects. Particularly enco uraging to Principal Rob Williams, the school now has an active parents' grou p, Parents With a Voice. One of those parents, Laura Malagon, praises the pro gram for convincing her to play a more active role in her children's school lif e.

Fresh ideas that are making the grade The 1. ______ __ Students of Fairview Elementary School use d to have trouble 2. ________ themselves an d getting good grades. Their parents didn‘t get actively 3. _______ _ in their children‘s school life. The strategy Students are trained to 4. ________ differen t opinions and get a better w.w.w.k.s.5.u. c.o.m 5. ________ of the freedoms. Students learn to be good 6. ________ and improve their 7. ________ performance. The signs of s uccess Students 8. ________ on more responsibiliti es. A(n) 9. ________ number of students do wel l in math. Parents take a more active 10._____ in their children‘s school life. 2 Oil Petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, home heating oil, residual fuel oil, and lubrication oils, come from one source --- crude oil found below the earth‘s surface, as well as under large bodies of water, from a few hundre d feet below the surface to as deep as 25,000 feet into the earth‘s interior. So metimes crude oil is secured by drilling a hole through the earth, but more dr y holes are drilled than those producing oil. Pressure at the source or pumping forces crude oil to the surface.
Crude oil wells flow at varying rates, from ten to thousands of barrels per hour. Petr oleum products are always measured in 42-gallon barrels.

Petroleum products vary greatly in physical appearance: thin, thick, transpa rent or opaque, but regardless, their chemical composition is made up of only two elements: carbon and hydrogen, which form compounds called hydrocarbon s. Other chemical elements found in union with the hydrocarbons are few and are classified as impurities. Trace elements are also found, but these are of suc h minute quantities that they are disregarded. The combination of carbon and h ydrogen forms many thousands of compounds which are possible because of th e various positions and joinings of these two atoms in the hydrocarbon molecu le. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m The various petroleum products are refined from the crude oil by heating and condensing the vapors. These products are so-called light oils, such as gas oline, kerosene, and distillate oil. The residue remaining after the light oils are distilled is known as heavy or residual fuel oil and is used mostly for burnin g under boilers. Additional complicated refining processes rearrange the chemic al structure of the hydrocarbon to produce other products, some of which are used to upgrade and increase the octane rating of various types of gasoline.

Oil Crude oil To exploit 2 are usu crude oil, ally made in sometime vain as the s holes ha 3 of the ve to be d holes do n rilled even ot touch the to a 1 undergroun of 25,000 d oil at all. feet. Petroleum products Petroleum products, all hydrocarb ons, mainly 4 of carbon and h ydrogen, and the trace elements are too small in amount to attac h 5 to.

When pumped through the wel l, the oil runs at different spee ds 6 from ten to thousands of barrels per hour.

Crude oil is 7 i nto differ ent 8 o ils, and l eaves beh ind so-cal led 9 o

The chemical st ructure of the hydrocarbon of the remaining oil will be reco nstructed throug h 10 refining work.

ils.

w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 3 Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon on the first day of the new year and ends on the full moon 15 days later. The 15th day of the new year is called the Lantern Festival, which is celebrated at night with lantern displa ys and children carrying lanterns in a parade. The Chinese calendar is based on a combination of lunar and solar move ments. The lunar cycle is about 29.5 days. In order to "catch up" with the sol ar calendar(阳历)the Chinese insert an extra month once every few years (se ven years out of a 19-year cycle). This is the same as adding an extra day on leap year(闰年). This is why, according to the solar calendar, the Chinese New Year falls on a different date each year. New Year's Eve and New Year's Day are celebrated as a family affair, a time of reunion and thanksgiving. The celebration was traditionally highlighted with a religious ceremony given in honor of Heaven and Earth, the gods of th e household and the family ancestors. The sacrifice (供奉) to the ancestors, the most vital of all the rituals (仪 式, 礼节), united the living members with those who had passed away. Depar ted relatives are remembered with great respect because they were responsible for laying the foundations for the fortune and glory of the family. The presence of the ancestors is acknowledged on New Year's Eve with a dinner arranged for them at the family banquet table. The spirits of the ances tors, together with the living, celebrate the onset(有力的开始) of the New Y ear as one great community. The communal feast called "surrounding the stove " or weilu. It symbolizes family unity and honors the past and present generati ons.

Chinese Ne w Year

Date and period Chinese New Year 1) _ __ 1 5 days, s tarting f rom the 1 day of the new y ear to 15
th st

Its cele bration The 3)_ ____ why the Chin ese New Year falls on differ ent day e ach year is that Ch inese cale ndar is b ased on t he 4)__ of lunar a nd solar movement s by 5)__ _a month New Yea r's E ve a nd New Yea r's Day are 6)_ _ as a ti me of r euni on a nd Tradit ionall y, a r eligio us cer emon y was give n in 8) __ ____ of He aven and E arth, t he go ds of the house hold an d t h e fa mily ancest ors. Its signifi cance The ances tors are g reatly wor th of 9)_ _____beca use of th eir being

responsib le for lay ing the fo undations for the f ortune an d glory o f the fam ily. They are believ ed to atte nd the di nner with the livin

of

January, which is also known as the

4

Teamwork is just as important in science as it is on the playing field or i

n the gym. Scientific investigations (调查) are almost always carried out by te ams of people working together. Ideas are shared, experiences are designed, da
Lantern

ta are analyzed, and results are evaluated and shared with other investigators.
Festiva every fe 7)__ ____ _, w

Group work is necessary, and is usually more productive than working alone.
l, 2) __ _ w months as well

Several times throughout the year you may be asked to work with one or
as hich is

more of your classmates. Whatever teh task your group is assigned, a few rul
in the e vening

es need to be followed to ensure a productive and successful experience.
adding a

What comes first is to keep an open mind, becasue everyone‘s ideas deser
day on le ap year. cele brate

g, which 10)______ family un ity.

ve consideration and each group member can make his or her own contributio
d as a f

n. Secondly, it makes a job easier to divide the group task among all group members. Choose a role on the team that is best suited to your particular stre ngths. Thirdly, always work together, take turns, and encourage each other by listening, clarifying, and trusting one another. Mutual support and trust often m ake a great difference. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Activities like investigations are most effective when done by small groups. Here are some more suggestions for effective team performance during these activities: Make sure each group member understands and agrees to the task gi ven to him or her, and everyone knows exactly when, why and what to do; ta ke turns doing various tasks during similar and repeated activities; be aware of where other group members are and what they are doing so as to ensure safe ty; be responsible for your own learning, though it is by no means unwise to compare your observations with those of other group members. When there is research to be done, divide the topic into several areas, an d this can explore the issue in a very detailed way. You are encouraged to ke ep records of the sources used each person, which helps you trace back to the origin of the problems that may happen unexpectedly. A format for exchangin g information (e.g. photocopies of notes, oral discussion, etc.) is also important, for a well-chosen method not only strengthens what you present but also mak es yourself easily understood. When the time comes to make a decision and ta ke a position on an issue, allow for the contributions of each member of the group. Most important of all, it is always wise to make decisions by comprom ise and agreement. After you‘ve completed a task with your team, make an evaluation of the team‘s effectiveness — the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and challe nges. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Title Theme Working Together Effective performance needs highly cooperated

(1) ________ Gener al rule s Keep an open mind to everyone‘s (2) ________. Divide the group task among group members. (3) ________ and trust each other. Understand and agree to the (5) ________ task of one‘s own. (4) __ ______ Take turns doing various tasks. Show concern for others to ensure safety. Take (6) _________ for one‘s own learning.Com pare your own observations with those of others. Break the (7) ________ into several areas. Keep records of the sources just in (8) _______ Explor _. e (9) ________ your information with others via p an iss roper format. ue Make all decisions by compromise and agreemen t. (10) _ ______ Analyze the strengths and weaknesses. _ Find out the opportunities and challenges. effecti veness

5 There is growing dissatisfaction toward rich people, according to a new online poll. The poll by the China Youth Daily in collaboration(与…合作) wi th Sina.com has highlighted the apparent discontent over the country's widening income gap. Nearly 8,000 people filled in online questionnaires last week, an d when asked to use three words to describe society's rich, the top responses

were "extravagant", "greedy" and "corrupt". About 57 percent of those polled s aid that "extravagant" was the best word to describe the rich, followed closely by "greedy". Ironically, despite their dissatisfaction, 93 percent of those polled wished they could be rich too, and that richer people should be "socially resp onsible". Some 33 percent of respondents also praised rich people for being "s mart". Nearly 90 percent of respondents agreed that most people in society, in cluding themselves, were willing to speak up for the poor but were reluctant t o take action and actually do something for them. The survey comes on the h eels of a heated debate over comments made by renowned economist Mao Yus hi, who said he was "speaking for the rich and working for the poor". A repo rt released by the Asian Development Bank last Wednesday revealed that Chin a's Gini coefficient - an indicator of the wealth divide - rose from 0.407 in 19 93 to 0.473 in 2004. An earlier CASS report said that the richest 10 percent of Chinese familie s now own more than 40 percent of all private assets, while the poorest 10 pe rcent share less than 2 percent of the total wealth. The country's income dispar ity(悬殊) is close to that of Latin America, the report which came out in Janu ary, said. Theme The poll by C hina Daily People unhappy with the rich Nearly 8,000 people filled in(1)_____ on the (2)_____last week. There is an(3) _____ dissatisfaction tendency toward rich people. Ironically, in (4)_____ of their dissatisfaction, 93 percent of the polled wished they could be rich too, and rich people should take ―(5)__ ____ responsibility‖. (6)______ ,Mao Yushi, said he was ―speakin g for the rich and working for the poor.‖

A report (7) _ _____ by the Asian Develop ment Bank w. w.w.k.s.5.u. c.o.m

The richest 10 percent of Chinese families now on more than 40 percent of all (8)_____ as sets, while the poorest 10 percent (9)_____ f or less than 2 percent of the total wealth. The country‘s income disparity is close to that of Latin America, the report came out in (10) ______.

6 It is always hard for a small fish to live in a big pond. Pluto‘s recent de parture from the classical planet family clearly proves that size really matters. Astronomers voted on August 24, 2006 to create the fist scientific definiti on of the word ―planet‖, and Pluto obviously didn‘t make the cut. It turned ou t to be only a ―dwarf planet‖. After weeks of heated debate, over 2500 astronomers from 75 countries v oted on the definition of a ―planet‖ at a conference of the International Astron omical Union(IAU). According to the definition, a planet must have a clear nei ghbourhood around the orbit. Pluto has widely been considered a planet since i ts discovery in 1930. Unfortunately, it has a special orbit which overlaps(重叠) with Neptune‘s. It is all because, compared with Neptune(海王星), Pluto is ve ry small. It is attracted by Neptune‘s gravity when the two planets get closer. According to IAU, a ―dwarf planet‖ should have an orbit around the Sun. It will not have a clear neighbourhood around its orbit, and must not be a sa tellite. The new classification means that the science textbooks will have to be updated. The solar system is now made up of the eight ―classical planets‖. together with a number of dwarf planets. The classical planets are: Mercury, Venus, E arth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

The debate over Pluto‘s status started in 1992. After an advanced telescop e was sent into space, astronomers started to find a belt of objects, which lies beyond Neptune. The belt contains nearly 1000 objects, including Pluto. As th ey continued the exploration, scientists recently discovered at least 41 dwarf pl anets at the edges of the solar system. There are at least two objects of a sim ilar size to Pluto. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m It seems that even if the IAU had kept Pluto‘s status as a planet, the clas sical theory of nine planets in the solar system would have had to be changed, but the other way around. More dwarf planets of a similar size to Pluto woul d join the family of planets. Scientists will probably find many more dwarf pl anets.(347 words)

Goodbye, Pluto Pluto no longer (1) _ ____ to the classical planet family. Pluto turned out to be only a ―dwarf planet.‖

The In Acc Plut (9) ____ fir (4) ordi o h an adv st ___ ng as anced te (2)_ _, to wid lescope, __ Plut (6)_ ely astronom defi o is ___ bee ers star niti ve _, a n c ted to fi on ry s dw onsi nd out a of mal arf dere belt of plan l, a plan d a objects et i s a et s pla lying b s th res hou net eyond N at a ult, ld for eptune, pla it hav (8) (10) ___ net is a w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m e a ___ __ Pluto mus ttra n o __ at the 7b i t t ha cted r year edges of ve by a r s. the sol Quality after-school programs are designed to improve academic performan a cl Ne oun The ar syste ear d d m. ce, decrease youth crimes p t u other high-riskt behaviors, ande help young people and neig ne‘s he bate h healthy, successful adults. (5) S u ov grow intob o ur___ n, I er hoo ___ n Plut d a wh (7)_ o‘s rou en t ___, stat nd he t it us

The effect of quality after-school programs on academic performance is cl ear. Studies show that students who take part in such programs show better w ork habits, higher rates of homework completion, improved grades, and higher scores on achievement tests. They also have fewer absences and are less likely to blame. After-school programs also influence high-risk teen behavior. Variou s studies show decreased rates of crime, drug use, and teen sex among youth who join in well-run after-school programs when compared to similar youth w ho do not. Finally, after-school programs play an important role in supporting t he following fields of development: physical development, mental development and social development. Thus, one can safely say that after-school programmin g is an effective method to help young people become contributing members o f society. Although there is enough proof from both small and large assessments tha t after-school programs can make a positive difference, it is important to note that not all programs are equal. First, dosage (时量) matters ---- young people who attend the most hours over the most years benefit more than members w ho attend less often or over a shorter period of time. Next, after-school progra ms make bigger difference for those students who need help most and have th e fewest choices. Finally, program qualities matter. After-school programs work best when they create unique opportunities for youth. They should provide op portunities for positive relationships, skill building, meaningful involvement (参 与), expression, suggestion, service, and work. Staff characteristics make an im portant difference in the quality of a program. The adults should treat youth as partners, create safe and fair environments, encourage personalized (个性化的) involvement, and actively create learning opportunities. In short, although after -school programs have promising future, how they are designed and run matter s. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Quality after-school programs Apart from making academic pe (3) ____ a positive difference aft

rformance (1) ____, quality after -school programs are started for other (2) ____. Quality after-school programs he lp youth become contributing m embers of society (4) ____.

er-school programs make, we sho uld note that not all programs ar e equal. Student s benefi t (8) _ N ot a Some of the opportu

Studen ts taki ng par t in th e prog rams f orm b etter h abits (5) __ __ gre ater pr ogress in stu dy.

The re i s a (6) ___ _ in the nu mbe r of hig h-ris k te en beh avio r as a r esul t of aft er-s cho ol p rogr am s.

Qualit y afte r-scho ol pr ogra ms (7) _ ___ well i n sup portin g allaroun d dev elopm ent.

___ bec ause th e time they att end is differen t.

ll st ud en ts a re t he s a m e.

nities (9) __ __ are positi ve, (1 0) ___ _ other s not.

w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 8 Some people succeed, while others may not. This is because some people possess certain qualities, which others do not. The first thing you must remember is that in order to succeed, you must be optimistic. If you do not expect to win, you will not try as hard as those who do expect to win. You also need to have a clear aim and a reason for d oing something because motivation is a key to achieving success. If you do no t have an aim, then you will not be motivated to work hard and put your per formance under the microscope to make sure that every detail is right. Another quality that helps people succeed is creativity---thinking about thin gs in a different way and wondering how others would do the same thing. Thi nk about some successful people you know. They might be successful with a l ittle creativity, but the most successful people are the most creative ones. Reading is another to success, as it will help you learn about how other people have achieved success. If you want to learn how to set up a successful business, you should read books about people like Bill Gates and Jerry Yang, who have achieved amazing success in their areas of business. Practicing is equally important if you want to success because practice ma kes perfect. Practise every day at whatever career you are in, and by doing so, you will see yourself, your business and your self-confidence begin to grow. If you feel confident about what you do, this confidence will make other peop le believe in you as well. Your colleagues will be happy to work with you, a nd your boss will give you more responsibility. Finally if you are a successful person, you will be able to look people in the eye and smile confidently. Success is yours for the taking! Cheers! w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Title ____1____ Certain Supporting details

qualiti es ●Try hard ___3_____ people who do expect to win. ____2_ ___ ause a key to achieving success is ___4____ ●____5____about things in a different way. Creativi ty ●Help you know about how ____7____ have achieved su ccess. Reading ●Read books about _8__ people such as Bill Gates and J erry Yang to encourage yourselves. ●____9____ the saying ―practice makes perfect.‖ Practisi ng ____. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 9 Real policemen hardly recognize any resemblance between their lives and what they see on TV. The first difference is that a policeman‘s real life revolved round criminal law. He has to know exactly what actions are crimes and what evidence can be used to prove them in court. He has to know nearly as much law as a pro fessional lawyer, and what is more, he has to apply it on his feet, in the dark and rain, running down a street after someone he wants to talk to. Little of his time is spent in chatting. He will spend most of his working life typing millions of words on thousands of forms about hundreds of sad, u nimportant people who are guilty of stupid crimes. Most television crime drama is about finding the criminal: as soon as he‘s arrested, the story is over. In real life, finding criminal is seldom much of a ●Believe in yourself and do what you want to do ____10 ●Study how other people would do the ____6____ thing. ●Have a clear aim and a reason for doing something bec

problem. Except in very serious cases like murders and terrorist attacks, little e ffort is spent on searching. Having made an arrest, a detective really starts to work. He has to prove his case in court and to do that he often has to gather a lot of different evide nce. A third big difference between the drama detective and the real one is the unpleasant pressures: first, as members of a police force, they always have to behave absolutely in accordance with the law. Secondly, as expensive public s ervants, they have to get results. They can hardly ever do both. Most of the ti me some of them have to break the rules in small ways. If the detective has to deceive the world, the world often deceives him. H ardly anyone he meets tells him the truth. And this separation the detective fe els between himself and the rest of the world is deepened by the simple-minde d — as he see it — of citizens, social workers, doctors, law-makers, and judg es, who, instead of eliminating crime, punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make them reform. The result, detective feel, is that nine-t enths of their work is re-catching people who should have stayed behind bars. This makes them rather cynical(愤世嫉俗的). Police in 1.________ w orld Kno wled ge o f 2. ___ law Diff erent 5._ He 6.________ most of his working life to col lecting and providing e Time is spent finding cri minals. Once the crimina l is found, the story 7.__ He has to know as mu ch as a professional la wyer and applies it to t heir 3.____ work. There is no 4.________ for them to know about it. Police on TV

____ ___ time spe nt Diff erent pre ssur es Rela tions hip with the soc iety

vidence needed to prov e his case in court.

____.

8.________ and the pub lic put much pressure o n detectives and police men.

They got no pressure fro m the public.

He feels 9.________ fr om citizens, as they hol d different 10.________ toward punishment of the criminals.

No contact with the publ ic.

10 Although many Chinese students say that their knowledge of English g rammar is good, most would admit that their spoken English is poor. Wheneve r I speak to some Chinese students, they always say, ―My spoken English is p oor.‖ However, their spoken English does not have to remain ―poor.‖ I would like to suggest that there may be some reasons for their problems with spoken English. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m First, they fail to find suitable words to express themselves due to a li mited vocabulary. Obviously the better answer is to expand their vocabulary. H owever, you can speak with a limited vocabulary, if your attitude is positive. Others will follow you as long as you use the words that you know.

Second, they are afraid of making mistakes. Sometimes they make mistake s when they are speaking because they are shy and nervous. Yet students shou ld remember that their goal should be FLUENCY NOT ACCURACY. Your

aim in writing is to be accurate following the rules for grammar and using the m to get your message across. But to talk to someone in English, as quickly and well as you can, even though sometimes you may use a wrong word or t ense, but it doesn‘t matter because the person you are speaking to will underst and and forgive you for any mistakes he hears. The third reason is that not enough attention is paid to listening. You hav e one mouth but two ears! All that hearing is necessary for you to start speak ing. Fourth, most Chinese students are reactive rather than proactive(预先主动 的) language learners. Instead of actively seeking out opportunities to improve their spoken English they passively wait for speaking opportunities to come to them and wonder why their English always remains poor. If you have this pro active outlook, then, you will see English opportunities wherever you go. If you do not use your English beyond the classroom you will forget the English you know. Remember : USE IT OR LOSE IT! You can learn how t

o speak English better by speaking English more. Title: Some reasons for their problems with spoken English Reasons ____1____ of vocabul ary ____4____ _ about m aking mist akes __7____of All that hearing is necessary for you to start speaking Context You have to ___2____ their vocabulary You should take a positive attitude towards __3___ En glish. Shyness and ___5___ make it easy to make mistakes. Fluency is more ___6___

attention while liste ning ____8___o f proactive outlook As language learners, most Chinese students are ___9_ __ instead of being of active. You should take ____10___ of all opportunities to imp rove your spoken English. 11 Scientists develop non-stick chewing gum Scientists have developed a non-stick chewing gum that can be easily rem oved from pavements, shoes and clothes. The new gum, the result of polymer research at the University of Bristol, could be launched commercially in 2008, its developers said on Friday. If it catches on, the product will solve a major headache for local authorit ies around the world. "The advantage of our Clean Gum is that it has a great taste, it is easy t o remove and has the potential to be environmentally degradable(可降解性)," s Ma Contexts

aid Terence Cosgrove, a professor of chemistry who helped found a company called Revolymer to commercialize the technology. Today's chewing gums are made from synthetic latex, which is resistant to the weather and is strongly adhesive. The new gum adds a special polymer t o modify its properties, making it far less sticky In two street trials, leading commercial gums remained stuck to the pavem ent three out or four times, while Clean Gum came away naturally in all case s, Revolymer said. Title: Scientists develop non-stick chewing gum

in Items 1. The new gum has a great taste. High __ 2. It is easy to ___2___ up. _1____ 3. It has the ___3___ to be environmentally degradable. A differ The new gum adds a special polymer to ___5___ its pro ent ___ perties. 4___ 1. The new gum will solve a major __7____ for local a The __ uthorities around the world. _6___ 2. The new gum can ___8___off naturally in all cases. The dev elopers‘ ____9 2008. __ The new gum, the __10____ of polymer research at the University of Bristol, could be launched commercially in

12 Every year there are hundreds of earthquakes in different parts of the wor ld. In Sept.1923, Tokyo and Yokohama were both destroyed by an earthquake and the fires that followed it. They had to be completely rebuilt. One of the most serious earthquakes was in China‘s Shanxi Province in 1556. It killed al most one million people. We measure an earthquake‘s strength on the Richter scale. The Richter sc ale was introduced in 1935 in Southern California in the USA. It measures ear thquakes on a scale of one to ten. Any earthquake measuring five or more is usually serious. The earth‘s crust (地壳) is made up of layers of rock called plates. As th ese plates move, they sometimes crash against each other, causing the crust to quake. In cities such as Tokyo, where small quakes happen quite often, many

modern buildings are designed to be flexible so when the earth moves, they move with it. Earthquakes can also break up gas or oil pipes. This can cause fires to br eak out, which can do as much damage as the earthquake itself. Another effect of earthquakes is tsunamis (海啸). These are huge waves c reated by earthquakes beneath the sea. They can be many metres high and cau se great damage to coastal towns and cities. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m China, Japan, Russia and the USA have the highest occurrence (发生) of earthquakes in the world. Knowing about (1).__________ Two serious earthq uakes in _____ The way to (5).___ ______ an earthqua ke‘s strength The (7)._______ of earthquakes Some (9)._____ of earthquakes (2)._____ An earthquake and (3).__________ fires destroyed bot h Tokyo and Yokohama in Sept. 1923. In 1556, a very serious earthquake (4)._________ in China‘s Shanxi Province. People can measure an earthquake‘s strength on the R ichter scale of one to ten, (6)._________ in 1935 in t he USA. If an earthquake measures five or more, it‘s usually serious. As the plates, which form the earth‘s (8)._______, m ove, they sometimes crash against each other, causing the crust to quake. If earthquakes break up gas or oil pipes, (10).______ _ will happen, which can do as much damage as the earthquake itself. Tsunami is another effect of earthquakes.

13 Educating girls quite possibly harvests a higher rate of return than any oth er investment available in the developing world. Women‘s education may be al l unusual field for economists(经济学家), but increasing women‘s contribution t o development is actually as much an economic as a social issue. And econo mics, with its focus on incentives(鼓励), provides an explanation for why so m any girls are deprived of(剥夺) an education.

Parents in low-income countries fail to invest in their daughters because th ey do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family: girls grow up only to marry into somebody else‘s family and bear children. Girls ar e thus seen as less valuable than boys and are kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school — the prophecy(预言) becomes self-ful filling, trapping women in a vicious circle(恶性循环) of neglect. An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outsid e the home and faces an entirely different set of choices. She is likely to hav e fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her chi ldren, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. The education of he r daughters then makes it much more likely that the next generation of girls, a s well as of boys, will be educated and healthy. The vicious circle is thus tra nsformed into a virtuous circle. Few will argue that educating women has great social benefits. But it has enormous economic advantages as well. Most obviously, there is the direct eff ect of education on the wages of female workers. Wages rise by 10 to 20 per cent for each additional year of schooling. Such big returns are impressive by the standard of other available investments, but they are just the beginning. Ed ucating women also has a significant impact on health practices, including fami ly planning. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Topic: The significance of female 1______________ in developing count ries Viewpo int Familie s Attitud es Educating girls is more beneficial than any other 2_ ___________. From low-income fam ilies Girls are of 1ess 3__ ___________ than bo ys. From educated mother s‘ families Development should be for all 4___________ _.

Practic es

There is 5__________ __ investment in daug hters. Girls are made to sta y at home, 6_______ _____ housework. Girls and boys have 7 __________ chances.

Conseq uences Signific ance

A vicious circle

A virtuous circle

Educating girls 8__________ to social benefits, 9___ ________ advantages and health practices, including family planning.

10____ ______

Educating girls in developing countries is important and rewarding.

14 Make the benefits most, reduce the drawbacks least Hosting the Olympics successfully is, perhaps, the greatest glory for a city. However, before transforming the dream into reality, the benefits and drawbac ks of hosting the Olympics should be considered carefully. Hosting the Olympics surely would bring about much gain to a city. Boo m of the local economy, more jobs, and the possibility of generating income a ll sound extremely attractive to the municipal government. At the same time, b etter infrastructure (基础设施), cleaner environment, enjoying the wonderful ga me with hundreds of sports elites (精英) and entertainment stars, and the oppo rtunity of contacting people from all over the world also seem exciting to the citizens. Besides, the hosting will definitely promote the patriotic emotion and pride, as well as the moral behavior in local people. In most cases, hosting th e Olympics is well supported by both the public and the central government.

But this is not the entire view of the pretty picture. If we look from anot her angle, the Olympic hosting might bring about some side-effects to a city. First, the environmental impacts, including the increasing exhaust smoke of cars, more pressure on water resources, huge amount of wasted leaflets and o ther materials used for public activities, are most probably neglected. In order t o broaden the streets, some trees may have to be cut. Near the construction sit e, the tiny dust may float in the air for a long time. Reduction of farmland m ay be caused by the need of setting up new sports centre or accommodation f acilities. These environmental consequences can be especially serious in a resou rce-limited and thickly-populated city in a third-world country. Second, if talkin g about the economic benefit, it should not be forgotten that a quick increase may lead to bubble (泡沫) growth, which may easily crash. If not well manag ed and organized, the big event may not be so profitable, and the new facilitie s may be forever empty after the games. Yes, there have been cases that host cities ended up with enormous debts. No one stops eating merely because too much food might hurt his stomac h and make him ill. Since we have bid for it, what we can do is to make the benefits most and reduce the drawbacks least. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Title: Make the benefits most, reduce the drawbacks least Two (1) _____ __ of the coin. The Olympics may become a glory if (2) _____ __ successfully. Drawbacks may be (3) _______ about as well. They city‘s infrastructure gets (5) _______ and i The (4) ______ _ of hosting th e Olympics. ts economy, education, employment may benefit a lot. There are more chances to get in (6) _______ with the people from all over the world. People are (7) _______ of their country. The games may lead to environmental (8) _____ __. Too quick increase in economy gets crashed afte

The disadvantag es of hosting t

he Olympics.

r the event. The facilities may get (9) ______ after the game s.

We should think about the (10) _______ drawbacks while preparing for the Olympics so as to make the event a really beneficial one.

15 Possession of Private Guns in the United States Christmas is approaching. But shooting massacres (残杀) cast a tragic sha dow over the holiday season in the US. On December 5, a gunman killed eight people, before taking his own life, at a shopping mall in Omaha, Nebraska. On December 9, five people, includi ng the gunman, died in two attacks in Colorado. While people are busy trying to discover the killers‘ motives (动机), anot her issue is causing heated debate in the country --- the weapon the killers us ed. The US is one of just a few developed Western countries that allow priva te possession of guns. Any adult can buy army style weapons from a handgun to an AK-47. ―The right to own arms is a part of the Constitution (宪法). Many Ameri cans believe it to be a fundamental freedom,‖ said Jonathan Haagen, who wor ked for Teens. When the United States was still a group of colonies, they dealt with a l ot of corruption (腐败) from the British. Therefore, American people considere d it a great danger for the government to have control of all the weapons. Pri vate gun ownership was important in their fight for freedom. However, with more and more killings in schools and shopping malls, lots of Americans argue that they should do away with the right to bear arms. B ut the National Rifle Association (NRA) said this position violates (违反) the Constitution.

The NRA is fond of saying it is not guns but people who kill. In some cases, this is true. But in many other cases, owning guns is what causes the murder. According to the US Department of Justice, more than 10,000 crimes a year are committed with guns. Possession of Private Guns in the United States Original belie f It wa s (1) __ It wa s i m po The US is one of the few Western countries where any (3)____ has the freedom to possess private weapons. As a result, m ore than 10,00 0 crimes are c People have different (6)_____ towa rds owning private guns. w.w.w.k. s.5.u.c.o.m Present situation

__ f or t he g ov er n m en t al on e to c on tro l all t he

rta nt f or p eo pl e to o w n pri va te g un s t o (2) __ __ for fr

ommitted with guns (4)____ _. Three attack s alone in Neb raska and Colo rado in Decem ber, for examp le, claimed alt ogether (5)___ _ people‘s live s.

Those in (7) ____ of ow ning guns be lieve that it i s the freedo m given by t he Constituti on. Besides, the key facto r in killing i s (8)____ ins tead of guns.

(9)_____, those against owing private guns argue that the right to own g uns should be removed, beca use a(n) (10)_ ___ number of killings occur in schools an d shopping ma lls.

we ap on s.

ee do m.

16 Third-generation mobile phones, known as 3G, are the next big step for t he telecom industry. Data speed in 3G networks is much quicker than that in present technology. This means users can have high-speed Internet access and enjoy video and CD-quality music on their phones. ―Mobile data is not a dream; it‘s not an option but a requirement,‖ said Len Lauer, head of a US communications company, Sprint PCS, at a 3G conf erence in Bangkok earlier this month. With 3G, you can forget about text messages telling you yesterday‘s news; a 3G phone can receive video news programs, updated four times a day. Inte rnet access will also be much quicker, making it easier to surf the Web on yo ur phone than on your computer at home. Face-to-face video calls w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Don‘t worry about getting lost. 3G phones offer map services so you can find a new restaurant just by pressing a few keys on your handset. However, the most impressive part of 3G technology is video calling. Wit h live two-way video communication, you can have face-to-face talks with frie nds and family on your mobile phone. Many European countries have already launched the service. In May 2000 the US Government issued five license to run 3G wireless services, while the first 3G phones arrived in Italy in March this year. International telecom companies can‘t wait to sell 3G in China, the world‘ s largest mobile telecommunications market. But they will have to be patient. At the moment, China is busy testing its 3G-based technologies, networks and services. This will be followed by a trial period before the phones can finally hit the shops. ―We need to create a pool of 3G customers before the large-scale commer cial launch of the service,‖ said Fan Yunjun, marketing manager for Beijing M obile. ―We expect that the 3G licenses will be issued late next year.

3G Mobile Phones ? Data speed: quicker than that in (2) ________ tec (1) _ _____ _____ _ hnology ? Video and (3) _______ music ? Video news programs: (4) ________ four times a day ? Internet access: quicker and (5) _________ Impre ssive functi ons ? China is busy (8) ________ its 3G-based technolo gies, networks and services. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 3G p hones in Ch ina ? 3G phones should go through a trial period before being put into (9) _________. ? 3G phones are (10) __________ to be seen next year. ? Offer (6) __________ services, helping you find y our way ? (7) _________ two-way video communication

17 Searching for the truth Collecting mid writing news is like researching in history: the best inform ation comes from those who were there at the time. So if' we want to study t ile history of China in the sixth century AD, we look at the writings of the p eople who lived then. They are called the primary sources because they tell us what it was like to live then. People at a much later date who write about t he same events are called the secondary sources. For example, when we read the original writings of Jia Sixie on agriculture, we are reading a primary sou

rce; when we read about Jia Sixie in our textbook we are reading secondary s ource because the passage was written about him and his ideas many years aft er he died. When we make news we use primary and secondary sources. We can see this most clearly in TV programmes. As we watch the news on TV, the pers on presenting the programme in the studio is the secondary source( because he tells us about the news) and the reporter in. Iraq or Washington is the primar y source (because he is telling us about what is actually happening there). Wit hout these reporters acting as primary sources, you would never find out what really happened in a war, earthquake, sports meeting, concert or festival. Thes e reporters explain what is happening so we have a clearer idea of what is go ing on there. They often take photographers with them who act as primary sou rce by giving pictures of events. In a newspaper the position is different because these two roles are often combined. This means a reporter who investigates a story may be the same pe rson who writes it. If this happens, the reporter is both the primary and the se condary source. But the photographer who works with him/her is still a primar y, source. One of the reasons that it is important to separate primary and secondary sources is that they help us to decide what is a fact and what is an opinion. A fact is something that everybody agrees has happened. An opinion is someb ody's idea of what happened. So facts and opinions are often mixed in any re port, whether in a newspaper or on TV.
What have you learnt from the above passage?

Primary sources are the writing of' the people who live Primary d at (1)___________ Source time and offer an inside view of a particular event Second ary sou Secondary sources are the writings of the people who write about the same events at a much later date with

rce

explanation and analysis (2)_________ on primary sourc es w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m The TV (3)__________ in the studio is tile secondary s

News o ource while the reporter on the (4) ____________ is th n TV e primary source News i n a ne wspape r A newspaper reporter can be both primary and secondar y source if he collects the information anti then (5) __ ____________ the news. But the photographer(6) ____ _______ with the reporter is always a primary source A fact is something that everybody agrees has happene Fact d. In other (7)____________, it is something that is (8) ________________ An opinion is somebody's idea of what (9)___________ Opinion _____on Conclus ion Primary and secondary sources are both important for (10)_______ the truth

18 Wen Jiabao arrived in Singapore yesterday for an official visit to the coun try. It is the first visit by a Chinese premier to Singapore in eight years. In th e arrival statement, Wen said he is looking forward to the meeting with Singa pore on ways to deepen East Asian cooperation between two nations so as to contribute to the building of a peaceful, harmonious relationship. Premier Wen Jiabao and Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong agree d to jointly develop an environmentally friendly city in northeastern China. Th e city will be a model for sustainable development, a Singapore government st atement said. The ―Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city‖ will be developed by a joi nt venture (合资) formed by Chinese and Singapore companies. ―This eco-city, to be built in Tianjin, will become another highlight in our relations,‖ Wen s

aid after signing an agreement with Lee, who agreed, ―On the Singapore side, on all levels, we‘ll give this project our full support.‖ The two sides will share expertise (技术) and experience in urban plannin g, environmental protection, resources conservation, recycling, use of renewable resources and wastewater re-use. China‘s economic planning agency issued a s et of guidelines earlier this month welcoming foreign investment in environmen tally friendly areas such as recycling, ―clean‖ industries and environmental prot ection. Bilateral (双边的) relations between China and Singapore have seen big pr ogress even though the two countries established diplomatic ties (外交关系) on ly 17 years ago, Wen said during his talks with Lee. China and Singapore have also kept close contact and coordination (协调) on regional issues, he added. Wen said China and Singapore are both importa nt Asian countries that share common interests in many areas. w.w.w.k.s.5.u. c.o.m Title: Wen’s (1) __________ to Singapore Main points Main (2) ____ To co-operate with Singapore and (5) ___ _________ __________ bilateral relations of the visit To build an (6) _____________ in Tianji Agreements (3) _________ in the visit n with joint efforts To (7) ___________ skills and experience in city planning, environmental protection, re cycling and so on A (4) _______ _____ of the relati ons between two n ations (8)_____________ years of diplomatic rel ations Great (9) _____________ in relations Close contact and coordination on regiona l issues Contents

Deepening East Asian cooperation betwee The significan ce of the visit n two nations (10) _______________ to the establishme nt of a peaceful, harmonious relationship

19 Many people believe they are supposed to drink eight glasses of wate r a day, or about two liters. Why? Because that is what they have been told a ll their life .But a recent report offers some different advice .Experts suggest p eople should obey their bodies: they should drink as much water as they feel l ike drinking. The report says most healthy people meet their daily needs for liquid by l etting thirst be their guide. The report is from the Institute of Medicine, which provides scientific and technical advice to the government and the public. The report contains some general suggestions. It says women should get about 2.7l iters of water daily and men about 3.7 liters. But wait –in each case, that is more than eight glasses. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m There is one important difference .The report does not tell people how ma ny glasses of are needed to meet these guidelines. This is because the daily w ater requirement can include the water content in foods. As you might expect, the Institute of Medicine says people need to drink more water when they are physically active. The same is true of those who li ve in ho climates. Depending on heat and activity ,people could need twice as much water as others do. All this ,however, does not answer one question. No one seems sure why people have the idea that good health requires eight glasses of water daily. It may have started with a misunderstanding. How much water should we drink every day belief or the (1)_________ of water needed daily

advice (2)______ __ public belief men eight gl asses of water women (4)_____ __ glass es of w ater a recent (3)______ __report men 3.7 liter of wat er women 2.7 liter of wate r

while doing hard (5)_________or in the hot( 6)_______ _ men 7.4 liter s of wa ter women (7)____li ter of w ater

Generally(8)_____ amount of water need daily as much as our bodies need ,(9)__________the water fr om other(10)____________ w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

20 A new set of brain images shows why : Reading the Roman alphabets an d Chinese characters uses different parts of the brain. The results also suggest that Chinese schoolchildren have reading problems in a different part of the brain used in reading alphabet-based languages. This shows that the learning disorder dyslexia ( inability to read properly) is not t he same in very culture and does not have a universal biological cause. Scientists described the results as ― very important and revolutionary‖. Wh ile dyslexia has certain common roots, they said, they now have some proof th at this kind of functional problem works differently according to the different demands that Western and Eastern languages place on the brain.

Dyslexia is a common developmental disorder in which people of normal intelligence have difficulty learning to read, spell and master other language sk ills. The results suggest that treating dyslexia around the world probably will r equire different treatments. ―Reading is complex,‖ said Guinevere Eden, Georgetown University profes sor. ― This shows we need to be more open-minded about diverse treatment a pproaches.‖ Its origins are complex. There appears to be a genetic aspect to the illnes s. It also may result from brain injury before birth that changes visual and hea ring pathways in the brain. Earlier brain scans show that English-reading dyslexics don‘t function prop erly in a left part of the brain associated with the awareness of 44 sounds fro m the English alphabet. However, according to the new study, reading Chinese uses some different parts of the brain located in the left-front of the brain. It is associated with symbol interpretation. Unlike alphabet letters, Chinese chara cters represent entire thoughts and physical objects. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Dyslexia Definition a learning(1)______ in which people of average IQ find it (2)_____to learn t o read and acquire other language skills Origins Genetic causes or brain (3)______ befor e birth, which affects (4) and hearing a bilities

Finding of the earlier stu dy Discovery of the new stu dy

(5)_____reading dyslexics don‘t function properly in a left part of the brain Reading Chinese uses the(6) _____part of the brain

Conclusion

Reading Roman alphabets and reading Chinese characters place different(7)___ _on the brain. Dyslexia is not the same in every(8) _____and does not have th e same(9)_____roots.

(10)_______

Dyslexia needs to be treated in differen t ways 21

For centuries people dreamed of going into space. This dream began to se em possible when high-flying rockets were built in the early 1900s. In 1903 a Russian teacher named Konstantin Tsiolkovsky figured out how to use rockets for space travel. His plan was the first one in rocket science t o use correct scientific calculation. About 30 years later, a U.S. scientist name d Robert Goddard built the first rockets that could reach high altitudes. During World War II, German scientists built large rockets that could travel very far and carry dangerous explosives. After the war, scientists from Germany went to the United States and the Soviet Union to help those countries build space rockets. These two countries were soon racing to get to space first. Each of these countries wanted to prove that it was stronger and more advanced than the ot her one. Both countries also had powerful bombs. People in the United States were worried when the Soviets were first to launch a space satellite, which wa s called Sputnik. The Soviets were also first to send a person into space. Yury Gagarin orbited the earth in the Vostok I spaceship in 1961. The US government set a goal for its space program to be the first count ry to put a person on the Moon. The U.S. space program built a series of Ap ollo spaceship. These vehicles were powered by huge Saturn 5 rockets. In 196 9 Apollo II took three men to the moon successfully. Nell Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon.

The Soviets may have lost the race to fly people to the Moon, but they built the first space station in 1971. The United States also built a space statio n. The space stations allowed people to live and work in space. Then the Sovi et Union and the United States cooperated to hook two spaceships together in space. This action ended the "space race". Today a much larger space station, built by several countries together, orbits Earth. Another new way to go to space is by space shuttle. A space shuttle, firs t made in the United States in 1981, looks like an airplane. Astronauts who fl y spaceships have used shuttles to help put satellites into space. History of space travel Time Early 1 900s Events High-flying rockets of going to space possibl were built. e to come 1) Konstantin Tsiolkovs ky (2) 1903 a way to use rockets for space travel. Around (3) Robert Goddard built new rockets. During German scientists bui and afte lt large rockets that r World could travel very far War II and carry dangerous o the Soviet Union and th explosives. e United States The Soviet Union an d the United States The Soviet Union became the(6) ter it even offered(5) t lding space rockets and la the other countries in bui Germany was ahead of all The rockets could fly very (4) in the sky. se in rocket science. He planned to put correct scientific calculation to u Information concerned It made the ancient dream

competed to get to s pace first.

of the race when it launc hed the first satellite and sent the first astronaut

into space. 1969 The United States Soviet Union by becomin (7) in putting a per g the first country to fly son on the moon. people to the moon. 1970s The Soviets built the first space station a nd was soon followe d by Americans. An d they finally ended the "space race" b y (9) 1980s-Space shuttles are us ed as new vehicles f or space (10) . Shuttles are also used to help put satellites into spa ce. Astronauts can live and w ork in space stations. In one way, it (8) the

22 Robot revolution The day that a robot wakes you up, cleans your room and walks your do g might still be a few decades off. But increasingly, engineers are saying that robots are going to make the leap from the factory floor to your family room. Companies like Sony and General Electric are working on designs for sma ll robots. Products like the Roomba, a robot that can clean floors, are flying o ff the shelves. On the cover of a recent issue of Scientific American magazine, Bill Gates predicted the ―Dawn of the Age of Robots‖.

What‘s behind this new era (时代)? It‘s partly a matter of technology. De vices that can recognize and respond to a human voice have been developed. There are now a few different ways for robots to move around. They can wal k, crawl or ride on wheels. They are being made smaller and smaller. They ar e also becoming more and more energy efficient. A bigger part of the story is on the demand side. From the day Robert A dler invented the television remote control in the 1950s, people around the wor ld have tirelessly searched for ways to get lazier. Also take into consideration the increasing wealth of rich people, the time appears ripe to introduce robots to ease our daily lives. To be sure, robots that walk on two legs and talk like people are still to o complex for our present engineering abilities. Today‘s robot revolution is to make them for everyday use. Robots will do basic housework such as cleaning or gardening, or just help you have more fun on the basketball court. What makes a robot different from an ordinary cleaning machine is not th e presence of computer chips (芯片). Nowadays even your microwave has a c omputer chip. It is the ability to sense and make changes to the environment i n real time. For example, a floor-cleaning robot should be able to sense your scared c at and move out of the way. Today‘s computing ability is, for the first time, able to make machines that could ―think‖, at least in certain limited ways. Robot Revolution

What today‘s robot can do

What (5) ____________ robot ma y do

recognize and (1) __________ talk like people __ to your voice

sense and make some changes to the (6) ____________ work in the (2) ___________ _ (7) ____________ your dog

move around, like walking or

(8) ____________ your floor

(3) ____________ on wheels (9) ____________ you up w.w.w. k.s.5.u.c.o.m think in some limited (4) ___ _________ (10) ____________ you on the b asketball court

23 Since the beginning of human evolution, men have migrated(迁移)across continents in search of food, shelter, safety, and comfortable weather. People still move for these reasons, but new reasons for human migration are arising, such as job relocation(重新安置) and overpopulation. Three million migrants are moving from poor countries to wealthier ones each year, and increasingly, their destination is a neighboring country in develo ping parts of the world. People are moving within the developing world for th e same reasons as they migrate to wealthier nations. People from poor countrie s are going to less poor countries, fleeing wars and conflicts. They are also re sponding to population pressures because some countries are densely populated,

and they often have high population growth. Those people need to go somew here else. There are three main reasons why people move. The basic categories and percentages are as follows, according to the Current Population Surveys (CPS): Family-related reasons account for 26.3%, including changes in marital(婚 姻的) status, establishing a household and other family reasons; work-related r easons 16.2%, including job transfer, retirement, and other job-related reasons; housing-related reasons 51.6%, including new and better houses, better neighbor hood, cheaper housing and other housing reasons; the remaining 5.9% of other reasons are attending college, the change of climate and health reasons. Americans have been migrating south and west for decades in search of b etter job opportunities and warmer climates. They have also been moving to pl aces a little far from cities, in search of bigger yards and houses, lower crime rates and better schools. In 1950, nearly a fifth of the population lived in the nation‘s 20 largest cities. In 2006, it was about one in ten. That‘s why many American people say, ―Big Cities Shrink as People Move South, West.‖ Between March 2005 and March 2007, 73.4 million Americans moved. Fif ty-six percent of these moves were within the same country. Twenty percent w ere between counties but in the same state. Nineteen percent were moves to a different state. Some families even went abroad. Title: People on the 1 2 , people have migrated acros

Throughout human s continents. Lea An d-in moving to s. _5 f 4 3

number of people from poor countries are countries, especially neighboring one

According to the CPS, the other places for reasons 7

6

of people move to to housing.

or peo ple‘ s m and a bigger yard, etc. igra tion Con clus ion Now every year more and more people move to othe r places, which seems to have become a global . 10 Americans have long been moving south and west, ooking 8 a better job chance, a warmer 9 l

24 D. R. Gaul Middle School is in Union, Maine, a blueberry-farming town where the summer fair finds kids competing in pig scrambles and pie-eating co ntests. Gaul, with about 170 seventh- and eighth-graders, has its own history of l ower level academic achievement. One likely reason: Education beyond the bas ic requirements hasn't always been a top priority for families who've worked t he same land for generations. Here, few adults have college degrees, and outsi ders (teachers included) are often kept at a respectful distance. Since 2002, Gaul's students have been divided into four classes, each of t hem taught almost every subject by two teachers. The goal: To find common t hreads across disciplines to help students create a big picture that gives fresh meaning and context to their classwork -- and sparks motivation for learning. Working within state guidelines, each team makes its individual schedules and lesson plans, incorporating non-textbook literature, hands-on lab work and f ield trips. If students are covering the Civil War in social studies, they're readi ng The Red Badge of Courage or some other period literature in English class. In science, they study the viruses and bacteria that caused many deaths in the war.

Team teaching isn't unusual. About 77 percent of middle schools now em ploy some form of it, says John Lounsbury, consulting editor for the National Middle School Association. But most schools use four- or five-person teams, w hich Gaul tried before considering two-person teams more effective. Gaul supp orts the team concept by "looping" classes (跟班) so that the same two teache rs stick with the same teens through seventh and eighth grades. Combining tea ms and looping creates an extremely strong bond between teacher and student. It also, says teacher Beth Ahlholm, "allows us to build an excellent relationsh ip with parents." w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Ahlholm and teammate Madelon Kelly are fully aware how many glazed l ooks they see in the classroom, but they know 72 percent of their eighth-grade rs met Maine's reading standard last year -- double the statewide average. Only 31 percent met the math standard, still better than the state average (21 perce nt). Their students also beat the state average in writing and science. And in20 06, Gaul was one of 47 schools in the state to see testing gains of at least 20 percent in four of the previous five years, coinciding roughly with team teach ing's arrival. A Classroom With Context Problems of the school Being a farming town,it(1) on before. (2) education is considered less important. rather than open to the little in educati

The community is relatively(3) outsiders. Ways of s olving the proble ms The division .

of classes is made and students are well(4)

Individual schedules and lesson plans are(5) am. A strong(6) through

by each te

between teacher and student is established

combining teams and looping. Signs of (7) 72 percent of the eighth-graders(8) ndard (9)percent higher than the state average in maths the school beating the state average in writing and scienc e four of the previous five years(10) test gains at least 20 percent Maine's reading sta

25 There are some very good things about open education. This way of teach ing allows the students to develop their own interests in many subjects. Open education allows students to be responsible for their own education. Some stud ents do badly in traditional classrooms. The open classroom may allow them t o enjoy learning. Some students will be happier in an open education school. They will not have to worry about grades or rules. But many students will not do well in an open classroom. For some stude nts, there are too few rules. These students will do little in school. They will not make good use of open education. Because open education is so different from traditional education, these students may have a problem of getting used to making so many choices. For many students it is important to have some r ules in the classroom. They worry about the rules even when there are no rule s. Even a few rules will help this kind of students. The last point about open education is that some traditional teachers do not like it. Many teachers do not believe in open education. Teachers who want to have an open classroom ma y have many problems at their school. You now know what open education is. Some of its good points and bad points have been explained. You may have your own opinion about open edu cation. The writer thinks that open education is a good idea, but only in theor

y. In actual fact, it may not work very well in a real class or school. The wri ter believes that most students, but of course not all students, want some struct ure in their classes. They want and need to have some rules. In some cases, t hey must be made to study some subjects. Many students are pleased to find subjects they have to study interesting. They would not study those subjects if they did not have to. Title: Open Education Open education is a way of teaching which allows stu Definition dents to learn what they are (2)______________ in wit hout many rules. Open education enables students to realize they are lear ning for (3) _______________, not for others. Advantage s (4) _________of grades or rules. Some students find (5) _________ happiness in open cl assrooms compared with traditional classrooms. Many students cannot prove themselves as (6)________ __ in open classrooms as in traditional classrooms. Disadvant ages There are so many choices for students to (7) _______ __ that they can‘t use open education properly. Some teachers are not in (8) _________ of such way of teaching The write r‘s (1) _____ _____ to open e ducation Open education is just (9) ____________, but in a real class or school it is not so good. The (10) ___________ of students want some structure in their classes. In open classrooms, many students don‘t need to be

26 Intense physical exercise is not the only way to better health. Studies sho w that walking several times a week can lower the risk of many diseases. The y include heart disease, stroke, diabetes, bone loss, arthritis (关节炎), and depr ession. Walking also can help you lose weight. Fast walking is good for the heart. It lowers the blood pressure. It raises the amount of good cholesterol (胆固醇) in the blood. Researchers say walking can sharply reduce the risk of suffering a heart attack. Studies have also shown that walking for 30 minutes a day can delay and possibly prevent the development of diabetes. People who are overweight hav e an especially high risk to develop this disease. Walking strengthens the muscles and builds up the bones that they are att ached to. Studies show that walking could decrease the risk of developing oste oporosis (骨质疏松症). Walking can also help ease the pain of arthritis in area s where bones are joined. This is because walking strengthens the muscles aro und the bones. Experts say walking is one of the safest ways to exercise. There is a low risk of injuries. So it is good for people who are starting an exercise progra m for the first time and for older people. A walking program is easy to start. You should wear loose clothes and g ood shoes. There are shoes that are designed especially for lots of walking. How fast should you walk? For the best effect, doctors say you should w alk fast enough to cause you to breathe hard. Yet you should still be able to talk. Let your arms move freely while you walk. There are no rules to starting a walking program. You might walk short d istances. Or you might walk up hills to strengthen your leg muscles. Health ex perts say you can gain the most from a walking program if you walk at about five kilometers an hour for 30 minutes a day. You should do this about five times a week.

Walking to (1) ______ fit (2) ______ of walking Superiorities to other ex ercises Reducing the risk of a heart attack ? lowering the blood p ressure ? raising good choleste rol Controlling the develop ment of diabetes ? helping you (3) ___ ___ weight Decreasing the risk of osteoporosis and arthr itis ? strengthening the mu scles ? (4) ______ up the b ones Lowering the risk of o ther diseases, such as stroke, depression and etc. Being easy t o start (7) _ _____ rules Walk at a (10) ____ __ of about 5 kilom eters an hour for 30 minutes a day and 5 times a week. w. w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Being (5) __ ____ than m any other w ays of exerc ise, especiall y for beginn ers or (6) _ _____ Wear loose clothes a nd good shoes. Walk fast enough to cause you to breath e with (8) ______ b ut still able to talk. Walk with your arms (9) ______ freely. Tips to walkers

27 A smart card is a card that is carried with either a microprocessor and a memory chip or only a memory chip that is not programmable. The microproc

essor card can add. delete, and deal with the information on the card, while a memory-chip card can only do one thing. Smart cards, unlike magnetic stripe cards, can do many different things an d hold a lot of information. In this way, they do not need to get information from a faraway place when they are used. Today, there are several kinds of smart cards, all of which are very popul ar in the market: IC (Integrated Circuit) Microprocessor Cards Microprocessor Cards (chi p cards) offer a larger memory and better security than the traditional magnetic stripe cards do. Chip cards can also hold data. These cards are used for man y things. Thus, chips have been the main platform for cards that hold a secure digital identity. Some examples of these cards are: Cards that hold money. Cards that provide safe access to a network. Cards that allow setting stop boxes on televisions to remain safe from pri vacy. Optical Memory Cards Optical memory cards look like cards with a pie ce of CD on the top. Optical memory cards can store up to 4MB of data. But once written, the data can not be changed or removed. Thus, this type of car d is good for keeping records, such as medical files, driving records or travel histories. Today, these have no processors in them (although this is coming in the near future). While the cards are almost as cheap as chip cards, the card r eaders are expensive. Title: (1)_______________cards Types (3)_____________ ___ IC Chi p Card s A larger memory & Better (4)_______ Not mentioned Disadvantages Simila rities Popul arity Large

____ Hold data w.w.w.k.s.5.u. c.o.m

(10) ____ Low cost o f

Optical (2)___ ______ __ cards

Store much data Good for (5)____ _____ Drivers and (6)__ _____ to keep records (7)_______ much not

(8)________ dat a No processors Expensive card (9)___________

cards

28。 An Event of Imagination The year is 2094. It has been announced that a comet is heading towards the Earth. Most of it will miss our planet, but two pieces will probably hit t he southern half of the Earth. On 17 July, a piece four kilometers wide enters the Earth's atmosphere wi th a massive explosion. About half of the piece is destroyed, but the remaining part hits the Sout h Atlantic at 200 times the speed of sound. The sea boils and a huge hole is made in the seabed. Huge waves are created and spread outwards from the hol e. The wall of water, a kilometer high, rushes towards southern Africa at 800 kilometers an hour. Cities on the African coast are totally destroyed and millio ns of people are drowned. Before the waves reach South America, the second piece of the comet lan ds in Argentina.

Earthquakes and volcanoes are set off in the Andes Mountains. The shock waves move north into California and all around the Pacific Ocean. The citie s of Los Angeles, San Francisco and Tokyo are completely destroyed by earth quakes. Millions of people in the southern half of the earth are already dead, but the north won't escape for long. Because of the explosions, the sun is hid den by clouds of dust, and temperature around the world falls to almost zero. Crops are ruined. The sun won't be seen again for many years. Wars break ou t as countries fight for food. A year later, no more than 10 million remain ali ve. Could it really happen? In fact, it has already happened more than once i n the history of the Earth. The dinosaurs (恐龙) were on the Earth for over 1 60 million years. Then 65 million years ago they suddenly disappeared. Many scientists believe that the Earth was hit by a piece of object in space. The din osaurs couldn't live through the cold climate that followed and they died out. Will we meet the same end? Reasons One piece hits the South A tlantic at 200 times 2 of sound. d A 5 6 hap 1 Results The sea boils and a huge hole is made in the seabed. A tsunami (海啸) hits southern Africa, 3

the speed

cities on the African coast, an 4 millions of people.

The sun is hidden by clouds of dust and the temperature falls to almost zero, 8 crops. Wars bre

pens when the four-kilo meter-wide piece of comet enters the Earth's . 7

ak out for food and only 10 mill ion people remain. The human be ings are 10 9 out. the danger of

29 U.S. woman to carry Olympic torch in China Jenny Bowen, an American living in Beijing, has been selected as the onl y American to carry the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch on Chinese soil next year. She and seven other non-Chinese winners were chosen from a pool of 262 a pplicants from 47 countries in a contest organized by Chinese computer maker Lenovo Group and the official English-language newspaper, China Daily. When Bowen runs with the Olympic torch next year, she will not only be representing the United States. She will also be representing thousands of Chi nese orphans, ABC news said. Bowen, a mother of two adopted Chinese daughters, is executive director of Half the Sky Foundation, an organization which was established in 1998 an d aims to enrich the lives and enhance the prospects for orphaned children in China. Nearly 10 years later, Bowen and Half the Sky have touched the lives of over 13,000 children. Half the Sky is now present in 36 welfare institutions i n 28 Chinese cities. Approximately 4,000 children are active in the program, which provides trained staff, educational tools, medical support and nurturing lo ve to orphans. Bowen hopes that running with the Olympic torch next year will help dra w attention to the children in China. She will be among 19,400 runners who will carry the flame along an 85,000-mile, 130-day route across five continents. Beijing organizers say it will be the longest torch relay in Olympic history. Like Bowen, the seven other non-Chinese winners, who include a German engineer and a Venezuelan graphic designer, live in China. Other countries re presented will be the Philippines, Colombia, India, Japan and Russia. According to Olympic organizers, candidates were selected based on an on line vote, committee selection, their "love of Chinese culture and history" and devotion to "[communicating] information of a real China to their native countr ies."

Each runner will carry the torch for 200 meters on Chinese soil. Title: U.S woman to carry Olympic torch in China 1 Lenovo Group, the official English-language newspaper a nd China Daily Jenny Bowen and seven other non-Chinese Lucky 2 3 we

re chosen from a pool of 262 applicants from 47 countri es who are all loving Chinese culture and history and de voting to information of a real China to their own ___4 ___.

Bowen

1. Bowen is a mother of two adopted Chinese daughters and an executive director of Half the Sky Foundation. 2. She is the only American to carry the torch on China ____5__. 3. She will not only represent U.S but orphans in China.

Half the Sky‘s ___6___ Bowen‘s ___8___ The___9 ___ abo ut the

About 10 years after 1998, they have ___7___ over 130 0 children and now have 36 welfare institutions in 28 C hinese cities. Draw attention to the cause of the orphans in China.

1. There will be 19,400 runners and they will carry the flame along an 85,000-mile, 130-day route and ___10___ five continents. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 2. Each of them on Chinese soil will carry the torch for 200 metres. 3. It will be the longest one in the Olympic history.

Olympic torch r elay

30 China's newly-weds spend too much

Weddings are so important in China that couples are willing to fork out about 20 times their monthly income on getting hitched and everything that c omes with it. China's newly-weds in cities spend 126,600 yuan (16,600 U.S. dollars) on average in 2006 when getting hitched, Thursday's Chongqing Youth Daily rep orted, citing a recent survey by the Ministry of Commerce. An analysis of 60,000 couples living in cities showed that about 64 perce nt of the spending went on house decoration, furniture and household appliance s and the rest was spent on the wedding, such as the ceremony, photography, wedding dresses and feast. The survey said the wedding expenditure was only a small share of the o verall marriage cost as most Chinese young couples in the cities tended to buy an apartment and a car before tying the knot. The survey said that about 81.6 percent of the newly-weds admitted that t hey had got economic support from parents as their monthly income on averag e was only about 6,240 yuan. The survey also showed that about 88.4 percent of the newly-weds chose having wedding photography as a priority and 78.74 chose hosting a wedding banquet. In contrast, young couples in the countryside spent about 40,000 yuan on average on marriage-related issues, less than one third of their city peers, accor ding to the report. About 8.49 million couples got married in China in 2006. Title: China‘s newly-weds spend ___1___ Wedding __ _2___ 1. China‘s newly-weds in ___3___ areas spend 12 6,600yuan on average in 2006. 2. In the ___4___ areas, young couples spent less than one third of their city peers. The__5___ 1. About 64 percent of the spending went on ___

of money

6___decoration, furniture and household appliances. 2. The rest was spent on the wedding, for 7

the ceremony, photography, wedding dresses and feast. The ___8__ of money The ___10_ __ for the high expens e They got the ___9___ support from their parents b ecause their income was not high enough. The newly-weds usually spend a lot because they have many things to buy, such as houses and cars.

31 Sick of your job? Why can't you leave? It's a case of the grass not being any greener on the other side. Nearly 6 0 per cent of Australian workers are not happy with their employer, but almos t 50 per cent stick it out because they believe there are not many ideal compa nies around, a survey released recently shows. The report by career networking site LinkMe.com.au found that after takin g into account working hours, staff morale, industry, wages, image, charity sup port and career progression, the 2000 people surveyed predominantly believed t heir company did not quite make the grade. Just over 25 per cent of respondents claimed their company's record regar ding staff morale was downright awful, 30 per cent said their working hours were too long and inflexible, 59 per cent reported that their offices are shoddy and drab, and 32 per cent said their wages were far too low. "Employers must realise that the Australian workplace is an environment o f low unemployment so they need to provide better working environments or r isk losing staff," CEO of LinkMe.com.au Campbell Sallabank said.

Those that are deemed to be respectable and glamorous firms with great working conditions are few and far between. Only 17 per cent said they believe they worked for an ideal company, wh ile 33 per cent said the competition was tough to get into those types of firm s. Predominantly, staff morale (75 per cent), wages (68 per cent) and proxim ity to home (54 per cent) are the factors considered when determining the idea l companies. "Workers should not hold back from trying to improve their office enviro nment," Mr Sallabank said. "There are all sorts of ways where employees can be successful in obtaini ng this but if attempts continually fall on deaf ears then voting with your feet is the best way to improve the situation as there are plenty of good employer s out there." Title: Title of your job? Why not leave? Different ___1___ On ___2__ _ On staff m orale On workin g hours On office conditions To ___6___ in short After taking working hours, staff morale, industry, wages, charity supp ort and career ___7___ into ___8___, 2000 people surveyed ___9___ believed their company didn‘t quite ___10___ the employees. 25% of responders ___3___ that their company‘s re cord on staff morale was downright awful. 30% said they ___4___ too much time in the offic e and the working hours were inflexible. 59% reported that their offices are in poor ___5___ 32% said their wages were far too low.

32 Human ancestor had mix of primitive, modern traits This undated handout photograph shows scientists David Lordkipanidze and Tea Jashashvili with remains of early human ancestors excavated at a site in the nation of Georgia. The earliest-known human ancestors to migrate out of Africa possessed a surprising mix of human-like and primitive features, accordi ng to scientists who studied remains dug up at a fossil-rich site in the former Soviet republic of Georgia. Writing on Wednesday in the journal Nature, the scientists described remai ns of three adults and one adolescent dating from about 1.77 million years ago, excavated at Dmanisi, about 55 miles southwest of the Georgian capital, Tbili si. The remains shed light on a little-understood but critical period in human evolution -- the transition from the more ape-like creatures known as australopi thecines to the genus Homo, of which modern humans are a member. w.w.w.k. s.5.u.c.o.m The spines and lower limbs found at the Dmanisi site appear very much l ike modern humans, suggesting these individuals, which walked fully upright, were highly capable of long-distance treks, the researchers said. But other aspects of the skeletons had more archaic characteristics. The ar ms were more like australopithecines than people, and the primitive skulls enca sed relatively small brains. Their simple stone tools also are less advanced tha n one might have expected, the researchers said. They described the remains a s "a surprising mosaic" of primitive and modern features. "These are the earliest humans found outside of Africa. This is the time when our genus spread outside of Africa," David Lordkipanidze of the Georgia n National Museum, who led the research, said in a telephone interview. "Thei r heads are primitive. Their legs are very human-like." Scientists had previously described skulls found at the site, but in recent y ears found far more extensive remains of the skeletons of these creatures, givi

ng them a more detailed understanding of these denizens of early human histor y. Title: Human ancestor had mix of primitive, modern traits P a r a . topic The details

1

Discovery

The earliest-known human ancestors to migrat e ___1___ Africa ____2__ a surprising mix o f human-like and primitive features.

3

The ___3 ___ of th e discover y

The remains drew ___4___ a little-understood but critical ___5___ in human evolution.

4

The ___6 ___ with modern h umans

The spines and lower limbs found at the Dm anisi site ___7___ very much like modern hu mans------walking fully upright and highly cap able of long-distance treks. The arms were more like australopithecines th an people, and the primitive skulls encased re latively small brains. Their simple stone tools also are less advance d than one might have ___9___.

5

The ___8 ___ from modern h umans

7

The more helpful e vidence

___10___ scientists have found far more exte nsive remains of the skeletons of these creatu res, giving them a more detailed understandin g of these denizens of early human history.

33 Central bank may raise mortgage rate The central bank is supposed to increase the interest rate of mortgage l oans to 1.1 times the benchmark one-year lending rate this week, sources said. The move is an attempt to curb the rise in house prices and speculation i n the property market. The current five-year lending rate has reached 7.83 percent after the centr al bank raised the interest rate for the fifth time this year on September 13. This means the interest rate for five-year mortgage loans could reach as h igh as 8.613 percent if the central bank makes a move this week. "With the expansion of mortgage loans, and as the central bank continuou sly raises interest rates, mortgage loans are beginning to face a high danger of default(违约)," China Construction Bank (CCB) said in its latest report. Total non-performing mortgage loans in three major commercial banks - C CB, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, and Bank of China - rose to 19.2 billion yuan at the end of 2006 from 18.4 billion yuan in 2005, accor ding to CCB. The central bank is likely to stipulate commercial banks to raise mortgage deposits to at least 40 percent for homebuyers who intend to buy a second a partment, according to the source. "Homebuyers will have to make a down payment of 40 percent to buy a second apartment, and for apartments for commercial use, the down payment w ill be raised to as high as 50 percent," he said. The minimum deposit for an apartment of more than 90 sq m is currently 30 percent while for apartments less than 90 sq m it's 20 percent. The central bank will also ask commercial banks to end lending to proper ty developers who hoard(囤积)land and house for speculation(投机) purposes, according to the source.

Property prices in 70 major cities jumped 8.2 percent in August from a y ear earlier after gaining 7.5 percent in July, according to figures from the Nati onal Development and Reform Commission. Housing prices in Beijing rose 12.1 percent from a year earlier, while pric es in Shenzhen went up 20.8 percent. Title: Central bank may raise mortgage rate 1. The central bank is ___2___ to increase the interest rate of mortgage loans to 1.1 times t he benchmark one-year lending rate. 2. It is ___3___ for the central bank to stipula The ___1___ fr om the informe d sources te commercial banks to raise mortgage deposits for homebuyers who plan to buy___4___ apar tment. 3. The central bank will also ___5___ commer cial banks to ____6__ lending to property dev elopers who hoard land and house for speculat ion purposes. The ___7___ fo r raising the mo rtgage rate As the central bank raises interest rates, mortg A possible ___9 age loans may face a high __10___ of default. ___ w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m The action aims to ___8___ the rise in house prices and speculation in the property market.

34 Men aren't as tough as they think they are Frailty(脆弱), thy(你的)name is man. So said China's doctors Sunday on the eighth "Men's Health Day".

Men in China are widely affected by bad living habits, a lack of awarene ss about mental and physical health issues, and a lack of exercise. Shan Li, a psychologist with the DRM Professional Counseling, said men are more heavily burdened with "social responsibilities". "They live in poorer 'mental circumstances' and have poorer life quality th an women in general, often frustrated but don't feel free to vent their emotions, " Shan said. Zhang Kan, a psychologist, said: "Men have shorter life expectancy than women an undeniable part of the reason lies in the psychology". Professor Gu Jun from the Shanghai University said men frequently are b urdened with the pressure of work, marriage troubles, and at times difficulties with children. Shanghai Women's Federation (SWF) found that some 20 percent of comp laints it received were from men. This has sparked calls that there was a need for a federation for men. Other statistics show men have a general laxsidasical attitude towards healt h issues. Figures from the 411 Hospital in Shanghai showed that 90 percent of men don't know they should or believe they should have an annual health check. Twenty percent of men never do any kind of physical exercise. Many claimed they did not want to exercise because they were busy, tired, or focused too much on other "more important" matters. Men, more than women are also more likely drink, smoke and get ill. A urologist with 411 Hospital said occurrences of male diseases such as p rostate(前列腺) problems and male sterility(不育) were rising. ___1___ with men in Chin a Details to __3____ ____7__for the situation

The men in Chin a are wi dely affe cted by bad livin g habits, ___2___ of ment al and p hysical h ealth issu es and a lack of exercise.

1. They are often frus trated but don‘t feel f ree to __4____ their emotions. 2. Men have shorter l ife ___5___ with wo men in general. 3. Many of them ___ 6___ to SWF. 4. They are more like ly to get ill. 5. prostate problems a nd male sterility are r ising.

1. Men are ___8___ wi th the pressure of work, marriage troubles and difficulties with childre n. 2. Most of them don‘t have __9___ their healt h checked. 3. 20 percent of them never do any kind of e xercise. 4. Many of them are _ _10___to drinking or s moking.

35 White-collar workers going to great lengths for stress relief A soldier of the South Korean special attack corps paints his eyes during a friendly Taekwondo match at a South Korean Army Base in Pochon, north of Seoul. Stressed out white-collar workers are scaling skyscrapers, camping out on rooftops, smashing up restaurants, pretending to be children and even visiting c emeteries in a bid to relieve the pressure of modern life. As the country's economy continues to steam ahead, once popular forms o f entertainment, such as karaoke, card games and even boxing bars, appear to be losing their appeal.

Consider the members of Shanghai's Cat Rain club. By day, this group of young women works executive jobs, but by night they climb buildings so the y can spend the night on the roof. "It's a good way to release our pressure. You feel relaxed when you're sit ting on the roof, looking up to the sky and chatting with intimate friends," sai d Gong Ying, 25. The stress of work is not just limited to people in Shanghai. A recently opened restaurant in Beijing encourages customers to smash pla tes - as long as they are willing to pay to replace them. Though there has been some debate about the extravagance of such servic es, some psychologists say the activity reflects the desire of some white-collar workers to vent their angst. Some workers even appear eager to return to their childhoods. This May, hundreds of people took part in a festival in which adults pretended to be chil dren. It was an adults-only event, and participants could read comics and eat s weets all day. Scenic places such as parks and rivers can also help people relax and put things in perspective. But a cemetery? Cemetery companies in Shanghai organized visits to local graveyards for s tressed-out workers in March. The participants were taken to quiet spots in the cemetery where they could contemplate life and their futures. Roof-camper Chen Bin, an IT marketing professional, said she had campe d out on a rooftop about 30 times. When she's not sleeping out under the star s, she also has several other adrenalin-fueled interests, such as downhill racing and paragliding. "Pressure may bring us distress, but it doesn't mean we can't find ways o ut," Chen says. "Life should be imaginative."
White-collar workers goin g to great lengths for __ _1___ relief Old entertainment becomes less po pular. Once ___2 The ways for white-collar to relieve the pre ssure of ___4___ life. C G T S _ li oi a c _ m n k e _ bi g i n 9

36 People unhappy with the rich: Poll There is growing dissatisfaction toward rich people, according to a new o nline poll. The poll by the China Youth Daily in collaboration with Sina.com has hi ghlighted the apparent discontent over the country's widening income gap. Nearly 8,000 people filled in online questionnaires last week, and when as ked to use three words to describe society's rich, the top responses were "extra vagant", "greedy" and "corrupt". About 57 percent of those polled said that "extravagant" was the best wor d to describe the rich, followed closely by "greedy". Ironically, despite their dissatisfaction, 93 percent of those polled wished t hey could be rich too, and that richer people should be "socially responsible". Some 33 percent of respondents also praised rich people for being "smart ". Nearly 90 percent of respondents agreed that most people in society, inclu ding themselves, were willing to speak up for the poor but were reluctant to t ake action and actually do something for them.

The survey comes on the heels of a heated debate over comments made b y renowned economist Mao Yushi, who said he was "speaking for the rich an d working for the poor". A report released by the Asian Development Bank last Wednesday reveale d that China's Gini coefficient - an indicator of the wealth divide - rose from 0.407 in 1993 to 0.473 in 2004. An earlier CASS report said that the richest 10 percent of Chinese familie s now own more than 40 percent of all private assets, while the poorest 10 pe rcent share less than 2 percent of the total wealth. The country's income disparity(悬殊) is close to that of Latin America, th e report which came out in January, said. Theme The poll by C hina Daily People unhappy with the rich 1. Nearly 8,000 people filled in ___1___ on th e ___2___last week. 2. There is an ___3___ dissatisfaction tendency toward rich people. 3. Ironically, in ___4___ of their dissatisfaction, 93 percent of the polled wished they could be rich too, and rich people should take ―___5__ _ responsibility‖. 4. ___6___ ,Mao Yushi, said he was ―speaking for the rich and working for the poor.‖ A report ___7_ __ by the Asia n Development Bank 1. The richest 10 percent of Chinese families n ow on more than 40 percent of all ___8___ as sets, while the poorest 10 percent ___9___ for less than 2 percent of the total wealth. 2. The country‘s income disparity is close to th at of Latin America, the report came out in __ _10___.

37 At the beginning of the twentieth century, many people thought that the American family was falling apart. A century later, we know that this was not the case. However, although the family is still alive in the United States, its size and shape were very different 100 years ago. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, there were mainly two types of familie s in the United States: the extended and the nuclear. The extended family usua lly includes grandparents, parents, and children living under the same roof. The nuclear family consists of only parents and children. Today there are many different kinds of families. Some people live in ―tr aditional‖ families, that is, a stay-home mother, a working father, and their ow n biological children. Others live in two-paycheck families, single-parent familie s, adoptive or foster, families, blended families (where men and women who were married before marry again and combine the children from previous marri ages into the new families),child less families, and so on. What caused the structure of the family to change? In the early 1900s the birthrate began to fall and the divorce rate began to rise. Women were sudde nly choosing to go to college and take jobs outside the home. In the 1930s an d 1940s, many families faced serious financial, or money problems during the Great Depression, when many people lost their jobs. During World War II(19 39-1945),5 million women were left alone to take care of their homes and th eir children. Because many men were at war, thousands of these "war widows" had to go to work outside their home. During the next ten years, the situation changed. There were fewer divorc es, and people married at a younger age and had more children than the previ ous generation. It was unusual for a mother to work outside the home during the years when her children were growing tip. Families began leaving cities an

d moving into single-family homes in the suburbs. The traditional family seem ed to be returning. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m In the years between 1960s and 1990s, there were many important change s in the structure of the family. From the 1960s to the early 1970s, the divorc e rate doubled and the birthrate fell by half. The number of single-parent fami lies tripled, and the number of couples living together without being married d oubled again. In fact, the single-parent household, once unusual, has replaced t he "traditional" family as the typical family in the States. If we can judge fro m history, however, this will probably change again in the twenty-first century. The Changes of the American Family
Main comparisons Contexts There were two __2___ types of families in the p ast, ___3____, the extended and the nuclear. Different___1____ Nowadays __4___types of families can be seen th an before. Cha nge s in dif fere nt In the year ___ s between 5__ 1960s and __ 1990s _. A trend worth noting Author‘s o The present structure is ___10____; it will experience changes a pinion on gain in the near future. changes lies are no longer the typical ones in America. Different types of familes__9____. Traditional fami In the 190 0s and 194 0s In the 195 0s Many of the women had to work outside due to t he __6___of money., thus causing the fall of __7_ _and the rise of divorce rate. Divorce rate slided and there were more children . The families tended to be ___8___ again.

38 The family sphere(范围) used to be defined by its isolation from the publi c realm. There was the public male realm (领域) "rational accomplishment" of and cruel competition, and the private female and child-rearing sphere of home, intuition(直觉)and emotion. The private realm was supposed to be isolated from the realities of adult life. For both better and worse, television and other electronic media tend to break down the difference between those two worlds. The membrane around the family sphere is much more permeable(可渗透的). TV takes public events and transforms them into dramas that are played out in the privacy of our living rooms, kitchens and bedrooms. Parents used to be the channel through which children learned about the o utside world. They could decide what to tell their children and when to tell it to them. Since children learn to read in stages, books provide a kind of natur al screening process, where adults can decide what to tell and not tell children of different reading abilities. Television destroyed the system that separated ad ult from child knowledge and separated information into year-by-year slices for children of different ages. Instead, it presents the same information directly to children of all ages, without going through adult filters. So television presents a real challenge to adults. While a parent can read a newspaper without sharing it with children in the same room, television is a ccessible to everyone in that space. And unlike books, television doesn't allow us to flip(翻转)through it and see what's coming up. We may think we're gi ving our children a lesson in science by having them watch the Challenger tak e off, and then suddenly they learn about death, disaster and adult mistakes. Books allow adults to discuss privately what to tell or not tell children. T his also allows parents to keep adult material secret from children and keep th

eir secret keeping secret. Take that same material and put it on The Today Sh ow and you have 800,000 children hearing the very things the adults are tryin g to keep from them. "Television takes our kids across the globe before parent s give them permission to cross the street." More importantly, children gradually learn that adults are worried and anxi ous about being parents. Actually, television has also places families under a l ot of stress. How Television Changes Childhood?
Main comparisons Distance between __ m. _1__and the outside. Homes nowadays are __3__to the outside world. In the past, children might learn __4__about the o utside world with the help of parents and ___5__ Media through which _. children can obtain More information is got directly through TV and information other electronic media, which breaks down the __ 6___ between adult world and the child world. Traditionally, kids could only knew what they sho _____7___ of the in formation children g et uld learn at their age, carefully___8___by their pa rents. Everything can possibly be known by children, in cluding many aspects of _____ life. Effects on family education Families are now under greater stress than before. Parental instruction Adults are anxious about being parents and fac ed with new __10_____. Contexts Homes used to be isolated from the ___2___real

39

Some people believe that greed and selfishness has become the basis of modern socie ty, and we should return to the old traditions of family and community then we will have a better life. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above opinion? In this fast-paced world, many values are undergoing major changes. While people tra ditionally prioritize caring, sharing and generosity in life and work, modern people seem t o be more self-absorbed and self-concerned. Modern people act selfishly to survive the harsh competition of life. They say that it is a jungle out there. To survive, you have to fight with whatever means that come han dy. Obviously greedy and selfishness go perfectly well with such ideas. In a company, em ployees do everything they can to get better pay and higher position, even at the cost of colleagues. We are in any way advocating any selfish conduct. It is just that people are p ressured to act in a certain way due to outside influences. In spite of common practice, it is hard to conclude that modern society is built on g reed and selfishness, both of which are not newly invented vocabulary. In ancient times p eople also did greedy and selfish things though such behaviors were more condemned the n. But we can not ignore the fact that people in the past lived a relatively more isolated life and faced less pressure compared with their modern counterparts. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.

m
Are we happier to share with others and be generous to them? There is no fixed ans wer either. Some people take great pleasure helping and giving to others while others feel happy doing the opposite. But I personally think that people should not be too selfish. C aring for others can actually encourage the development of a mutually beneficial relationsh ip. In conclusion, modern people appear to be more self-centered than those in the past due to strong outside pressure. However, we should encourage people to know the importa nce of being caring and generous and to build a mutually beneficial relationship with othe rs. Are Modern People Becoming More Selfish? Main comparisons Contexts

__1__ are changing

In the past people put caring, sharing and genero sity in the first ____2____. Nowadays, people seem to be more ____3____abo ut themselves.

___4___are changing to o.

People in the past appeared to be modest and self -effacing(谦让的). People may strive to achieve their own __5___ at the price of their coworkers. The author‘s understanding

___6____ for the chang es in author‘s eyes The author‘s ___9____to wards topic

Fierce __7___ and great __8___on modern people may be responsible for the changes. A relationship which can ___10___ two sides shou ld be established.

40 Traditionally, customers may consider more about what they buy the prod uct for. However, the image of product and the consuming circumstance have become the key points to attract customer awareness and stimulate their buying needs. Frequently, customers buy goods just because they are cute, lovely and unique. With a less emphasis on functional utilities, the experience and imagi native space are placed into an increasingly important role. The image of prod uct is emphasized, as well as the communication between products and consum ers. ―Customer behavior, which appears to be focused and directed at the obj ect and at pleasure, in fact responds to quite different objectives: displaced exp ression of desire, and the production of a code of social values through the us e of differential signs‖(Baudrillard) . The reason for image-oriented customer b ehavior is probably that customers‘ lifestyle has been continuously virtualized b y paying much attention to ―Virtual Reality‖. The evidences can be traced fro

m computer games and Hollywood movies, in which customers‘ preference for fleeing reality is perfectly matched. This change requires us to take efforts to enhance product image by integ rating style, color, taste, shape and material, and communicate with customers creatively, imaginatively and innovatively, and enable them to enjoy the distinct ive experience image brings. ―[A] need is not a need for a particular object as much as it is a ?need‘ for difference‖ ( Baudrillard). The typical example is Apple Computer‘s IMAC, which has strong visual impact and outstanding dyna mics. By this way, customer relationship can be set up through image, and br and can be treated as living that can transform people. Other examples commo nly used are Disney Fairyland and Las Vegas, where new experience and imag ination are fully demonstrated. In sum, consumption is negotiation, a never-endi ng conversation held in the languages of advertising, packaging, branding, fashi on, and entertainment.
More Attention to the Image of Product Main comparisons Contexts In the past, people think more about the __2__of the goods. Different aspects ____1____about by People today are more easily ___3__ people when they are shopping. __by the ___4___ of product and the buying atmosphere. Traditionally, producers may focus m ore on the functional utilities of good s. Different ____5__ to promote sales Nowadays, product image should be __6___and there should be more effe ctive ___7____with customers. More The___8___ for image-centered behav details worth noticing Influenced by computer games and H

iour

ollywood movies, people‘s ___9____i s virtualized.

___10_____are given to prove the im portance of image

Apple Computer‘s IMAC/ Disney Fai ryland/ Las Vegas

41 A listener has written from China for advice about how to lose weight. Michael in Shanghai says he is 26 and has battled obesity for most of his lif e. Obesity , a severe weight problem, is a complex condition. A doctor m ay advise taking medicine along with changing one‘s behaviors. Experts say th at the most successful weight—loss plans include a well-balanced diet and exer cise. People who want to avoid weight gain have to balance the number of c alories they eat with the number of calories they use. To lose weight, you can reduce the number of calories you take in, increase the number you use, or b oth. A recent study looked at four of the most popular dieting plans in the US. Researchers at Stanford University in California studied over 300 overweig ht women, mostly in their thirties and forties. Each woman went on one of th e four plans: Atkins, The Zone, Ornish or LEARN. The women attended diet classes and received written information about the food plans. At the end of the year, the women on the Atkins diet had lost the most, more than four and one-half kilograms on average. They also did better on te sts for cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Christopher Gardner, who led the study, says the Atkins diet may be m ore successful because of its simple message to eat less sugar. He also says th at the advice to increase protein in the diet leads to more satisfying meals. He

says that there was not enough money to study men, but that men would pro bably have similar results. Last week, another report based on thirty-one studies suggested that only a small minority of people have long-term success with dieting. Most dieters regained their lost weight within five years and often they become more overw eight. But those who kept the weight off generally were the ones who exercise d. Title: 1.___________to lose weight Doctors‘ advice Experts‘ 3.________ _ plans :take medicine along with 2._____________ a well-balanced diet : 4.________less energy than n eeded , increase the number you use, or both. 5._________ Four of the most po pular dieting plans i n the US Atkins: eat less sugar than usual and 6.________ pr otein in the diet The Zone 7.________ w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m LEARN. From 8.__________ have long-term success with dieting, otherwise most dieters will 9._____their lost weight exercise is more important than dieting for 10._____ _

42 We find that bright children are rarely held back by mixed-ability teach ing. On the contrary, both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We fe el that there are many disadvantages in streaming (把…按能力分班)pupils. It d oes not take into account the fact that children develop at different rates. It ca n have a bad effect on both the bright and the not-so-bright child. After all, it can be quite discouraging to be at the bottom of the top grade! Besides, it is

rather unreal to grade people just according to their intellectual ability. This i s only one aspect for their total personality. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their academic ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learn ing. In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in gr oups: this gives them the opportunity to learn to cooperate, to share, and to de velop leadership skills. They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, an d to communicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as fro m the teacher. Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual ta sks and assignments, and they can do this at their own speed. They also have some formal class teaching when this is appropriate. We encourage our pupils to use the library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do this efficiently. An advanced pupil can do advanced work: it does not matter what age the child is. We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to attain this goal. Develop the abilities of pupils: develop their full abilities, not their (1). ___________ value personal qualities (2).__________ pupils-streamed teaching (d isadvantages) not (4).________ the fact that children develop at diff erent rates have a bad effect on both th (3)._____________ teaching (advantag es) (6)._________ pupils‘ full abilities. give them the opportunity to learn to cooperate, to share, and to develop (7). ________

e bright and the not-so-brigh t child (5).________ the pupils who are at the bottom of th e top grade rather unreal to grade people just according t o their intellectual ability only one aspect for pupils‘ t otal personality ed

learn how to cope with (8).____ ____ learn how to think, to make decisi ons, to analyze and evaluate, and to c ommunicate (9).__________. The pupils learn from each other( 1 0).______ from the teacher. They can do this at their own spe

43 Autumn blues? Let the sunshine in falling leaves, withering flowers, cold winds, faint sunshine. For many people late autumn can be a season of gloom and depression. Spirits can be low. people who suffer from "the autumn blues " often are extremely exhausted, lack energy, need more sleep, feel increased a ppetite and gain weight. "The exact cause of this condition, often called seaso nal depression or seasonal affective disorder (SAD), is not known yet," says C hen Jue, associate professor at Shanghai Mental Health Center. "But recent stu dies indicate that weather change is influential and strongly suggest that this c ondition is caused by changes in the availability of sunlight." One th eory is that with decreased exposure to sunlight, the biological clock that regul ates mood, sleep, and hormones is delayed, running more slowly in winter. Ex posure to light may reset the biological clock. Another theory is that brain che micals that transmit information between nerves may be altered in individuals with SAD. It is believed that exposure to light can correct these imbalances. " It is a sad season, but you can try to make it happy. Remember, spring alway s lives in your heart," Chen says. Here are some tips to deal with autumn dep

ression.

-- Go outdoors a

nd get some sunlight. Move around. Fresh air and exercise improve the respira tory(呼吸) system and blood circulation and regulate the nervous system. Thus, exercise is calming and relieves one's mood. -Relax at work. Stretch, breathe deeply. Take a tea break. Think of your next vacation. ket. Chocolate and sugar raise the spirits. -- Look at bright colors, such as red and orange. Color therapy improves mood. -- Listen to your favorite musi -- Keep a chocolate bar in your poc

c. You can dance to it, or just lie on a cozy couch, reading a novel. -- Decorate your room and work space with flowers. Blooming plants are cheering. -- Call friends or fa

mily when you feel lonely or depressed. Recall some happy memories. Autumn Blues Autumn blues is also called autumn (1) .The real cau se for it is still (2) to us. Expos ure to sunlight can h elp to cure it. The fir st reaso n is th at expo sure to sunshi ne can The s econd is (5)__ _____ wit h the Outd oor (6)__ ____ May reduc e the You c an rel ax yo urselv es wh ile wo rking. (8)_____ __ Treatmen t also w orks in h andling l ow moo Green plan ts are chee ring. Callin g your frie nds will (1 0)_______y our There are some ith it. (3) that can help to deal w

reset th e biolo gical cl ock (4) ___ __ mood, sleep a nd hor mones.

bala nce o f ner ves t hat tr ansmi t info rmati on.

tensi on th at bri ngs y ou th e lo w spi rits.

Food (7)__ ___ In cal ories and s ugar d oes he lp to o.

d. Music also (9) ______ a role in treating autumn b lues.

Loneliness away. Thinking o f the sweet past is re garded as a good wa y as well.

44 Wen Jiabao arrived in Singapore yesterday for an official visit to the coun try. It is the first visit by a Chinese premier to Singapore in eight years. In th e arrival statement, When said he is looking forward to the meeting with Singi ng pore on ways to deepen East Asian cooperation between two nations so as to contribute to the building of a peaceful, harmonious relationship." Premier Wen Jiabao and Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong agree d to jointly develop an environmentally friendly city in northeastern China. Th e city will be a model for sustainable development, a Singapore government st atement said. The "Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city" will be developed by a joi nt venture formed by Chinese and Singapore companies. "This eco-city, to be built in Tianjin, will become another highlight in our relations," When said aft er signing an agreement with Lee, who agreed, "On the Singapore side, on all levels, we'll give this project our full support."The two sides will share expert ise and experiences in urban planning, environmental protection, resources cons ervation, recycling, use of renewable resources and wastewater re-use. China's e

conomic planning agency issued a set of guidelines earlier this month welcomi ng foreign investment in environmentally friendly areas such as recycling, "clea n" industries and environmental protection.Bilateral relations between China and Singapore have seen big progress even though the two countries established d iplomatic ties only 17 years ago, When said during his talks with Lee. China and Singapore have also kept close contact and coordination on regi onal issues, he added. When said China and Singapore are both important Asia n countries that share common interests in many areas. Title: Wen‘s visit to Singapore Main points General(1)__ __ 0f Wen‘s visit Agreements (4)_______ i n the visit Another(5)_________ friendly city to be buil t in Tianjin. co-operation in city planning, environment pr otection, recycling and so on for(6)________ development. co-operation in(7)_______ affairs for a (8)__ ____ Asia. Guidelines(9) ________ by China China‘s(10)___________ for clean industries and environmental protection. contexts To(2)_____ _ with Singapore To(3)________ mutual relationship.

45 The history and legend The name of the Danish flag, the Dannefrog, meaning ―the flag of the Da nes: or : ―the red flag‖, is fist encountered in the Danish text from 1478 and in a Netherlands‘ text from 100 years before that. In the Netherlands‘ armorial

(GELre) from 1370-1386 a red banner wit5h white cross is annexed to the co at of arms of Vladimir IV Attended. According to the legend, the Dannenberg fell from heaven from a battle i n Estonia(爱沙尼亚); this legend is mentioned in Christian Pedersen‘s Danis h Chronicle(编年史) from the beginning of the 1520s and by the Franciscan m onk Peer Olsen c.1527. This latter relates the event to a battle in 1219. The legend Presumably(椐推测) came into being around 1500 on the ba sis of the idea that the royal banner which King Hans lost at his defeat in the Demarches‘ in Northern Germany in1500 was the Dannenberg that had fallen from heaven. In 1559 Frederic II recaptured (夺回)the banner and had it hu ng in Schleswig Cathedral in present-day northern Germany. In a song from the campaign of 1500 the banner charged with the cross i s associated with the Roman Emperor Constantine‘s dream of the cross in 312 before the battle in which he became absolute monarch in the Roman Empire and according to tradition was converted to Christianity. This vision of the cross, to which are linked the words in hoc signor vice s(―under this sign you shall be victories‖) is the prototype(原型)of the mirac les in the shapes of crosses in the sky, which particularly in the Iberian Penin sula(伊比利亚半岛) were connected with battles between Christians and infid els(异教徒). w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m The Danish flag Name Meani ng Desig n The flag fell from the(3) ___________ during a battle in Origin Legend Estonia; The legend came into (4) ____________ around 1500 on A red banner with a (2) ________ cross The Dannenberg The flag of the Danes or the (1) _______________ flag

the (5) ________ of the idea that the banner King lost at his (6) ___________ was the Dannenberg that had fal len from heaven. The banner charred with the cross is (7) ____________ _ with the Roman Emperor‘s dream of the cross before t Song he battle in(8)______________ He became absolute monarch It is (9) ____________ to the wor5ds which indicate the victory and it Visio is the prototype of miracles in the (10) ____________ of crosses in th n e sky.

46 D. R. Gaul Middle School is in Union, Maine, a blueberry-farming town where the summer fair finds kids competing in pig scrambles and pie-eating co ntests. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m Gaul, with about 170 seventh- and eighth-graders, has its own history of l ower level academic achievement. One likely reason: Education beyond the bas ic requirements hasn‘t always been a top priority for families who‘ve worked t he same land for generations. Here, few adults have college degrees, and outsi ders (teachers included) are often kept at a respectful distance. Since 2002, Gaul‘s students have been divided into four classes, each of t hem taught almost every subject by two teachers. The goal: To find common t hreads across disciplines to help students create a big picture that gives fresh meaning and context to their classwork -- and sparks motivation for learning. Working within state guidelines, each team makes its individual schedules and lesson plans, incorporating non-textbook literature, hands-on lab work and f ield trips. If students are covering the Civil War in social studies, they‘re readi ng The Red Badge of Courage or some other period literature in English class.

In science, they study the viruses and bacteria that caused many deaths in the war. Team teaching isn‘t unusual. About 77 percent of middle schools now em ploy some form of it, says John Lounsbury, consulting editor for the National Middle School Association. But most schools use four- or five-person teams, w hich Gaul tried before considering two-person teams more effective. Gaul supp orts the team concept by “looping” classes(跟班) so that the same two teacher s stick with the same teens through seventh and eighth grades. Combining tea ms and looping creates an extremely strong bond between teacher and student. It also, says teacher Beth Ahlholm, ―allows us to build an excellent relationsh ip with parents.‖ Ahlholm and teammate Madelon Kelly are fully aware how many glazed l ooks they see in the classroom, but they know 72 percent of their eighth-grade rs met Maine‘s reading standard last year -- double the statewide average. Onl y 31 percent met the math standard, still better than the state average (21 perc ent). Their students also beat the state average in writing and science. And in 2006, Gaul was one of 47 schools in the state to see testing gains of at least 20 percent in four of the previous five years, coinciding roughly with team tea ching‘s arrival. A Classroom With Context Problem s of the school Being a farming town, it (1)_______ little in education before. (2)_______ education is considered less important. The community is relatively (3)_______ rather than ope n to the outsiders. The division of classes is made and students are well (4)_______. Individual schedules and lesson plans are (5)_______ by each team. A strong (6)_______ between teacher and student is est ablished through combining teams and looping. Signs of (7)___ ____ 72 percent of the eighth-graders (8)_______ Maine‘s rea ding standard (9)_______ percent higher than the state average in mat hs

Ways of solving the pro blems

the school beating the state average in writing and scie nce four of the previous five years (10)_______ at least 20 percent test gains

47 In February 2006, headlines confirmed ―Low-Fat Diet Does Not Cut He alth Risks.‖ Data from the Women‘s Health Initiative (WHI) study concluded t hat a low-fat diet did not reduce the risk of breast cancer. Some women said, ―Why bother? There‘s nothing I can do.‖ That concerns me. In 30 years of research, I‘ve seen what a difference lifestyle changes can make. The problem with the WHI study was that most of the women didn‘t change their diets very much. But those who achieved th e greatest reduction in fat intake did have a decreased risk.
Now comes another study, and more confusion. In July, findings from the Women‘s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study were released. Some 1,500 women, previously treated for early-stage breast c ancer, were asked to cut fat from 15% to 20% of their calories and to eat more fruits and vegetables. But they reported eating more fruit at the beginning of the study than at the end. And on average their fat intake rose, from 28.5% of calories to 28.9%. However, women who consumed less than 23.8% of calories from fat did have a lower risk of breast cancer than those who got more than 33.4%. Other studies have also found that diet can have a great effect on cancer risk. In Yale Health (YH) study, breast cancer survivors who lowered their fat intake to 20% (about 33 grams a day) cut their hid den risk by 24% after five years, compared with those who ate 51 grams of fat a day. An NIH-AARP s tudy concluded, ―Dietary fat intake was directly associated with the risk of above-50-aged breast cancer.‖ The researchers found a direct link between a high fat intake among above-50-aged women and breast c ancer. In the Harvard Nurses‘ Health (HNH) study, mostly under-50-aged women who ate more of anima l fat had a higher risk of breast cancer. Bottom line: When you stick to a low-fat, healthy diet, you will not only feel better; you really ca

Cutting the (1) _________ of cancer

n lower your risk of cancer

WHI study A (2) _________diet still has the risk of breast cancer. Writer‘s view (3) _________ changes make a difference. Those who succeed in (4) _________ fat intake have less risk of breast cancer.

WHEL study The women (5) _________ less than 23.8% of calories from fat did have a (6) _____ risk of breast cancer than those who got more than 33.4%.

YH study It seemed that those eating more grams of fat a day had greater chance to increase their (7) ______ risk than the ones who take in fewer.

NIH AARP study It was found that breast cancer was directly (8) _____ to a high fat intake among above-50-aged women.

HNH study Women (9) _____ 50 years of age had a higher risk of breast cancer if they ate more of animal fat.

Keep your diet low-fat and (10) _____. You‘ll feel better and lower your risk of cancer.

48 We are going to describe one way to build a rooftop garden that does no t even require soil. Four things are needed for a small rooftop garden. One thi ng is a roof that can support the weight ,Another is grass cutting .The third th ing is a sheet of plastic in which to spread the cut grass. And the last thing i s a box about eight centimeters deep and made out of four pieces of wood. Once you are sure the roof is good ,cut and collect some grass .Then lay down the plastic where the garden box will go .The four-sided box can be as long and as wide as needed. Place the box on top of the sheet of plastic . Then fill it with the cut grass .Next ,add water and walk on the cuttings to pr ess them down. After about three weeks ,the rooftop garden is ready for planting. Put the seeds directly into the wet grass cuttings .This garden is a good place to

grow peas ,tomatoes, beans, onions and lettuce. If the box is deep enough, pot atoes and carrots will also grow. It is important to keep the grass wet until the plants begin to grow. When the plants are growing, they will need watering every day, unless there is rain. And they will need some liquid fertilizer. Also, seeds and new plants must be protected from insects and birds. Rooftop gardens are increasingly popular, and not just to grow vegetab les. They keep buildings cooler in the sun, so they save energy. They can also extend the useful life of a roof. Rooftop gardens also reduce the runoff of st orm water and help clean the air. Plus they add beauty, and give birds and in sects in the city a nice place to live. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m The building of a rooftop vegetable garden things needed a roof e weight to be used a4______ grass cuttings ___. a sheet of plas tic a(7)_______ to hold the cut grass __box seeds (9)_________a nd fertilizer for vegetables (8)______ and birds to make vegetables g row better supplied frequently a nd (10)_______ wood to be protected from to (5)________ pos sible leaks(渗漏) on which to (6)__ __ the cut grass nd strong enough to be pressed down (1)_________. to (2)_________ th requirements (3) ____________a

made of 4 pieces of

w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

答案 Task 1 1. problems 2. behaving/disciplining/controlling 3. involved 4. respect 5. understanding g/increased 10. part
Task 2

6. citizens 7. academic 8. take 9. increasing/growin

1. depth

2. Efforts

3. majority 4. consist 8. light 9. heavy

5. importance 10. extra/addition

6. ranging 7. processed / refined al/more
Task 3

1 lasted

2 celebrated

3 reason

4 combination
9 respecting

5 inserting
10 symbolizes

6 considered/regarded

7 thanksgiving

8 honor

Task 4 1. teamwork courage / Back 4. Suggestions ubject / issue 8. case Task 5 1. questionnaires 2. Internet 3. increasing 4. spite 5. social 6. Economist
Task 6

2. ideas / opinions / views / thoughts

3. Support / En

5. given / assigned

6. responsibility

7. topic / s

9. Exchange / Share

10. Evaluate

7. released 8. private 9. account

10. January

1.belongs son 5. gravity 0. including
Task 7

2. scientific/ reasonable

3. orbit

4. contrast/compari

6. IAU

7. addition

8. seventy-six

9. Through

1

1. better ng

2. purposes

3. Despite

4. effectively

5. maki

6. reduction ile
Task 8

7. work

8. differently

9. offered / created

10. wh

1.Success

2.Optimism

3. like

4. motivation

5.Think

6.same dently
Task9

7.others

8.famous

9.Understand / Master

10.confi

1. real Law

2. criminal

3. daily 4. need

5. ways

6. devotes

7. ends 8.

9. separated 10. attitudes w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m
Task10

1. limitation ousness 6. important 10. hold
Task11

2. enlarge

3. oral

4. Opinions

5. nerv

7. Lack/Shortage

8. Lack/Shortage

9. passive

1. qualities 6. effects
Task12

2. clean

3. capability 4. component 9. prediction

5. change 10. outcome

7. problem/trouble 8. fall

1. earthquakes
6. introduced Task13

2. history
7. cause

3. its
8. crust

4. happened

5. measure

9. effects

10. fires

1. education ren 5. no/ little 6. doing 10. Conclusion
Task14

2. investment(s)

3. value / importance/ significance 4. child

7. fair/ equal

8. contributes/ leads

9. economic

1. sides/faces 2. hosted / held 6. touch/ contact

3. brought

4. advantages 5. improved

7. proud s

8. pollution/problems/issues

9. deserted / abandoned /useles

10. possible/ hidden/potential
Task15

1. dangerous 5. 14

2. fight

3. adult/grown-up

4. annually/yearly

6. attitudes 7. favo(u)r rowing
Task16

8. people

9. However

10.increasing/g

1. Advantages 2. present 6. map cted
Task17

3. CD-quality 8. testing

4. updated

5. easier 10. expe

7. Provide/ Supply

9. market

1.that/the 5.writes 6.working
Task18

2. based

3.presenter

4.scene/spot

7.Words

8.true

9.went

10.discovering

1. visit omote/develop 6. eco-city

2. purposes/aims

3. reached/signed

4. review

5. pr

7. share/exchange 8. Seventeen/ 17

9. progress/advances

10. contributing
Task19 1.amount 2. traditional 7. 5.4 3. medical/science 8. suggested 4. eight 9 .including 5. labor /work 10. foods

6. weather/climate Task20

1.disorder/problem 5.English/Alphabet biological 10.Solution

2 difficult/ hard 6.left-front

3. injury/damage

4. visual 8.culture 9.

7.demands/requirements

Task21 w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

1. true

2. discovered/found

3. 1933

4. high

5. help

6. winner 7. succeeded 10. travel
Task22

8. beat/defeated

9. cooperation/cooperating

1. respond ow‘s
6. environment Task23 1. move 6. majority end Task24

2. factory

3. riding

4. ways

5. future‘s /tomorr

7. walk

8. clean

9. wake

10. accompany

2. history

3. increasing 8. for

4. richer/wealthier 9. climate

5. Reasons,

7. related/linked

10. tendency/phenomenon/tr

1. achieved onducted

2. Further

3. closed

4. motivated

5. adopted / c

6. tie / connection itnessing
Task25

7. success

8. reaching

9. 10 / ten

10. w

1. attitudes 6. good
Task26

2. interested 3. themselves 4. afraid 7. make 8. favor/support 9. theoretical

5. more 10. majority

1. keep safer 6. elders
Task27

2. Effects / Advantages

3. lose

4. building

5.

7. without

8. difficulty

9. moving

10. speed

1.Smart

2. Memory

3. Advantages 8. Unchangeable

4.security 9. readers

5. doctors 10.memory

6. travelers 7. cost
Task28

1. faster

2. than 3. destroying

4. drowning

5. massive

6. explosion 7. atmosphere 8. mining 9. facing 10. dying

Task29

1. Hosts

2. dogs

3. victors 4. nations

5. land

6. development
Task30 Keys:

7. helped 8. dream

9. introduction 10. cross

1. heavily 2. cost

3. urban 4. rural

5. use

6. apartment 7. instance 8. source 9. financial 10. reasons Task31

1. responses 2. salary/ income 3. complained 4. spent 5. conditions 6. conclude 7. promotion
Task32

8. consideration

9. mostly 10. satisfy

1. from

2. had 3. significance 4. attention 5. session 8. differences 9. assumed 10. Recently

6. similarities 7. seem
Task33

1. information 6. stop
Task34

2. expected 3. possible 4. another 5. require 8. control 9. consequence 10. risk

7. aim

1. problems 2. ignorance 3. prove/ support 4. express 6. complain
Task35

5. compared

7. Reasons 8. troubled 9. yearly 10. addicted

1. stress

2. popular

3. past 8. relax

4. modern 5. roof 9. sleeping 10. imaginative

6. smash 7. pretend

Task36 w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

1. questionnaires 2. Internet 6. Economist
Task37

3. increasing 4. spite 5. social 10. January

7. released 8. private 9. account

1. kinds/ types
6.lack Task38

2. main

3. namely
9. occurred

4. more
10. temporary

5.periods

7. birthrate 8. fewer

1. Homes 2. public 3.connected 4.indirectly 5.books 6.difference 7. Content 8. decided/ chosen 9.adult 10. challenges

Task39

1.Values 2. place 3. concerned
6. Reasons 7. competition 8. pressure Task40

4. Behaviors 5. goals
9. attitudes 10. benefit

1.concerned/ cared 2. use/ function 3. attracted 4.image 5. ways
6.stressed Task41 7.communication 8. reason 9. lifestyle 10. Examples

1. Proper ways 5. exercise 6. increase ght
Task42

2. changing one‘s behaviors 3. weight-loss 4. take in

7. Ornish

8. another report

9. regain

10. losing wei

1. academic ability account 5. discourage problems 9. effectively
Task43

2. social skills

3. mixed-ability

4. take into

6. contribute to

7. leadership skills

8. personal

10. as well as

1.depression ted

2.unknown

3.ways\methods

4.regulating

5.connec

6.activities\sports
Task44

7.rich\high

8.Colour

9.plays

10.drive

1.aims\purposes 5.environmentally 0.preference Task45 1. red 6. defeat Task46

2.co-operate 6. sustainable

3.strengthen\promote 7.regional

4.reached 9.set 1

8.peaceful

2. white 7. associated

3. heaven 8. which

4. being 9. linked

5. basis 10. shape

1. achieved cted

2. Further

3. closed

4. motivated

5. adopted / condu

6. tie / connection ing

7. success

8. reaching

9. 10 / ten

10. witness

Task47 w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

1. risk consuming 6. lower healthy Task48

2. low-fat

3. Lifestyle 4. reducing/cutting/decreasing

5.

7. hidden

8. related/linked

9. below/under

10.

1.a ims/purpose 6.spread

2.support

3.flat

4.soil 9.water

5.prevent 10.properly/correctly

7.wooden

8.insects


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